Abstract In Brazil, since the purchase cost of an electric vehicle (EV) is still very high, the exchange of a conventional vehicle by an EV would only be worth if the vehicle was used as source income, such as the case of taxis. Short run distances and high daily mileage make conventional taxis ideal candidates to be replaced by battery EVs. Recently, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro received EVs as a test project, but other major cities, such as Belo Horizonte, have yet to be tested. The taxi fleet in this city has currently 7,152 vehicles, all powered by internal combustion engines, significantly contributing to equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2eq) emissions since the daily distance traveled is high. With the aim to characterize the fleet and evaluate taxi driver’s option to EVs, data was collected from a systematic sample of taxi stands, of a total of 375, through a structured interview with the drivers, considering a finite and homogeneous population.
Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Low Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses - Part I: Fuel Consumption
Abstract One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Lower Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses. Part II: Oil Performance
Abstract Low viscosity engine oils are considered a feasible solution for improving fuel economy in internal combustion engines (ICE). So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity engine oils regarding their degradation process and possible related engine wear, since the use of low viscosity engine oils could imply higher degradation rates and/or unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, and higher degradation rates would be translated in a reduction of the oil drain period, both of them non-desired effects. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of low viscosity engine oils in a real service fleet.
Abstract Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle are two key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars annually in third party vendors to offer shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees at fixed locations and provide them daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient fixed routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operating efficiency behind these services. They can significantly reduce operating costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus numbers, while maintaining the same quality of service. This study developed an off-line optimization routing method for employee shuttle services including regular work shifts and demand based shifts (e.g. overtime shifts) in some regions.
Abstract With the development of the Internet for vehicles, the Car-sharing has been developed rapidly in recent years. This paper focuses on the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, which helps to clarify the characteristics and basic law of Car-sharing network development, as well as the main approaches to construct it. Firstly, by analyzing the effect factors and expanding ways of Car-sharing network, characteristics of the development of Car-sharing industry and its network, as well as main Car-sharing users and services, the influence factors of Car-sharing demand and the main demand points in a city are summarized. Secondly, in order to better evaluate the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, this paper proposes an optimization decision method of the car-sharing network planning by evaluating the possible alternatives in a same scale. The assessment index of Car-sharing network planning is constructed.
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
Abstract The Aisin A465 6-Speed Diesel Hybrid powertrain started production in early 2012 and is available in the North American market in the Hino 195h DC COE truck. The suitability, and added fuel efficiency, of a Hybrid powertrain for Class 5 Box truck is very dependent on fleet usage conditions and duty cycle. Aisin has undertaken real-world, extended mileage, durability testing on public roads to determine the operational modes for which such a powertrain is most suitable, and for which a fleet owner can expect fuel savings that will result in a payback period justifying the higher cost of a hybrid system equipped commercial truck. Data collected on the same Aisin proprietary durability test routes with a Conventional Class 3-5 Cab Chassis truck provides insights into truck usage parameters that differ between Hybrid and Conventional Class 3-5 commercial trucks.
Abstract Compression Ignition - CI or Diesel engines are currently considered the most fuel efficient combustion based drivetrain, and, for this reason, it has been historically used as the backbone for heavy duty markets, including transit bus fleets. At the same time, CI engines fueled by traditional crude oil based diesel fuel are facing the growing challenge of meeting the increasing stringent emission standards, specially on particulates matter, nitrogen oxides and greenhouse gases emissions limits. Moreover, petroleum based transport fuels are constantly faced by strategic and security concerns, due to the concentration of the main currently known reserves in political unstable regions. As such, it is both environmentally and economically important to find alternatives for crude oil based diesel fuel to be used in the transportation sector.
Abstract Current massive urbanization process concentrates high amount of population and impose an increased demand on transport systems. In this context, transit bus system plays an important role, as the most dynamic and less capital intensive transit option available. At the same time, it is strongly dependant on fossil fuels, predominantly diesel fuel, with its intrinsic polluting and greenhouse (climate change) effects. This has boosted research and investments for alternative and renewable fuels. One solution currently receiving widespread recognition is biogas use in transit bus fleets, as it allows the use of a renewable fuel, made from substrates derived basically from waste and sewage that otherwise would produce methane released to the atmosphere.
