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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6202
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0852
Sathya prasad Potham, Le Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
This paper aims to present the results of numerical modeling and simulation of evaporation of single and multiple spherical n-heptane droplets impinging on a hot wall at a temperature above the Leidenfrost temperature at atmospheric pressure. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is chosen for tracking the liquid gas interface and an open source CFD software, OpenFOAM, is chosen for modeling and simulations. The capability of VOF method implemented in interDyMFoam solver of OpenFOAM to simulate hydrodynamics during droplet-droplet interaction and droplet-film interaction is explored. The in-built solver is used to simulate problems in isothermal conditions and the simulation results are compared qualitatively with the published results to validate the solver. A numerical method for modeling heat and mass transfer during evaporation is implemented in conjunction with the VOF.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0836
Hongjiang Li, Christopher Rutland
Large eddy simulations coupled with two uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods, latin-hypercube sampling and polynomial chaos expansion, were carried out to quantify the effects of model parameters and spray initial and boundary conditions on spray development. Evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane and iso-octane experimental spray data under typical diesel and gasoline engine-like conditions was used to compare penetration lengths and probability contours. Five spray initial and boundary conditions were used for single-hole n-dodecane sprays. The Morris one-step-at-a-time method was used to identify parameters with the highest impacts for multi-hole iso-octane sprays. The resulting four most important parameters, including two model parameters and two spray boundary conditions, were chosen for further study. Penetration lengths and corresponding standard deviations derived from both UQ methods were found to be quite similar with experiments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0826
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Christopher Gehrke, Kenth Svensson, Glen Martin
The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353µm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0749
Suya Gao, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee
A new approach of NOx reduction in the compression ignition engine is introduced in this work. The previous research has shown that during the combustion stage, the high temperature ignition tends to occur early at the near stoichiometric region at which combustion temperature is high and majority of NOx is formed; Therefore, it would be desirable to burn the leaner region first and then the near stoichiometric region, which inhibits the temperature rise of the near stoichiometric region and consequently suppresses the formation of NOx. Such inverted ignition sequence requires mixture with inverted phi-sensitivity. Fuel selection is performed based on the criterion of strong ignition T-sensitivity, large heat capacity, and large heat of vaporization (HoV).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0742
Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in which a low ignition quality fuel is used to form the partially premixed charge during the extended ignition delay period has demonstrated significantly improved engine efficiency and lower smoke/NOx emissions in many previous investigations. The major advantage of GCI combustion over other alternative regimes achieving similar goals such as kinetics-controlled HCCI is a close coupling between the fuel injection event and the combustion phasing, a needed characteristic for practical engine applications. The present study aims to address key questions about fuel injection strategies and their effects on the efficiency and emissions of GCI engines. Of particular interest is the double injection strategy implementing early, near-BDC first injection for the formation of premixed charge followed by near-TDC second injection for the combustion phasing control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0744
Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Slavey Tanov, Hua Wang PhD, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson, Nico Dam
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. Longer ignition delay of PPC in comparison with conventional diesel combustion provide better fuel/air mixture which decreases soot and NOx emissions. Moreover, a proper injection timing and strategy for PPC can improve the combustion stability as a result of a higher level of fuel stratification in comparison with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Different injection timings affect this level of fuel and combustion stratification which helps to control the combustion timing and the heat release behavior. The scope of the present study is to investigate the fluid flow characteristics of PPC at different injection timings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0566
Ramachandra Diwakar, Vicent Domenech
