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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Abstract A low pressure exhaust gas recirculation system (LP EGR system) enables the expansion of the EGR operating area than that of the widely used high pressure EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions can be improved. In order to meet the EU 5 emissions regulations, an exhaust throttle LP EGR system was used. The EU5 vehicles developed using this system have greater merits than other vehicles. However, because the exhaust throttle LP EGR valve is installed adjacent to the after-treatment system, the material of the LP EGR valve itself must be stainless steel in order to withstand the thermal stress, consequently, the cost is increased. Therefore, in order to achieve cost rationalization for EU6 vehicles, an intake throttle LP EGR system is developed and applied to replace the exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In order to apply the intake throttle LP EGR system, the EGR valve is installed in front of the turbo charger compressor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1068
Mohannad Hakeem, Gopichandra Surnilla, Michael Shelby, Christopher House, Jason Williams
Abstract Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different humidity conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in dry and colder climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience a degraded performance due to the errors in engine torque estimation provided by the ECU. The torque estimation error interacts with many other features that affect drivability, such as the peak performance of the engine, transmission shift quality, etc. This paper extends the investigation in Part-1 by analyzing and quantifying the torque estimation error that may result in certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions, due to the mismatch between calibrated and actual conditions. The analysis is mainly performed for Speed-Density systems (MAP sensor based) but the effect of mass air flow sensor (MAF sensor) based systems is also briefly considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1067
Mohannad Hakeem, Gopichandra Surnilla, Christopher House, Michael Shelby, Jason Williams, William Ruona, Naginder Gogna
Abstract Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in colder and dry climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience less-than-optimal engine combustion which results in reduced onroad fuel economy. Humidity has an EGR-equivalent effect, and measuring it will correct the spark timing, mainly at Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) and borderline conditions, and claim back some of those losses. This paper aims at quantifying the small fuel economy benefits associated with on-board humidity measurement for certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions. Dyno data was collected for a Ford 2.3L GTDI engine at three speed load points, and intake air humidity was varied between 20% and 80% relative humidity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
Abstract The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate is a critical parameter of turbocharged diesel engines because it determines the trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. On some heavy duty engines the EGR mass flow is directly measured with a Venturibased sensor and a closed loop control system maintains EGR flow. However, on most light duty diesel engines the EGR mass flow must be estimated. This paper compares two methods for estimating EGR mass flow. The first method, referred to as the Speed Density method, serves as a baseline for comparison and uses sensors for engine speed, intake manifold pressure and temperature, as well as fresh air flow (MAF). The new, second method adds turbo speed to this sensor set, and includes additional engine modelling equations, such as the EGR valve equation and the turbine equation. Special measures are taken to allow the additional equations to execute without issue on production ECMs (Electronics Controls Modules).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1052
Adwitiya Dube, A Ramesh
Abstract Direct injection of fuel has been seen as a potential method to reduce fuel short circuiting in two stroke engines. However, most work has been on low pressure injection. In this work, which employed high pressure direct injection in a small two stroke engine (2S-GDI), a detailed study of injection parameters affecting performance and combustion has been presented based on experiments for evaluating its potential. Influences of injection pressure (IP), injection timing (end of injection - EOI) and location of the spark plug at different operating conditions in a 199.3 cm3 automotive two stroke engine using a real time open engine controller were studied. Experiments were conducted at different throttle positions and equivalence ratios at a speed of 3000 rpm with various sets of injection parameters and spark plug locations. The same engine was also run in the manifold injection (2S-MI) mode under similar conditions for comparison.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Abstract A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0906
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. A fully integrated GT-Power engine model with physics based sub-models was developed to capture any positive or negative synergies between the technologies. The two zone multi-cylinder engine model included typical thermodynamic subroutines, with predictive combustion, flame quench and knock models, along with map-based turbocharger models to capture key combustion and efficiency behaviors. The engine model was calibrated to data from a boosted GDI engine and exercised through one series of current and production viable technology configurations for 2025 regulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Abstract Aerogels are nanoporous structures with physical characteristics that make them promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems: highly porous with low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) - features that provide favorable characteristics for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (∼0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand high temperatures. Aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method employed in this work for aerogel preparation, describes in detail the benchtop scale testbed and methods used to assess the catalytic activity of RSCE fabricated aerogels, and presents data on the catalytic ability of some promising aerogel chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0923
