Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 2232
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2464
Xinyou Lin, Chaoyu Wu, Qingxiang Zheng, Liping Mo, Hailin Li
Abstract The range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) is a complex nonlinear system powered by internal combustion engine and electricity stored in battery. This research proposed a Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy of REVV based on operation features of REEV and the universal characteristic curve of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired transition of the operation mode, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. A Genetic algorithm (GA) is adapted to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters are obtained based on this control strategy.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2208
Tao Liu, Ziwang Lu, Guangyu Tian
Abstract To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2224
Paul Freeland, Gareth Jones, Rong-Sheih Chen, Liang-Wei Huang, Marwan El-Kassem, Roland Kaiser
Abstract The paper outlines the fuel consumption benefits available from de-throttling technologies that can help to bring gasoline engine efficiency on a par with that of diesel engines. The paper shows the relative efficiency improvements offered by a fully-variable intake valve lift system in conjunction with wide-range cam phasers, which also incorporate the facility to provide zero valve lift to enable cylinder deactivation. Testbed results recorded with a prototype concept engine show the degree to which early intake valve closing, valve overlap and cylinder deactivation can work together, and the limitations of this synergy at different operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2245
Xianlin Ouyang, Ho Teng, Xiaochun zeng, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Jiankun Luo, Yongli Zhou
Abstract In order to better understand how the Atkinson cycle and the Miller cycle influence the fuel consumption at different engine speeds and loads, an investigation was conducted to compare influences of early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC) on the fuel consumption of a 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The engine was tested with three different intake cams, covering three intake durations: 251 degCA (the base engine), 196 degCA (the Miller engine), and 274 degCA (the Atkinson engine). Compression ratios are 9.5:1 for the base engine and 11.4:1 for the Atkinson and Miller engines, achieved with piston modifications. Results of this investigation will be reported in three papers focusing respectively on characteristics of the engine friction, in-cylinder charge motions for different intake events, and combustion and fuel economy without and with EGR for the naturally aspirated mode and boost mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2290
Zhixin Sun, Shaoqing Yang, Xinyong Qiao, Zhiyuan Zhang
Abstract When operating at high elevation of 3700m (atmospheric pressure about 68 kPa), the combustion process of diesel engine deteriorates, and the engine performance declines significantly. In this paper, Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is blended into the diesel fuel as additive to improve the combustion process. The decomposition of Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is analyzed and its mechanism is studied through chemical kinetics. A series of tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine to study the effects of EHN on diesel engine combustion with the low intake pressure of 68kPa. Results show that the generation of OH、 H、 HO2 and H2O2 in n-heptane cleavage reactions can be promoted by EHN. In both stages of low and high temperature, the decomposition of n-heptane is accelerated, which shortened the ignition delay period. Four kinds of fuel are studied by tests: diesel fuel, diesel fuel with 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% mass fraction EHN respectively.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2355
Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland
Abstract Due to its simplicity and fuel economy benefit, continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology has gained a lot of attention in recent years. Market penetration of CVT technology is increasing rapidly compared to step-type automatic transmission technology. OEMs, Tier 1 suppliers, and lubricant suppliers are working to further improve the fuel economy benefit of CVTs. As a lubricant supplier, we want to understand the effects of fluid properties on CVT fuel economy (FE). We have formulated fluids that had KV100 ranges from 2-4 cSt to 7-9 cSt with various types and viscosities of base oils. Wide ranges of viscosity indexes, steel-on-steel friction, and other properties were tested. Full vehicle fuel economy tests were performed in a temperature controlled environment with a robotic driver. The test revealed that there was more than 3% overall FE variation compared to a reference fluid.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2435
Jian Ji, BoZhou He, Lei Yuan
Abstract It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2344
Robert Taylor, Hua Hu, Carl Stow, Tony Davenport, Robert Mainwaring, Scott Rappaport, Sarah Remmert
Abstract It is anticipated that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of all machines, with great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). In this paper, the development of a low weight concept car is reported. The car is equipped with a three-cylinder 0.66 litre gasoline engine, and has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2354
Dave Horstman, John Sparrow
