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Viewing 241 to 270 of 22386
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou
Asymmetric and Variable Cell (AVC) geometry Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) occupy an increasing portion of the DPFs currently offered by various DPF manufacturers, aiming at providing higher filtration area in the same filter volume to meet demanding emission control applications for passenger cars but also for heavy duty vehicles. In the present work we present an approach for designing and optimizing such DPFs by providing a quantitative description of the flow and deposition of soot in these structures. Soot deposit growth dynamics in AVC DPFs is studied computationally, primary and secondary flows over the inlet channels cross-sectional perimeters are analyzed and their interactions are elucidated. The result is a rational description of the observed growth of soot deposits, as the flow readjusts to transport the soot particles along the path of least resistance (which is not necessarily the shortest geometric path between the inlet and outlet channel, i.e. the wall thickness). The theoretical description is in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained with two different families of AVC DPFs operated in the exhaust of a diesel engine and can be employed to design new DPF configurations with substantially lower pressure drop than existing designs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hsiao-Lan Chang, Hai-Ying Chen, Kwangmo Koo, Jeffery Rieck, Philip Blakeman
Stricter emission standards in the near future require not only a high conversion efficiency of the toxic air pollutants but also a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gases from automotive exhaust. Advanced engines with improved fuel efficiency can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions; their exhaust temperature is, however, also low. This consequently poses significant challenges to the emission control system demanding the catalysts to function at low temperatures both during the cold start period and under the normal engine operation conditions. In this paper, we will introduce a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology developed for advanced stoichiometric-burn gasoline engines to meet future stringent emission regulations. To improve the low temperature performance of three-way catalysts, a novel Al2O3/CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxide was developed. Compared to conventional CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxides with similar compositions, the new material exhibits higher oxygen storage capacity especially at low temperatures and is more thermally durable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stephen Johnson, Peter Croswell, Michael Smith
Abstract “Zoning” a catalytic converter involves placing higher concentrations of platinum group metals (PGM) in the inlet portion of the substrate. This is done to optimize the cost-to-performance tradeoff by increasing the reaction rate at lower temperatures while minimizing PGM usage. A potentially useful application of catalyst zoning is to improve performance using a constant PGM mass. A study was performed to assess what the optimum ratio of front to rear palladium zone length is to achieve the highest performance in vehicle emission testing. Varying the zone ratio from 1:1 to 1:9 shows a clear hydrocarbon performance optimum at a 1:5.66 (15%/85%) split. This performance optimum shows as both a minimum in FTP75 non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions as well as a minimum in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide light-off temperature. Overall, an improvement of 18%, or 11 mg/mi of combined NMOG+NOx emissions was obtained without using additional PGM. This study shows how the competing forces of active PGM site concentration and available surface area interact in modern three way catalyst design.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seung-Jae Yi, Hyung Kee Kim, Sergio Quelhas, Christopher Giler, Dinh Dang, Sang Beom Kim
Abstract A SULEV proposal was investigated for a Hyundai Elantra 1.8L Nu Engine, combining advanced catalyst technologies with optimized engine management control. A washcoat system using 20% less PGM loading and an optimized EMS calibration were developed to meet the 50% development target of the LEV III SULEV30 standards. This paper highlights revisions made to the new control and catalyst systems which include, 1) improved light-off time and cold-start emissions, 2) optimized cold lambda control, 3) reduced number of fuel cut events, 4) a new catalyst technology to match exhaust gas characteristics, and 5) a Pd-only front catalyst with reduced PGM.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, James E. Parks, Josh A. Pihl, Todd J. Toops
A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than λ=0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Anna Fathali, Mats Laurell, Fredrik B. Ekström, Annika Kristoffersson, Bengt Andersson, Louise Olsson
