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Viewing 241 to 270 of 22873
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0858
Xiaoye Han, Prasad Divekar, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract In this work, an active injection control strategy is developed for enabling clean and efficient combustion on an ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine. The essence of this active injection control is the minimization of the diffusion burning and resultant emissions associated with the diesel injection while maintaining controllability over the ignition and combustion processes. A stand-alone injection bench is employed to characterize the rate of injection for the diesel injection events, and a regression model is established to describe the injection timings and injector delays. A new combustion control parameter is proposed to characterize the extent of diffusion burning on a cycle-to-cycle basis by comparing the modelled rate of diesel injection with the rate of heat release in real time. The test results show that the proposed parameter, compared with the traditional ignition delay, better correlates to the enabling of low NOx and low smoke combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0887
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing, it does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0886
Joseph Pritchard, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The effects of secondary air on the exhaust oxidation of particulate matters (PM) have been assessed in a direct-injection-spark-ignition engine under fuel rich fast idle condition (1200 rpm; 2 bar NIMEP). Substantial oxidation of the unburned feed gas species (CO and HC) and significant reduction of both the particulate number (up to ∼80%) and volume (up to ∼90%) have been observed. The PM oxidation is attributed to the reactions between the PM and the radicals generated in the oxidation of the feed gas unburned species. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the reduction in PM volume is proportional to the amount of heat release in the secondary oxidation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Abstract Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well after achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 °C) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at lower exhaust temperatures encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature of advanced diesel engines with higher fuel efficiency challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept of high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 °C at relevant space velocities (70k h−1). It utilizes high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1022
Jinyong Luo, Hongmei An, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Thomas Watkins, Larry Allard
Abstract In this contribution, nuanced changes of a commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst with hydrothermal aging, which have not been previously reported, as well as their corresponding impact on SCR functions, are described. In particular, a sample of Cu-SSZ-13 was progressively aged between 550 to 900°C and the changes of performance in NH3 storage, oxidation functionality and NOx conversion of the catalyst were measured after hydrothermal exposure at each temperature. The catalysts thus aged were further characterized by NH3-TPD, XRD and DRIFTS techniques for structural changes. Based on the corresponding performance and structural characteristics, three different regimes of hydrothermal aging were identified, and tentatively as assigned to “mild”, “severe” and “extreme” aging. Progressive hydrothermal aging up to 750°C decreased NOx conversion to a small degree, as well as NH3 storage and oxidation functions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1027
David Culbertson, Magdi Khair, Sanhong Zhang, Julian Tan, Jacob Spooler
Abstract SCR cold-start effects are increasingly important for meeting today's emission requirements [1]. A significant challenge toward quickly achieving NOx abatement is the presence of moisture in the catalyst at lower temperatures [1]. This paper describes the ability of an electric heater to effectively raise the temperature of the exhaust and overcome the effect of moisture and low exhaust temperature, allowing NOx conversion to begin sooner. A model of the moisture storage and removal is presented, along with results from engine tests. Results show that it is possible to achieve high NOx conversion temperatures quickly with robust heater technology that is suited for diesel applications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1028
Paul Gaynor, Benjamin Reid, Graham Hargrave, Thomas Lockyer, Jonathan Wilson
Abstract In recent years urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become the principal method of NOx abatement within heavy duty (HD) diesel exhaust systems; however, with upcoming applications demanding NOx reduction efficiencies of above 96 % on engines producing upwards of 10 g·kWh−1 NOx, future diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing systems will be required to operate stably at significantly increased dosing rates. Developing a dosing system capable of meeting the increased performance requirements demands an improved understanding of how DEF sprays interact with changing exhaust flows. This study has investigated four production systems representing a diverse range of dosing strategies in order to determine how performance is influenced by spray structure and identify promising strategies for further development. The construction of an optically accessible hot-air flow rig has enabled visualisation of DEF injection into flows representative of HD diesel exhaust conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0988