Abstract Due to recent legislation on CO2 emissions, Heavy Duty engine and vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers have had an increased interest in improving vehicle fuel economy. Many aspects are being investigated including vehicle aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, waste heat recovery, engine fuel efficiency, and others. Crankcase oils offer a cost-effective mechanism to reduce engine friction and increase engine fuel efficiency. The potential gains realized by optimized fuel-efficient oils are relatively small, usually less than 3%. Therefore, in order to develop these oils, formulators must have a robust, repeatable, and realistic test method for differentiation. To serve Light Duty (LD) engines, this need has been partially satisfied by the development of what became the Sequence VI engine test for gasoline passenger car oils in the early 1990’s.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2349
Sarita Seth, Swamy Maloth, Prashant Kumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Lokesh Kumar, Rajendra Mahapatra, Sarita Garg, Deepak Saxena, R Suresh, SSV Ramakumar
Abstract Automobile OEMs are looking for improving fuel economy[1,2] of their vehicles by reducing weight, rolling resistance and improving engine and transmission efficiency apart from the aerodynamic design. Fuel economy may be improved by using appropriate low viscosity [3] and use of friction reducers (FRs)[4,5] in the engine oils. The concept of high viscosity index [6] is being used for achieving right viscosity at required operating temperatures. In this paper performance properties of High Viscosity Index engine oils have been compared with conventional VI engine oils. Efforts have been made to check the key differentiation in oil properties w.r.t. low temperature fluidity, high temperature high shear viscosity/deposits, friction behavior, oxidation performance in bench tribological /engine/chassis dyno tests which finally lead to oil performance assessment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2246
Xuwei Luo, Ho Teng, Yuxing Lin, Bin Li, Xiaochun Zeng, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Xiaojun Yuan
Abstract The present paper is Part II of an investigation on the influences of the late intake valve closing (LIVC) and the early intake valve closing (EIVC) on the engine fuel consumptions at different loads and speeds. The investigation was conducted with two 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines, one with a low-lift intake cam and the other with a high-lift intake cam. The focus of this paper is the cylinder charge motion. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were conducted on the characteristics of the cylinder charge motion for the load points 6 bar-bmep / 2000 rpm, 12 bar-bmep / 3000 rpm, and 19 bar-bmep / 1500 rpm, representing naturally aspirated and boost-mode operations without and with scavenging during the valve overlap.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2232
Liming Cao, Ho Teng, Ruigang Miao, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang
Abstract The present paper is Part III of an investigation on the influences of the late intake valve closing (LIVC) and the early intake valve closing (EIVC) on the engine fuel consumptions at different loads and speeds. The investigation was conducted with two 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines, one with a low-lift intake cam (the Miller engine) and the other with a high-lift intake cam (the Atkinson engine). This paper focuses on the influence of the intake-valve-closing timing on the fuel economy with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It was found that the Miller engine had a lower friction than the Atkinson engine; however, the impact of the difference in engine frictions on the fuel economy was mainly for low-speed operations. Across the engine speed range, the Miller engine had longer combustion durations than the Atkinson engine as a result of the impact of EIVC on the cylinder charge motion.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2207
Nobunori Okui
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include the Electric Vehicles, the Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the future. In order to reduce the emissions of the heavy-duty diesel plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), it is necessary to provide the high exhaust-gas temperature and to keep the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system effective. The engine starting condition of the PHEV is cold, and the engine start and stop is repeated. And, the engine load of the PHEV is assisted by the electric motor. Therefore, the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system of the PHEV is not able to get the enough high exhaust-gas temperature. And, the warm-up of the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system for the PHEV is spent the long time. So, it is worried about a bad effect on the emission characteristics of the PHEV.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2346
Hong Liu, Jiajia Jin, Hongyu Li, Kazuo Yamamori, Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita, Liping Zhang
Abstract It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Abstract Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
2017-08-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9379
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
Abstract Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9279
Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0382
Oscar Hernandez Cervantes, Antonio Espiritu Santo Rincon
