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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5886
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2881
Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man’s energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2832
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Khahn Bui, Matthew Stephens, Alyssa Schmidt
The incidence of fire in heavy trucks has been shown to be about ten times higher under crash conditions than occurs in passenger vehicles. Fuel tank protection testing defined in J703 was originally issued in 1954. Advanced virtual testing of current and alternative fuel tank designs and locations under example representative impact conditions is reported.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2805
Valerii Naumov, Yuri Pogulyaev, Rustam Baytimerov, Dmitry Chizhov
A new fuel supply system (FSS) for a diesel engine is suggested that allows controlling the pressure of the pre- and post-main injections, and changing the pressure curve of the main injection. The system comprises a pump-injector unit with an independent pressure control and a needle. The driving cam of the pump-injector unit is designed so that the downward plunger speed is constant. Due to this fact, the pressure in the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit may also be constant and adjustable by means of a piezoelectric pressure-regulating valve (PRV). The PRV connects the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit with the FSS. The passage area of the PRV depends on the voltage fed to the piezoelectric drive. Thus, by varying the voltage, we can change the pressure in the high-pressure chamber. The needle of the pump-injector unit is controlled hydraulically by a two-position valve. The valve drive can be of solenoid, piezoelectric or mechanical type.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2814
Rakhesh Bharathan
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2818
Scott Shafer
Abstract All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2593
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, Michael Wabs, Carlos Carvalho
Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) has been used for many years to find cable breaks and measure fluid levels in industrial processes. The technology uses picosecond level pulses and the associated reflection off of the fluid level surface in a time of flight measurement to determine fluid height. However, TDR signals have additional information that can be processed and exploited for IVHM applications. For example, when water collects in the fuel tank, TDR is capable of identifying and measuring the amount of water. This can allow for water sumps to be drained on condition instead of on a schedule. In addition, electromagnetic properties of the fluid can be determined, such as the dielectric constant and conductivity, which can be used to identify mis-fueling situations, contaminants in the fluid, and potentially other properties of fluid health.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2428
Ferdinando Taglialatela Scafati, Francesco Pirozzi, Salvatore Cannavacciuolo, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) combustion with un-throttled lean stratified operation allows to reduce engine toxic emissions and achieve significant benefits in terms of fuel consumption. However, use of gasoline stratified charges can lead to several problems, such as a high cycle-to-cycle variability and increased particle emissions. Use of multiple injection strategies allows to mitigate these problems, but it requires the injection of small fuel amounts forcing the traditional solenoid injectors to work in their “ballistic” region, where the correlation between coil energizing time and injected fuel amount becomes highly not linear. In the present work a closed-loop control system able to manage the delivery of small quantities of fuel has been introduced. The control system is based on a particular feature found on the coil voltage command signal during the de-energizing phase.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2467
Alessandro Ferrari, Federica Paolicelli
Abstract A challenging task that is required to modern injection systems is represented by the enhanced control of the injected quantities, especially when small injections are considered, such as, pilot and main shots in the context of multiple injections. The propagation of the pressure waves triggered by the nozzle opening and closure events through the high-pressure hydraulic circuit can influence and alter the performance of the injection apparatus. For this reason, an investigation of the injection system fluid dynamics in the frequency domain has been proposed. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit has been applied to perform a modal analysis. The visualization of the main vibration modes of the apparatus allows a detailed and deep comprehension of the system dynamics. Furthermore, the possible resonances, which are induced by the action of the external forcing terms, have been identified.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2470
Daniel Pearce, Yannis Hardalupas, A.M.K.P Taylor
The measurement of the rate of fuel injection using a constant volume, fluid filled chamber and measuring the pressure change as a function of time due to the injected fluid (the so called “Zeuch” method) is an industry standard due to its simple theoretical underpinnings. Such a measurement device is useful to determine key timing and quantity parameters for injection system improvements to meet the evolving requirements of emissions, power and economy. This study aims to further the understanding of the nature of cavitation which could occur in the near nozzle region under these specific conditions of liquid into liquid injection using high pressure diesel injectors for heavy duty engines. The motivation for this work is to better understand the temporal signature of the pressure signals that arise in a typical injection cycle.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2473
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Giovanni Meccariello, Maurizio Lazzaro
