SAE ARP 5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management System (EHMS) for gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This ARP also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health monitoring system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions of an EHMS. These functions and related maintenance activities promote engine safety. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to recommend a minimum standard, for the design and manufacturer of a self-propelled, chassis mounted passenger boarding vehicle. The vehicle will permit safe operation while minimizing aircraft damage and personnel safety hazards associated with commercial aircraft boarding operations. The vehicle described is intended to be used for assisting wheelchair passengers and passengers with disabilities on and off aircraft with door sill heights of 60 in (152.4 cm) and above.
Guidelines for the Development of Architectures for Integrated Vehicle Health Management Systems
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides best practices and guidance for creating an architecture for integrated vehicle health management systems. Where possible, this document will also provide references to tools to conduct architectural trades. Finally, this document will provide use cases to expose considerations and stakeholders to be included in these trades and utilization of an IVHM system (which may lead to new functional or non-functional requirements).
Ground Electrical Power Unit, Transportable 115/200 Volt AC (Nominal) 400 Hertz, 3-Phase 4-Wire (Grounded Neutral) Y-Connected System
This Recommended Practice outlines the electrical performance characteristics for a continuous duty, diesel or gasoline engine driven brushless alternator unit for supplying 400-Hertz electrical power to commercial transport aircraft. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing recommendations for various sizes and configurations of equipment and it is a guide for the preparation of detailed specifications. The unit is primarily intended to supply power to the aircraft during passenger loading and unloading, and during servicing operations. The combination of the equipment specified herein and the interconnecting cables(s) between the 400-Hertz alternator and the aircraft shall provide power characteristics at the aircraft receptacle which meet MIL-STD-704 requirements for Category "B" equipment. Other limits which are necessary to meet specific conditions must be specified by the purchaser.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is broken into various categories for convenience and ease of identification. It is the purpose of this document to provide certain criteria for the design and selection of stairways, for the boarding of passengers onto an aircraft. The criteria presented are limited to those factors which affect the safety of the passengers and are coordinated, where applicable, with the practices of the architectural profession, with respect to the design of stairways. Comprehensive design requirements for passenger stairs can be found in the industry documents listed under 2.1.3, 2.1.4, and 2.1.5 hereafter. The recommended practices are applicable to both mobile variable-elevation type stairways and to fixed-elevation stairways of the type built into an aircraft fuselage.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to Point-Of-Use, Central and Mobile Pre-Conditioned Air Equipment. It does not apply to aircraft mounted equipment.
This document is applicable to civil aerospace airframe structural applications where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the definition, development and certification of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies for aircraft health management applications. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) was created to help industry deal with existing barriers to the successful implementation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology in the aerospace and automotive sectors. That is,given the common barriers that exist, this ARP can be applied not only to aerospace but also to the automotive, commercial and military vehicle sectors. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in all of these sectors are heavily dependant upon a large number of component suppliers in order to design and build their products. The advent of IVHM technology has accentuated the need for improved coordination and communication between the OEM and its suppliers –to ensure that suppliers design health ready capabilities into their particular components. The goal is to provide uniform requirements, practices and methods to address the sharing and application of component IVHM design information and the need for efficient real-time communication of health state data in running vehicles.
This document outlines the functional and design requirements for baggage/cargo tow tractors used for airline services.
The potential usage of health monitoring techniques and technologies on aircraft operations during or after active volcanic events.
1. To determine the observable and non-observable (from a strictly monitoring viewpoint) methods in which the identified susceptibilities can be tracked and/or managed during or after an event and to record these in a matrix form. This matrix will be circulated to the other SAE groups with expertise in related topics with a request for them to complete. 2. The HM-1 committee will work with FAA, EASA *, ICAO, Industry and others to produce an SAE ARP that will provide details on the applicability of aircraft health monitoring technologies that can be used for assessing the safety, operational and maintenance effects related to volcanic ash incidents. *in particular to take into account the results of the intended EASA Advance Notice of Proposal relative to volcanic ash airworthiness issues
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) considers the following major areas: 1. major components and their ratings; 2. selection criteria for optimum design balance for electrical systems; 3. effects of operating conditions and environment on both maintenance and life of components; 4. trouble signals - their diagnosis and cure.
Guidance on the evolution and integration of Structural Health Monitoring systems for military aircraft
This document is applicable to military aircraft where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the development and approval of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies and on the integration of these technologies into encompassing maintenance and operational support systems. The document will refer to those guidelines prepared under SAE ARP6461 that are relevant and applicable to military applications.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
The tow vehicle should be designed for towbarless movement of aircraft on the ground. The design will ensure that the unit will safely secure the aircraft nose landing gear within the coupling system for any operational mode.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the dimensions, design, layout, performance, and capability of a towbarless tow vehicle (TLTV), mainly used for push-back operation on the nose gear.
