Abstract Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and for improved seat comfort design. This study captures the comfortable driving postures for Koreans using a handheld portable Artec L™ 3D scanner. Subjects consisted of 20 healthy individuals (10 males and 10 females) ranging in age from 20 to 40 years and grouped as three weight groups (<59 kg, 60-79 kg and >80 kg). Eighteen land markers were attached (car seat: 9 markers; subject: 9 markers). From the 3D scanned data, the angles (neck, back, headrest, seat back, wrist, elbow, knee, and ankle) and distances (head to headrest, seat height, and seat back and forth) between the land markers were extracted in the Rapidform XOR software. The body pressure distribution was measured using two pressure mats from 17 body part regions. The measured pressure data were analyzed for average pressure, contact area, and body part pressure ratio.
This document describes the assessment methods and physical requirements associated with the manual handling of carts and dollies, specific to material handling systems. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an "off-the shelf" design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department. Force guidelines were primarily developed referencing the push/pull psychophysical Snook data contained in A Guide to Manual Materials Handling (second edition) by Mital, Nicholson and Ayoub (NY: Taylor & Francis, 1997). The force guidelines accommodate 75% of female capabilities and 99% of male capabilities. Factors that were included in the established guideline include: push / pull distances, vertical hand height, horizontal hand height, frequency and wheel / castor alignment and load rating. These factors were used to develop a conservative force guideline.
This document describes the design, assessment methods and physical requirements associated with material handling systems. This would include, but not limited to manual dollies, small lot systems and kitting. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an “off-the shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional 95th percentile truck driver side view, seated stomach contours for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour and three locating lines to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional, 95th percentile truck driver, side view, seated shin-knee contours for both the accelerator operating leg and the clutch operating leg for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour for the clutch shin-knee and one contour for the accelerator shin-knee. There are three locating equations for each curve to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
Abstract Bus and coach drivers spend considerably more time in the vehicle, compared to an average personal car user. However, when it comes to comfort levels, the personal cars, even the inexpensive hatchbacks score much higher than a standard bus. This is because the amount of ergonomic design considerations that go into designing a car's DWS (driver workspace) is much more than that of buses. To understand this lacuna, the existing standards and recommendations pertaining directly or remotely to bus driver workspace were studied. It was understood, beyond certain elementary recommendations, there were very few standards available exclusively for buses. This paper ventures to establish a set of guidelines, exclusively for designing bus and coach driver workspace. The various systems in the driver's work space and their relevance to driver's ergonomics are discussed. References are drawn from different case studies and standards to come up with recommendations and guidelines.
Applying Design for Assembly Principles in Computer Aided Design to Make Small Changes that Improve the Efficiency of Manual Aircraft Systems Installations
Abstract The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements and technical guidance for evaluation of life-cycle cost, productivity, and safety/health factors related to power hand tool selection. It applies approaches to selection of quieter and lower vibration hand-held powered tools, with optimal ergonomic features, for the prevention of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), hearing loss and repetitive motion injuries. It suggests use of noise and vibration data provided by vendors to be verified and supplemented by information available through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and European Union databases. Inclusion/exclusion of data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are the only production models that meet this standard. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production models that meet this standard.
This SAE Standard is intended to be used as a guide for manufacturers and users of general purpose industrial machines to provide a reasonable degree of protection for personnel during normal operation and servicing. This document excludes skid steers which are covered by SAE J1388. Avoidance of accidents also depends upon the care exercised by such persons (see SAE J153). Inclusion of this standard instate, federal, or any laws or regulations where flexibility of revision is lacking is discouraged.
The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semimounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word "industrial" is not to be confused with "in-plant industrial equipment". This document does not apply to: 1. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. 2. Machines designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. 3. Self powered or self propelled mowers or mowing machines.
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes how to position and posture the H-point design tool (HPD) described in Appendix B, and how to establish the seating reference point (SgRP), design H-point travel path, and other key reference points that are used in the design and specification of both driver and passenger seat positions. This practice also provides a method for determining the length of the seat track for a driver seat that adjusts fore/aft. The seat track length is based on a desired level of driver accommodation, assuming a U.S. population containing an equal number of male and female drivers. The procedure can be used to establish driver seat track accommodation for new vehicle designs or to evaluate accommodation in existing vehicles. A general method for determining driver seat track length for any driver population (male and female stature distribution) at any selected accommodation percentile and gender mix is given in Appendix A.
This document provides dimension definitions that facilitate geometric quantification and evaluation of seats. This document has been designed for use in CAD, however, many dimensions require establishing HPM position and attitude. Refer to the appropriate document for these procedures. These dimensions are package independent in that they do not require use of the HPM-ll supplemental thigh/leg/shoe. Three types of seat geometry reference points and measurements have been developed. 1. Simple reference points and measurements not related to H-point 2. H-point dependent reference points and measurement that utilize the seat characterization capabilities of the HPM to quantify seat measurements 3. Cross sectional seat trim outlines For convenience and simplicity, many terms associated with H-point devices use human body parts in their name.
Touch Interactive Display Systems: Human Factors Considerations, System Design and Performance Guidelines
This ARP covers the system design, human interface considerations, and hardware performance recommendations and requirements for touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. System design and human interface considerations include: identification of functions that could use and benefit from touch interactions, the pilot and cockpit/flight deck environment characteristics that impact usability, and specific pilot interface characteristics such as touch mode, single and multi touch applications, feedback, latency, potential human error, and basic usability. Also addressed are workload, fatigue, and transition from hard to soft control considerations. Hardware issues cover performance aspects of touch screens installed on cockpit/flight deck displays. This ARP is intended to cover Part 23 and 25 category airplanes as well as Part 27 and 29 rotorcraft.