Martin Schneider, Bernd Danckert
Abstract Since the new “Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships” of the International Maritime Organization (IMO; MARPOL Annex VI Tier III) became effective, new technologies in marine applications are needed to fulfill the exhaust-gas limits. The reduction rate of the permissible emissions in the emission control areas (ECA) is about 75 % from Tier II to Tier III. To meet these limits, it is necessary to take additional measures, such as installing a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system. Because harbors are specifically in focus regarding the air quality, a hybrid propulsion system (Diesel-electric) and Exhaust Aftertreatment (EAT) to reduce the emissions and the lifecycle costs by reducing the fuel consumption were planned back in 2012. With the goal in mind of decreasing all relevant emissions, the described compact EAT consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Particulate Matter (PM) removal and a SCR-catalyst.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0924
Shun Nakagawa, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato, Koichi Machida
Abstract The conventional NOx after-treatment system could not perform sufficient NOx removal since exhaust gas temperature falls down by low-fuel-consumption and waste heat recovery of a diesel engine. In order to realize a new after-treatment system with high NOx conversion rate at a low catalyst temperature, studies on adopting an ozone generator (NO oxidization promotion) and a urea reformer (ammonia addition) into the Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system have been conducted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0915
Keld Johansen, Anders Widd, Frank Zuther, Hannes Viecenz
Abstract For trucks today, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalysts are combined in this sequential order in diesel exhaust systems with the drawback of insufficient temperature for the SCR catalyst during cold start and large volume. The problems can potentially be solved by integrating the SCR catalyst into the particulate filter as one multifunctional unit. For off-road and heavy-duty vehicles applications with fully managed passive NO2-soot regenerations, integration of V-based SCR formulations on the DPF (V-SCRonDPF) represents an attractive solution due to high sulfur resistance accompanied by low-temperature NOx conversion and improved fuel economy. Engine bench tests together with an NO2-active DOC show that it is possible to manage the NO2/NOx ratio so both a high NOx conversion and still a low soot balance point temperature is obtained. The soot balance point is almost unaffected by the fast SCR reaction when urea is introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0916
Nebojsa Milovanovic, Shant Hamalian
Abstract The future emission legislations for diesel passenger cars are likely to include more dynamic test cycles than we have today, such as the World harmonized Light duty Testing Cycle (WLTC) and Real Drive Emissions (RDE) in the EU and very challenging SULEV legislations in the USA. In order to meet these emission legislations and challenging CO2 targets, more complex Exhaust Gas After Treatment Systems - EGATS and corresponding calibration strategies are needed. The calibration strategies have to provide the best possible fuel consumption and NOx emissions across the entire engine map for all tested cycles. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of several EGATS configurations and calibrations on tailpipe NOx and CO2 emissions of a D segment vehicle. The experimental results and potential of various EGATS configurations and calibrations for the optimisation of fuel consumption and NOx emissions are presented and discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0918
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, John Storey, James Parks
Abstract Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0912
MohanKumar Subramaniam, Senthilkumar Pachamuthu, Jayanth Arulanandan, Jenoris Muthiya
Abstract Exhaust after treatment devices in diesel engines play a crucial role in control of harmful emissions. The noxious emission released from diesel engines causes a variety of problems to both human beings and the environment. The currently used devices are implemented with new catalyst technologies like DOC, SCR and catalytic converter are all designed to meet stringent emission regulations. Although these devices have considerable conversion efficiency, they are not without drawbacks. The catalysts used in these devices are rarely available and are also very expensive. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is the device currently employed to collect particulate matter. It also has drawbacks like high back pressure, thermal durability restrictions, regeneration issues and poor collection of smaller size particles. In the case of biodiesel these fine sized particles are emitted in larger quantity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0939
Fabian Sonntag, Peter Eilts
Abstract There are numerous methods for accelerated ash loading of particulate traps known from literature. However, it is largely unknown if a combination of these methods is possible and which one generates the most similar ash compared to ash from real particulate filters. Since the influencing variables on the ash formation are not yet fully understood, ashing processes are carried out under carefully controlled laboratory conditions on an engine test bench. The first ashing takes place with low sulfated ash phosphorus and sulfur oil without any methods to increase the quantity of produced ash. The obtained ash is used as a reference and is compared hereinafter with the process examined. Four methods to increase the ash production ratio are investigated. The first one is an increase of the ash content of the lubrication oil through an increase of the additives in the oil. The second one is the additional generation of ash with a burner system where oil is injected into the flame.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0937
James E. Parks, John M. E. Storey, Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Melanie M. Debusk, Samuel A. Lewis
Abstract New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0935
Gerben Doornbos, Stina Hemdal, Daniel Dahl, Ingemar Denbratt
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0932
Masanori Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Nakanishi, Hiroshi Koyama, Syouji Inose, Hiroki Takeori, Takayuki Watanabe, Takeshi Narishige, Tatsuya Okayama, Yukio Suehiro