Abstract The effect of various fuel-cut agings, on a Volvo Cars 4-cylinder gasoline engine, with bimetallic three-way catalysts (TWCs) was examined. Deactivation during retardation fuel-cut (low load) and acceleration fuel-cut (high load, e.g. gearshift or traction control) was compared to aging at λ=1. Three-way catalysts were aged on an engine bench comparing two fuel-cut strategies and their impact on of the life and performance of the catalysts. In greater detail, the catalytic activity, stability and selectivity were studied. Furthermore, the catalysts were thoroughly analyzed using light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements. The emission conversion as a function of various lambda values and loads was also determined. Fresh and 40-hour aged samples showed that the acceleration fuel-cut was the strategy that had the highest contribution towards the total deactivation of the catalyst system. Also, the retardation fuel-cut was found to be detrimental to the catalyst system but not to the same extent as an acceleration fuel-cut.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates. NTA allows for an estimation of soot mass contained in the soot-laden oil samples.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Timothy Johnson
The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) systems and SCR filter developments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Da Yu Wang, David M. Racine, Harry Husted, Sheng Yao
Abstract NOx aftertreatment is an essential subsystem to enable diesel and lean gasoline engines to meet emissions regulations. A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, which uses urea to create ammonia (NH3) for NOx reduction, is one popular form of NOx aftertreatment system. These urea based NOx aftertreatment systems can benefit from closed-loop control when appropriate NH3, NOx, or NO2 exhaust gas sensors are available. For example, knowing exhaust NO2 emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst can help the urea dosing strategy to maximize the efficiency of a urea SCR system. Such sensing capability, combined with ammonia sensing, can provide enhanced closed-loop control of the SCR system as well as information for on-board diagnosis. This paper covers Delphi's progress in developing an exhaust NO2 sensor. Sensor data from a synthetic gas bench and from engine testing is presented for four NO2 sensors, along with investigations into the sensor's sensitivity to a variety of relevant factors such as oxygen concentration, humidity, and operating temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Wolff, Ramona Deinlein, Henrik Christensen, Lars Larsen
The integration of DeNOx functionality into wall flow filters for the after treatment of diesel engine exhaust gases is a field of technology to which many publications in the recent years have drawn their attention. To integrate the needed amount of catalyst, high porous substrate materials have been developed. A drawback of the high porosity levels of 60% and higher is a significant reduction in mechanical strength. The aim of this work is to provide a new solution based on a high porous SiC material which is treated by a dual layer coating. The first layer is a nanoparticle coating which enhances the mechanical strength of the substrate. It can also be used to improve the catalytic performance and to finally decrease the loading of the second coating layer which is the active catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia. Three different types of catalysts have been investigated as the second layer: a Fe-β-zeolite, a mixed metal oxide based on ceria and zirconia and a composition based on titania and vanadia.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Carl Justin Kamp, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang, William Bryk, Avery Rubin, Victor Wong
Inorganic engine lubricant additives, which have various specific, necessary functions such as anti-wear, leave the combustion chamber bound to soot particles (approximately ≤1% by mass) as ash [13], and accumulate in aftertreatment components. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is especially susceptible to ash-related issues due to its wall-flow architecture which physically traps most of the soot and ash emissions. Accumulated lubricant-derived ash results in numerous problems including increased filter pressure drop and decreased catalytic functionality. While much progress has been made to understand the macroscopic details and effects of ash accumulation on DPF performance, this study explores the nano- and micron-scale forces which impact particle adhesion and mobility within the particulate filter. Several recent studies have revealed several important mechanisms influencing the nature of the soot and ash deposits, which if manipulated, could yield means of actively minimizing the ash-related impact on aftertreatment system performance [1, 2, 3, 4, 5,13].
