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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1275
Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan Govindan, P. Shanmugam
Biodiesel obtained by transesterification process from the fatty leather waste (tannery waste water) was blended with Diesel in various proportions and it was tested in a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection (DI) Diesel engine of rated power 4.4 kW at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. Experiments were conducted with B10, B20, B30, B40 and B50 blends and their combustion, performance and emission characteristics were studied in comparison with conventional Diesel fuel. The experimental results show an increase in brake thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends compared to neat Diesel operation. Reduced ignition delay and combustion duration is observed for B30 blend compared to Diesel. The oxides of nitrogen emissions are significantly lower for B10 and B20 blends compared to Diesel operation, whereas with remaining blends the NOx emissions are increased compared to Diesel fuel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1262
Muzammil Khan, Reza Tafreshi, Ahmad J. Mokahal, Mohamed Tarek Mohamed, Mohab Yasser Hanbal, Jayson Elturk
Abstract Two different types of fuel sources, namely conventional diesel and GTL diesel, were used to conduct a study of their effects on engine emissions and performance. Varying loads were applied to obtain concise data when contrasting the aforementioned fuels. Key parameters such as net power output, torque, engine speed and efficiency were measured. The engine and the dynamometer were operated via an automated closed-loop control system. On-road study found that the volumetric fuel consumption of GTL diesel was higher by up to 3.3% when compared to conventional diesel; there were drastic reductions in the levels of regulated emissions when using GTL by 36% for CO, 4.2% for CO2, 47% for THC (total hydrocarbons) and 35% for NOx, compared to conventional diesel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash Chander
Abstract This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent Flow in burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model is used for flame structure. Methane/air combustion is simulated using global combustion reaction mechanism. To account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction of methane/air combustion, Eddy - Dissipation Model is used. The effect of varying plate distance to burner exit nozzle diameter is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Change in flame structure is observed with variation of plate distance from burner exit. A dip in the heat flux distribution is observed for all cases. This is due to the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis due to swirl.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0010
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Shashi Kulkarni, Prasad Yerraguntla
Abstract Micro hybrid Systems are emerging as a promising solution to reduce the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in emerging markets, where the strict emission requirements are being enforced gradually. Micro hybrid Systems reduce the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a conventional vehicle with 12 V electrical system, by optimizing the electrical energy generation, storage, and distribution, with functions like Intelligent Alternator Control, Engine Stop/Start, and Load Management. With the advent of Connected Car Systems, information about the vehicle is seamlessly provided to the customer not just through the Human Machine Interface systems within the vehicle, but to other mobile devices used by the customers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0044
Sung Yul Chu, Sung Eun Jo, Kyoungbok Lee, Kwang Chul Oh, Jong Rim Lee
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicles require various sensors to detect system malfunctions. The Particulate Matter (PM) sensor is one of OBD devices which gather information which could be critical in determining a crack in the diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The PM sensor detects PM which penetrates cracked DPFs and converts the amount of PM into electrical values. The PM sensor control unit (SCU) receives those analog signals and converts them to digital values through hardware and software solutions. A capacitive sensing method would be a stable solution because it detects not raw analog signals but electrical charges or a time constant going through the capacitive load. Therefore, amount of PM would be converted reasonable value of capacitance even though there is a little amount of PM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0088
Tervin Tan, Jin Seo Park, Patrick Leteinturier
Abstract The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. Therefore, it is important to have precise control of the fuel being delivered into the engine. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost. This paper will explain injection control strategy of today during development, and especially the injector dead-time compensation strategy in detail and how further improvements could still be made. The injector current profile behavior will be discussed, and with the use of minimum hardware electronics, this paper will show the way for a new compensation strategy to be adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0659
Alok Warey, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Michael Potter, Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
