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Viewing 1 to 30 of 289
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1394
Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung-Sun Lee, Sun Ho Hur, Hyuk KIM, Se Jin Park
Abstract Drivers’ physical and physiological states change with prolonged driving. Driving for extended periods of time can lead to an increased risk of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders, caused by the discomfort of the seats. Static and dynamic are the two main categories must be considered within the seating development. The posture and orientation of the occupant are the important factors on static comfort. Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and improved seat comfort design. This study evaluated the comfortable driving posture through physiological and ergonomics measurements of an automotive premium driver seat. The physiological evaluation includes electroencephalographic (EEG) for brain waves, Biopac’s AcqKnowledge program, and subjective measurements on 32 healthy individuals. JACK simulation was used for the ergonomics evaluation, i.e., the magnitude of the spinal loads about lumbar vertebrae was estimated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1694
Victor Silva, Renato Veiga
Abstract Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonomic location.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
Abstract When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-01-17
WIP Standard
AIR6916
Provide guidance for use of the AS 6228 standard in evaluation and selection of powered hand tools. May serve as the outline for an organization's internal operating procedure(s) linking power tool evaluation, procurement and support with quality assurance and safety programs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0252
Sahil Garg, Sujit Bhide, Shashank Gupta
Abstract Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0349
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This study is an attempt to develop a decision support and control structure based on fuzzy logic for deployment of automotive airbags. Airbags, though an additional safety feature in vehicles, have proven to be fatal at various instances. Most of these casualties could have been avoided by using seat belts in the intended manner that is, as a primary restraint system. Fatalities can be prevented by induction of smart systems which can sense the presence and differentiate between passengers and conditions prevailing at a particular instant. Fuzzy based decision making has found widespread use due to its ability to accept non-binary or grey data and compute a reliable output. Smart airbags also allow the Airbag Control Unit to control inflation speed depending on instantaneous conditions.
2016-06-13
WIP Standard
AS6228A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements and technical guidance for evaluation of life-cycle cost, productivity, and safety/health factors related to power hand tool selection. It applies approaches to selection of quieter and lower vibration hand-held powered tools, with optimal ergonomic features, for the prevention of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), hearing loss and repetitive motion injuries. It suggests use of noise and vibration data provided by vendors to be verified and supplemented by information available through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and European Union databases. Inclusion/exclusion of data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are the only production models that meet this standard. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production models that meet this standard.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
Abstract The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car during the early stages of the design process is still an open issue. Modern technologies like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomic parameters for car drivers using detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car interiors and by a MBS (multi-body-system) solver for evaluating movements and interactions. Such evaluations are, nonetheless, not sufficient because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to factors that are very difficult to evaluate in the early stage of design. Physical prototypes are needed and these are often too expensive to be realized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su Sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Abstract Seating comfort is associated with the various factors, and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept that use double-wall 3D air-mat in cushion along with foam cushion in the seat cushion system. To test the developed seat on vibration isolation characteristics, seating comfort, and ride quality experiments have been performed. This research is divided into two parts. At first, the newly developed seat tested on the motion simulator. In study 2, road tests were performed on the national highway. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure acceleration at the foot and hip in two different seats (seat with and without double-wall 3D air-mat).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1357
Junyi Chen, Bangshui Jiang, Shutao Song, Hongyan Wang, Xuguang Wang
Abstract Driving posture study is essential for the evaluation of the occupant packaging. This paper presents a method of reconstructing driver’s postures in a real vehicle using a 3D laser scanner and Human Builder (HB), the digital human modeling tool under CATIA. The scanning data was at first converted into the format readable by CATIA, and then a personalized HB manikin was generated mainly using stature, sitting height and weight. Its pelvis position and joint angles were manually adjusted so as to match the manikin with the scan envelop. If needed, a fine adjustment of some anthropometric dimensions was also preceded. Finally the personalized manikin was put in the vehicle coordinate system, and joint angels and joint positions were extracted for further analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1436
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using techniques similar to those that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of a pickup truck and sedans were scanned and aligned, and 408 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes. Each seat was uniquely represented by a set of PC scores; 10 PC scores explained 95% of the total variance. This new shape description has many applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1431
Subramanian Premananth, Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed
Abstract Virtual assessment of an occupant postural ergonomics has become an essential part of vehicle development process. To design vehicle for different market is one of the primary reason for manufacturers using digital tools to address the specific needs of the target market including cultural background, road and traffic conditions. RAMSIS is a widely used software for creating digital human models (DHM) of different target population which allows manufacturers to assess design with unique customer requirements in product design. Defining these requirements with RAMSIS human module helped development team to accurately define occupant targets such as occupant space, visibility and reachability etc. Occupant behavior and usage scenario are factors which are unique to target market and they influence the occupant posture and usage pattern inside the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Abstract Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature range to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system application for heated and ventilated seats.
CURRENT
2016-03-11
Standard
J287_201603
This recommended practice describes boundaries of hand control locations that can be reached by a percentage of different US driver populations in passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, and light trucks (Class A vehicles). This practice is not applicable to heavy trucks (Class B vehicles).
