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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5830
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0672
Douglas Marriott, Takeshi Ohtomo, Tohru Wako
Abstract Predicting sloshing noise as early as possible during the design process has become an increasingly desired simulation for fuel tank suppliers as the demand for quieter vehicles increase. Simulating early on in the design process enables suppliers to build products directly to customer specifications, at a lower cost and shorter timeframe. The procedure to accurately and efficiently analyze complete sloshing noise behavior has to date not been fully established. Current methods rely on indirect noise deduction based on specific positions from Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analyses or uncoupled fluid analysis with separate structural and acoustic analyses. In this paper, we introduce a technique to analyze the fully coupled sloshing noise generated in the fuel tank of an automobile. The technique takes advantage of combining an explicit coupled Lagrangian and Eulerian solver with an acoustics solver.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0749
J. Sureshkumar, Ganesan Venkitachalam, J M Mallikarjuna, R Elayaraja
Abstract In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, air-fuel mixture homogeneity plays a major role on engine performance, especially in combustion and emission characteristics. The performance of the engine largely depends on various engine operating parameters viz., start of injection, duration of injection and spark timing. In order to achieve faster results CFD is becoming a handy tool to optimize and understand the effect of these parameters. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the two injection parameters viz., single and split injection to evaluate different flame characteristics. Novelty in this study is to define five different parameters which are called α, β, γ, δ and η the details of which are explained in the paper. In order to understand the flame characteristics, these five parameters are found to be very useful.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0794
Zongyu Yue, Randy Hessel, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The application of close-coupled post injections in diesel engines has been proven to be an effective in-cylinder strategy for soot reduction, without much fuel efficiency penalty. But due to the complexity of in-cylinder combustion, the soot reduction mechanism of post-injections is difficult to explain. Accordingly, a simulation study using a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, coupled with the SpeedChem chemistry solver and a semi-detailed soot model, was carried out to investigate post-injection in a constant volume combustion chamber, which is more simple and controllable with respect to the boundary conditions than an engine. A 2-D axisymmetric mesh of radius 2 cm and height 5 cm was used to model the spray. Post-injection durations and initial oxygen concentrations were swept to study the efficacy of post-injection under different combustion conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0745
Petter Dahlander, Stina Hemdal
Abstract To contribute to knowledge required to meet new emission requirements, relationships between multiple injection parameters, degrees of fuel stratification, combustion events, work output and flame luminosity (indicative of particulate abundance) were experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder optical GDI engine. A tested hypothesis was that advancing portions of the mass injected would enhance the fuel-air mixing and thus reduce flame luminescence. An outward-opening piezo actuated fuel injector capable of multiple injections was used to inject the fuel using different triple injection strategies, with various combinations of late and earlier injections leading to various degrees of fuel stratification. Sprays and combustion events were captured using two high-speed cameras and cylinder pressure measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1070
Hanzhengnan Yu, Yong Guo, Donghai Li, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, Yuesen Wang, Xiangxiang Wang, Lihui Dong
Abstract Impingement of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall wetting) is one of the main obstacles that must be overcome in order for early injection Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (EI HCCI) combustion. In the strategies to reduce or prevent wall wetting explored in the past, limiting the spray cone angle was proved to be a useful approach. This paper is presented to study the effect of the spray cone angle on the mixture formation, particularly the region near the cylinder wall (wall wetting region), and CO/Soot emissions of an EI HCCI diesel engine. Three-dimensional modeling was performed in AVL FIRE code. The calculation grid was divided into three regions which were defined as the combustion chamber region, the wall wetting region, and the central regions. The history of the CO/soot mass of each region and the equivalent ratio/temperature (φ-T map) of wall wetting region were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0764
Seokwon Cho, Namho Kim, Jongwon Chung, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Ethanol is becoming more popular as a fuel component for spark-ignited engines. Ethanol can be used either as an octane enhancer of low RON gasoline or splash-blended with gasoline if a single injector is used for fuel injection. If two separate injectors are used, it is possible to inject gasoline and ethanol separately and the addition of ethanol can be varied on demand. In this study, the effect of the ethanol injection strategy on knock suppression was observed using a single cylinder engine equipped with two port fuel injectors dedicated to each side of the intake port and one direct injector. If the fuel is injected to only one side of the intake port, it is possible to form a stratified charge. The experiment was conducted under a compression ratio of 12.2 for various injection strategies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0831