Abstract Two-stroke diesel engines could be a promising solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of two-stroke engines in achieving a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions compared to four-stroke diesel baselines. As part of this study 1-D models were developed for loop scavenged two-stroke and opposed piston two-stroke diesel engine concepts. Based on the engine models and an in-house vehicle model, projections were made for the CO2 emissions for a representative light-duty vehicle over the New European Driving Cycle and the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure. The loop scavenged two-stroke engine had about 5-6% lower CO2 emissions over the two driving cycles compared to a state of the art four-stroke diesel engine, while the opposed piston diesel engine had about 13-15% potential benefit.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0662
Mark Stuhldreher
Abstract As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been evaluating fuel efficiency data from tests on newer model engines and vehicles. The data is used as inputs to an EPA vehicle simulation model created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model is a physics-based, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies and showing realistic vehicle behavior and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. Under the new light-duty fuel economy standards vehicle powertrains must become significantly more efficient. Cylinder deactivation engine technology is capable of deactivating one or more of its combustion cylinders when not needed to meet power demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0669
Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Bansal, Shubham Jaggi, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The Automobile industry is under great stress due to greenhouse gas emissions and health impacts of pollutants. The rapid decrease of fossil fuels has promoted the development of engine designs having higher fuel economy. At the same time, these designs keep the stringent emission standards in check without sacrificing brake power. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is one such measure. This work reviews the technological advancements in the design of a VCR engine. VCR engines can minimize possible risks of irregular combustion while optimizing Brake specific fuel consumption towards higher power and torque. An increase in fuel economy is seen for VCR naturally aspirated engines when coupled with downsizing. In addition to this, emissions of carbon dioxide decreases due to effective utilization of fuel at high loads. Since the first VCR design, there have been various modifications and improvements in VCR engine design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0631
Emilio Navarro-Peris, Estefanía Hervas-Blasco, José M. Corberan, Alex Rinaldi
Abstract The present concern in the reduction of CO2 emissions occasioned by heavy duty trucks is leading to a technological evolution, among others, in powertrain electrification. Towards this objective, the EU has funded the project GASTone targeting the development of a new powertrain concept based on the energy recovery from the exhaust gases and kinetic losses in order to make possible the electrification of the main auxiliaries. This new concept will follow a cascade approach in which the exhaust gases energy will be recovered by the integration of an advanced thermoelectric generator followed by a turbo-generator. This system will be combined with a smart kinetic energy recovery device which will recover the energy losses in the deceleration periods of the vehicle. The recovered energy will be used in the electrified auxiliaries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0676
Mohamed Shaaban Khalef, Alec Soba, John Korsgren
Abstract An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on an experimental 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light-duty diesel engine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the emissions and fuel consumption trade-off for different concept combinations. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with the EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after engine calibration optimization. During low load engine operation where throttling may be required to achieve the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. The cooling impact on high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0678
Haifeng Lu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Fangen Yuan, Degang Xie, Shuang Yuan, Yuan Shen
Abstract This research was concerned with the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) improving the fuel economy over a wide operating range in a downsized boosted gasoline engine. The experiments were performed in a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine, equipped with a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. The operating conditions varied from 1500rpm to 4000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar. Meanwhile, the engine’s typical operating points in NEDC cycle were tested separately. The compression ratio was also changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to pursue a higher thermal efficiency. A pre-compressor throttle was used in the experiment working together with the EGR loop to keep enough EGR rate over a large area of the engine speed and load map. The results indicated that, combined with a higher compression ratio, the LP-EGR could help to reduce the BSFC by 9∼12% at high-load region and 3∼5% at low-load region.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0697