Abstract In internal combustion engines, the direct injection at high pressures produces a strong impact of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall, especially in small-bore sizes used for passenger cars. This effect is relevant for the combustion process resulting in an increase of the pollutant emissions and in a reduction of the engine performances. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior and atomization of the impinging sprays on the wall. The gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside an optically accessible quiescent chamber using a novel make ready Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up using a high-speed C-Mos camera as imaging system. The arrangement was capable to acquire alternatively the schlieren and Mie-scattering images in a quasi-simultaneous fashion using the same line-of-sight.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2480
Lucio Postrioti, Maurizio Bosi, Andrea Cavicchi, Fakhry AbuZahra, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
Direct Injection technology for Spark Ignition engines is currently undergoing a significant development process in order to achieve its complete potential in terms of fuel conversion efficiency, while preserving the ability to achieve future, stringent emission limits. In this process, improving the fuel spray analysis capabilities is of primary importance. Among the available experimental techniques, the momentum flux measurement is one of the most interesting approaches as it allows a direct measurement of the spray-air mixing potential and hence it is currently considered an interesting complement to spray imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the fuel spray evolution when it undergoes flash boiling, a peculiar flow condition occurring when the ambient pressure in which the spray evolves is below the saturation pressure of the injected fluid.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2477
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Massimo Cardone
Abstract Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits of usinf propane in diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of the injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. Slight modifications of the injection system were required in order to operate with a blend of propane-diesel fuel. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratios were tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P20 and P40). First, injection in air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were performed to verify the functionality of the modified Common Rail injection system.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2406
Gyujin Kim, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract The flamelet model is a widely used combustion model that demonstrates a good prediction of non-premixed combustion. In this model, the chemical time scales are considered to be smaller compared to those of the turbulence, which allows the heat and mass transfer equation to be decoupled from the flow equation. However, the model's dependency on the mixture fraction limits the combustion analysis to a single injection. To overcome this limitation, a two dimensional flamelet model, which uses two mixture fraction variables, was introduced to represent the non-premixed combustion of multiple injections. However, the model's computational time drastically increased due to the expansion of the solution domain. Thus, a modified 2-D flamelet model was introduced to reduce the computational time of the two dimensional flamelet model.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2411
Carmelina Abagnale, Maria Cristina Cameretti, Umberto Ciaravola, Raffaele Tuccillo, Sabato Iannaccone
The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas, NG) concept represents a solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas as an alternative fuel. As well known, the dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. A further important requirement of the DF operation in automotive engines is a satisfactory response in a wide range of load levels. In particular, the part-load levels could present more challenging conditions for an efficient combustion development, due to the poor fuel/air ratio. Basing on the above assumptions, the authors discuss in this article the results of a combined numerical and experimental study on the effect of different injection timings on performance and pollutant fractions of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2408
Nicola Giovannoni, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Francesco Pulvirenti
Abstract In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2398
Ivan Arsie, Roberto Di Cianni, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract Nowadays the high competition reached by the automotive market forces Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) towards innovative solutions. Strict emission standards and fuel economy targets make the work hard to be accomplished. Therefore modern engines feature complex architecture and embed new devices for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), turbocharging (e.g. multi-stage compressors), gas after-treatment (e.g. the Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR)) and fuel injection (either high or low pressure). In this context the Engine Management System (EMS) plays a fundamental role to optimize engine operation. The paper deals with fuel spray and combustion simulation by a multi-zone phenomenological model aimed at the steady-state optimal tuning of the injection pattern.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2413
Michela Costa, Francesco Catapano, Guido Marseglia, Ugo Sorge, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows flexible operation of spark ignition engines for reduced fuel consumption and low pollutants emissions. The choice of the best combination of the different parameters that affect the energy conversion process and the environmental impact of a given engine may either resort to experimental characterizations or to computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Under this perspective, present work is aimed at discussing the assessment of a CFD-optimization (CFD-O) procedure for the highest performance of a GDI engine operated lean under both single and double injection strategies realized during compression. An experimental characterization of a 4-stroke 4-cylinder optically accessible engine, working stratified lean under single injection, is first carried out to collect a set of data necessary for the validation of a properly developed 3D engine model.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2455
