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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2231
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2290
Zhixin Sun, Shaoqing Yang, Xinyong Qiao, Zhiyuan Zhang
Abstract When operating at high elevation of 3700m (atmospheric pressure about 68 kPa), the combustion process of diesel engine deteriorates, and the engine performance declines significantly. In this paper, Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is blended into the diesel fuel as additive to improve the combustion process. The decomposition of Isooctyl Nitrate(EHN) is analyzed and its mechanism is studied through chemical kinetics. A series of tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine to study the effects of EHN on diesel engine combustion with the low intake pressure of 68kPa. Results show that the generation of OH、 H、 HO2 and H2O2 in n-heptane cleavage reactions can be promoted by EHN. In both stages of low and high temperature, the decomposition of n-heptane is accelerated, which shortened the ignition delay period. Four kinds of fuel are studied by tests: diesel fuel, diesel fuel with 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% mass fraction EHN respectively.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2346
Hong Liu, Jiajia Jin, Hongyu Li, Kazuo Yamamori, Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita, Liping Zhang
According to the Toyota gasoline engine oil requirements, this paper describes that the low viscosity engine oil of 0W-16 has been developed jointly by Sinopec and Toyota,which also conforms to the Toyota specification. As we know, the development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but shear stability and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property should be taken into consideration. The main elements content in the formulation was determined according to the results of Toyota’s previous LSPI research and the initial 0W-16 engine oil had passed Toyota LSPI test. Based on all above, viscosity index improver (VII) with better friction reduction property was selected by the Mini-traction Machine (MTM) and the High-frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) tests.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2344
Robert Taylor, Hua Hu, Carl Stow, Tony Davenport, Robert Mainwaring, Scott Rappaport, Sarah Remmert
Abstract It is anticipated that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of all machines, with great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). In this paper, the development of a low weight concept car is reported. The car is equipped with a three-cylinder 0.66 litre gasoline engine, and has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2349
Sarita Seth, Swamy Maloth, Prashant Kumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Lokesh Kumar, Rajendra Mahapatra, Sarita Garg, Deepak Saxena, R Suresh, SSV Ramakumar
Abstract Automobile OEMs are looking for improving fuel economy[1,2] of their vehicles by reducing weight, rolling resistance and improving engine and transmission efficiency apart from the aerodynamic design. Fuel economy may be improved by using appropriate low viscosity [3] and use of friction reducers (FRs)[4,5] in the engine oils. The concept of high viscosity index [6] is being used for achieving right viscosity at required operating temperatures. In this paper performance properties of High Viscosity Index engine oils have been compared with conventional VI engine oils. Efforts have been made to check the key differentiation in oil properties w.r.t. low temperature fluidity, high temperature high shear viscosity/deposits, friction behavior, oxidation performance in bench tribological /engine/chassis dyno tests which finally lead to oil performance assessment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2464
Xinyou Lin, Chaoyu Wu, Qingxiang Zheng, Liping Mo, Hailin Li
The Range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV) is a complex nonlinear system. The control strategy of REEV can be affected by numerous parameters. Firstly, the Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy is proposed based on operation features of the RE-EV and combining with the optimal efficiency region of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired operation mode transition, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. Then,GA(Genetic algorithm) is implemented to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The SOC (State of Charge) and speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters combination is obtained based on this control strategy.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2354
Dave Horstman, John Sparrow
Abstract Due to recent legislation on CO2 emissions, Heavy Duty engine and vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers have had an increased interest in improving vehicle fuel economy. Many aspects are being investigated including vehicle aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, waste heat recovery, engine fuel efficiency, and others. Crankcase oils offer a cost-effective mechanism to reduce engine friction and increase engine fuel efficiency. The potential gains realized by optimized fuel-efficient oils are relatively small, usually less than 3%. Therefore, in order to develop these oils, formulators must have a robust, repeatable, and realistic test method for differentiation. To serve Light Duty (LD) engines, this need has been partially satisfied by the development of what became the Sequence VI engine test for gasoline passenger car oils in the early 1990’s.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2435
Jian Ji, BoZhou He, Lei Yuan
Abstract It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2355
Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland
Abstract Due to its simplicity and fuel economy benefit, continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology has gained a lot of attention in recent years. Market penetration of CVT technology is increasing rapidly compared to step-type automatic transmission technology. OEMs, Tier 1 suppliers, and lubricant suppliers are working to further improve the fuel economy benefit of CVTs. As a lubricant supplier, we want to understand the effects of fluid properties on CVT fuel economy (FE). We have formulated fluids that had KV100 ranges from 2-4 cSt to 7-9 cSt with various types and viscosities of base oils. Wide ranges of viscosity indexes, steel-on-steel friction, and other properties were tested. Full vehicle fuel economy tests were performed in a temperature controlled environment with a robotic driver. The test revealed that there was more than 3% overall FE variation compared to a reference fluid.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2224
Paul Freeland, Gareth Jones, Rong-Sheih Chen, Liang-Wei Huang, Marwan El-Kassem, Roland Kaiser
