Experimental and Simulative Approaches for the Determination of Discharge Coefficients for Inlet and Exhaust Valves and Ports in Internal Combustion Engines
Abstract In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
Abstract In one dimensional engine simulation software, flow losses over complex geometries such as valves and ports are described using flow coefficients. It is generally assumed that the pressure ratio over the valve has a negligible influence on the flow coefficient. However during the exhaust valve opening the pressure difference between cylinder and port is large which questions the accuracy of this assumption. In this work the influence of pressure ratio on the exhaust valve flow coefficient has been investigated experimentally in a steady-flow test bench. Two cylinder heads, designated A and B, from a Heavy-Duty engine with different valve shapes and valve seat angles have been investigated. The tests were performed with both exhaust valves open and with only one of the two exhaust valves open. The pressure ratio over the exhaust port was varied from 1.1:1 to 5:1. For case A1 with a single exhaust valve open, the flow coefficient decreased significantly with pressure ratio.
Abstract Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Abstract A new generation of gasoline engine turbochargers has been developed with a focus on high performance and excellent NVH characteristics, especially with regards to the wastegate control system. With the recent introduction of EU6 emission standards, there is a clear demand to precisely control the flow of exhaust gas through the turbine wastegate. Engine operational duty cycles measured on EU6 compatible vehicles have shown increased stresses on wastegate parts due to a higher amount of regulation strokes during operation. Recent developments in the compact design of exhaust systems together with high pressure pulsation forces acting on wastegate flaps constitute the main challenges facing turbo engineers in the effort to achieve customer durability while meeting NVH requirements. For the development of a new generation of wastegate control systems a unique load prediction model was duly developed.
Investigation of the Gas Exchange (Scavenging) on a Single-Scroll Turbocharged Four Cylinder GDI Engine
Abstract For scavenging the combustion chamber during the gas exchange, a temporary positive pressure gradient between the intake and the exhaust is required. On a single-scroll turbocharged four cylinder engine, the positive pressure gradient is not realized by the spatial separation of the exhaust manifold (twin-scroll), but by the use of suitable short exhaust valve opening times. In order to avoid any influence of the following firing cylinder onto the ongoing scavenging process, the valve opening time has to be shorter than 180 °CA. Such a short valve opening time has both, a strong influence on the gas exchange at the low-end torque and at the maximum engine power. This paper analyzes a phenomenon, which occurs due to short exhaust valve opening durations and late valve timings: A repeated compression of the burned cylinder charge after the bottom dead center, referred to as “recompression” in this paper.
Abstract Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
Abstract One way to increase efficiency and performance of 2-stroke engines is the addition of an exhaust valve to control the opening/closure of the exhaust port. With this implementation it is possible to change the exhaust timing for different conditions. However, conventional systems cannot change the exhaust opening and closure timings independently. The work herein presented shows the development of a new exhaust rotary valve enabling the control of the opening independently from the control of the closure of the exhaust port. The study is based on kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Some manufacturers use exhaust rotary valves but none of them performs a fully rotary motion. This kind of motion has various benefits such as smoothness and most notably the ability to control both the opening and the closure timing of the exhaust independently. Regarding the kinematic analysis, a simple model was created to determine the most suitable valve angles.
Modelling Analysis of Aftertreatment Inlet Temperature Dependence on Exhaust Valve and Ports Design Parameters
Abstract Upcoming emissions regulations will force to optimize aftertreatment system to reduce emissions looking for lack of fuel penalty. Despite advances in purely aftertreatment aspects, the performance of the diverse aftertreatment devices is very dependent on the operating temperature. This makes them rely on the engine design and calibration because of the imposed turbine outlet temperature. The need to reach target conversion efficiency and to complete regeneration processes requires controlling additional parameters during the engine setup. For that reason, exploring the potential of different solutions to increase inlet aftertreatment temperature is becoming a critical topic. Nevertheless, such studies cannot be tackled without considering concerns on the engine fuel consumption. In this paper, the influence of several design parameters is studied by modelling approach under steady state operating conditions in a Diesel engine.
Extending the Dilution Limit of Spark Ignition Combustion via Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap
Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a diluent instead of air allows the use of a conventional three-way catalyst for effective emissions reduction. Cooled EGR can also reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions, but too much cool EGR leads to combustion instability and misfire. Negative valve overlap (NVO) is explored in the current work as an alternative method of dilution in which early exhaust valve closing causes combustion products to be retained in the cylinder and recompressed near top dead center, before being mixed with fresh charge during the intake stroke. The potential for fuel injection during NVO to extend the dilution limit of spark ignition combustion is evaluated in this work using experiments conducted on a 4-cylinder 2.0 L gasoline direct injection engine with variable intake and exhaust valve timing. The results demonstrate fuel injection during NVO can extend the dilution limit, improve brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and reduce CO and NOx emissions.
