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WIP Standard
2014-07-22
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
Standard
2014-07-22
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
Standard
2014-06-24
This document establishes the minimum requirements for an environmental test chamber, and test procedures to carry out anti-icing performance tests according to the current materials specification for aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. The primary purpose for such a test method is to determine the anti icing endurance under controlled laboratory conditions of AMS1424 Type I and AMS1428 Type II, III, and IV fluids.
Standard
2014-06-20
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
WIP Standard
2014-06-09
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
Standard
2014-05-01
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287.
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nicholas Gysel, George Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho
Abstract The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three different biodiesel feedstocks on emissions compared to a baseline CARB ULSD with two heavy-duty trucks equipped with and without aftertreatment technologies. The biodiesels included a soybean oil methyl ester (SME), a waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCO), and a methyl ester obtained from animal fat (AFME), blended at a 50% level by volume with the CARB diesel. The vehicles were equipped with a 2010 Cummins ISX-15 engine with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a 2002 Cummins ISX-450 engine. Both vehicles were tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. For this study, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. In conjunction with these measurements, unregulated emissions, including ammonia (NH3), carbonyl compounds, and light aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for both vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Glenn Lucachick, Aaron Avenido, Winthrop Watts, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function. Though the tested engine is predicted to largely meet current US particle mass standards it has significantly higher particle number emissions compared to the Euro 6 solid particle number emissions standard.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux, Arnaud Frobert
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea water solution (UWS) is an effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by engines. The high potential offered by this solution makes it a promising way to meet the future stringent exhaust gas standards (Euro6 and Tier2 Bin5). UWS is injected into the exhaust upstream of an SCR catalyst. The catalyst works efficiently and durably if the spray is completely vaporized and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases before entering. Ensuring complete vaporization and optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging, especially for compact exhaust lines. Numerous parameters affect the degree of mixing: urea injection pressure and spray angle, internal flow field (fluid dynamics), injector location …. In order to quantify the mixture quality (vaporization, homogeneity) upstream of the SCR catalyst, it is proposed to employ non intrusive optical diagnostics techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gary D. Neely, Darius Mehta, Jayant Sarlashkar
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III and Tier 3 emission standards which will require significant reductions in hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines, so the time required to achieve effective emissions control after a cold-start with typical aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. To address this challenge, a novel diesel cold-start emission control strategy was investigated on a 2L class diesel engine. This strategy combines several technologies to reduce tailpipe HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75. The technologies include both engine tuning and aftertreatment changes. The benefits of the engine tuning changes were presented in detail in a previous publication.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fabien Redon, Christopher Kalebjian, John Kessler, Nicholas Rakovec, John Headley, Gerhard Regner, John Koszewnik
Abstract With current and pending regulations-including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) 2025 and Tier 3 or LEV III-automakers are under tremendous pressure to reduce fuel consumption while meeting more stringent NOx, PM, HC and CO standards. To meet these standards, many are investing in expensive technologies-to enhance conventional, four-stroke powertrains-and in significant vehicle improvements. However, others are evaluating alternative concepts like the opposed-piston, two-stroke engine. First manufactured in the 1890s-and once widely used for ground, marine and aviation applications-the historic opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine suffered from poor emissions and oil control. This meant that its use in on-highway applications ceased with the passage of modern emissions standards. Since then, Achates Power has enhanced the opposed-piston engine and resolved its historic challenges: wrist pin and power cylinder durability, piston and cylinder thermal management, piston ring integrity and oil consumption [1].
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Nilesh Kashinath Gajarlawar, Dominic Jhon, Anilkumar Sahu, Prasad Rao Amba, Ashish Kumawat
Abstract In India, diesel engine powered vehicles are finding rising demand due to the subsidy offered on diesel. Currently, BS-IV emission norm (equivalent to E-IV in Europe) is in existence. To meet this emission norm, OEM look for improved engine design, use of common rail injection system, advanced after treatment. In the current article, a methodology is demonstrated by which the required emissions on multipurpose vehicle (MPV) powered with 2.2L common rail injection system was met with no need of EGR cooling. This was achieved by identifying the operating points from the BS-IV emission cycle where EGR cooling is beneficial. The next step involves assessing the loss of function due to its removal. The final step involves strategies which can bring the original optimized value of NOx-PM. Removal of EGR cooling avoids the cooling of intake charge and reduces the HC and CO emission. Also, it gets rid of complication in the under bonnet packaging and leads to maintenance free operation.
WIP Standard
2014-03-06
To provide a method that accounts for the attenuation due to line-of-sight blockage of aircraft noise by terrain features.
WIP Standard
2014-03-06
To provide a method for modeling the noise directivity behind start-of-takeoff roll based on empirical data from modern jet aircraft. This method would replace the method described in Section 3.3.1 of SAE-AIR-1845A "Procedure for the Calculation of Airplane Noise in the Vicinity of Airports."
WIP Standard
2014-01-13
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS)/Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS) specifies the minimum performance requirements of Remote On-Ground Ice Detection Systems (ROGIDS). These systems are ground-based. They provide information that indicates whether frozen contamination is present on aircraft surfaces.