The main purpose of this test was to determine the application advantages of cushion tow hitches in comparison to the commonly used rigid tow hitch type fitted on heavy aircraft towing tractors. As diverse opinions emerged about its suitability since the introduction on the market of this new tow hitch type, it was intended to physically measure and evaluate the damping capability of this cushioned tow link when applied in practice.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines interface configurations for the ground air conditioning service connection on commercial transport aircraft. In addition, it defines the clearances required to accommodate the connection of ground air conditioning hose couplings. Two types of service connections are included. The Type A connection (Figure 1) is a slotted ring with integral locking pads and is comparable to the MS33562 connection. The Type B connection (Figure 2) is a flanged tube with external locking lugs (Figure 3). The Type B connection has the same interface dimensional requirements as the Type A connection.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to standardize locations of aircraft ground service connections to accommodate the trend toward fixed systems, which use the passenger loading bridge as a vehicle for a source of utilities. It must be recognized that, in standardizing the locations of the aircraft service connections, they must continue to be served efficiently in those instances where mobile ground support equipment is used. There is an ever increasing number of fixed installations for aircraft servicing.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice includes the following areas: basis for system requirements; selection of materials coupled with hazards and safety; configuration of design; system operations; and evaluation testing.
Big shifts coming in powertrains During the rest of this decade, many observers expect transmission controls to undergo more changes than in the past 10-15 years. Transmission controls are being revamped to meet tighter fuel economy laws, letting engines run at optimal speeds. Collaborating for cheaper carbon fiber Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several industry partners work together to overcome the challenges to lower-cost carbon fiber. Creating the 54.5-mpg car Part 2 of AEI's three-part series looks at how vehicle engineers are facing a 'stress test' as the countdown to 2025 CAFE begins. How will the aggressive new regulations influence U.S. passenger cars in the next decade-and what will they cost to implement?
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines recommended ramp pavement marking standards for proper guidance and positioning of GSE on commercial transport aircraft parking and handling stands (gates), in line with International Civil Aviation (ICAO) recommendations applicable to airport aprons. Throughout this document, the minimum essential criteria are identified by use of the key word "shall". Recommended criteria are identified by use of the key word "should" and, while not mandatory, are considered to be of primary importance in providing safety effective ramp markings. Deviation from recommended criteria should only occur after careful consideration and thorough service evaluation have shown alternate methods to provide an equivalent level of safety.
Seeking validation Increased system complexity poses new challenges for software design and ECU system validation, mandating the need for simulation tools that can easily handle the complexity, while providing cost-effective, industry-proven verification tools and processes. Mapping the road to 54.5mpg Part 1 of AEI's three-part series looks at the CAFE challenge and the product-development options being weighed to meet it-while engineers look forward to the critical 2018 mid-term review.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidelines for the design of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems. This guidance is technology-independent; the principles are therefore generally applicable to the majority of potential IVHM design scenarios, including “clean sheet” system design, where IVHM is considered as a primary design consideration and the retrofit of existing systems with IVHM capability, where the design process leverages and supports existing system elements. In either case, the document will provide guidance on the design considerations for an IVHM system throughout the analysis, concept development, and synthesis stages of the IVHM Design process and provide discussion for the users’ consideration on the trades, metrics, and lifecycle impacts of IVHM design decisions.
The purpose of this specification is to provide airplane operators and tow vehicle manufacturers with: a. General design and operating requirements pertinent to test and evaluation of towbarless tow vehicles. Specific design requirements are provided in ARP4852 and ARP4853. b. Test and evaluation requirements. The results of these test evaluations will determine if the loads induced by the tow vehicle will exceed the design loads of the nose gear, or are within the aircraft manufacturer’s limits so that they do not affect the certified safe limit of the nose gear. The results of these test evaluations will also determine if a stability problem may occur during pushback and/or maintenance towing operations with the tested airplane/tow vehicle combination. This document specifies general test requirements and a test evaluation procedure for towbarless tow vehicles (TLTV) intended for pushback and maintenance towing only. It is not meant for dispatch (operational) towing (see definitions in Section 3).
Securing IT in the sky Along with IT systems and communication links comes IT security as a new factor when evaluating and monitoring the operational risk that needs to be managed during the operation of the aircraft. Data collection made easy Heavy vehicle makers, telematics providers strive to add more features while simplifying startup.
The present Aerospace Recommended Practice specifies for airplane operator and tow vehicle manufacturers the basic testing requirements for towbarless tow vehicles to be used on the nose gear of conventional tricycle type landing gears of commercial civil transport aircraft with maximum ramp weight between 8600 kg (19 000 lb) and 50 000 kg (110 000 lb), commonly designated as “regional aircraft”. Its purpose is to achieve testing results, or equivalent computer modeling, demonstrating that the loads induced by the tow vehicle will not exceed the design loads of the airplane's nose landing gear and associated structure, reduce the certified safe life limit of the nose landing gear, or otherwise compromise the airplane's structural integrity and airworthiness certification.
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide an introduction to the use of blade sensors in aviation engine health monitoring systems. The document generally lays out the motivation for blade monitoring. It then provides an introduction to types of sensors used in this application and discusses what types of phenomena may be detected by them. Finally, the document discusses practical considerations for the implementation of blade sensors for health monitoring of operational aviation engines.
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice covers specialized internal combustion engine powered equipment used in support of aircraft operations. The equipment may be self-propelled, truck mounted, trailer mounted, skid mounted or stationary. It does not include construction equipment or equipment designed primarily for operation on highways or within factories or building areas.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides guidelines for the functional, performance, qualification and acceptance testing, and documentation requirements for the components of an airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) system which is intended for use as a turbojet engine rotor unbalance indicating system, per FAR 25.1305 (D)(3) on transport category airplanes.