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Ludovica Luise, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In this paper, the effect of the oxygen addition on engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated. The experimental study was carried out in a small single-cylinder PFI SI four-stroke engine. The addition of the 5% vol and 10% vol of oxygen was performed in the intake duct. Typical urban driving operating conditions were investigated. The engine emissions were characterized by means of gaseous analyzers and a smokemeter. Particle size distribution function was measured in the size range from 5.6 to 560 nm by means of an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). An improvement in terms of engine power output, without BSFC penalty, and HC emissions with oxygen addition was observed at all the investigated operating conditions. On the other hand, NOx and PM emissions increase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0691
Gurneesh S. Jatana, Brian C. Kaul, Robert Wagner
Abstract Spark-ignition (SI) engines can derive substantial efficiency gains from operation at high dilution levels, but sufficiently high-dilution operation increases the occurrence of misfires and partial burns, which induce higher levels of cyclic-variability in engine operation. This variability has been shown to have both stochastic and deterministic components, with residual fraction impacts on charge composition being the major source of the deterministic component through its non-linear effect on ignition and flame propagation characteristics. This deterministic coupling between cycles offers potential for next-cycle control approaches to allow operation near the edge of stability. This paper aims to understand the effect of spark strategies, specifically the use of a second spark (restrike) after the main spark, on the deterministic coupling between engine cycles by operating at high dilution levels using both excess air (i.e. lean combustion) and EGR.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
Field tests were conducted on a late full sized sedan with the HVAC unit operating in both Recirculation and OSA modes to monitor build-up of the CO2 concentration inside the cabin and its influence on occupant’s fatigue and alertness. These tests were conducted during 2015 summer on interstate highways with test durations ranging from 4 to 7 hours. During the above tests, fatigue or tiredness of the occupants (including CO2 levels) was monitored and recorded at 30 min intervals. Based on this investigation it is determined that the measured cabin concentration levels reaches ASHRAE (Standard 62-1999) specified magnitudes (greater than 700 ppm over ambient levels) with three occupants in the vehicle. Further, the occupants did show fatigue when the HVAC unit was operated in recirculation mode in excess of 5 hours. Further details have been presented in the paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0553
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukiko Obara, Yukie Ishizawa, Emi Sato, Mai Sase, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Jun Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Akihama
Abstract Suppression or reduction of soot emissions is an important goal in the development of automotive engines for environmental and human health purposes. A better understanding at the molecular level of the formation process of soot particles resulting from collision and aggregation of smaller particles made of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) is needed. In addition to experiments, computational methods are efficient and valuable tools for this purpose. As a first step in our detailed computational chemistry study, we applied Ultra-Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (UAQCMD) and Canonical Monte-Carlo (CMC) methods to investigate the nucleation process. The UA-QCMD can calculate chemical reaction dynamics 107 times faster than conventional first principle molecular dynamics methods, while CMC can calculate equilibrium properties at various temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0565
SoDuk Lee, Charles Schenk, Joseph McDonald
Abstract As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 [1]”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0562
Hassan Karaky, Gilles Mauviot, Xavier Tauzia, Alain Maiboom
Abstract Due to its harmful effect on both human health and environment, soot emission is considered as one of the most important diesel engine pollutants. In the last decades, the industrial engine manufacturers have been able to strongly reduce its engine-out value by many different techniques, in order to respect the stricter emission norms. Simulation modeling has played and continues to play a key role for this purpose in the engine control system development. In this context, this paper proposes a new soot emission model for a direct injection diesel engine. This soot model is based on a zero-dimensional semi-physical approach coupled with a crank-angle resolved combustion model and a thermodynamic calculation of the burned gas products temperature. Furthermore, a multi linear regression model has been used to estimate the soot emissions as function of significant physical combustion parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0561
Seungha Lee, Youngbok Lee, Kyoungchan Han, Kyoung Min Lee, Jun Yu, Junyong Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0606
Chaitanya Wadkar, Bassem H. Ramadan
Abstract A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0611
Dejan Kihas, Daniel Pachner, Lubomir Baramov, Michael Uchanski, Priya Naik, Nassim Khaled
Abstract The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0612
Rohit Koli, Konstantinos Siokos, Robert Prucka, Shyam Jade, Jason Schwanke