WIP Standard
2014-01-10
The intent of this standard is to establish a framework to assure that all evaporators for R-744 and R-1234yf mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems meet appropriate testing and labeling requirements. SAE J639 requires vehicle manufacturers to perform assessments to minimize reasonable risks in production MAC systems. The evaporator (as designed and manufactured) shall be part of that risk assessment and it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to assure all relevant aspects of the evaporator are included. It is the responsibility of all vehicle or evaporator manufacturers to comply with the standards of this document at a minimum. (Substitution of specific test procedures by vehicle manufactures that correlate well to field return data is acceptable.) As appropriate, this standard can be used as a guide to support risk assessments. With regard to certification, most vehicle manufacturers have established formal production part approval processes (PPAP) where compliance certification is established and formally documented.
WIP Standard
2014-01-09
This Standard is restricted to refrigeration circuits that provide air-conditioning for the passenger compartments of passenger and commercial vehicles. This Standard includes analytical and physical test procedures to evaluate concentration inside the passenger compartment. In the early phases of vehicle evaluation, usage of the analytical approach may be sufficient without performing physical tests. The physical test procedure involves releasing refrigerant from an external source to a location adjacent to the evaporator core (inside the HVAC-Module). An apparatus is used to provide a repeatable, calibrated leak rate. If the system has multiple evaporators, leakage could be simulated at any of the evaporator locations. This standard gives detail information on the techniques for measuring R-744 [CO2] and R-1234yf [HFO-1234yf], but the general techniques described here can be used for other refrigerants as well.
WIP Standard
2014-01-09
This Standard describes methods to understand the risks associated with vehicle mobile air conditioning [MAC] systems in all aspects of a vehicle’s lifecycle including design, production, assembly, operation and end of life. Information for input to the risk assessment is provided in the Appendices of this document. This information should not be considered to be complete, but only a reference of some of the data needed for a complete analysis of the risk associated with the use of refrigerants in MAC systems.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Sriram T, M Ravi
Indian Bharat Stage (BS) vehicular emission norms were introduced in the year 2000 which was two emission stages behind Europe. During last decade India has progressed faster compared to Europe and have implemented BS-IV emission norms in 2010 which is one stage behind Europe. This paper reviews progress of Indian vehicular emissions, and On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) legislations. Further, it also explores the technology advancements in engine emission control devices and Fuel quality happened due to tightening of emission norms.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
P. Mahesh, N. Umashankar
An older generation 2V 6 cylinder diesel engine operating with max specific power of 20kW/l and 11.0MPa peak firing pressure was upgraded for higher peak firing pressure capability, higher specific power output and adaptation of a common rail fuel injection system. Key basic dimensions of the major components were retained to enable continued usage of existing fixed transfer line machining facility. The 2V /cyl configuration was retained. Thermodynamic simulations, Finite Element analysis of head, block gasket structure, connecting rod and main bearing walls were carried out. Analysis of the crankshaft torsional vibration system and bearings were performed. The bolting system and tightening methods were reviewed and modified. Theoretical calculations on coolant flow and lub oil flow requirements were done. Physical experiments were done to study the gasket sealing behavior, bore distortion. A common rail system from Bosch was adapted and a Selective Catalytic Reduction method was adopted for reduction of NOx emissions.
Standard
2013-11-06
This document establishes the minimum criteria for effective training of air carrier and contractor personnel to deice/anti-ice aircraft to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during ground icing conditions. Appendix D specifies guidelines for particular airplane models.
WIP Standard
2013-10-31
This material establishes the minimum criteria for effective training of air carrier and contractor personnel to deice/anti-ice aircraft and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during ground icing conditions. This program will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground. It is for training Ground, Flight and Dispatch personnel. Background information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training and qualification process. A Standard Teaching Plan and the Practical Assessment are included. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Universal Deicing Training Manual”.
WIP Standard
2013-10-31
The purpose of this document is to provide industry recommennded proceduresguidelines for the methods and procedures used in performing the operations and services necessary for proper deicing and anti-icing of aircraft on the ground.
WIP Standard
2013-10-30
This document contains guidelines for establishing clear concise standardized communication and phraseology between aircraft Flight and Ground crews during aircraft deicing operations. It is very important that both parties communicate fully about contact requirements, aircraft configuration, de/anti-icing treatment needed and post deicing reporting requirements
WIP Standard
2013-10-10
This ARP documents methods and processes that may be utilized by aircraft manufacturers (or type certificate holders, researchers, or others) to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of SAE aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”) when applied to specific aircraft.
Standard
2013-10-10
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes safety recommendations for lavatories in transport category airplanes.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Oscar Javier Duque Táutiva, Guido Roewer, Paolo Furlan
The purpose of this work is to show possible evolutions of the OBDBr-2 legislation, moving on the same level as stricter international standards looking for an alignment of OBD requirements, even taking into account the flex-fuel technologies. A reduction of OBDBr-2 thresholds, following the tendency of reduction of those for exhaust emissions (PL6) and considering possible changes in the deterioration factors (Durability of 80000km to 120000km or 160000km); The inclusion of NOx-OBD limit for catalyst diagnosis, where only a limit for Hydrocarbons is considered; The requirement to keep active catalyst and upstream sensor diagnosis for any air/fuel ratios and not only for those corresponding to Ethanol (E100) and Gasoline (E22); The implementation of new OBD monitors, as well as the creation of an index that evaluates and publishes information about the performance of each diagnosis, declaring if they are started and concluded in the present driving cycle, are possible measures to be implemented.
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