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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Abstract Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system. The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0447
Zhe Li, Mike Dong, Dennis Harrigan, Michael Gardner
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Renjie Zhou, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Abstract Downhill mountain roads are the accident prone sections because of their complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to the negligence or the judgment failure. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, having subjecting to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environments. To enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill, this study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and the geographic information. Thus, through which the drivers could obtain the safety speed specified for his/her vehicle in the given downhill terrains and operate in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's judgment failure and avoid the brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0986
Mohd Azman Abas, Shaiful Fadzil Zainal Abidin, Srithar Rajoo, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, Muhammad Izzal Ismail
Abstract Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation are increasingly in use to improve fuel consumption of internal combustion engine in passenger cars. The stop/start technology switches off the engine to whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly-congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia, with tropical climate such as Malaysia, is the constant demand for the air-conditioning system. This inevitably reduces the duration of engine switch-off when the vehicle at stop and consequently nullifying the benefit of the stop/start system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speeds, when the engine is at part load operation only.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0988
Michael Cunningham, Mi-Young Kim, Venkata Lakkireddy, William Partridge
Abstract Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0983
Masaaki Ito, Frank Katsube, Yasuhiko Hamada, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Asako
Abstract Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles back in 2011[1]. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is significant factor for the above-mentioned PN regulation. This filter technology is to be continuously evolved for the near future tighter PN regulation. Generally, PN filtration performance test for filter technology development is carried out with chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer or simulator [2]. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN filtration performance test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0984
Wenran Geng, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Abstract Recently Hybrid Electric Buses (HEBs) have been widely used in China for energy saving and emission reduction. In order to study the real road emission performance of HEBs, the emission tests of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus (DHEB) are evaluated both on chassis dynamometer over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) and on-road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The DHEB is powered by electric motor alone at speed of 0~20km/h. When the speed exceeds 20km/h, engine gets engaged rapidly and then works corporately with the electric motor to drive the bus. For chassis dynamometer test over CCBC, emissions of NOx, particulate number, particulate mass, and THC of the DHEB are 7.68g/km, 5.88E+11#/km, 0.412mg/km, and 0.062g/km, respectively. They have all decreased greatly compared to those of the diesel bus. But the CO emission which is 3.48g/km has increased significantly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0932
Nehemiah S I Alozie, George Fern, David Peirce, Lionel Ganippa
Abstract The use of diesel particulate filter [DPF] has become a standard in modern diesel engine after treatment technology. However pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates and this requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity during operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is needed for design and manufacture of efficient filter traps for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the impact of blending biodiesel on oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection [HSDI] diesel engine, which was operated with 20% [B20] and 40% [B40] blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected from the engine exhaust using a Pall Tissuquartz filter, the oxidation characteristics of the samples were carried out using thermogravimetric analyzer [TGA]. The biodiesel oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel was compared against the fuel blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0933
Yunhua Zhang, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Qian Feng
Abstract Biodiesel as a renewable energy is becoming increasingly attractive due to the growing scarcity of conventional fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the development of after-treatment technologies for the diesel engine brings new insight concerning emissions especially the particulate matter pollutants. In order to study the coupling effects of biodiesel blend and CCRT (Catalyzed Continuously Regeneration Trap) on the particulate matter emissions, the particulate matter emissions from an urban bus with and without CCRT burning BD0 and BD10 respectively was tested and analyzed using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). The operation conditions included steady state conditions and transient conditions. Results showed that the particulate number-size distribution of BD10 and BD0 both had two peaks in nuclei mode and accumulation mode at the conditions of idle, low speed and medium speed while at high speed condition the particulate number-size distribution only had one peak.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0928
Osama M. Ibrahim
Abstract Diesel oxidation catalysts with ultra-low NO2 emissions have been developed based on palladium-tungsten (Pd-W). The catalysts are supported by aluminum-yttrium oxides (Al2O3-Y2O3) nano-washcoat on sintered metal fibers. Elemental composition analysis was performed using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to quantify the distribution of the Al2O3-Y2O3 nano-washcoats and Pd-W catalysts on the surface of the metal fibers. Initially, emissions measurements were conducted to evaluate the performance of Pd-W catalysts using small coated samples of sintered metal fibers. The results show that the catalysts selectively oxidize CO into CO2 and reduce NO2 into NO, resulting in over 90% reduction in CO emissions and up to 85% reduction in NO2 emissions. Scale-up of an Active Diesel Particulate Filter (ADPF) was then tested on a Cummins 5.9L ISB diesel engine using the US-FTP transient test cycle and the ISO 8178 8-mode test cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1285
Tarun Mehra