Wonah Park, Youngchul Ra, Eric Kurtz, Werner Willems, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The low temperature combustion concept is very attractive for reducing NOx and soot emissions in diesel engines. However, it has potential limitations due to higher combustion noise, CO and HC emissions. A multiple injection strategy is an effective way to reduce unburned emissions and noise in LTC. In this paper, the effect of multiple injection strategies was investigated to reduce combustion noise and unburned emissions in LTC conditions. A hybrid surrogate fuel model was developed and validated, and was used to improve LTC predictions. Triple injection strategies were considered to find the role of each pulse and then optimized. The split ratio of the 1st and 2nd pulses fuel was found to determine the ignition delay. Increasing mass of the 1st pulse reduced unburned emissions and an increase of the 3rd pulse fuel amount reduced noise. It is concluded that the pulse distribution can be used as a control factor for emissions and noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0458
Subrata Sarkar, Sudarshan Kumar, Atul Singhal, Surbhi Kohli, Kailash Golecha, Jubin George
Abstract The objective of this paper is to provide a robust design solution for a Jet pump which is used for fuel removal from an Active Drain Liquid Trap (ADLT). This jet pump can work for both Gasoline and Diesel based automobiles. The major focus area of this paper, is improvement in the robustness of Jet pump performance parameters, such as motive flow and induced flow. A design study for such a two fuel application was first initiated using Taguchi's robust design approach. In order to reduce the inventory complexity and cost, a common design possibility was then addressed. Two approaches for robust design have been discussed, namely the Taguchi Methodology (Orthogonal Cross Array based design) and the Dual RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Technique. Results show that the Dual RSM provides improved performance with reduced variation, as compared to Taguchi's approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0857
Valentin Soloiu, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp
In this study, a Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) obtained by sequential dual fueling strategy of n-butanol port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection of ULSD#2 was investigated against binary mixtures combustion (defined as premixed in the tank) of n-butanol and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) with the same n-butanol to diesel ratios (35%, 50%, 65% by mass) in an omnivorous compression ignition engine. The hypothesis of the study is that combustion phasing (respectively CA50) can be successfully controlled by the above named strategies. Both fueling strategies controlled the high reactivity of the ULSD#2 and slowed down the chemical reactions with the low cetane number fuel, n-butanol. These processes led to fuel reactivity stratification and an increase in the ignition delay observed as the amount of n-butanol increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux, Jerome Cherel, Vivien Delpech
Abstract Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to comply with the particulate matter emission limit. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the soot mass trapped in the DPF increases. Some manufacturers made the choice of having a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of in-cylinder post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering the DOC and is thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0843
Anand Nageswaran Bharath, Yangdongfang Yang, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher Rutland
Abstract While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0844
Sanghyun Chu, Jeongwoo Lee, Jaehyuk Cha, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract The alternative fuel jet propellant 8 (JP-8, NATO F-34) can be used as an auto-ignition source instead of diesel. Because it has a higher volatility than diesel, it provides a better air-fuel premixing condition than a conventional diesel engine, which can be attributed to a reduction in particulate matter (PM). In homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) or dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion or reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), nitrogen oxides (NOx) can also be reduced by supplying external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In this research, the diesel and JP-8 injection strategies under conventional condition and dual-fuel PCCI combustion with and without external EGR was conducted. Two tests of dual-fuel (JP-8 and propane) PCCI were conducted at a low engine speed and load (1,500 rpm/IMEP 0.55 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0847
Xiao Ma, Haoye Liu, Yanfei Li, Zhi Wang, Hongming Xu, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Abstract Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0878
Guanzhang He, Hui Xie