Historically stating, combustion noise from the passenger car diesel engines has been a major drawback for customer acceptance. The present modern automotive diesel engines operate quietly due to advancements in diesel injector technology and noise abatement strategies applied to the engine compartment of the vehicle itself. In the literature, recent experimental and analytical research work with a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine has shown that the injection dwell time between the main injection pulse and the one preceding to it, is primarily responsible for the noise reduction The objective of the current analytical research work is to bring out the fundamental physics behind the experimentally observed noise reduction phenomena. The computational study was conducted at a key part-load operation of a direct-injection diesel engine (engine speed of 2000RPM and 5Bar BMEP) with five injection pulses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0564
Prithwish Kundu, Muhsin Ameen, Umesh Unnikrishnan, Sibendu Som
CFD modeling of practical engines have been limited in terms of predictability due to stiff chemical kinetics, small length and time scales and turbulence chemistry interaction. Tabulation of chemistry has shown promising results in speeding up high fidelity CFD simulations of standardized experiments. In this work a novel flamelet tabulation technique (TFM: tabulated flamelet model) is extended to model combustion in an optical engine with methyl decanoate (MD) as fuel. Previous experimental investigations have suggested significantly lower soot formation while using MD as a fuel. These experimental results have been used to validate the flamelet model for a range of engine operating conditions. The results are also compared to the homogeneous reactor (well-mixed) model and the multi-flamelet RIF model. Quantitative and qualitative differences in flame development have been presented for the different modeling approaches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0574
Ishan Verma, Ellen Meeks, Eric Bish, Martin kuntz, Karthik Puduppakkam, Long Liang, Chitralkumar Naik
Diesel engines have a worldwide spread and acceptance. However, they are also a major source of NOx and particulate matter emissions, and these emissions can pose significant health concerns. Exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) is a widely used method in diesel engines for controlling NOx production. While EGR rates can be varied to ensure engine performance and reduce NOx emissions, EGR also influences the ignition delay, reduces the peak combustion temperature and increases particulate emissions. Moreover, the injection timing directly affects NOx and particulate emissions under these broad and highly variable set of conditions. An effective CFD-based design tool for diesel engines must include robust and accurate predictive capabilities for combustion and pollutant formation for variable injection timing and EGR rates. The objective of the present study is to evaluate CFD modeling of diesel engine combustion and emissions for various combinations of EGR rates and injection timings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0572
Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee
In this work, an efficient and unified combustion model is introduced to simulate the flame propagation, diffusion controlled combustion, and chemically driven ignition in both SI and CI engine operation. The unified model is constructed upon a G-equation model which addresses the premixed flame propagation. The concept of the Livengood-Wu Integral is used with tabulated ignition delay data to account for the chemical kinetics which is responsible for the spontaneous ignition of fuel-air mixture. A set of rigorously defined operations are used to couple the evolution of the G scalar field and the Livengood-Wu Integral. The diffusion controlled combustion is simulated equivalent to applying the Burke-Schumann limit. The combined model is tested in the simulation of a swirl-dominant stratified charge GDI engine, as well as a conventional small bore diesel engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0580
Zainal Abidin, Kevin Hoag, Nicholas Badain
The promising D-EGR engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds. Based on application projections studied in the study, an engine having a 107mm bore and 124mm stroke, operating at 2000 rpm at 17 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) was selected as representative.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0554
Yu Li, Hongsheng Guo, Hailin Li
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been widely applied in diesel engine research in the past decades. The integration of chemical kinetic model with CFD provides the opportunity for researchers to investigate the detail chemical reactions for better understanding of the combustion process of compression ignition engines. However, most of research using CFD has focused on the examination of temperature and species distributions within bulk gas. The detailed research to the chemical reactions is to some extent limited. This paper will present the development of a post-process tool and its application in evaluating the chemical reactions of a compression ignition engine simulated Converge CFD software coupled with chemical kinetics. The fuel chemistry used is a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism validated against experimental data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0721
Michele Bardi, Olivier Colin, André Nicolle, Gilles Bruneaux