Optimizing the Opening Period and the Timing of Intake and Exhaust Valves to Improve Engine Performance in a Supermilage Vehicle
To improve engine torque and specific fuel consumption in a supermilage vehicle, we experimentally adjusted the valve lift and opening period in rocker arms, testing various follower configurations and adjust screws. Using the follower configuration in a commercially-available rocker arm, we compared 4 different levels of valve lift and opening period in the intake, and 4 different levels in the exhaust, making 16 combinations. Then, utilizing 5 kinds of modified follower configurations of the rocker arms in the intake, and 3 in the exhaust, we also compared 24 combinations (including the commercially-available follower configurations). We tested our experimental supermilage engine under full-load at 2000 to 4500rpm, simulating powering a supermilage vehicle.
Thermal load caused by engine combustion is one of the important issues for the engines such as high-boosted downsized engines and engines with high compression ratio. In particular, it is necessary to maintain the reliability and durability of exhaust valves which are subject to the biggest thermal impact. For this reason, sodium filled hollow valves are utilized in preference to solid valves in order to decrease the exhaust valve temperature. The most common method for detecting the valve temperature is to estimate the temperature by measuring hardness on valve surface (Hardness test). However, the hardness test is only applicable to the condition up to 800°C. Therefore, this paper presents new techniques for measuring the temperature for sodium-filled valve using infrared thermography and thermocouple as an alternative hardness test. The authors also examined the valve temperatures at a variety of engine speeds and cooling of the sodium-filled valve during engine operation.
Abstract Exhaust and muffler noise is a challenging problem in the transport industry. While the main purpose of the system is to reduce the intensity of the acoustic pulses originating from the engine exhaust valves, the back pressure induced by these systems must be kept to a minimum to guarantee maximum performance of the engine. Emitted noise levels have to ensure comfort of the passengers and must respect community noise regulations. In addition, the exhaust noise plays an important role in the brand image of vehicles, especially with sports car where it must be tuned to be “musical”. However, to achieve such performances, muffler and exhaust designs have become quite complex, often leading to the rise of undesired self-induced noise. Traditional purely acoustic solvers, like Boundary Element Methods (BEM), have been applied quite successfully to achieve the required acoustic tuning.
Abstract On internal combustion engines, the intake and exhaust valves are reciprocated by the cam mechanism. ‘Cam-shower’ is oil supplying device for each cam of a camshaft. The conventional cam-shower is simple pipe shape with several same size outlets for each cam. Oil from cylinder head is supplied in the middle point of cam-shower pipe. The oil flow of outlets near the oil supplied point is large amount, and outlet far from supplied point is small. The distribution of oil flow from each outlet is uneven. A new structure of cam-shower has been developed, and it has two important features. First, it has branched oil passage like cereoid cactus. Second, supplied oil flow from cylinder head to a cam-shower is intermittent by using throughhole passage in a camshaft journal. The new developed cam-shower properly distributes oil flow to each cam evenly and reduces wasted oil flow, so that total amount of oil flow of the cam-shower can be remarkably reduced by 90%.
Performance Sensitivity to Exhaust Valves and Turbine Parameters on a Turbocompound Engine with Divided Exhaust Period
Abstract Turbocompound can utilize part of the exhaust energy on internal combustion engines; however, it increases exhaust back pressure, and pumping loss. To avoid such drawbacks, divided exhaust period (DEP) technology is combined with the turbocompound engine. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging, with different valve timings. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and improves engine performance. Combining turbocompound engine with DEP has been theoretically investigated previously and shown that this reduces the fuel consumption and there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work in the engine optimization. However, the sensitivity of the engine performance has not been investigated for all relevant parameters.
Abstract The future environmental constraints [e.g. WLTC +RDE, CAFE, Euro 6.2, 7] for the pollutant emissions lead to new challenges for the internal combustion engine. One of the solutions to decrease the fuel consumption, the CO2 and pollutant emissions whilst keeping the same driving and thermal comforts is the engine's thermal management, in particular during the warm-up phase. Furthermore, the traditional cooling system is not designed to work at the new engine transient thermal conditions at a non-optimal temperature in terms of fuel economy and exhaust emission. This paper describes a new technology for engine cooling systems that is able to control the coolant flow and temperature in relation to the engine conditions such as load and rotational speed. With a no flow in crankcase cooling strategy and a high engine temperature regulation, the Active Cooling Thermomanagement Valve succeeds in decreasing the fuel consumption without deteriorating engine's performance.