Abstract Life-cycle cost analysis can provide a solid basis to support improvements in how fleet managers use their vehicles and in how manufactures design them. The challenge to it be an established practice rests on getting quality data provided by fleet operators and on the understanding that the data is significantly influenced by both the operational environment and the quality of management (operations and maintenance). In 2012, a benchmark study was conducted using the public transportation system of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Twelve companies participated in the study. Although the primary purpose of the study was to assess the differences in the competitiveness among the twelve companies, the data collected provide a database that was very consistent in providing critical analysis of vehicle maintainability by generating life-cycle cost analysis. The study proved to be an important tool to link vehicle design to the operational and maintenance management of company fleets.
A Study of Potential Fuel Economy Technologies to Achieve CAFE 2025 Regulations using Fleet Simulation Modeling Software
Abstract The 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy regulations are a significant challenge to the automotive industry. These regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets, focusing on powertrain enhancements. The study uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE's global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, dilute combustion, friction reduction, hybridization, diesel and alternative fuels. The vehicle technologies analyzed include vehicle light weighting, reduced rolling resistance, advanced transmissions and improved aerodynamics.
Formation of Quantitative and Age Structure of Tractor Park in the Conditions of Limitation of Resources of Agricultural Production
Abstract A feature of the present state of the Russian agricultural industry is that productive resources (tractor pool, arable land area and number of workers involved) are diminishing and the reduction does not have a quantified value. In the prevailing conditions of limited resources, agricultural enterprises are forced to operate tractors beyond their amortization periods on a massive scale, which results in an unpredictable service life. This situation calls for an assessment of the optimal composition of the tractor pool in terms of number and age. By way of a solution to this problem, the given article presents a methodological approach as to the analysis of two opposing factors.
Natural Gas and Biogas Use in Transit Bus Fleets - A Technical, Operational and Environmental Approach
Abstract From the nineties there was a great interest in the use of compressed natural gas - CNG (predominantly composed of methane) on transit bus fleets around the globe. In a first moment, developed countries (US, EU and Japan) have focused their efforts to address serious urban air pollution problems caused by heavy duty diesel engines - since PM and NOx emissions were initially easier to control from natural gas engines than from conventional diesel engines - and also to offset growing oil imports. As such, for many years, dedicated methane fuelled city buses meeting emission requirements (Euro IV, V and EEV, US Federal and California, and Japan) either in a lean burn or stoichiometric technology, have been offered to the market.
Abstract Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising functionality. The fleet was already actively addressing fleet efficiency and reducing petroleum consumption by using more efficient light-emitting diode hazard warning signs and encouraging personnel to turn off vehicles when not in use. However, with a fleet of 328 on-road vehicles and a duty to serve the more than one million customers in seven western New York counties, NYSDOT Region 4 wanted to ensure they were reducing idling at every opportunity. On-board data collection gathered details on the route, engine, vehicle and driver operational characteristics from ¾-ton pickups, 6-passenger pickups, stake rack trucks, and small dump trucks.
Abstract Whether large or small, a truck fleet operator has to know the locations of its vehicles in order to best manage its business. On a day to day basis loads need to be delivered or picked up from customers, and other activities such as vehicle maintenance or repairs have to be routinely accommodated. Some fleets use aftermarket electronic systems for keeping track of vehicle locations, driver hours of service and for wirelessly text messaging drivers via cellular or satellite networks. Such aftermarket systems include GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, which in part uses a network of satellites in orbit. This makes it possible for the fleet manager to remotely view the location of a vehicle and view a map of its past route. These systems can obtain data directly from vehicle sensors or from the vehicle network, and therefore report other information such as fuel economy.
Abstract This paper explores the benefits that would be achieved if gasoline marketers produced and offered a higher-octane gasoline to the U.S. consumer market as the standard grade. By raising octane, engine knock constraints are reduced, so that new spark-ignition engines can be designed with higher compression ratios and boost levels. Consequently, engine and vehicle efficiencies are improved thus reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet over time. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the reduction in fuel consumption and GHG emissions that would result for a given increase in octane number if new vehicles designed to use this higher-octane gasoline are deployed. GT-Power simulations and a literature review are used to determine the relative brake efficiency gain that is possible as compression ratio is increased.
