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2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2143
Yury Zhuk
The EU REACH regulations set September 2017 as a “sunset date” for the use of toxic Hexavalent Chromium salts, and as this date is approaching the aerospace manufacturers are looking for alternative coatings to replace Hard Chrome plating (HCP). HCP is widely used in the aircraft industry to protect steel components against wear, corrosion and galling. Hardide-A CVD Tungsten/Tungsten Carbide coating has met the technical performance requirements as a potential alternative to HCP on some specific Airbus aircraft components. This newly-developed CVD coating is crystallized from the gas phase atom-by-atom, forming a uniform layer on both internal and external surfaces and complex shaped parts, which are impossible to coat by thermal spray coatings, considered to be the best available alternative to HCP. Hardide coating consists of Tungsten Carbide nano-particles dispersed in metal Tungsten matrix, combining hardness with toughness and crack-resistance.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2142
Pavel Lykov PhD, Artem Leyvi, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Aleksei Doikin, Evgeny Safonov
Nowadays the treatment of solid surface by powerful streams of charged particles accelerated with power density of ≥106 W/сm2 is widely used for modifications of different materials properties. Fast electron beam power entry into the target material causes intense thermal and deformation processes. The changing of the structure, the phase composition, the microrelief of the treated surface consequently happens. It is often accompanied by the hardening and increase of the wearing properties. Low-energy high-current electron beam usage is proposed as a finishing treatment of product obtained by selective laser melting of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648. The subject of the research is the surface properties of the product.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8014
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of technologies emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse gas regulations exist to even further encourage development and adoption. Recent history has shown a variety of paths and success levels including SCR aftertreatment, 6x2 axles, automated manual transmissions, trailer skirts, low rolling resistance and wide-base tires, idle reduction, alternative fuels and many more. Lab and fleet testing are challenging with a wide variety of applications, configurations and test methods. Real world results don’t always match expectations as some exceed, while others disappoint. We will overview recent fleet history of technical solution adoption rates from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will be discussed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2144
Galina M. Susova, Rostislav Sirotkin
FMEA methodology is widely used today for solution of practical analysis problems, quality (reliability, risks) evaluation and assurance etc., owing to a clear and simple algorithm and the absence of restrictions on a subject of analysis (i.e., systems, processes, products). However, the efficiency of applying FMEA methodology for problems solution is determined by the choice of elements of analysis, completeness of identification of potential non-conformities, their causes, frequencies and effects. Quality of manufacture is determined by deviations from requirements of design and manufacturing documentation including drawings. In this article a task of ensuring a steady reduction of deviations from these requirements during manufacture through implementation of preventive actions combined with control of time and costs for correction of non-conformances is considered.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8124
Xinyu Ge, Hua Gu, Ying Wang
China becomes to the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume, and automobiles sales keep growing in recent years, although the growing rate is decreased. Given an environmental stress, more stringent emission regulations are drafted to control engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmental friendly new-energy vehicles, such as battery electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid vehicle are promoted by government policies. Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification. The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS) was first adopted by the European Union (EU), and it restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of electronic and electric equipment.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6211A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with a relative ice penetration capacity of runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals, by measuring the ice penetration as a function of time. Such runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time of ice penetration capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6170A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with relative ice melting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the amount of ice melted as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time ice melting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6172A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with relative ice undercutting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the area of ice undercut pattern as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways.
2016-08-04
Magazine
Special report: Lightweighting Uncovering the next actions in the industry's grand mass-reduction campaign. CAE's next leap forward With 3D simulations skyrocketing, engineers are looking forward to highly-optimized toolsets to keep pace with complexity. SAE Convergence 2016 Preview Meet the disruptors, network with peers and learn about the latest tech solutions that are rapidly changing the auto industry. "Military-grade" aluminum Jaguar, Exa say simulation to eliminate prototypes by 2020 OEMs expand testing of FEV variable-compression ratio engine Growth of FCVs and EVs tied to infrastructure Bolt EV seat design cuts weight, delights tall passengers Rolls-Royce reveals a Vision of its future Volvo bets on new PowerPulse, not 48V, to attack turbodiesel 'lag' SEAT to spearhead VW's new platform and 48V technology Dr. Jay Baron of CAR discusses vehicle lightweighting and predicts the outcome of the crucial CAFE mid-term review.
2016-07-12
WIP Standard
AMS1428/2
The foundation specification (AMS1428) and the category specifications (AMS1428/1 and AMS1428/2) cover deicing/anti- icing materials in the form of a fluid. 1.1.1 Foundation and Category Specifications The foundation specification establishes the requirements for all Type I deicing/anti-icing fluids and defines the terms Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol and contains technical and other requirements that apply to both Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol based fluids. The category specification AMS1428/1 covers Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) based fluids whereas the category specification AMS1428/2 covers Non-Glycol based fluids. 1.2 Other Scope Requirements Other Scope requirements are set in AMS1428.
