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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0088
Tervin Tan, Jin Seo Park, Patrick Leteinturier
The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. With legislation playing a huge part in order to protect the environment. For instances, based on ICCT reports, EU passenger cars, weighing 1500kg, for today (2015) would need to meet the CO2 emission of 130g/km. This target is reduced to 95g/km in 2020. For the Chinese market, according to their CAFC target for passenger cars of 2015, has to meet the 6.9L/100km fuel consumption which translates to 163gCO2/km. At 2020, this target has been further reduced to 5L/100 which translate to 120gCO2/km. Though this is less than that of EU’s, the trend of fuel consumption and emission reduction is obvious and legislation needs to be met. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD vehicle GHG emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its ALPHA model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson combustion cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2015-11-24
WIP Standard
AMS1424/2
This specification covers a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a non-glycol fluid.
2015-11-24
WIP Standard
AMS1424/1
This specification covers a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a glycol fluid
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0824
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulations for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulations, the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic World Motorcycle Testing Cycle (WMTC) will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions for gasoline engines consist of so-called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons (HC) below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different concentrations and ratios. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) which compensates for the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle.
2015-11-05
Standard
J1939/3_201511
SAE J1939-03 provides requirements and guidelines for the implementation of On Board Diagnostics (OBD) on heavy duty vehicles (HDV) using the SAE J1939 family of standards. The guidelines identify where the necessary information to meet OBD regulations may be found among the SAE J1939 document set. Key requirements are identified here to insure the interoperability of OBD scan tools across individual OBD compliant vehicles. Market-defined regulations permit the use of SAE J1939 to meet OBD requirements. Implementers are cautioned to obtain and review the specific regulations for the markets where their products are sold. This document is focused on guidelines and requirements to satisfy the State of California Air Resources Board (ARB), the authors of 13 CCR 1971.1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Euro IV and V requirements from European Commission directives, and UN/ECE WP 29 GRPE WWH OBD Global Technical Regulation (GTR).
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/6
This document outlines permissible fluid application areas for Deicing and Anti-icing fluids, no-spray/no-direct fluid application areas, and other cautionary areas/items by aircraft type. The diagrams and cautions are generic representations of the aircraft types specified, and apply to all series/variants unless indicated otherwise. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/4
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/5
In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets this document will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/1
The document is intended to promote and develop safe practices, effective procedures and improved technology related to training of aircraft ground operations in winter conditions to ensure the highest possible levels of safety for passengers, flight crew and ground personnel. It can be utilized to develop a set of commonly agreed training practices and procedures for the de-icing/anti- icing of aircraft on the ground reflecting current industry best practice. It shall ensure continued compliance with all relevant standards and regulatory requirements, and shall ensure that it continues to reflect current industry best practice.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/2
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing equipment. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2772
Amy Kopin, Steven Musselman
Abstract For decades, the medium- and heavy-duty (“MD/HD”) commercial vehicle industry has focused on improving freight efficiency in order to lower customers' total operating costs. To optimize fuel efficiency, most manufacturers no longer focus on discreet components but instead look at the complete vehicle and operations. The path to future efficiency gains is not sufficiently clear when looking towards 2030; what is clear is that one solution will not work for all manufacturers or vehicle applications. Therefore, fuel efficiency regulations must be sufficiently adaptive to allow a variety of technical approaches to ensure the needs of the commercial truck market are met. This paper explores further the ideas presented in other papers that focus on regulation of engine-only emissions as an approach for HD vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2774
Hoon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Minje Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Nankyu Lee, Jinil Park, Jong-Hwa Lee
Abstract To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons. Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2778
Thomas Reinhart, Coralie Cooper, John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
Medium- and Heavy Duty Truck fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant contributors to overall U.S. GHG emissions. Forecasts of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle activity and fuel use predict increased use of freight transport will result in greatly increased GHG emissions in the coming decades. As a result, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a regulation requiring reductions in medium and heavy truck fuel consumption and GHGs beginning in 2014. The agencies are now proposing new regulations that will extend into the next decade, requiring additional fuel consumption and GHG emissions reductions. To support the development of future regulations, a research project was sponsored by NHTSA to look at technologies that could be used for compliance with future regulations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2803
Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
Abstract The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance was decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2518
Riccardo Amirante, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1958
Bowen Yan, Mingfa Yao, Bin Mao, Yongzhi Li, Yufeng Qin
In order to further study the effects of air and EGR dilution on the fuel economy improvement of natural gas engines under the premise of meeting EU6 legislation, a comparison between stoichiometric operation with EGR and lean burn operation with and without EGR has been conducted at 1600rpm 50% and 75% load. The conversion efficiencies of the catalysts for both NOx and CH4 emissions are assumed at 90% for lean burn operation. Experiment results indicate that under the condition of meeting both NOx and CH4 predetermined engine-out emissions limits for EU6 legislation, lean operation with a small fraction of EGR dilution enables more advanced combustion phasing compared to pure lean operation, which results in much better fuel economy, thus further improvement compared to stoichiometric operation is achieved.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1993
Montajir Rahman, Richard Rooney, Mike Akard, Kenji Hara, Shigeru Nakatani, Christine A. Gierczak, Adolfo Mauti, Lora Kralik
In the engine and vehicle test procedures described in Parts 1065/1066 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) allows for the measurement of N2O emissions from sample storage bags, from a continuous dilute stream or a raw exhaust stream. Typically, batch (Bag) sampling has better accuracy and repeatability, but continuous sampling is more efficient in terms of test cell running time and provides test-mode emissions with good correlation to bag measurements. In this study, correlations between bag sampling and continuous dilute exhaust sampling were investigated using a fleet of vehicles with a wide range of N2O emission levels. Very good correlation between these two sampling methods was observed for the majority of tests conducted. In the best cases, differences in average N2O concentration levels measured by these two methods were less than +/− 1%.