Environmental concerns and rising fuel costs are driving Ontario's municipalities and fleet operators to consider alternative vehicle technologies. Elevated fuel consumption and air emissions are attributed to the unique operations of fleet vehicles and in particular, during idling. While drivers of passenger vehicles may have the option of simply not idling, fleet and emergency vehicle operators, may need to keep the vehicle operating to supply power to critical onboard equipment. These demands may be exacerbated during seasonal, temperature extremes. However, prolonged idling can impose significant environmental and economic burdens. Hybrid vehicles have yet to be utilized widely by Ontario's fleets, but there are other approaches to reduce emissions, including alternative “green” technologies to operate in-vehicle equipment and maintain fleet vehicle capabilities instead of idling.
A current trend by automotive manufacturers involves the use of Oil Life Monitoring Systems (OLMS) to determine the drain interval of the engine oil. The premise of the OLMS system is to extend the oil drain interval by monitoring engine parameters and reduce the number of oil changes during the vehicle's lifecycle. The OLMS uses an engine oil sensor or various engine sensors and an advanced algorithm to predict when the engine oil has reached the end of its lifecycle. The OLMS effectively supports customer demands for lower operating costs and government fleet requirements to reduce the consumption of petroleum derived products and hazardous waste. This research analyzed the correlation between various external influences that alter the output of the OLMS. The external influences include monitoring of the vehicle operating conditions in densely populated metropolitan statistical areas versus more rural areas.
Design Improvements Done in Telematics System Towards Betterment of Services Offered to Fleet Customers
Ashok Leyland, India had commissioned a web portal towards serving their end customers with better fleet management. The services offered through this portal helps in improving the productivity and safety of vehicles, business operations and hence, the profitability of the customers. Track and trace, SMS/email alerts and report generation are the major functionalities of this portal. They assist the customers in analyzing the operations of their vehicles and take corrective actions towards optimizing them. However, there were certain problems faced by the customers, while accessing these functionalities through the web portal. This includes, significantly high lead time taken for report generation, unavailability of location details in the reports and track page due to early expiry of reverse geo-coding service limits.
Ford's portfolio approach to sustainable mobility offers a large range of fuel-efficient engines and alternative-fuel vehicles - including EcoBoost®, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, flexible fuel, battery-electric, B20 biodiesel and compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (CNG/LPG) vehicles. The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner has been developed to assist fleet customers in comparing these alternatives and understanding which vehicles offer the optimal mix to achieve CO₂ emission reductions while balancing corporate financial goals. Vehicle fleets for large corporations can have thousands of vehicles that are replaced on a timescale of months to years. We present the three main components of the Fleet Purchase Planner (patent pending) that provide fleet customers the lowest cost solution to achieving their sustainability goals: the Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Cost Calculator, the Fleet CO₂ Emissions Footprint Status Calculator, and the Purchase Recommender.
A growing number of electric vehicles (EV's) are being used in fleet applications, creating a need for accurate estimates of vehicle mass while the vehicles are in operation. In this work, on-road energy use data are compared with simulated energy use to identify vehicle mass. The testing was performed on an electric Ford Transit Connect light-duty delivery vehicle in service with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's facilities department. Driving data was collected using specific protocols designed to yield optimal inputs for identification, as well under normal driving conditions for evaluating the algorithms ability to identify parameters in worst-case scenarios. In this work, the identified mass is used to optimize fleet performance by providing more insight into the in-service weight of the vehicles, as well as by providing better electric vehicle range estimates to improve fleet utilization.
When approaching new mobility solutions such as car-sharing, it soon becomes apparent that it may be necessary to develop specific vehicles for this application. In this paper, Applus IDIADA explains its experience in the development of the iShare, an electric vehicle conceived as a demonstrator of our complete vehicle development capabilities following the principle of “development led by functionalities”, with the consideration that it would be used in open car-sharing fleets running according to the MIT's (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) “mobility-on-demand” concept.