Abstract Low-pressure cooled EGR (LP-cEGR) systems can provide significant improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency and knock resistance. However, open-loop control of these systems is challenging due to low pressure differentials and the presence of pulsating flow at the EGR valve. This research describes a control structure for Low-pressure cooled EGR systems using closed loop feedback control along with internal model control. A Smith Predictor based PID controller is utilized in combination with an intake oxygen sensor for feedback control of EGR fraction. Gas transport delays are considered as dead-time delays and a Smith Predictor is one of the conventional methods to address stability concerns of such systems. However, this approach requires a plant model of the air-path from the EGR valve to the sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0616
Jayant Sarlashkar, Sankar Rengarajan, Ryan Roecker
Abstract Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has successfully demonstrated the cooled EGR concept via the High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium. Dilution of intake charge provides three significant benefits - (1) Better Cycle Efficiency (2) Knock Resistance and (3) Lower NOx/PM Emissions. But EGR dilution also poses challenges in terms of combustion stability, condensation and power density. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept brings back some of the stability lost due to EGR dilution by introducing reformates such as CO and H2 into the intake charge. Control of air, EGR, fuel, and ignition remains a challenge to realizing the aforementioned benefits without sacrificing performance and drivability. This paper addresses the DEGR solution from a controls standpoint. SwRI has been developing a unified framework for controlling a generic combustion engine (gasoline, diesel, dual-fuel natural gas etc.).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0618
Feilong Liu, Jeffrey M. Pfeiffer, Ron Caudle, Peter Marshall, Peter Olin
Abstract Low Pressure Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP EGR) is an attractive technology to reduce fuel consumption for a spark-ignition (SI) engine, particularly at medium-to-high load conditions, due to its knock suppression and combustion cooling effects. However, the long LP EGR transport path presents a significant challenge to the transient control of LP EGR for the engine management system. With a turbocharged engine, this is especially challenging due to the much longer intake induction system path compared with a naturally aspirated engine. Characterizing and modeling the EGR, intake air mixing and transport delay behavior is important for proper control. The model of the intake air path includes the compressor, intercooler and intake plenum. It is important to estimate and track the final EGR concentration at the intake plenum location, as it plays a key role in combustion control.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0409
Fatih Unal, Cem Sorusbay
Abstract In an effort to support design and testing activities at product development lifecycle of the engine, proper duty cycle is required. However, to collect data and develop accurate duty cycles, there are not any vehicles equipped with prototype engines at customers. Therefore, in this paper, discrete duty cycle development methodology is studied to generate trailer truck engine usage profile which represents driving conditions in Turkey for engines in development phase. Cycles are generated using several vehicles equipped with prototype engines and professional drivers that can mimic customer usage. Methodology is based on defining real-world customer driving profile, discretizing real-world drives into separate events, collecting vehicle data from each discrete drive, determining the weight of events by conducting customer surveys and creating a representative reference usage profile with data analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0194
Yici Li, Wei Tian
Abstract The exhaust cooling is an important index which measures the performance of the flameproof diesel engine. In this paper, a modification model is built for enhancing the cooling performance of exhaust, based on the reference model of the dry cooling equipment. The annular nozzle direction, extend plate of guide, bellows and elbow are introduced and studied in the model as the modification way. Considering the Coanda and Venturi effects, the comprehensive comparison of fluid velocity, temperature, pressure and mixture coefficient is implemented, and the optimum horizontal dimension of throat is summarized. The simulation results indicate the modification model shows better performance in reducing exhaust temperature and pressure than the reference model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0580
Joohan Kim, Namho Kim, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract The soot emission in direct-injection spark-ignition engines under various operating conditions was numerically investigated in the present study. A detailed soot model was used to resolve the physical soot process that consists of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbon (PAH) formation and soot particle dynamics. The primary propagating flame in partially-premixed field was described by G-equation model, and the concentrations of burned species as well as PAH behind of the flame front were determined from the laminar flamelet library that incorporates the PAH chemical mechanism. The particle dynamics in post-flame region include nucleation, surface growth, coagulation, and oxidation were modeled by method of moments. To improve the model predictability, a gasoline surrogate model was proposed to match the real fuel properties, and the input of droplet size distribution of fuel spray was obtained from Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer.
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