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Achombili Asango, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler
Abstract The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature. Particle size effects are more significant for high soot content.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Ming Huo, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and their characteristics suitable for clean combustion, are considered potential fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. As such, n-butanol has received a lot of attention in this regard and has shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is one of the major methods to produce bio-butanol. The goal of this study is to investigate the combustion characteristics of the intermediate product in butanol production, namely ABE, and hence evaluate its potential as an alternative fuel. Acetone, n-butanol and ethanol were blended in a 3:6:1 volume ratio and then splash blended with pure ethanol-free gasoline with volumetric ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% to create various fuel blends. These blends were tested in a port-fuel injected spark-ignited (SI) engine and their performance was evaluated through measurements of in-cylinder pressure, and various exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Nicole Davis, James Lents
Abstract Engine manufacturers have explored many routes to reducing the emissions of harmful pollutants and conserving energy resources, including development of after treatment systems to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the engine exhaust, using alternative fuels, and using alternative fuels with after treatment systems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one alternative fuel in use and this paper will discuss emission measurements for several LPG vehicles. Regulated emissions were measured for five school buses, one box truck, and two small buses over a cold start Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (CS_UDDS), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Central Business District (CBD) cycle. In general, there were no significant differences in the gas phase emissions between the UDDS and the CBD test cycles. For the CS-UDDS cycle the total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are higher than they are from the UDDS cycle. Methane and carbon monoxide emissions are also higher, but the difference isn't as pronounced.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Narankhuu Jamsran, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
This study has been computationally investigated how the DME autoignition reactivity is affected by EGR and intake-pressure boost over various engine speed. CHEMKIN-PRO was used as a solver and chemical-kinetics mechanism for DME was utilized from Curran's model. We examined first the influence of EGR addition on autoignition reactivity using contribution matrix. Investigations concentrate on the HCCI combustion of DME at wide ranges of engine speeds and intake-pressure boost with EGR rates and their effects on variations of autoignition timings, combustion durations in two-stage combustion process in-detail including reaction rates of dominant reactions involved in autoignition process. The results show that EGR addition increases the combustion duration by lowering reaction rates. It was also found that autoignition timings were very sensitive to boost pressure due to boost pressure enhances the reactivity of intermediate species but combustion durations dominantly depend on the EGR addition.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Mark Villela, Robert Russell, Heejung Jung, Akua Asa-Awuku, Thomas Durbin
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have improved thermodynamic efficiency (and thus lower fuel consumption) and power output compared with port fuel injection (PFI) and their penetration is expected to rapidly grow in the near future in the U.S. market. In addition, the use of alternative fuels is expanding, with a potential increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10%. Increased emphasis has been placed on butanol due to its more favorable fuel properties, as well as new developments in production processes. This study explores the influence of mid-level ethanol and iso-butanol blends on criteria emissions, gaseous air toxics, and particulate emissions from two wall-guided gasoline direct injection passenger cars fitted with three-way catalysts. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer. This study utilized seven fuels with varying ethanol and iso-butanol contents, including E10, E15, E20, Bu16, Bu24, Bu32, and a mixture of E20 and Bu16 resulting in E10/Bu8.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jing Gong, Jian Cai, Chenglong Tang
Propanol isomers are oxygenated fuels and have higher octane number and energy density compared to methanol and ethanol. In recent years, with the development of fermentation method, propanol isomers have gained more attention as engine additive to reduce the emission and the consumption of traditional fossil fuels. In this study, Hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emission characteristic of propanol isomers/gasoline blends were comparatively investigated at different blending ratios (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100) combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in a spark-ignition engine. The number distribution of particulate matter emission is mainly studied in addition to the particulate matter mass distribution. Results show that pure propanol isomers yield significantly different emission characteristics compared to the other blends. With the increase of blending ratio, CO emission shows a decreased trend while unidentified HC emissions are observed except pure propanol isomers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge
Abstract Compressed natural gas (CNG) is widely used as an alternative option in spark ignition engines because of its better fuel economy and in part cleaner emissions. To cope with the haze weather in Beijing, about 2000 gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxis are servicing on-road. According to the government's plan, the volume of alternative fuel and pure electric vehicle will be further increased in the future. Thus, it is necessary to conduct an evaluation on the effectiveness of alternative fuel on curbing vehicular emissions. This research examined the regulated emissions and particulate matter of gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxi over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emission tests in gasoline- and CNG-fuelled, cold- and warm-start modes were done for all five taxies. Test vehicles, Hyundai Elantra, are powered by 1.6L spark-ignited engines incorporated with 5-gear manual gearboxes. The taxis were registered in May and June, 2013, and their millage was within 3500 and 10000 km on odometer when the emission tests were performed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Ethanol has long been a fuel of considerable interest for use as an automotive fuel in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. In recent years, concerns over oil supplies, sustainability and geopolitical factors have lead multiple jurisdictions to mandate the blending of ethanol into standard gasoline. The impact of blend ethanol content on gaseous emissions has been widely studied; particulate matter emissions have received somewhat less attention, despite these emissions being regulated in the USA. Currently, in the EU particulate matter emissions from SI engines are partially regulated - only vehicles featuring direct injection SI engines are subject to emissions limits. A range of experiments was conducted to determine the impact of fuel ethanol content on the emissions of solid pollutants from Euro 5 passenger cars. All testing was conducted in BOSMAL's climate-controlled test facility, with tests performed at multiple ambient temperatures, including the two temperatures specified in EU legislation (+25°C, −7°C).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Navin Kumar, Abyarth Behera, Dulari Hansdah, Murugan Sivalingam
Abstract Madhuca indica flower is a forest residue used for preparation of food and liquor in tribal areas of India. In this present investigation, bioethanol produced from madhuca indica flower by the fermentation process is proposed as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. As the cetane number of bioethanol is low, an ignition improver is required for better operation. In this study, Diethyl ether (DEE), an ignition improver is fumigated at two different flow rates viz 120 g/h and 240 g/h in the intake manifold along with the air in a single cylinder, four stroke, DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is found to be higher by about 10.47 and 2.46% with 120 g/h and 240 g/h flow rate of the DEE respectively, compared to that of diesel at full load. The brake specific nitric oxide (BSNO) emission is found to be lower for both the flow rates, but the brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) emission are found to be higher for the flow rate of 240 g/h compared to 120 g/h of DEE and diesel at full load.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joseph Kazour, Bizhan Befrui, Harry Husted, Michael Raney, Daniel Varble
Abstract Innovative nozzle hole shapes for inwardly opening multi-hole gasoline direct injectors offer opportunities for improved mixture formation and particulate emissions reduction. Compared to increased fuel pressure, an alternative associated with higher system costs and increased pumping work, nozzle hole shaping simply requires changes to the injector nozzle shape and may have the potential to meet Euro 6 particulate regulations at today's 200 bar operating pressure. Using advanced laser drilling technology, injectors with non-round nozzle holes were built and tested on a single-cylinder engine with a centrally-mounted injector location. Particulate emissions were measured and coking deposits were imaged over time at several operating fuel pressures. This paper presents spray analysis and engine test results showing the potential benefits of alternative non-round nozzle holes in reducing particulate emissions and enhancing robustness to coking with various operating fuel pressures.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nicholas Gysel, George Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho
Abstract The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three different biodiesel feedstocks on emissions compared to a baseline CARB ULSD with two heavy-duty trucks equipped with and without aftertreatment technologies. The biodiesels included a soybean oil methyl ester (SME), a waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCO), and a methyl ester obtained from animal fat (AFME), blended at a 50% level by volume with the CARB diesel. The vehicles were equipped with a 2010 Cummins ISX-15 engine with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a 2002 Cummins ISX-450 engine. Both vehicles were tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. For this study, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. In conjunction with these measurements, unregulated emissions, including ammonia (NH3), carbonyl compounds, and light aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for both vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Chinmaya Mishra