Effects of Ethanol on Part-Load Performance and Emissions Analysis of SI Combustion with EIVC and Throttled Operation and CAI Combustion
Abstract Internal combustion engines are subjected to part-load operation more than in full load during a typical vehicle driving cycle. The problem with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is its inherent low part-load efficiency. This problem arises due to the pumping loses that occur when the throttle closes or partially opens. One way of decreasing the pumping losses is to operate the engine lean or by adding residual gases. It is not possible to operate the engine unthrottled at very low loads due to misfire. However, the load can also be controlled by changing the intake valve closing timing - either early or late intake valve closing. Both strategies reduce the pumping loses and hence increase the efficiency. However the early intake valve closure (EIVC) can be used as mode transition from SI to CAI combustion.
The exhaust valve plays a role of reducing the mechanical noise and vibration of vehicle by smooth discharging of the vehicle emissions after combustion process in exhaust system of engine. The torsion spring is one of the most core components in exhaust valve, which generates variable torque for control of opening and closing angle of exhaust valve. Its performance represents all over the performance of exhaust system of vehicle. As it were, the failure of torsion spring means the failure of all exhaust system. So, as well as performance, the reliability of the torsion spring is very important. To secure the reliability is same to secure the security and comfort of passengers including driver. This paper proposed two methods for improvement of torque and reliability characteristics of torsion spring. One is improvement of heat treatment condition for getting of more constant torque characteristic of torsion spring.
The exhaust valve system of combustion engines experiences a very complex contact situation of frequent impact involving micro sliding, high and varying temperatures, complex exhaust gas chemistry and possible particulates. The wear rate has to be extremely low, and the individual wearing events operate at a scale that is very demanding to detect. The tribological conditions in the exhaust valve system are expected to become even worse for engines that will follow the future emission regulations. The regulations demand reduced amounts of soot and particles, sulfur compounds, etc., which today act beneficial for the seating surfaces. The reductions are expected to increase the metal-to-metal contact.
Improvement of Fuel Consumption by Stopping Some Fuel Injectors while Operating Both Intake and Exhaust Valves in Gasoline Engines
To reduce fuel consumption without complicated engine valve systems, we attempted to stop some fuel injectors, while operating both intake and exhaust valves normally, under idling, no-load and lighter load conditions. This study stopped one or two injectors in an in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine, and two or three injectors in an in-line six-cylinder gasoline engine, and then investigated the resulting fuel consumption and variation rates of engine speed. We calculated fuel consumption by measuring fuel injection time and engine speed. Results indicate that, in an in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine, deactivating every other fuel injector, in cylinder firing order, making two deactivated injectors, reduced fuel consumption, compared to the usual condition with all fuel injectors activated, under idling, no-load and lighter load conditions.
Valve recession is a phenomenon observed in internal combustion engines, in which the set of valve and valve seat presents excessive wear in the contact region, causing poor sealing of the combustion chamber and, hence, loss of engine power. It is known that the wear mechanism depends on several variables such as the fuel type. Because of the growing Flex Fuel vehicle sales and therefore the usage in large-scale of hydrated ethanol, it was necessary to perform new studies and actions for continuous improvement on engine optimization to minimize the valve recession levels. One alternative to expedite engine testing and follow valve recession is to run it on dynamometer and perform measurements of valve wear with pre-set frequencies. Based on the engine design, a maximum recession level is calculated and exceeding this number would cause stated failure modes.
Development of New 1.6Liter Four Cylinder Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Intake and Exhaust Valve Timing Control System
This paper describes a new 1.6-liter four-cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine with a direct injection gasoline (DIG) system and a twin continuously variable valve timing control (CVTC) system. Demands for higher environmental performance make it necessary to improve engine efficiency further. At the same time, improvement of power performance is important to enhance the appeal of vehicles and make them attractive to consumers. In order to meet these requirements, a 1.6-liter direct injection gasoline turbocharged engine has been developed. By using many friction reduction technologys, this engine achieves the high power performance of a 2.5-liter NA(Naturally Aspirated) gasoline engine and low fuel consumption comparable to that of a smaller displacement engine. In addition, this engine achieves low exhaust emission performance to comply with the US LEV2-ULEV and EU Euro5 emission requirements.
This paper describes Kappa dual CVVT (Continuously Variable Valve Timing) gasoline engine that Hyundai has developed for small cars lately. This engine is produced at engine plants in India and South Korea. This engine has been installed in small passenger cars named "i10," "i20," "Picanto," etc., and introduced into world market including Europe and India. Nowadays, car makers in the world have been competitively developing small cars in order to cope with rising oil price and becoming more stringent CO₂ emission regulations. The new engine has been introduced into market since November 2010. Main development goals of this engine were to reduce CO₂ emission and improve fuel economy. As a small engine, it was also developed in consideration of generous engine torque, lighter weight, minimal noise, lower cost and compact size. This paper presents various technologies featuring higher torque, better fuel efficiency, lower noise level and lighter weight.