Estimation of Body Mass Index Effect on Lower Extremity Injuries for Lateral Collision With-out Airbag
Abstract A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries.
Abstract There is a paucity of recent data quantifying the injury risk of forces and accelerations that act on the whole body in a back-to-front direction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of back-to-front accelerations that volunteers felt were tolerable and non-injurious. Instrumented volunteers were dropped supine onto a mattress, and their accelerations during the impact with the mattress were measured. Accelerometers were located on the head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar regions. Drop heights started at 0.6 m (2 ft) and progressed upward as high as 1.8 m (6 ft) based on the test subjects' consent. The test panel was comprised of male and female subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 63 years of age and whose masses ranged from 62 to 130 kg (136 to 286 lb). Peak head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar accelerations of 25.9 g, 29.4 g and 39.6 g were measured.
Comfort is a main factor in customer's decision when buying a car. The seat plays a very important role, as it is the interface between occupant and vehicle. Pressure distribution is today's most common approach to characterize seat comfort, but it shows limitations. Analysis of human inter-tissue stress tends to be relevant for an objective comfort assessment. This paper presents the construction and validation of a CAE human model, based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans and in-vivo tests data. Correlation between objective criteria and subjective evaluation will be investigated, comfort performance of a real seat will be predicted.
This practice applies to guarding of engine cooling fans used on Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116. It does not include guarding for belts, pulleys, or other rotating equipment used on these machines.
Determining vehicle mirrors effectiveness is the present novel ergonomic method in this research about how its performance affects School Bus safety. The unique impact classification system developed in advance achieves unique mathematic algorithm count for vehicle impact structure in a 3-dimensional vehicle model. The paper discusses principle experimental data-base language conversion in an Excel algorithm and with a, - factor plan observation diagram. Given the definition of accident in commercial motor vehicle applications, the study conducts a field collision follow-up record. The study based on factual data of a 50 fleet units, in observation between 2007 and 2009. This study classified the statistical spreading impact zones analysis in a 3-dimensional vehicle model calculation. Results are there discussed in paper in the ergonomic concept of hygienic operator performance responsibility.
This document describes operational scenarios and examples of system operation based on the experience of different developers of airborne wake vortex safety systems. This information is intended to supplement the recommendations and guidance given in ARP 6267 “Airborne Wake Vortex Safety Systems” as well as facilitate the application of other wake vortex standards and guidance documents generated by SAE and RTCA.
Development of a Methodology Focused on the Improvement of Both: Ergonomics and Comfort of Commercial Vehicle Seats
Safety, Ergonomics and comfort are inseparable concepts and of greater relevance to the full exercise of professional drivers, being the seat, one of the most important components to be considered, when designing their workplace. This work presents initiatives taken by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil Ltda. (MBBras) in partnership with GRAMMER do Brasil Ltda. (Grammer) and Oficio Ergonomia e Design Ltda. concerning the improvement of a SAE Class 8 Heavy-truck Driver Seat. Proposals involved seat design improvement at driver reach and posture, design and constructive characteristics (seat-bottom foam and frame) Upholstery, seat-controls ergonomics and the vibration response, due to the introduction of independent shock-absorbers.
This document recommends criteria for Airborne Wake Vortex Information Systems, including operational objectives, characteristics, and functional requirements. The recommendations in this document apply to transport aircraft, and describe the operational objectives of wake vortex information systems, situational displays, guidance systems, and avoidance/detection systems.
This SAE Standard is intended to provide personnel protection guidelines for skid steer loaders. This document is intended as a guide towards standard practice, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. This document provides performance criteria for newly manufactured loaders and it is not intended for in-service machines.
In the field of ergonomics, “reach envelopes” are an important factor to design products that are user friendly. Specifically regarding vehicle controls, the TGS lever affects important features such as console layout. The standard guideline of SAE is only based on AM 95th percentile hand reach. However, due to various human characteristics and sitting positions of the driver, this guideline cannot satisfy all drivers. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop an optimal TGS lever envelop based on human characteristics. First, the discomfort regression function is extracted through a discomfort experiment and statistical analysis. Secondly, a validation experiment was conducted to compare the estimated discomfort regression value and the measured discomfort value. In addition, another validation test was performed to enhance the package usability and RAMSIS applicability.
With ever increasing demand for vehicle safety and fuel efficiency, Body in White (BIW) designers are striving for vehicle's body mass optimization leading to the development of lean designs. Nevertheless, considerations like ergonomics also play a significant role while deciding the vehicle structure. As an example, A-pillar (front pillar) plays a major role in vehicle's passive safety. Increase in its cross section size, beyond a particular grade and gauge optimization is eminent to meet target requirements of rigidity and crash. However, the increased obstruction because of the wider section would not only lead to poor visibility and a claustrophobic feeling to the driver but also lead to a lesser response time for him or her to prevent a collision. Obstruction from A-pillar can be a subjective feeling of driver but it should also be quantified and measured to optimize the A-pillar structure. Numerous methodologies are being adopted globally to measure the A-pillar obstruction.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) lists whole body anthropometric surveys and provides current sources for the survey raw data and summary statistics. The purpose of this directory is to provide a single source for accessing anthropometric survey data for human modelers, human factors specialists, and other interested in anthropometric data. It is not meant to provide detailed data on each survey, but to provide readers with enough information to allow them to make a decision about which surveys are of possible application to their work. The reader can then obtain further information and actual data from the listed points of contact.