2016-07-12
WIP Standard
AMS1428/1
1.1 Form The foundation specification (AMS1424M) and the category specifications (AMS1424/1 and AMS1424/2) cover deicing/anti-icing materials in the form of a fluid. 1.1.1 Foundation and Category Specifications The foundation specification establishes the requirements for all Type I deicing/anti-icing fluids and defines the terms Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol and contains technical and other requirements that apply to both Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol based fluids. The category specification AMS1424/1 covers Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) based fluids whereas the category specification AMS1424/2 covers Non-Glycol based fluids. 1.2 Other Scope Requirements Other Scope requirements are set in AMS1424M.
2016-06-03
Magazine
Executive viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2016-05-19
WIP Standard
AS1426C
This specification is intended to be used as a general standard for industry use for design and construction of air transport galley equipment and inflight food service systems.
2016-05-18
WIP Standard
AMS1424/3
This detail specification AMS1424/3 covers the use of In-Truck Manufacturing of a deicing SAE Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid. This detailed specification contains technical and other requirements that apply for the In-Truck Manufacturing of Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid.
2016-05-09
WIP Standard
ARP4902C
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Abstract A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0981
Susan Collet
Abstract Light Duty Vehicle corporate average fuel economy (CAFE), fuel economy label, and greenhouse gas (GHG) requirements are related but are very different. The fundamentals to obtain the data are the same, but to derive the required values, the final formulas have different components. These formulas, how to obtain the values which comprise the formulas, and how to use the test output to obtain the final result necessary to determine compliance with the standards are in regulations, but are not easily located. The information is contained in many documents; such as various sections in the Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance documents, SAE International papers, American Society of Testing and Materials standards, and law suit judgments. This paper compiles the fundamentals of vehicle CAFE, fuel economy label, and GHG information. The intent is to provide a reference to the foundation of these requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0088
Tervin Tan, Jin Seo Park, Patrick Leteinturier
Abstract The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. Therefore, it is important to have precise control of the fuel being delivered into the engine. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost. This paper will explain injection control strategy of today during development, and especially the injector dead-time compensation strategy in detail and how further improvements could still be made. The injector current profile behavior will be discussed, and with the use of minimum hardware electronics, this paper will show the way for a new compensation strategy to be adopted.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1165
Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Imtiaz Haque, Srikanth Pilla, Zoran S. Filipi, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0687
Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Kevin Hallstrom, Ansgar Wille
Nowadays the Chinese legislative development and the implementation of advanced technologies to curb HDD emissions have been a subject of worldwide attention. Currently China is warping its efforts to deploy and enforce the launch of nationwide Stage IV and is also preparing for the setup and implementation of future regulation standards. Focus discussion here is on the aftertreatment pathways to meet China current and future emissions standards, based on market uniqueness. This paper seeks to provide retrospectives of the adoption of V-SCR on China stage IV HDD vehicles, through presenting findings from two separate postmortem analyses of field returned catalyst parts and also through comparative study with local catalyst products. The paper also discusses the challenges and possible solutions meeting the WHTC requirement for Stage IV and V city vehicles.
2016-03-03
Standard
J2683_201603
This SAE Standard applies to Carbon Dioxide R-744 refrigerant used to service motor vehicle passenger air-conditioning (A/C) systems designed to use CO2 (R-744). Hermetically sealed, refrigerated cargo systems are not covered by this document.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0824
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulations for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulations, the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic World Motorcycle Testing Cycle (WMTC) will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions for gasoline engines consist of so-called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons (HC) below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different concentrations and ratios. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) which compensates for the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle.
2015-11-05
Standard
J1939/3_201511
SAE J1939-03 provides requirements and guidelines for the implementation of On Board Diagnostics (OBD) on heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) using the SAE J1939 family of standards. The guidelines identify where the necessary information to meet OBD regulations may be found among the SAE J1939 document set. Key requirements are identified here to insure the interoperability of OBD scan tools across individual OBD compliant vehicles. Market-defined regulations permit the use of SAE J1939 to meet OBD requirements. Implementers are cautioned to obtain and review the specific regulations for the markets where their products are sold. This document is focused on guidelines and requirements to satisfy the State of California Air Resources Board (ARB), the authors of 13 CCR 1971.1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Euro IV and V requirements from European Commission directives, and UN/ECE WP 29 GRPE WWH OBD Global Technical Regulation (GTR).
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/6
This document outlines permissible fluid application areas for Deicing and Anti-icing fluids, no-spray/no-direct fluid application areas, and other cautionary areas/items by aircraft type. The diagrams and cautions are generic representations of the aircraft types specified, and apply to all series/variants unless indicated otherwise. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/5
In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets this document will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/4
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/2
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing equipment. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/1
The document is intended to promote and develop safe practices, effective procedures and improved technology related to training of aircraft ground operations in winter conditions to ensure the highest possible levels of safety for passengers, flight crew and ground personnel. It can be utilized to develop a set of commonly agreed training practices and procedures for the de-icing/anti- icing of aircraft on the ground reflecting current industry best practice. It shall ensure continued compliance with all relevant standards and regulatory requirements, and shall ensure that it continues to reflect current industry best practice.
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