Abstract In the present study, ethanol was added in lower proportions to non-edible vegetable oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”, to evaluate various performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder; diesel engine. For engine's trial, four samples were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ethanol in kusum oil (v/v) and the blends were named as E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 respectively. Neat Kusum oil was named as K100. The results indicated that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was found to increase with increase in volume fraction of ethanol in the kusum oil. E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 test fuels exhibited maximum BTE of 25.4%, 26.4%, 27.4% and 27.7% respectively as compared to 23.6% exhibited by the neat Kusum oil. Similarly, full load brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased from 16.3MJ/kWh in case of neat Kusum oil to 15.1MJ/kWh for E20K80 with an almost linear reduction pattern with increased ethanol composition in the test fuel. Full load carbon monoxide emissions were found to be 0.18% volume for neat Kusum oil which was reduced to 0.1% for E20K80.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
S.M. Remmert, R.F. Cracknell, R. Head, A. Schuetze, A.G.J. Lewis, S. Akehurst, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell
Increasingly strict government emissions regulations in combination with consumer demand for high performance vehicles is driving gasoline engine development towards highly downsized, boosted direct injection technologies. In these engines, fuel consumption is improved by reducing pumping, friction and heat losses, yet performance is maintained by operating at higher brake mean effective pressure. However, the in-cylinder conditions of these engines continue to diverge from traditional naturally aspirated technologies, and especially from the Cooperative Fuels Research engine used to define the octane rating scales. Engine concepts are thus key platforms with which to screen the influence of fundamental fuel properties on future engine performance. ‘ULTRABOOST’, a collaborative research project which is co-funded by the Technology Strategy Board (TSB), the UK's innovation agency, is a downsized, highly boosted, 2.0L in-line 4 cylinder prototype engine, designed to achieve 35% CO2 emissions reduction without compromising the performance of a 5.0L V8 naturally aspirated production engine.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Romaeo Dallanegra, Rinaldo Caprotti
Abstract The use of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a means to meet ever more stringent worldwide Particulate Matter/ Particle Number (PM/ PN) emissions regulations is increasing. Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) technology has now been successfully used as an effective system for DPF regeneration in factory and service fill as well as retrofit applications for several years. The use of such a technology dictates that it be stable in long term service and that it remains compatible with new and emerging diesel fuel grades. In order to ensure this, neat additive stability data have been generated in a very severe and highly transient temperature cycle and a large selection of current (Winter 2012) market fuels have been evaluated for stability with this FBC technology. Results indicate that FBC technology remains suitable. The incidence of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDIDs) is increasing, particularly for advanced FIE systems. These deposits generate a variety of field issues that can, in extreme cases, require the fitting of a new set of injectors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Christian Lohfink, Dennis Wiese, Wolfgang Reiser
Abstract Although in the European Union in general no metal containing additives are used, in 2009 a limitation of manganese in gasoline fuel up to 6 mg manganese per liter was introduced in the revised Fuels Quality Directive. In this paper the influences and risks of metal-based additives on the aging of exhaust system components were detected, using the example of the currently allowed manganese content of 6 mg per liter. The legislative endurance test, the Standard Road Cycle (SRC) over the useful life period of 160,000 km conforming to EC Regulation 692/2008 was used. Investigations were carried out with two endurance tests with metal-free-fueled and metal-containing-fueled (reference fuel plus metallic additive) vehicles on a certified chassis dynamometer. The two identical vehicles were both equipped with a typical state of the art downsized DISI engine with Euro 5 application. Euro 5 reference fuel was used as base gasoline. Exhaust emissions were analyzed in fixed intervals over run time in the form of NEDC tests.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jim Barker, Colin Snape, David Scurr
Abstract The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA). The focused ion beam technique coupled with time of flight secondary -ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the ability to provide information on diesel engine injector deposits as a function of depth for both organic and inorganic constituents.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohammed Moore Ojapah, Hua Zhao, Yan Zhang
Abstract In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai
Abstract Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study. The emphasis of the investigation is the correlations of the fuel properties such as cetane number, fuel density, GHV (gross heat value) of combustion and oxygen content with the emissions of smoke, THC and NOx.
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