The purpose of the document is to provide the guidelines of the technological approach for developing a PHM system for EMAs with particular reference to their possible use as primary flight control actuators. It provides a basic description of the physics of the most common degradation processes,a reliability assessment and a discussion on the signals, with the associated data processing, required to build up an effective health monitoring system.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the design and performance requirements for a battery-powered electric tow tractor for the handling of baggage or cargo trailers in airline service. The use of “shall” in this document indicates a mandatory requirement. The use of “should” indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.
Connectivity continues its advance More OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are focusing on embedded telematic systems, hoping to displace aftermarket hardware. Tailoring fuel injection to control NOx The next big step to help heavy-duty diesel engines meet stricter emissions regulations involves adapting the fuel-injection system to the combustion needs. Active on safety Crash-avoidance technologies are vital "building blocks" to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents. Engineering with simulation and data Companies are discovering new simulation techniques, especially optimization; the next step is to combine simulation with sensor data and predictive analytics to create even more robust off-highway equipment.
Abstract The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets using telematics is becoming commonplace. Telematics generally refers to the use of wireless devices to transmit data in real time back to an organization. When tied to the GPS system telematics can be used to track fleet vehicle movements, and other parameters. GPS tracking can assist in developing more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS based fleet telematics data is also useful for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite the advantages for fleet management, there are limitations in the logged data for position and speed that may affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of traffic collisions.
The purpose of this specification is to provide airplane operators and tow vehicle manufacturers with: a. General design and operating requirements pertinent to test and evaluation of towbarless tow vehicles. Specific design requirements are provided in ARP4852 and ARP4853. b. Test and evaluation requirements. The results of these test evaluations will determine if the loads induced by the tow vehicle will exceed the design loads of the nose gear, or are within the aircraft manufacturer’s limits so that they do not affect the certified safe limit of the nose gear. The results of these test evaluations will also determine if a stability problem may occur during pushback and/or maintenance towing operations with the tested airplane/tow vehicle combination. This document specifies general test requirements and a test evaluation procedure for towbarless tow vehicles (TLTV) intended for pushback and maintenance towing only.
The tow vehicle should be designed for towbarless movement of aircraft on the ground. The design will ensure that the unit will safely secure the aircraft nose landing gear within the coupling system for any operational mode.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is applicable to any type of aerospace ground support vehicle, powered or unpowered.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents metrics for assessing the performance of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms applied to Engine Health Management (EHM) functions. This document consolidates and expands upon the metric information previously contained in AIR4985 and AIR5909. The emphasis is entirely on metrics and as such is intended to provide an extension and complement to such documents as ARP4176, which provides insight into how to create a cost benefit analysis to determine the justification for implementing an EHM system.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) offers best practice regarding the implementation of IVHM systems taking into account Human Factors, both the vehicle crew and the maintenance staff. The document will include considerations regarding both military and civil fixed wing aircraft. Safety implications will also be addressed.
Autonomous plows ahead Agriculture, construction, mining-even marine-are advancing autonomous technology to improve the productivity and safety of vehicles on the job. Expediting engine design Simulation tools drive development of the most complex, fuel- efficient and powerful engines ever seen in off-highway applications. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce vehicles and their high-tech systems are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. The future is not so far-off Enhanced Cat 3500 engine boosts power 20%, trims fuel usage by 10% Phase 2 GHG rules driver for advanced technology, alternative fuels Eaton demonstrates waste heat recovery, variable valve actuation for HD diesels Hyliion develops add-on hybrid system for semi-trailers that reduces fuel consumption by 30% Tech-heavy Iveco Z Truck concept spawns 29 patents EPA's Grundler talks Phase 2 regs
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes a Limited Engine Monitoring System that can be used by the flight crew or the maintenance staff, or both, to monitor the health of gas turbine engines in aircraft. This AIR considers monitoring of gas path performance and mechanical parameters, and systems such as low cycle fatigue counters and engine history recorders. It also considers typical measurement system accuracies and their impact. This AIR is intended as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. AIR 1873 supplements ARP 1587, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Monitoring System Guide.
Abstract This report provides an overview of recent technical solution adoption rates by fleets from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will also be discussed. OEM vehicle integration and product line offerings (standard, optional, and post-production upfits) are shared. All of this background will set the stage for a review of the proposed Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 regulations, the technologies expected to be utilized to meet the targets, and the hurdles the industry must successfully clear for profitable fleet use in commercial vehicle freight transportation. Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of fuel efficient technologies have emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse Gas regulations exist to further encourage development, integration and adoption of such technologies.
Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing.