Abstract Engine technologies using efficient combustion and down-sizing turbo have become important in order to reduce automotive CO2 emissions. However, the exhaust gas temperature also becomes lower by these technologies. As a result, the catalyst performance becomes lower. Therefore it is necessary to develop low temperature active catalysts to reduce emissions. This research was focused on Pd/CeO2, and it’s able to oxidize CO at low temperatures. In order to increase the catalyst activity, the addition of some elements to the CeO2 was studied. Zn addition was found to have an advantage to reduce the CO light off temperature by 60 °C. Then, we tried to clarify the cause of improvement. As a result, it made clear that the Zn addition promotes the active oxygen release from the CeO2 surface. However, repeated engine exhaust gas tests indicated a decline in purification performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles; in the meantime a rapid period of evolving engine developments, the constrained tailpipe regulations and the material supply issues present a unique challenge to the catalyst developers. A key approach here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on the ultra-low PGM levels. In this regard, we mainly focus on the materials design and have developed the advanced spinel oxides for zero precious metals (ZPGM) and synergized precious metals (SPGM) TWCs. These advanced spinel materials showed improved thermal stability compared to that of PGM based standard materials. Fundamental studies on the microstructure of spinel oxide with newly developed composition confirm the aging stability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0931
Akifumi Kawakami, Yuki Fukumi, Masaaki Ito, Shingo Sokawa, Satoshi Sakashita, Mychal Taylor, Mitsuhiro Ito, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kurachi
Abstract Honeycomb substrates are widely used to reduce harmful emissions from gasoline engines and are exposed to numerous thermal shocks during their lifetime making thermal shock resistance one of the key factors in designing honeycomb substrates. More stringent emission regulations will require the honeycomb substrates to be lighter in weight to improve light-off performance and to have better thermal shock resistance than conventional honeycomb substrates to handle higher expected temperature gradients. Thermal shock resistance is generally evaluated on a substrate by evaluating the thermal strain caused by temperature gradients inside the substrate during durability testing [1,2]. During the test, a heated substrate is cooled at a surface face to generate temperature gradients while the temperature inside the honeycomb substrate is monitored by multiple thermocouples.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0930
Yasunari Hanaki, Misaki Fujimoto, Junji Itou
Abstract This paper describes a new catalyst powder has been developed that provides cleaner exhaust emissions and reduces the consumption of precious metals. In recent years, precious metal usage has been increasing due to the tightening of emission regulations and the increase in automobile production worldwide. Minimizing the use of precious metals in exhaust catalysts is crucial not only for reducing the cost of vehicles but also for effective utilization of scarce resources. Iron is one of the alternative material candidates for precious metals. It was found that the Iron catalyst was activated by iron becoming the low oxidation state while iron oxide and cerium oxide synchronized in a nanostructure interface. A catalyst with improved iron support technology that enables better contact between highly dispersed particles of iron and ceria was found to exhibit higher exhaust gas cleansing performance than precious metal catalysts even after aging.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0929
Devin Aryan, Kenneth Price, Thomas Pauly
Abstract There is growing interest in application of SCR on DPF (SDPF) for light and heavy duty applications, particularly to provide improvements in cold start emissions, as well as improvements in system cost and packaging [1, 2, 3]. The first of systems containing SDPF are just coming to market, with additional introductions expected, particularly for light duty and non-road applications [4]. To provide real world testing for a new SDPF product design prior to availability of OEM SDPF applications, an SDPF and one SCR catalyst were substituted in place of the original two SCR catalysts and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) on a Ford F250 HD pickup. To ensure that the on-road emissions would be comparable to the production system replaced, and to make sure that the control system would be able to operate without detecting some difference in behavior and seeing this as a fault, initial chassis dynamometer work was done before putting the vehicle on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0928
Sujay Bagi, Nishant Singh, Rob Andrew
Abstract Ash accumulation in the DPF over life results in reduced soot storage capacity, lower catalytic activity and may even alter substrate properties and lead to higher back-pressure; hence ash-cleaning of the DPF is required periodically to extend the life of the DPF and restore its catalytic performance. Several ash cleaning technologies are available which utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and wet-chemical cleaning techniques or their combinations. A batch of DPFs with various ash accumulation levels were recovered from customer field units. X-ray CT imaging was performed to understand the ash distribution in the DPF channels. Field returned DPFs were tested on Engine Dynamometer to determine the impact on overall system performance loss from fresh state. The DPFs were then cleaned using various cleaning techniques; X-ray imaging and dynamometer testing was repeated to evaluate the performance recovery.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0927
David Culbertson, Magdi Khair, James Pradun, Henning Gero Petry, Anne Ungermann
Abstract Modifications have been made to the calibration and control of Diesel engines to increase the temperature of the exhaust especially in cold weather and part load operation. The main purpose for this advanced calibration is to enable the reduction of emissions by improving catalytic activity. An alternative method for increasing exhaust temperature is providing electric heat. Test results show the feasibility of applying various amounts of electric heat and the related increases in exhaust temperature as well as speed of heating. Simulation modeling extends the application of electric heat to a complete engine map and explores the potential impact on engine performance and emission reduction benefits.
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