This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the formation and oxidation of soot in typical Diesel combustion. A common rail ECN spray A injector (single axial-oriented orifice) was tested in a optically accessible test-chamber at engine relevant conditions. High-speed OH* and high-speed 2D extinction imaging were performed simultaneously to link together the flame chemistry and the soot data information. The experiments were carried out for different fuels (EU Diesel, JetA1, n-dodecane) performing parametric variations of the boundary conditions. The proposed analysis methodology enabled the identification of the sooting behavior of each fuel by evaluating the relationship between two of the measured parameters, namely lift-off length and the soot maximum axial extinction value (Max KL). The relationship between these two parameters allowed to distinguish the behavior of the different fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0812
Christophe Barro, Adam Lucjan, Zhi Li, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Sushant Pandurangi, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Modern Diesel engines have become ever more complex systems with many degrees of freedom in operation. Simultaneously, with increasing computational power, simulations of engines have become more popular to identify the optimum set up of engine operation parameters achieving the desired point in the emission-efficiency trade off. With the increasing number of engine operation parameter combinations, the number of calculations increase exponentially. Therefore, adequate models for combustion and emissions with limited calculation costs are required. For obvious reasons, the accuracy of the ignition timing is a key point for the consecutive combustion and emission model quality. Furthermore, the combination of turbulence and chemistry during the ignition delay is very challenging to model in a fast way for a wide range of operation conditions. This work focuses on the description of a physics-rich diesel engine spray ignition model, which has the ability of real-time calculation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0830
Lucio Postrioti, Giulio Caponeri, Giacomo Buitoni, Nic Van Vuuren
In the current automotive scenario, even if Direct Gasoline Injection technology is quickly spreading in several markets due to its higher potential for the fulfillment of stringent CO2 emission regulations, the more conventional Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology is still being developed for those applications for which the reduced vehicle mass and/or less rigorous fuel conversion efficiency targets are to be achieved. The injector operation accuracy and repeatability are crucial for indirect injected, spark ignited engines, raising the need for an accurate shot-to-shot measurement of the global injected volume in realistic operating conditions in terms of upstream and downstream pressure levels and actuation frequency.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0829
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
The atomization and initial spray formation processes in direct injection engines are not well understood due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with resolving these processes. Although different physical mechanisms, such as aerodynamic-induced instabilities and nozzle-generated turbulence and cavitation, have been proposed in the literature to describe these processes, direct validation of the theoretical basis of these models under engine-relevant conditions has not been possible to date. Recent developments in droplet sizing measurement techniques offer a new opportunity to evaluate droplet size distributions formed in the central and peripheral regions of the spray. There is therefore a need to understand how these measurements might be utilized to validate unobservable physics in the near nozzle-region.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0821
Qinglin Xu, Min Xu, David Hung, Shengqi Wu, Xue Dong, Hiroaki Ochiai, Zhisong Zhao, Caixia Wang, Kaiyue Jin
High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0842
Luis Bravo, Scott Ripplinger, Omid Samimi PhD
Numerical simulations of diesel reacting sprays in a simulated engine environment were carried out to study the influence of oxygen concentration on the ignition delay and lift off length dynamics. A recently developed n-dodecane kinetic mechanism developed by Samimi et al (2016) was used with the direct integration detailed chemistry approach and classical Kelvin Helmholtz Rayleigh Taylor models to describe the reacting liquid spray. The conditions studied were in the range from of 16-21% oxygen concentrations at surrounding oxidizer conditions of 850K, and 60bar. An axial 90 micron single-hole orifice diesel injection configuration was used with injection durations of 0.71, and 1.2ms while employing the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and grid-convergent methods.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0823
Alessandro Mariani, Andrea Cavicchi, Lucio Postrioti, Carmine Ungaro
In the present paper, a new methodology for the estimation of the single hole mass quantity by a GDI injector is presented and discussed. The GDI injector used for the activity was a five holes nozzle characterized by three holes with the same diameter and two hole with a larger diameter. The different diameters guarantee a significant difference in terms of mass flow. The new methodology described is based on the measurement of the global momentum flow of each single plume and the combination of this measurement with the global mass measurement made with the gravimetric principle. The momentum flux is measured by means of a dedicated test bench that detects the impact force of single spray plume at different distances. The sensing device is moved in different positions and in each point, the force trace averaged on several injection events is acquired.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0838