Fabien Ocampo, Virginie Harle, Naotaka Ohtake, Renaud Rohe, Barry W.L. Southward
Abstract The reduction of NOx to meet current diesel regulation standards has been achieved using two main technologies named NH3-SCR and LNT. In the forthcoming years, the implementation of new and colder test cycles such as “real driving emissions” (RDE), combined with CO2 targets (95 g/km is 2020 target in Europe) will require higher NOx storage capacity (NSC) in the low temperature region (120-350°C). On the other hand, lean-burn Gasoline vehicles, emitting exhaust gases at higher temperatures, will require improved NSC over a broader temperature range (200-500°C). Therefore, the development of more efficient NSC materials is an area of extensive study by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), catalysts manufacturers, and raw materials suppliers. Today, ceria is a key component in the formulation of active NSC washcoats.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0992
Mojghan Naseri, Ceren Aydin, Shadab Mulla, Raymond Conway, Sougato Chatterjee
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, while discussions are in progress for tightening NOx emissions from HD engines post 2020. This will require increasingly higher NOx conversions across the emission control system and will challenge the current aftertreatment designs. Typical 2010/2013 Heavy Duty systems include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) along with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst, SCR coated on filter (SCRF® hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversions, in combination with improved control strategies.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0993
Timothy V. Johnson
Abstract This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2014. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Non-Road Mobile Machinery regulations for 2019-20 in Europe, and the continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards. An expert panel in India proposed a roadmap through 2025 for clean fuels and tailpipe regulations. LD (light duty) and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% brake thermal efficiency using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. Next, NOx control technologies are summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction), lean NOx traps, and combination systems. Emphasis is on durability and control.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1049
Christopher Depcik
Abstract The growing presence of Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engines along with the prevalence of direct injected Compression Ignition (CI) engines results in the requirement of Particulate Matter (PM) exhaust abatement. This occurs through the implementation of Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). Modeling of GPFs and DPFs are analogous because of the similar flow patterns and wall flow PM capture methodology. Conventional modeling techniques include a two-channel (inlet/outlet) formulation that is applicable up to three-dimensions. However, the numerical stiffness that results from the need to couple the solution of these channels in compressible flow can result in relatively long run times. Previously, the author presented a lumped DPF model using dynamically incompressible flow intended for an Engine Control Unit (ECU) in order to generate a model that runs faster than real time using a high-level programming language.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1048
Per Nicolin, Dominik Rose, Florian Kunath, Thorsten Boger
Abstract The share of gasoline engines based on direct injection (DI) technology is rapidly growing, to a large extend driven by their improved efficiency and potential to lower CO2 emissions. One downside of these advanced engines are their significantly higher particulate emissions compared to engines based on port fuel injection technologies [1]. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are one potential technology path to address the EU6 particulate number regulation for vehicles powered by gasoline DI engines. For the robust design and operation of GPFs it is essential to understand the mechanisms of soot accumulation and oxidation under typical operating conditions. In this paper we will first discuss the use of detailed numerical simulation to describe the soot oxidation in particulate filters under typical gasoline engine operating conditions. Laboratory experiments are used to establish a robust set of soot oxidation kinetics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1053
Jonathan E. Etheridge, Timothy C. Watling, Andrew J. Izzard, Michael A. J. Paterson
Abstract This paper presents a two-part study on the effect of Pt:Pd ratio (at a constant total Pt+Pd loading of 120 g ft−3) on the catalytic performance of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) intended for light-duty applications, covering ratios across the full range from 100% Pd to 100% Pt. (Work on a heavy-duty DOC is presented in SAE 2015-01-1052). The first part of this paper presents a reactor study on the effect of Pt:Pd ratio on the catalytic activity of key reactions occurring individually over the DOC, including the oxidation of CO, C3H6, n-C10H22, CH4 and NO. For some reactions, activity increases continuously with Pt content (oxidation of n-C10H22 and NO); in contrast the activity for CH4 oxidation increases with decreasing Pt content (increasing Pd content), while CO and C3H6 oxidation exhibit more complicated dependencies. The second part presents the development of a one-dimensional model capable of predicting the effect of Pt:Pd ratio on DOC performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1052
Bijesh M. Shakya, Balaji Sukumar, Yaritza M. López-De Jesús, Penelope Markatou