Environmental concerns related to intensive fossil fuel use have pursued the development of programs to promote the production and use of renewable fuels. This is specially true for diesel fuel used in transit bus fleets, in which the intensive and concentrated use in densely populated areas generates adverse environmental effects in cities all over the world. Although improvements in fossil fuel quality have been achieved in the last decades, most have to be done to make breath cleaner in world metropolis. One of the most promising options, known as Biodiesel, is an ester produced from vegetable oil or animal fat, in a chemical reaction with methanol or ethanol, through a process known as transesterification. It contains, on average, 8% and 12.5% less energy than diesel fuel in a volume and in a weight basis, respectively, which affects engine power, in accordance with the blend used.
The addition of 7% FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) is mandated in a number of European countries since 2008. Higher FAME concentrations up to 30% are used by fleets in some countries. Passenger car manufacturers have reported on the negative technical implications of biodiesel on engine oil dilution, engine cleanliness and corrosion. The reason for the impact of FAME can be attributed to the higher boiling point compared to fossil fuel and the lower oxidation stability due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid components. In this study engine oils with different performance level were evaluated in a taxi fleet test run with B5 and B20 biodiesel. The test results are illustrated with the used oil analyses and the performance of the engine oils by end-of-test engine inspections.
This paper will recommend that the Big-3 carve-out a new business unit that focuses upon the delivery of light-vehicles to fleet operators which are classified as “remanufactured”. The remanufacturing process, as applied to this paper, assures that a not-new product has “like-new” condition characteristics of reliability levels, energy efficiencies, operational capabilities, maintainability, safety and others. This new remanufacturing business model is primarily foreseen to: Materially increase the profit margin of the light vehicle fleet market segment Decrease the market share of imported designed-for-manufacturing components employed in the vehicle production process Reduce the manufacturing impact of light-vehicles upon industrial energy consumption and waste generation Mitigate the loss of control of the design of a vehicle to the Federal Government This article will provide an overview of the following nine elements of this new business model: 1 Who is the customer?
The U. S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) National Automotive Center (NAC) owns a fleet of ten Hydrogen Hybrid Internal Combustion Engine (H2ICE) vehicles that have been demonstrated in various climates from 2008 through 2010. This included demonstrations in Michigan, Georgia, California and Hawaii. The fleet was consolidated into a single location between July 2009 and April 2010. Between July of 2009 and January of 2011, data collection was completed on the fleet of H2ICE vehicles deployed to Oahu, Hawaii for long-term duration testing. The operation of the H2ICE vehicles in Hawaii utilized standard operation of a non-tactical vehicle at a real-world military installation. The vehicles were fitted with data acquisition equipment to record the operation and performance of the H2ICE vehicles; maintenance and repair data was also recorded for the fleet of vehicles.
Understanding reliability is critical in design, maintenance and durability analysis of engineering systems. A reliability simulation methodology is presented in this paper for vehicle fleets using limited data. The method can be used to estimate the reliability of non-repairable as well as repairable systems. It can optimally allocate, based on a target system reliability, individual component reliabilities using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The algorithm establishes a Pareto front that can be used for optimal tradeoff between reliability and the associated cost. The method uses Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the system failure rate and reliability as a function of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the time between failures for all components of the system are estimated using either limited data or a user-supplied MTBF (mean time between failures) and its coefficient of variation.
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology may reduce fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions in many medium- and heavy-duty vehicle vocations, including school buses. The true magnitude of these reductions is best assessed by comparative testing over relevant drive cycles. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data, and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation PHEV school bus equipped with a 6.4 L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. For a baseline comparison, a Bluebird 7.2 L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity.
Case Studies of the Fleet Operational Efficiency Gains through Onboard Intelligence and Managerial Processes
One of the biggest challenges in managing any business is undoubtedly the reduction of operating costs. This paper presents the results obtained by deploying a management system for fleet operating efficiency based on the use of technological tools combined with managerial efforts, and training of drivers' behaviors. The use of sensing, onboard intelligence, communication networks and data processing allows the identification of inappropriate behavior of the vehicle/driver as well as the shortcomings of fleet operating pattern. In the model adopted, from the mass of collected data are generated weekly reports that are used to guide the fleet managers and correcting flawed features found in the behavior of drivers. The benefits of this process were observed in the form of fuel savings, reduced maintenance costs and accidents.