Abstract Exploring and enhancement of biodiesel production from feedstock like non-edible vegetable oil is one of the powerful method to resolve inadequate amount of conventional raw materials and their high prices. The main aim of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters of a biodiesel obtained from non-edible feedstocks, namely Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil, with response surface methodology using Doehlert’s experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the mixture A50S50 oil mixture at 51.045° C over a period of 45 minutes are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 8.45, and catalyst concentration: 1.933 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters give the highest yield for the A50S50 biodiesel with a value of 95.24%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0783
Hamid R. Rahai, Yong Lee, Najmeh rahimi, Komal Gada
Abstract The investigation has been divided into two parts. In part one, numerical investigations of the effect of humid air with different levels of humidity on gaseous emissions of a non-premixed combustion have been investigated. This part of the investigation was a feasibility study, focused on how different levels of humidity in the intake air affects the exhaust NO emission. Part two of the investigation was verification of the numerical results with a naturally aspirated engine with natural gas as the fuel. Here, we also investigated the impact of humid air intake on engine’s particulate matter (PM) emission. For the numerical investigations, the non-premixed combustion in a single cylinder was simulated using the presumed probability density function combustion model. Simulations were performed for dry as well as humid intake air for 0%, 15%, and 30% relative humidity (RH).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0778
Vishnu Vijayakumar, P. Sakthivel, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Amardeep Singh, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract In the light of major research work carried out on the detrimental health impacts of ultrafine particles (<50 nm), Euro VI emission standards incorporate a limit on particle number, of which ultrafine particles is the dominant contributor. As Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper and cleaner fuel when compared to diesel, there has been a steady increase in the number of CNG vehicles on road especially in the heavy duty segment. Off late, there has been much focus on the nature of particle emissions emanating from CNG engines as these particles mainly fall under the ultrafine particle size range. The combustion of lubricant is considered to be the dominant source of particle emissions from CNG engines. Particle emission due to lubricant is affected by the oil transport mechanisms into the combustion chamber which in turn vary with engine operating conditions as well as with the physico chemical properties of the lubricant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0875
Valentin Soloiu, Jose Moncada, Martin Muinos, Aliyah Knowles, Remi Gaubert, Thomas Beyerl, Gustavo Molina
Abstract This paper investigates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with Bu25, 75% ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) blended with 25% n-butanol by mass. N-butanol, derivable from biomass feedstock, was used given its availability as an alternative fuel that can supplement the existing limited fossil fuel supply. Combustion and emissions were investigated at 2000 rpm across loads of 4.3-7.2 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Cylinder pressure was collected using Kistler piezoelectric transducers in the precombustion (PC) and main combustion (MC) chambers. Ignition delays ranged from 0.74 - 1.02 ms for both operated fuels. Even though n-butanol has a lower cetane number, the high swirl in the separate combustion chamber would help advance its premixed combustion. The heat release rate of Bu25 became initially 3 J/crank-angle-degree (CAD) higher than that of ULSD#2 as load increased to 7.2 bar IMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with a concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx, and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle complies with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel, however, showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1019
Bentolhoda Torkashvand, Andreas Gremminger, Simone Valchera, Maria Casapu, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Olaf Deutschmann
Abstract The effect of increased pressure relevant to pre-turbine catalyst positioning on catalytic oxidation of methane over a commercial Pd-Pt model catalyst under lean conditions is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The possible gas phase reactions due to high temperature and pressure were tested with an inert monolith. Catalyst activity tests were conducted for both wet and dry gas mixtures and the effect of pressure was investigated at 1, 2 and 4 bar. Aside from the water in the inlet stream, the water produced by oxidation of methane in dry feed inhibited the activity of the catalyst as well. Experiments were carried out to check the effect of added water in the concentration range of water produced by methane oxidation on the catalyst activity. Based on the experimental results, a global oxidation rate equation is proposed. The reaction rate expression is first order with respect to methane and -1.15 with respect to water.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1020
Finn Tseng, Imad Makki, Pankaj Kumar, Robert Jentz, Aed Dudar
Abstract Engine-Off Natural Vacuum (EONV) principles based leak detection monitors are designed to determine the presence of a small leak in the fuel tank system. It was introduced to address the ever more stringent emission requirement (currently at 0.02”) for gasoline engine equipped vehicles as proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the United States [2, 3]. Other environmental protection agencies including the ones in EU and China will be adopting similar regulations in the near future. Due to its sensitivity to known noise factors such as the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, drive pattern and parking angle, it has been historically a lower performing monitor that is susceptible to warranty cost or even voluntary recalls. The proposed new model based monitor utilizes production pressure signal and newly instrumented temperature sensors [15].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0992
Dereck Dasrath, Richard Frazee, Jeffrey Hwang, William Northrop
Abstract Partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines is a strategy for reducing soot and NOX formation, though it is accompanied by higher unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions compared to conventional mixing-controlled diesel combustion. In this work, two independent methods of quantifying light UHC species from a diesel engine operating in early LTC (ELTC) modes were compared: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). A sampling system was designed to capture and transfer exhaust samples for off-line GC-MS analysis, while the FT-IR sampled and quantified engine exhaust in real time. Three different ELTC modes with varying levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were implemented on a modern light-duty diesel engine. GC-MS and FT-IR concentrations were within 10 % for C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C2H4O. While C3H8 was identified and quantified by the FT-IR, it was not detected by the GCMS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0991