To document a lesson learnt that impulse towing loads are effected by tow tractor clevis and pin and towbar eye ring clearances. These impulse loads can be so large that they have damage the nose landing gear and aircraft structure of some aircraft. Damage occurs while operating within towing instruction
This document is applicable to military aircraft where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the development and approval of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies and on the integration of these technologies into encompassing maintenance and operational support systems. The document will refer to those guidelines prepared under SAE ARP6461 that are relevant and applicable to military applications.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) was created to help industry deal with existing barriers to the successful implementation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology in the aerospace and automotive sectors. That is,given the common barriers that exist, this ARP can be applied not only to aerospace but also to the automotive, commercial and military vehicle sectors. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in all of these sectors are heavily dependant upon a large number of component suppliers in order to design and build their products. The advent of IVHM technology has accentuated the need for improved coordination and communication between the OEM and its suppliers –to ensure that suppliers design health ready capabilities into their particular components.
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
This specification covers a direct reading, remote control, pneumatic pressure inflator assembly, for use on aircraft tires and struts having pneumatic pressure requirements up to 600 psi. It includes pressure relief provisions for safe inflation. Also included are dual chuck stem gages for measuring tire pressure.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) examines a comprehensive construct of an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability. This document provides a top-level view of the concepts, technology, and implementation practices associated with IVHM. This keystone document of the SAE HM-1 Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits. Figure 1 provides a document flow map of the documents currently in work or planned by the Committee. The documents shown below will provide the recommended practices for IVHM implementation. This document map reflects the current SAE IVHM document configuration as of the date of publication. Future documents that are released will be included in the flow map in future updates of this document. An indication of the scope of IVHM is diagrammed in Figure 2.
This specification covers general design and performance requirements for the mobility of towed ground support equipment. The complete mobility requirements for an item of towed aerospace ground equipment not specified herein shall be specified in the individual equipment specification (see 6.4).
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the basic general design requirements for ground support equipment used in the civil air transport industry. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing requirements for various configurations of equipment. For procurement of equipment, sections of this document should be specified with due consideration of the functional and environmental requirements of the equipment, and to the relative cost of satisfying those requirements.
This AIR will address the need for a strategy to achieve aircraft operating certificate holder maintenance efficiencies within the existing regulatory environment as well as the need for regulation, policy, and guidance changes in the long-term to accommodate more complex IVHM solutions. This document will analyse which IVHM solutions can be incorporated within existing maintenance procedures and which also comply with regulations, policy, and guidance. One of the AIR’s objectives is to define best practices for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get approval for simpler IVHM applications leading to maintenance efficiencies. Additionally, this document will analyse the barriers that existing regulations, policy, and guidance present to the implementation of more advanced IVHM solutions. The result is a set of recommendations to certify and implement end-to-end IVHM solutions for the purpose of gaining maintenance efficiencies.
Definition of target design and location on aircraft, that will be used: - To provide correct GSE alignment support and docking when approaching the aircraft in automatic, semi-automatic or manual mode - by GSE autoleveling system to detect and follow aircraft vertical movements
A keen focus on operations, cost management, leadership, and customer service is presented in this book for fleets to thrive in today’s competitive business environment. Basic concepts and customer service fundamentals, along with integrated best practices, and business tools are fully described. This model can be applied by service groups of any size to achieve quality performance benefits for both the customer and the fleet-provider. Fleet Services: Redefining Success presents: • A back-to-basics approach that begins by redefining a fleet's customers to fully identify and provide customer-driven services. • A hierarchy for success that includes development of management goals and strategies to exceed customer expectations. • Best practices and associated business tool requirements that assure exceptional service and win-win results. • An innovative business model that maximizes opportunities and positive outcomes for fleet service providers.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is applicable to rotorcraft structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, both commercial and military, where end users are seeking guidance on the definition, development, integration, qualification, and certification of SHM technologies to achieve enhanced safety and reduced maintenance burden based on the lessons learned from existing Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). While guidance on SHM business case analysis would be useful to the community, such guidance is beyond the scope of this AIR. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future. Interrogation of the sensors could be done onboard during flight or using ground support equipment.
The ARP shall cover the objectives and activities of Verification & Vallidation Processes required to assure high quality and/or criticality level of an IVHM Systems and Software.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) examines the need for and the application of a power train usage metric that can be used to more accurately determine the TBO for helicopter transmissions. It provides a formula for the translation of the recorded torque history into mechanical usage. It provides examples of this process and recommends a way forward. This document of the SAE HM-1 IVHM Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits.
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides requirements for design and installation of aircraft jacking pad adapters and the mating jack socket interface to permit use of standard jacking equipment to be used in civil and military transport aircraft. The adapter defined herein shall be the key interface between the aircraft and the aircraft jack(s).