2015-06-02
Magazine
Balancing GDI fuel economy and emissions Will OEMs have to adopt gasoline particulate filters to comply with stringent new emissions regulations? Top engineers discuss current developments. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Mixing metals Cadillac pursues aluminum/steel mix for new CT6 luxury sedan, leading to advances in body assembly.
2015-04-23
Standard
J2992_201504
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as "EPA Part 1065") on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1001
Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Cameron Tanner, David Bronfenbrenner, Tinghong Tao, Kenneth Twiggs
Abstract With the increasing number of automobiles, the worldwide problem of air pollution is becoming more serious. The necessity of reducing tail-pipe emissions is as high as ever, and in countries all over the world the regulations are becoming stricter. The emissions at times such as after engine cold start, when the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not warmed up, accounts for the majority of the emissions of these pollutants from vehicles. This is caused by the characteristic of the TWC that if a specific temperature is not exceeded, TWC cannot purify the emissions. In other words, if the catalyst could be warmed up at an early stage after engine start, this would provide a major contribution to reducing the emissions. Therefore, this research is focused on the substrate weight and investigated carrying out major weight reduction by making the porosity of the substrate larger than that of conventional products.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0789
Jongyoon Lee, Sangyul Lee, Jungho Kim, Duksang Kim
Abstract This paper shows development challenges for 6 liter heavy duty off-road diesel engines to meet the Tier4 final emission regulations with a base diesel engine compliant with Tier4 interim emission regulations. Even if an after-treatment system helps to reduce emissions, quite amount of particulate matters (PM) reduction is still necessary since a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is supposed to be excluded in Tier4 final diesel engine. The objective of this research is to see if the base engine has a feasibility to meet Tier4 final emission regulations by a change of piston bowl geometry without DPF. Quite amount of PM can be reduced by piston bowl geometry because piston bowl geometry is a very important part that enhances air and fuel mixing process that help the combustion process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0999
Jan Schoenhaber, Joerg Michael Richter, Joel Despres, Marcus Schmidt, Stephanie Spiess, Martin Roesch
Abstract The new emission regulations in Europe, EU 6 will promulgate more realistic driving conditions with more stringent HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This legislation will also include the WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure) cycle for CO2 measurements and a new requirement called “Real-Driving-Emissions” (RDE) as well. The RDE requirement is to ensure modern vehicles comply with the legislation under all conditions of normal driving. More robust aftertreatment solutions are needed to meet these new requirements. This work introduces an improved three-way catalyst (TWC) for gasoline engines for these new regulations. It is tested under static and dynamic conditions and on several engines and vehicles with various drive cycles. It offers better thermal stability combined with lower backpressure than former TWC generations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1683
Bernie Porter, Hugh Blaxill, Noor Jariri
Abstract The 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy regulations are a significant challenge to the automotive industry. These regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets, focusing on powertrain enhancements. The study uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE's global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, dilute combustion, friction reduction, hybridization, diesel and alternative fuels. The vehicle technologies analyzed include vehicle light weighting, reduced rolling resistance, advanced transmissions and improved aerodynamics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. In this system, the TWC generates the NH3 for the SCR catalyst from the feedgas NOx during rich operation. Therefore, this approach benefits from high feedgas NOx during rich operation to generate high levels of NH3 quickly and low feedgas NOx during lean operation for a low rate of NH3 consumption. It was assumed that the exhaust system needed to include a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and an U/B SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards during the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
J3094
Create a standard for measurement of the performance characteristics of an Internal Heat Exchanger. The standard should make it easier to innovate designs and bring improvements to this new technology.
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