REVISED ABASTRACT 4/7/2017 The challenges of maintaining continuous improvements in air quality, manage the earth’s energy resources, and to control atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, whilst supplying ever increasing global sales volumes mean that ever more detailed understanding and optimisation of powertrain systems is required. Downsizing, electrification and traffic flow management all have very important parts to play in achieving these goals, but can still only modify the outputs of the basic propulsion units, and methods to improve the efficiency, cleanliness and flexibility of powertrains remains a vital development requirement. The paper explores the fuel consumption benefits available from de-throttling technologies that can help to bring gasoline engine efficiency on a par with that of diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2232
Liming Cao, Ho Teng, Ruigang Miao, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2245
Xianlin Ouyang, Ho Teng, Xiaochun zeng, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Jiankun Luo, Yongli Zhou
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2246
Xuwei Luo, Ho Teng, Yuxing Lin, Bin Li, Xiaochun Zeng, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Xiaojun Yuan
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Abstract Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2208
Tao Liu, Ziwang Lu, Guangyu Tian
Abstract To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
2017-08-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9379
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
Abstract Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9279
Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0382
Oscar Hernandez Cervantes, Antonio Espiritu Santo Rincon
Abstract The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics circuit boards, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI) achieved through an open source platform. The purpose of this platform is to have a low cost system that allows further function development, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop and automated tests integrated with PCM data for engine calibration. It is projected to be part of a flexible calibration system with direct communication to the interfaces used during development (ATI, ETAS), which will be used to achieve lean test and development schedules.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0893
Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1096
Robin Temporelli, Philippe Micheau, Maxime Boisvert
Abstract Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) based on classic electrohydraulic clutch actuation gives high performances and comfort to a recreational vehicle. However, overall power consumption remains high due to the pump efficiency. In addition, the pump is often driven by the vehicle’s engine and thus is continuously working. To address this issue, a new electrified clutch based on electromechanical actuation has been designed and prototyped. In order to evaluate the effective fuel consumption reduction using this new clutch actuator, a low-cost and agile method is presented and used in this paper. Indeed, instead of integrating the clutch actuator in a real vehicle and performing expensive real emission test cycles on a road, this original method proposes to perform accurate semi-virtual emission test cycles. Moreover, the method allows to perform numerous test iterations in a short time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1145
Eric De Hesselle, Mark Grozde, Raymond Adamski, Thomas Rolewicz, Mark Erazo
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles are continuously challenged to meet cross attribute performance while minimizing energy usage and component cost in a very competitive automotive market. As electrified vehicles become more mainstream in the marketplace, hybrid customers are expecting more attribute refinement in combination with the enhanced fuel economy benefits. Minimizing fuel consumption, which tends to drive hybrid powertrain engines to operate under lugging type calibrations, traditionally challenge noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) metrics. Balancing the design space to satisfy the cost metrics, energy efficiency, noise and vibration & drivability under the hybrid engine lugging conditions can be optimized through the use of multiple CAE tools. This paper describes how achieving NVH metrics can put undesirable boundaries on Powertrain Operation which could affect other performance attributes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1092
Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong, Jonathan Sullivan, Guopeng Hu, Edward Dai, Dennis Reed, Ryan Baker
Abstract This paper proposes an approach that uses the road preview data to optimize a shift schedule for a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission. The road preview is inferred here from the so-called electronic horizon of a digital map that includes road attributes such as road grade, curvature, segment speed limit, functional class, etc. The optimized shift schedule selects the gear ratio whose optimization is conducted through applying a hybrid model predictive control method to the powertrain system, which is modelled as the multiple plants associated with multiple gears together with engine models. The goal of this optimization of shift schedule includes improving real world fuel economy and drivability. The real-world fuel economy gains using the proposed approach are achieved through optimizing gear ratio w.r.t. the road grade variations of the road ahead.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0906
Thomas L. Darlington, Gary A. Herwick, Dennis Kahlbaum, Dean Drake
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and California Air Resources Board released the joint mid-term Technical Assessment Review of the light-duty GHG standards in July of 2016. The review generally asserted that the GHG standards adopted in calendar year 2012 for 2022-2025 model year vehicles were feasible. Although many different technologies were evaluated, the review did not assess the benefits of high compression ratio engines enabled by a high-octane low carbon fuel. This study fills in the gap in the Technical Assessment Review by examining the impacts of a 98-research octane number gasoline-ethanol blend with 25 percent ethanol. We find that this fuel would enable higher compression ratios to improve tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions by about 6 percent on most engines.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0533
Paul Dekraker, Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim
Abstract The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been refined and revalidated using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. The robustness of EPA’s vehicle and engine testing for the MTE coupled with further validation of the ALPHA model has highlighted some areas where additional data can be used to add fidelity to the engine model within ALPHA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0232
Nizar Khemri, Hao Ying, Joseph Supina, Fazal Syed
Abstract Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2231

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