Abstract The performance of three different electric turbo-compounding systems under both steady and driving cycle condition is investigated in this paper. Three configurations studied in this paper are serial turbo-compounding, parallel turbo-compounding and electric assisted turbo-compounding. The electric power, global gain of the whole system (engine and power turbine) under steady operating condition is firstly studied. Then investigation under three different driving cycles is conducted. Items including fuel consumption, engine operating point distribution and transient response performance are analyzed among which the second item is done based on statistic method combined with the results obtained under steady operating conditions. Study under steady condition indicates that electric assisted turbo-compounding system is the best choice compared with the other two systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0376
Tommaso Lucchini, Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca D'Errico, Gianluca Montenegro, Marco Fiocco, Amin Maghbouli
Prediction of in-cylinder flows and fuel-air mixing are two fundamental pre-requisites for a successful simulation of direct-injection engines. Over the years, many efforts were carried out in order to improve available turbulence and spray models. However, enhancements in physical modeling can be drastically affected by mesh structure and quality which can negatively influence the predicted structure of organized charge motions, turbulence generation and interaction between in-cylinder flows and injected sprays. This is even more relevant for modern direct injection engines where multiple injections and control of charge motions are employed in a large portion of the operating map. Currently, two different approaches for mesh generation exist: manual and automatic. The first makes generally possible to generate high-quality meshes but, at the same time, it is very time consuming and not completely free from user errors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0385
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
The emission of particulate matter from future gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. From earlier investigations it is well-known that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particle formation in GDI engines. Capturing the detailed dynamics of the deposited liquid fuel is therefore a key feature for the correct prediction of soot generated in a GDI engine. In a previous study particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus the wall film formation (cf. SAE 2013-01-1089).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0393
Alessandro d'Adamo, Fabio Berni, Sebastiano Breda, Mattia Lugli, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Engine downsizing is gaining popularity in the high performance engine market sector, where a new generation of highly downsized engine with specific power outputs around or above 150 HP/litre is emerging. High-boost and downsizing to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption have to face the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock. To counterbalance auto-ignition of fuel/air mixture, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1177
Steven Mathison, Kiyoshi Handa, Timothy McGuire, Tyler Brown, Todd Goldstein, Michael Johnston
Abstract Appendix H of the SAE J2601 standard defines a development hydrogen fueling protocol named the MC Default Fill, which builds upon the foundation of the table based protocol, utilizing the same assumptions, boundary conditions, and process limits as the current standard. The MC Default Fill facilitates the following beyond the table based protocol: 1) the potential to provide faster, more consistent fueling times for fuel cell electric vehicle customers, and 2) the ability to continuously and dynamically adjust to a wide range of dispenser fuel delivery temperatures, allowing for more flexibility in station design. Computer simulations and laboratory bench tests were previously conducted and documented, validating the function and operation of the protocol.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1163
Gabriel Elias, Stephen Samuel, Alessandro Picarelli
Abstract This study details the investigation into the hybridization of engine ancillary systems for 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H vehicles. This was conducted in order to counteract the new strict fuel-limiting requirements governing the powertrain system employed in this type of vehicle. Dymola 1D vehicle simulation software was used to construct a rectilinear vehicle model with a map based 3.8L V8 engine and its associated ancillary systems, including oil pumps, water pump and fuel pump as well as a full kinetic energy recovery system (ERS). Appropriate validation strategy was implemented to validate the model. A validated model was used to study the difference in fuel consumption for the conventional ancillary drive off of the internal combustion engine in various situational tests and a hybrid-electric drive for driving engine ancillaries.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1270
Philip Anderson, Mohammed Aslam, Partab Jeswani
In the current state of art there is only one channel on each side of the impeller. For high flow and pressure applications the size of such pumps becomes excessive. In order to reduce the size to a manageable level it may be necessary to have two or more channels on each side. But the problem with a multichannel pump is that the peak efficiency of each channel happens at a different operating point and the overall pump efficiency may not be that good. This problem can be overcome by synchronizing the channels. In a synchronous pump the channel diameters and their cross sectional areas are such that the peak efficiency happens at the same operating point and the overall pump efficiency is very good. In this paper we derive the governing equations for flow, efficiency and pressure and layout a methodology for synchronizing the channels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1730
Luca Romani, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Francesco Balduzzi, Paolo Trassi, Jacopo Fiaschi, Federico Tozzi