As it is well known one of the most harmful emissions in SI engines is NOx and there are several ways to minimize NOx emission. Internal exhaust gas recirculation (IGR) is an effective way to control and minimize NOx concentration in exhaust gas. In this paper, a method for minimizing NOx emission by use of IGR and variable valve timing (VVT) is introduced. In this method, formation of NOx is controlled by mass fraction of residual gas (RG) and mass fraction of RG is controlled by variable timing of exhaust valves opening and closing so not only the timing of exhaust valves changes but also the lift profile of exhaust valves is variable. In this paper, first a thermodynamic model of a SI engine was developed and validated by experimental data. The model was a reliable tool for predicting engine performance and emission characteristics. The effect of variable exhaust valve timing on RG mass fraction, NOx formation and brake specific fuel consumption was investigated.
First Test Results of a 1-Cylinder Engine with Variable Compression Ratio, Fully Mechanically Variable Inlet and Exhaust Valve Actuation
A 1-cylinder experimental engine with a mechanically fully variable valve train (CVVL) on inlet-and exhaust camshaft and an additional fully variable compression ratio was investigated on a test bed at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. Up so far only an electro mechanical valve train with similar high valve curve variability has been tested under research conditions. In this paper, the first test results at part load with throttle-free load control are here compared with the results of a 4-cylinder engine. The influence of the charge-cycle-work and the residual gas content concerning fuel consumption is analyzed. Variabilities of the exhaust camshaft, such as the exhaust valve spread phasing for example, are simulated with CFD-methods. Furthermore the influences on fuel consumption and NOx-emissions of the exhaust valve lift height and the duration in a 1-cylinder engine are measured.
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Development and performance analysis of an Exhaust Valve Brake System for a Diesel engine through 1D simulation
The need for braking capacity improvement has a negative impact as it increases the loads acting on the conventional brake system, increasing wear between its components and requiring a more robust design. Looking this scenario, an available option is to use the engine as a source of braking power. Some conventional engine brake systems consume the vehicle/engine inertia power through the exhaust system closing (total or partial). However, the braking efficiency of this version is limited by bouncing occurrence on the exhaust valves, generating stronger impact of valve and valve seat. The developed solution consists in creating an engine brake mechanism acting directly on the exhaust valve, achieving greater efficiency. The mechanism is based on a hydraulic actuator positioned between the exhaust rocker arm and the valve stem top.
Application of an Integrated Valvetrain and Hydraulic Model to Characterization and Retuning of Exhaust Valve Behavior with a DPF
There exists a strong interaction between the engine cylinder, intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics and the dynamics of mechanical and hydraulic components constituting the valvetrain system, which controls the engine gas flow. Technologies such as turbo-charging and Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) can significantly increase port gas pressure forces acting on the exhaust valve. When such systems are introduced or undergo design modifications, the operation of valvetrain system can be greatly affected and even compromised, which in turn may lead to degradation of performance of the internal combustion engine. Often, the valvetrain system needs to be retuned. Further, predictive analysis of design issues or evaluation of design changes requires highly coupled simulations, combining models of gas pressure forces and the dynamics of all mechanical and hydro-mechanical parts constituting the valvetrain.
Experimental Investigations of Intake and Exhaust Valve Timing Effects on Charge Dilution by Residuals, Fuel Consumption and Emissions at Part Load
Experimental investigations of intake and exhaust valve timing effects at part load have been carried out on a 4 cylinder, 1.6 l spark ignition engine. The effects of valve timing on charge dilution by residual gases, and on fuel consumption and emission characteristics, have been explored. The valve timings, and particularly the duration of the valve overlap period, strongly influence levels of charge dilution. The extent to which this accounts for the observed changes in specific fuel consumption and emissions with valve timings is investigated. Residuals gas fraction values have been determined at various steady operating conditions through the analysis of gas samples drawn from the cylinder near the tip of the spark plug. A gasoline direct injection fuel injector operating in reverse flow was used as a high-speed sampling valve. Brake specific values reflect a combination of changes in dilution and, at different brake loads, changes in pumping work.
Engine valve and seat insert wear is one of the most important factors affecting engine performance. The engine valve and seat insert must be able to withstand the severe environment that is created by: high temperature exhaust gases generated while the engine is running, rapid movement of the valve spring, high pressure generated in the explosive process. In order to study such problems, a simulator has been developed to generate and control high temperatures and various speeds during motion. The wear simulator is considered to be a valid simulation of the engine valve and seat insert wear process with various speeds during engine activity. This work focuses on the various degrees of wear of five different test exhaust valve materials such as HRV40, STL #6, STL #32, HRV40-FNV (face nitrided valve), NBW-FNV (face nitrided valve).