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract Vehicles are tested in controlled and relatively narrow laboratory conditions to determine their type approval emission values and reference fuel consumption. Some studies have shown that real world driving emissions are much higher as compared to laboratory measurements. The difference was caused by two important factors, i.e. ambient conditions (temperature and altitude) and actual real-world driving cycles. For this reason, the European Commission had constituted a working group which developed a complementary Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure using the Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). RDE test will verify gaseous pollutant and particle number emissions during a wide range of normal operating conditions on the road. In RDE test specific boundary conditions of the temperatures, classified as moderate (0 ≤Tamb < 30), Extended (low): -7 ≤Tamb < 0 and Extended (high): 30
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0998
Kurtis James Irwin, Jonathan Stewart, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods, Richard O’Shaughnessy, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker
Abstract Accelerated aging of automotive catalysts has become a routine process for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of vehicle emissions. In the standard approach, catalyst samples are subjected to temperatures in excess of 800°C on a predefined test cycle and aged for precise timescales representative of certain vehicle mileage. The high temperature feed gas is traditionally provided by a large gasoline engine but, increasingly, alternative bench-aging techniques are being applied as these offer more precise control and considerable cost savings, as well as offering more development possibilities. In the past few years, emissions control of light duty vehicles has become increasingly prominent as more stringent emissions legislations require more complex after-treatment systems. Aging of the catalysts are not fully understood as they are subjected to many varying environments, including temperature and gas concentrations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0912
Joel Op de Beeck, Scott Mccleary, Joshua Butler, Issam Djemili, Mihai Baja
Abstract Automotive SCR systems for diesel NOx reduction are dimensioned to reduce NOx efficiently in all driving conditions. In this regard the DEF storage and delivery system is developed to operate in a full range of temperatures, voltages, pressures, etc. To allow a control for optimal performance, sensors are added in the system (temperature, level, pressure sensor). Recently, a DEF quality sensor has been added to assure the correct concentration of urea in water in the onboard DEF tank. Now the question is raised how to assure that the DEF quality sensor is operating correctly and is giving an accurate indication of the liquid in the tank. The objective of this study is to define an independent method (PQD) to verify liquid quality, and challenge the signal generated by the DEF quality sensor. This study describes a possible method and the progress on its validation in various automotive driving conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0913
Evangelos Georgiadis, Toru Kudo, Olaf Herrmann, Ken Uchiyama, Juergen Hagen
Abstract In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF (DPF coated with SCR) catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, a novel exhaust reverse flow concept with a blade mixer was developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0914
Mengchao Zhang
Abstract Since diesel engines have higher thermal efficiency, superior power capability and better fuel economy than gasoline engines, diesel engines are widely used in vehicles, construction machineries and agricultural machineries. However, they emit more hazardous pollutants than gasoline engines, especially particulate emissions, which have negative impacts on human’s health and air quality in cities. In order to meet future increasingly stringent regulations for particulate emissions, exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies for diesel engines are essential. Particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine which meets the China national V emission regulation were studied, and the engine was equipped with/without diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The fuel used in this article is ultra low sulfur diesel fuel whose sulfur content is less than 10 ppm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0908
Fanxu Meng, Asanga Wijesinghe, John Colvin, Carolyn LaFleur, Richard Haut
Abstract Natural gas (NG), which consists of mostly methane, can be co-combusted with diesel fuel in existing compression ignition engines through dual fuel technology with reasonable engine modifications. The removal of short-chain alkanes (e.g. CH4, C2H6 and C3H8) of a dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engine raises a distinctive topic to the exhaust aftertreatment system (ATS). However, there are few studies reported based on tests with real engine exhaust. This present study focuses on the conversion of short-chain alkanes by Co, Ni and Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, which are commonly used for oxidation/partial oxidation and reforming. These catalysts are tested with exhaust of a dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engine. The complicated and dynamic exhaust composition, determined by the engine loading and natural gas substitution, can result in different components in the exhaust and various conversions for species.
2017-03-28
Collection
Proper thermal management can significantly contribute to overall system energy efficiency. The papers in this collection highlight the latest developments in thermal management energy efficiency.
2017-03-28
Collection
Papers included in this collection cover the systems engineering experience required to achieve ultra-low emission levels on gasoline light-duty vehicles. Emission system component topics include the development of advanced three-way catalysts, the development of NOX control strategies for gasoline lean burn engines, the application of high cell density substrates to advanced emission systems, and the integration of these components into full vehicle emission systems.
2017-03-28
Collection
The papers included in this collection cover modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2017-03-28
Collection
Papers in this collection focus on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions are also addressed. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
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