Abstract High specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are the main drawbacks of the small crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine. The symmetrical port timing combined with a carburetor or an indirect injection system leads to a lower scavenging efficiency than a four-stroke engine and to the short-circuit of fresh air-fuel mixture. The use of fuel supply systems as the indirect injection and the carburetor is the standard solution for small two-stroke engine equipment, due to the necessity of reducing the complexity, weight, overall dimensions and costs. This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the application of an innovative Low Pressure Direct Injection system (LPDI) on an existing 300 cm3 cylinder formerly equipped with a carburetor. The proposed solution is characterized by two injectors working at 5 bar of injection pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1731
Yanxiang Yang, Bingqian Tan, Changwen Liu, Ping Zhang, Daguang Xi
A pump-end control technology for pump-nozzle fuel supply unit, in which the pump is driven and controlled electrically for pressurizing and metering the fuel fed into an engine, is studied. The unit is composed of a solenoid driven plunger pump, a high-pressure fuel tube, and an auto-open nozzle, and only the pump is propelled by PWM power from an ECU. To achieve a higher metering accuracy, a metering theory deciding the fuel discharging rate was developed by studying the system using a physical-mathematical model. The developed so called T3 theory makes the fuel supply unit with excellent metering consistency under various conditions, which can meet the requirement of fuel supply unit application to small engine management system. The study reveals that an electrically characterized variable, T3, which is associated with the net output energy, can directly results in a mass discharge.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1267
Jae-Cheon Lee, Hao Liu, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Hyun Myung Shin, Yong Nam Shin, Myung Kweon Kang
Abstract A high-pressure fuel pump in a GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine has been increasingly applied on passenger vehicles because of its high fuel efficiency and reduction of exhaust emissions. The design specifications of principal components of GDI high-pressure pump should be validated prior to the manufacturing. This study presents the analytical results of the specifications for the design of a GDI pump of Motonic Co. by using computational model based simulation. The results are largely divided into two parts. First, cam-follower dynamics with the proper design of cam profile, and second, the discharge flow performance of the pump in consideration of the characteristics of inlet control valve.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1273
Shunsuke Aritomi, Hiroyasu Kuniyoshi, Kenichirou Tokuo, Satoshi Usui, Atsuji Saito, Yuta Saso
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is a key-enabling technology for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and increasing engine power in spark ignition (SI) engines. An important component of a GDI system is a high pressure fuel pump, which must deliver fuel at higher pressure. In these days, environmental regulations in the world are becoming more strict. Increasing fuel injection pressure gives high efficient combustion and is focused as a way for complying with the regulations. Therefore, a recent trend for a high pressure gasoline pump is to increase its outlet pressure. One of challenges to increase the outlet pressure is an improvement of a volumetric efficiency. High pressure pumps for diesel engines are well known to deliver higher pressure fuel than GDI engines. There are many reports to improve the volumetric efficiency. Reducing a dead volume of a pump chamber is known as an effective way to improve the volumetric efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1264
Junseok Chang, Yoann Viollet, Abdullah Alzubail, Amir Faizal Naidu Abdul-Manan, Abdullah Al Arfaj
Abstract This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize the octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. It is assumed that a vehicle was equipped with two fuel tanks and two injection systems; one port fuel injection and one direct injection line separately. Each tank carried low octane and high octane fuel so that real-time octane blending was occurred in the combustion chamber when needed (Octane On-Demand: OOD). A refinery naphtha was selected for low octane fuel (RON=61), because of its similarity to gasoline properties but a less processed, easier to produce without changing a refinery configuration. Three oxygenates were used for high octane knock-resistant fuels in a direct injection line: methanol, MTBE, and ETBE.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
Abstract The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0893
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
Abstract The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. Bio20 is not to be confused with B20, which is a diesel blend containing 20% biodiesel. The feedstock, processing, and chemistry of biodiesel are markedly different from bio-oil. Plastic materials included those identified for use as seals, coatings, piping and fiberglass resins, but many are also used in vehicle fueling systems. The plastic specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured to determine extent of property change. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0931
Zihan Wang, Andrew Swantek, Riccardo Scarcelli, Daniel Duke, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Ronald Reese, Kevin Freeman, York Zhu
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5830