CURRENT
2016-03-10
Standard
USCAR25-3
This document decribes the deign relative to assembly force, and hand clearance guidelines for conventional hand-plug, mechanical assist and twist lock electrical connectors, as well as Connector Position Assurances (CPAs). The minimum values associated with this design guide need to be evaluated against other critical characteristics that impact quality, efficiency and other traits of assembly feasibility. all possible designs and appications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an "off-the'shelf" design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
HISTORICAL
2016-02-15
Standard
USCAR25-2
This document describes the design relative to assembly force, and hand clearance guidelines for conventional hand-plug, mechanical assist and twist lock electrical connectors, as well as Connector Position Assurances (CPAs). The minimum values associated with this design guide need to be evaluated against other critical characteristics that impact quality, efficiency and other traits of assembly feasibility. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an “off-the-shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
ARP6377
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0205
Heloisa Rodrigues Lourenço, Marko Ackermann
Abstract Vehicle ergonomics, more specifically driver ergonomics, has been the subject of interest in the automotive industry as a way to provide customers vehicles that have more than modern project, efficiency and competitive price. The driver ergonomics is related to the way the driver interacts with the vehicle interior, particularly, with the seat, hand and foot controls, considering aspects such as ease of access, space, proper upper and lower limb motion and drivers comfort and fatigue. Regarding the lower limbs, the driver’s comfort can be evaluated in terms of joint moments and muscle forces, which are influenced by the hip, knee and ankle joint angles, which in turn depend on the distances between the seat and pedal.
2015-05-05
WIP Standard
J3099
Presents the seating accommodation model used to determine seat track length for accommodation in design.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1392
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Yu Kyung Shin, Chang Hee Jang, Soon Hyun Hwang
Abstract Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and for improved seat comfort design. This study captures the comfortable driving postures for Koreans using a handheld portable Artec L™ 3D scanner. Subjects consisted of 20 healthy individuals (10 males and 10 females) ranging in age from 20 to 40 years and grouped as three weight groups (<59 kg, 60-79 kg and >80 kg). Eighteen land markers were attached (car seat: 9 markers; subject: 9 markers). From the 3D scanned data, the angles (neck, back, headrest, seat back, wrist, elbow, knee, and ankle) and distances (head to headrest, seat height, and seat back and forth) between the land markers were extracted in the Rapidform XOR software. The body pressure distribution was measured using two pressure mats from 17 body part regions. The measured pressure data were analyzed for average pressure, contact area, and body part pressure ratio.
CURRENT
2015-03-30
Standard
USCAR43
This document describes the design and assembly force guidelines for conventional shipping caps, torque caps, and body plugs. All possible design and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to to this document, such as use of an “off-the-shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
CURRENT
2015-03-13
Standard
USCAR41
This document describes the assessment methods and physical requirements associated with the manual handling of carts and dollies, specific to material handling systems. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an “off-the shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department. Force guidelines were primarily developed referencing the push/pull psychophysical Snook data contained in A Guide to Manual Materials Handling (second edition) by Mital, Nicholson and Ayoub (NY: Taylor & Francis, 1997). The force guidelines accommodate 75% of female capabilities and 99% of male capabilities. Factors that were included in the established guideline include: push / pull distances, vertical hand height, horizontal hand height, frequency and wheel / castor alignment and load rating. These factors were used to develop a conservative force guideline.
CURRENT
2015-03-10
Standard
USCAR42
This document describes the design, assessment methods and physical requirements associated with material handling systems. This would include, but not limited to manual dollies, small lot systems and kitting. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an “off-the shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
CURRENT
2014-12-03
Standard
J1522_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional 95th percentile truck driver side view, seated stomach contours for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour and three locating lines to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
CURRENT
2014-12-03
Standard
J1521_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional, 95th percentile truck driver, side view, seated shin-knee contours for both the accelerator operating leg and the clutch operating leg for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour for the clutch shin-knee and one contour for the accelerator shin-knee. There are three locating equations for each curve to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0314
Leonardo Carvalho, Flavio Barbosa, Alexandre Jordão
Abstract Operating in an increasingly competitive market, buses and agricultural equipment are facing the changes that passed trucks and commercial vehicles. Those changes are affecting drastically the final cost of the product and consequently its relationship with the costumer. This constant for more competitive prices drives the companies to develop more aggressive strategies of components standardization on a global level, leading to the emergency of global products in regional applications, keeping regional particularity characteristics when operating in the field. In the bus market, it is confirmed that in various media and academic publications there are recurrent complains about driver comfort by several factors related from the ergonomics of the workplace, as well as with operators from agricultural implements.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2424
Vignesh T. Shekar, Sreedhar Reddy
Abstract Bus and coach drivers spend considerably more time in the vehicle, compared to an average personal car user. However, when it comes to comfort levels, the personal cars, even the inexpensive hatchbacks score much higher than a standard bus. This is because the amount of ergonomic design considerations that go into designing a car's DWS (driver workspace) is much more than that of buses. To understand this lacuna, the existing standards and recommendations pertaining directly or remotely to bus driver workspace were studied. It was understood, beyond certain elementary recommendations, there were very few standards available exclusively for buses. This paper ventures to establish a set of guidelines, exclusively for designing bus and coach driver workspace. The various systems in the driver's work space and their relevance to driver's ergonomics are discussed. References are drawn from different case studies and standards to come up with recommendations and guidelines.
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