Slavey Tanov, Zhenkan Wang, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. With gasoline fuels, PPC has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of the fuel/air mixture, which prevents soot formation. In addition, the overall combustion stability can be increased with a longer ignition delay, providing proper fuel injection strategies. In this work, the effects of multiple injections on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence at a single swirl ratio are investigated. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is conducted in an optical direct-injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. Primary reference fuel (PRF) 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) is used as the PPC fuel. In order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similarly as possible to the flow that would exist in a production engine, the quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2453
K Abdul Rahman, A Ramesh
In this experimental work the effect of double injection of diesel in a biogas-diesel partially premixed charge compression ignition (BDPPCCI) engine was studied. Biogas was inducted along with air while diesel was injected through a common rail system using an open electronic control unit. Experiments were done at a fixed brake mean effective pressure of 2 bar and an intake charge temperature of 40°C. The effect of start of injection (SOI) of first and second injection pulses and also the biogas energy share (BGES) were evaluated. Experiments were also done in the BDPPCCI mode with diesel being injected in a single pulse and in the biogas-diesel dual fuel (BDDF) mode for comparison. The thermal efficiency in the BDPPCCI mode was better with double injection of diesel as compared to single pulse injection due to better combustion phasing. Improved charge homogeneity and reduced wall wetting of diesel lowered the smoke emission levels with split injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2454
Zhenkan Wang, Slavey Tanov, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
It has been proven that partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of increasingly restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In the present work, a light duty optical diesel engine was used to conduct high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections with different timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in the Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this commercial passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2471
Federico Pellegrino, Alessio Dulbecco, Denis Veynante
Abstract This paper presents a phenomenological quasi-dimensional model of the processes that lead to charge preparation in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DI-SI) engine, focusing on the physics of atomization and drop evaporation, spray development and the mutual interaction between these phenomena. Atomization and drop evaporation are addressed by means of constant-diameter drop parcels, which provide a discrete drop-size distribution. A discrete Probability Density Function (PDF) approach to fuel/air mixing is proposed, based on constant-mixture-fraction classes that interact with each other and with the drop parcels. The model has been developed in the LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim™ system simulation platform for multi-physical modeling and integrated in a generic SI combustion chamber submodel, CFM1D [15], of the IFP-Engine library.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2459
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The use of direct injection (DI) engines allows a more precise control of the air-fuel ratio, an improvement of fuel economy, and a reduction of exhaust emissions thanks to the ultra-lean combustion due to the charge stratification. These effects can be partially obtained also with an optimized Air Direct Injection that permits to increase the turbulence at low speed and load increasing the combustion stability especially in lean condition. In this paper, a gasoline PFI (named G-PFI), gasoline PFI-methane DI dual fuel (named G-MDF) lean combustion were analyzed. The G-MDF configuration was also compared with a gasoline PFI - air DI (named G-A) configuration in order to distinguish the chemical effect of methane from the direct injection physical effect. The tests were carried out in a small displacement PFI/DI SI engine. The experimental investigation was carried out in a transparent small single-cylinder, spark ignition four-stroke engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2468
Kar Mun Pang, Hiew Mun Poon, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan, Jesper Schramm
Abstract This work concerns the modelling of soot formation process in diesel spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The key aim is to investigate the soot formation characteristics at different ambient temperatures. Prior to simulating the diesel combustion, numerical models including a revised multi-step soot model is validated by comparing to the experimental data of n-dodecane fuel in which the associated chemistry is better understood. In the diesel spray simulations, a single component n-heptane mechanism and the multi-component Diesel Oil Surrogate (DOS) model are adopted. A newly developed C16-based model which comprises skeletal mechanisms of n-hexadecane, heptamethylnonane, cyclohexane and toluene is also implemented. Comparisons of the results show that the simulated liftoff lengths are reasonably well-matched to the experimental measurement, where the relative differences are retained to below 18%.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2499
Fabio Berni, Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cantore
Abstract A new generation of highly downsized SI engines with specific power output around or above 150 HP/liter is emerging in the sport car market sector. Technologies such as high-boosting, direct injection and downsizing are adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption. To counterbalance the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC. A possible solution to increase knock resistance is investigated in the paper by means of 3D-CFD analyses: water/methanol emulsion is port-fuel injected to replace mixture enrichment while preserving, if not improving, indicated mean effective pressure and knock safety margins.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2432