Abstract The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics circuit boards, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI) achieved through an open source platform. The purpose of this platform is to have a low cost system that allows further function development, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop and automated tests integrated with PCM data for engine calibration. It is projected to be part of a flexible calibration system with direct communication to the interfaces used during development (ATI, ETAS), which will be used to achieve lean test and development schedules.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0893
Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1096
Robin Temporelli, Philippe Micheau, Maxime Boisvert
Abstract Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) based on classic electrohydraulic clutch actuation gives high performances and comfort to a recreational vehicle. However, overall power consumption remains high due to the pump efficiency. In addition, the pump is often driven by the vehicle’s engine and thus is continuously working. To address this issue, a new electrified clutch based on electromechanical actuation has been designed and prototyped. In order to evaluate the effective fuel consumption reduction using this new clutch actuator, a low-cost and agile method is presented and used in this paper. Indeed, instead of integrating the clutch actuator in a real vehicle and performing expensive real emission test cycles on a road, this original method proposes to perform accurate semi-virtual emission test cycles. Moreover, the method allows to perform numerous test iterations in a short time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1145
Eric De Hesselle, Mark Grozde, Raymond Adamski, Thomas Rolewicz, Mark Erazo
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles are continuously challenged to meet cross attribute performance while minimizing energy usage and component cost in a very competitive automotive market. As electrified vehicles become more mainstream in the marketplace, hybrid customers are expecting more attribute refinement in combination with the enhanced fuel economy benefits. Minimizing fuel consumption, which tends to drive hybrid powertrain engines to operate under lugging type calibrations, traditionally challenge noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) metrics. Balancing the design space to satisfy the cost metrics, energy efficiency, noise and vibration & drivability under the hybrid engine lugging conditions can be optimized through the use of multiple CAE tools. This paper describes how achieving NVH metrics can put undesirable boundaries on Powertrain Operation which could affect other performance attributes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0906
Thomas L. Darlington, Gary A. Herwick, Dennis Kahlbaum, Dean Drake
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and California Air Resources Board released the joint mid-term Technical Assessment Review of the light-duty GHG standards in July of 2016. The review generally asserted that the GHG standards adopted in calendar year 2012 for 2022-2025 model year vehicles were feasible. Although many different technologies were evaluated, the review did not assess the benefits of high compression ratio engines enabled by a high-octane low carbon fuel. This study fills in the gap in the Technical Assessment Review by examining the impacts of a 98-research octane number gasoline-ethanol blend with 25 percent ethanol. We find that this fuel would enable higher compression ratios to improve tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions by about 6 percent on most engines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0522
Jianning Zhao, Antonio Sciarretta
Abstract Fuel consumption is an essential factor that requires to be minimized in the design of a vehicle powertrain. Simple energy models can be of great help - by clarifying the role of powertrain dimensioning parameters and reducing the computation time of complex routines aiming at optimizing these parameters. In this paper, a Fully Analytical fuel Consumption Estimation (FACE) is developed based on a novel GRaphical-Analysis-Based fuel Energy Consumption Optimization (GRAB-ECO), both of which predict the fuel consumption of light- and heavy-duty series hybrid-electric powertrains that is minimized by an optimal control technique. When a drive cycle and dimensioning parameters (e.g. vehicle road load, as well as rated power, torque, volume of engine, motor/generators, and battery) are considered as inputs, FACE predicts the minimal fuel consumption in closed form, whereas GRAB-ECO minimizes fuel consumption via a graphical analysis of vehicle optimal operating modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0150
Ankit Kumar Shukla, Raj Dhami, Aashish Bhargava, Sanjay Tiwari
Abstract In the current landscape of commercial vehicle industry, fuel economy is one of the major parameter for fleet owner’s profitability as well as greenhouse gasses emission. Less fuel efficiency results in more fuel consumption; use of conventional fuel in engines also makes environment polluted. The rapid growth in fuel prices has led to the demand for technologies that can improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Phase change material (PCMs) for Thermal energy storage system (TES) is one of the specific technologies that not only can conserve energy to a large extent but also can reduce emission as well as the dependency on convention fuel. There is a great variety of PCMs that can be used for the extensive range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications in automobiles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2232

Filter