Sayop Kim, Dorrin Jarrahbashi, Caroline Genzale
This study investigates the role of turbulent-chemistry interaction in CFD simulations of diesel spray combustion phenomena after end-of-injection (EOI). Recent experimental and computational studies have shown that the spray flame dynamics and mixture formation after EOI are governed by highly turbulent entrainment, coupled with rapid evolution of the thermo-chemical state of the mixture field.. A few studies have shown that after EOI, mixtures between the nozzle and the lifted diffusion flame can ignite and appear to propagate back towards the injector nozzle via an auto-ignition reaction sequence under sufficiently reactive ; referred to as “combustion recession”. Because combustion recession is a highly-coupled transient turbulent-chemistry phenomenon, questions remain regarding the role of non-linear coupling between turbulent mixing and reactive scalars on observed combustion outcomes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0859
Adrian Pandal, Jose M. Pastor, Raul Payri, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Katarzyna Matusik, Jhoan S. Giraldo, Christopher Powell, David Schmidt
The dense spray region in the near-field of diesel fuel injection remains an enigma. This region is difficult to interrogate with light in the visible range and difficult to model due to the rapid interaction between liquid and gas. In particular, modeling strategies that rely on Lagrangian particle tracking of droplets have struggled in this area. To better represent the strong interaction between phases, Eulerian modeling has proven particularly useful. Models built on the concept of surface area density are advantageous where primary and secondary atomization have not yet produced droplets, but rather appear to be more complicated liquid structures. Surface area density, a more general concept than Lagrangian droplets, naturally represents liquid structures, no matter how complex. These surface area density models, however, have not been experimentally validated directly in the past due to the inability of optical methods to elucidate such a quantity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0832
Jacob Temme, Vincent Coburn, Chol-Bum Kweon
The objective of the study was to investigate the spray and combustion characteristics of Jet Propellant- 8 (JP-8) using a high-pressure fuel injector which is capable of up to 250-MPa fuel injection pressure. Experiments were performed in a constant-pressure flow-through combustion chamber at the ambient conditions of 825 K and 6 MPa for the oxygen concentration of 0 and 21%. JP-8 was injected over a range of fuel injection pressures from 50 to 250 MPa for single injection events to establish a baseline operation. Pilot and post injections were used to study the effect of multiple injections on spray and combustion of the high-pressure fuel injector. Both pilot and post injection separation times and quantities were systematically varied. JP-8 spray and combustion events were imaged at 75 kHz using a combination of Mie scattering and OH* chemiluminescence imaging.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0857
Michael Saccullo, Mats Andersson, Jan Eismark, Ingemar Denbratt
Stricter emission legislation for heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are set up around the world that can be accomplished by developing new technologies and it reduces fossil fuel dependency. It can be achieved by utilizing more sustainable fuel sources, with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, particulates and NOx. The purpose of the project is to study a dual fuel engine using alcohols such as methanol or ethanol together with Diesel fuel. Both fuels are direct injected. As a first test of concept, a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system run with ethanol, was used in this study to characterize high pressure sprays in a in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. The fuel used was E100 with 200 ppm lubricating additive and toluene to increase UV light absorption. A high energy laser pulse was used to ignite the ethanol spray.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0844
Chi-Wei Tsang, Yue Wang, Cheng Wang, Anthony Shelburn, Long Liang, Karthik Puduppakkam, Abhijit Modak, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks, Christopher Rutland
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the sub-grid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational grid. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational grid sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, the fuel injection processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0661
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Carrie Hall
Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel, which has attracted a lot of attention recently. The higher H/C ratio, compared to gasoline, is capable of decreasing CO2 emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG can increase the efficiency at high engine loads. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC), during the intake stroke, resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline port-fuel injection and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios, 10.5 and 12.5. Operation conditions span mid-load, full-load and boosted operating conditions, depending on the knock response of the fuel blend.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0839