Michela Costa, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Francesco Catapano, Guido Marseglia, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract Present work investigates both experimentally and numerically the benefits deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The here considered system is characterized by an optical access to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window placed in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones of the mixture, where undesired self-ignition may occur under some circumstances. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure oscillations on a cycle resolved basis.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2478
Johannes Palmer, Mogan Ramesh, Valeri Kirsch, Manuel Reddemann, Reinhold Kneer
Abstract Targeted fuel blending is a known method to improve the performance of an automotive engine. Two candidates for a biofuel blend are the linear C8H18O isomers 1-octanol and di-n-butyl ether (DNBE). Both fuels feature an increased amount of oxygen that reduces soot emissions. However, physical properties of both fuels differ significantly and thus, a different type of spray mixing and combustion is expected: The low reactivity of 1-octanol causes a long ignition delay enabling a better mixture homogenization, but also causes HC and CO emissions. DNBE in contrary is highly volatile, has a short ignition time and thus can act as an ignition booster for 1-octanol without losing positive effects concerning emissions. In this work a spray study is performed for blends of 1-octanol and DNBE. Measurements are conducted under diesel-like engine conditions with an 8-hole piezo injector. High-speed Schlieren and Mie scattering techniques are used for spray visualizations.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2476
Christian Pötsch, Laura Sophie Baumgartner, Daniel Koch, Felix Bernhard, Bastian Beyfuss, Georg Wachtmeister, Donatus Wichelhaus
Alongside with the severe restrictions according to technical regulations of the corresponding racing series (air and/or fuel mass flow), the optimization of the mixture formation in SI-race engines is one of the most demanding challenges with respect to engine performance. Bearing in mind its impact on the ignition behavior and the following combustion, the physical processes during mixture formation play a vital role not only in respect of the engine's efficiency, fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions but also on engine performance. Furthermore, abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knock may be enhanced by insufficient mixture formation. This can presumably be explained by the strong influence of the spatial distribution of the air/fuel-ratio on the inflammability of the mixture as well as the local velocity of the turbulent flame front.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2441
Robert Morgan, Andrew Banks, Andrew Auld, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Abstract Diesel fuel injection pressures have increased steadily on heavy duty engines over the last twenty years and pressures as high as 300MPa are now possible. This was driven by the need to control toxic exhaust emissions, in particular particulate emissions using advanced in-cylinder combustion strategies. With the introduction of efficient aftertreatment systems for both particulate and NOx emissions control there is less demand for in-cylinder emissions control especially considering the drive for improved fuel economy. In this paper we consider the benefit of high fuel injection pressure for a number of emissions control strategies with different balances of in-cylinder and exhaust aftertreatment emissions control. A test program was undertaken on a single cylinder heavy duty research engine installed at the University of Brighton, in collaboration with Ricardo.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2395
Xavier Tauzia, Alain Maiboom, Guanqin Ma
Abstract In this paper, a new 1D combustion model is presented. It is expected to combine good predictive capacities with a contained CPU time, and could be used for engine design. It relies on a eulerian approach, based on Musculus 1D transient spray model. The latter has been extended to model vaporizing, reacting sprays. The general features of the model are first presented. Then various sub models (spray angle and dilatation, vaporization, thermodynamic properties) are detailed. Chemical kinetics are described with a global scheme to keep computational time low. The spray discretization (mesh) and angle model are first discussed through a sensitivity analysis. The model results are then compared to experiments from ECN data base (SANDIA) realized in constant volume bombs, for both inert and reacting cases. Some detailed analysis of model results are performed, including comparisons of vaporizing and non-vaporizing cases, as well as inert and reacting cases.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2421
Federico Stola, Domenico Paolino, Marco Parotto, Fabio Troina
Abstract Current market drivers for automotive and light commercial engines and powertrain systems are mainly the new CO2 emission regulations all over the world and the pollutant emission reduction in the emerging markets, at minimal system cost. For both reasons, the adoption of a regulated electric low pressure fuel pump is very advantageous for electronically controlled diesel systems, customized for the emerging markets. Usually, the fuel delivery from the feed pump is performed at the maximum flow rate and a pressure regulator discharges the exceeding fuel amount either from the rail or upstream the high pressure pump. Therefore, at part load, the electric feed pump flow is higher than the request for engine power generation. For the purpose of this paper, the low pressure fuel pump is controlled for fuel delivery according to the engine request (reduced fuel consumption), thus avoiding the use of a pressure regulator valve (reduced cost).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5886