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Amedeo Amoresano, Giuseppe Langella, Vincenzo Niola, Giuseppe Quaremba
The single injection for an ICE can be considered not stationary but a sequence of several shots, at the same boundary conditions, can be evaluated as a quasi-stationary or more precisely “pseudo stationary” event. This means that on average the spray will have the same behavior along the considered time window. In this paper, these considerations are applied to sprays for GDI engines. The behavior of the spray is analyzed recording a 3D matrix defined by the x, y, t dimensions (pixel, pixel, time) with the main objective of defining the parameters like cone angle of the single jet, angles between jets, penetration length. These data permit to build a frequency and a morphologic map able to define a univocal “signature” of the device. The analysis has been performed on a large amount of image sequences, keeping constant the injection conditions: pressure, backpressure, gas temperature, fuel and nozzle temperatures and the energizing time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0707
Srinivas Padala, Minh Khoi Le, Yoshihiro Wachi, Yuji Ikeda
The effect of microwave enhanced plasma (MW Plasma) on diesel spray combustion was investigated inside a constant volume high pressure chamber. A microwave-enhanced plasma system, in which plasma discharge generated by a spark plug was amplified using microwave pulses, was used to introduce plasma. Initially, the plasma was introduced to the diesel spray before the occurrence of auto-ignition, to understand the effect of additional oxidizer entertainment on ignition delay of diesel spay. High speed imaging of natural luminosity indicated an earlier appearance of flame in the with-plasma cases compared to the respective without-plasma conventional operation. These results corresponds well to the behavior of the heat-release rates, suggesting a reduction-effect by MW plasma on the ignition delay of diesel combustion. Later, the plasma was introduced downstream the flame lift-off and in the soot cloud to estimate the soot reduction effect by plasma.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0722
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Growing awareness about CO2 emissions and their environmental implications are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency as criteria to design internal combustion engines (ICE). Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls contributes to a decrease in the indicated efficiency. A strategy explored in this study to mitigate this efficiency loss is to promote almost quiescent conditions in the combustion chamber by using low swirl ratios. A decrease in swirl ratio leads to a reduction in heat transfer, but unfortunately, it can also lead to worsening of combustion development and a decrease in the gross indicated efficiency. Moreover, pumping work plays also an important role due to the effect of reduced intake restriction to generate the swirl motion. Current research evaluates the effect of a dedicated injection pattern to enhance combustion process when low swirl is used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0695
Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
In order to meet the continuously stringent standards in terms of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption from combustion engines of road vehicles, several investigations have been recently conducted about in-cylinder techniques and aftertreatment systems. In particular, the control of the fuel injected quantity and of the center of combustion (MFB50) performed cylinder-by-cylinder can effectively provide advantages in terms of pollutant formation and fuel consumption. In the present investigation, an experimental comparison among different control strategies is performed in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. The first control strategy is the standard one originally implemented in the ECU, whereas the other two are referred to as model-based and pressure-based combustion controls and have been implemented by means of rapid prototyping and proper hardware device connected to the ECU.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0849
Chao Gong, Roland Baar
The present work has its technical background in the field of Diesel injection systems of combustion engines and compares the effects of two kinds of remedies (re-meshing technique and linear interpolation technique) on mesh deformation. Mathematical formulation of moving grids has been proposed to guide the change of cell volume before. In this study, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was mainly involved to study the internal nozzle behaviours and spray characteristics. An external library concept was introduced to couple the internal nozzle injection process with spray formation. In addition, all dynamic simulations were performed under a double-axis system. The comparison between simulation and experimental results shows that the integration of the traditional mesh deformation technique with the re-meshing or linear interpolation technique can repair mesh deformation and further contribute to better simulation results.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6202