Abstract A combined experimental and modeling study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pt:Pd ratio on the performance of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) for heavy-duty applications1 (PGM<50 g/ft3). In the first part of this work, transient light-off and steady-state experiments were performed over a series of hydrothermally aged DOCs with different Pt:Pd ratios and PGM loadings. It was found that n-decane and NO oxidation activities increased monotonically as the Pt:Pd ratio was increased while the oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (HC) (C3H6 and C7H8) first increased with an increase in Pt:Pd ratio and then plateaued at higher Pt content. In contrast, the CO oxidation exhibited opposite trend, with the catalyst containing low Pt (high Pd) level being more active. The presence of HC lowered the outlet NO2/NOx ratio by reducing the NO2 generated via NO oxidation back to NO. The negative effect of HCs on NO2/NOx ratio increased in the order: C3H6
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1037
Colin L. Weeks, Dan R. Ibeling, Sonia Han, Lindsey Ludwig, Ponnaiyan Ayyappan
Abstract An aqueous urea solution is used as the source of ammonia for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx to reduce the emissions of NOx in the exhaust of diesel vehicles. However, the decomposition of urea into ammonia is not always complete, resulting in solid urea deposit formation in the decomposition tube or on the SCR catalyst. These solid deposits can impede the flow of the exhaust gases (and uniformity of NH3 supply) and reduce SCR catalyst performance over time. To minimize the formation of urea deposit and to meet EPA NOx emission regulations, it is important to understand the chemistry of formation or removal of the deposit in the decomposition tube and SCR catalyst. In this report, IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis have been used to determine the chemical composition of the solid urea deposits formed by the thermal decomposition of urea.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1035
Yanxiang Yang, Bingqian Tan, Changwen Liu, Ping Zhang, Daguang Xi
Abstract A versatile liquid dosing device along with its metering theory, which can be applied to both SCR dosing system and DPF regeneration system of IC engine after-treatment system, is presented in this paper. The device is composed of a solenoid driven plunger pump, a nozzle and a pressure tube, and is pump-end controlled by PWM signals. Both electrically resistive and conductive liquids including DEF for SCR system, fuel for DPF regeneration, and gasoline for spark ignition engine, can be dispensed quantitatively with this device. A metering theory determining the liquid discharged per injection is developed by studying the system using a physical-mathematical model. The study shows that the liquid discharge can be well correlated with a measurable variable T3, which is associated with the net output energy. Experimental investigations verified that the metering results were independent of the state changes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1043
Xian Shi, Reinhard Seiser, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert Dibble, Robert Cattolica
Abstract Steady-state, transient and dithering characteristics of emission conversion efficiencies of three-way catalysts on natural gas IC engine were investigated experimentally on a single-cylinder CFR engine test bench. Steady-state runs were conducted as references for specific engine emission levels and corresponding catalyst capacities. The steady-state data showed that conversion of HC will be the major problem since conversion of HC was effective only for a very narrow range of exhaust mixture. Unsteady exploration runs with both lean-to-rich and rich-to-lean transitions were conducted. These results were interpreted with a time scale analysis, according to which a qualitative oxygen storage model was proposed featuring the difference between oxygen absorption and desorption rates on the palladium catalysts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1042
Ralf Moos
Abstract The state of catalysts and filters plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters. Today, they are determined indirectly and/or model-based, calibrated by gas sensors installed up- or downstream of the catalysts or by a differential pressure sensor. This contribution overviews a novel approach to determine directly the catalyst state by a microwave-based technique. For that purpose, the catalyst housing serves as a cavity resonator. As “sensing” element, one or two simple antennas are mounted in the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device, i.e., of the ceramic honeycomb incl. coating and storage material, can be measured.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1085
Marc C. Besch, Joshua Israel, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Hemanth Kappanna, Daniel Carder
Abstract This study was aimed at experimentally investigating the impact of diesel/natural gas (NG) dual-fuel retrofitting onto gaseous emissions emitted by i) legacy, model year (MY) 2005 heavy-duty engines with cooled EGR and no after-treatment system, and ii) a latest technology engine equipped with DPF and urea-SCR after-treatment systems that is compliant with 2010 US-EPA emissions standards. In particular, two different dual-fuel conversion kits were evaluated in this study with pure methane (CH4) being used as surrogate for natural gas. Experiments were conducted on an engine dynamometer over a 13-mode steady-state test cycle as well as the transient FTP required for engine certification while gaseous emissions were sampled through a CVS system. Tailpipe NOx emissions were observed at a comparable level for diesel and diesel/CH4 dual-fuel operation for the 2010 compliant engine downstream the SCR.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1063
Yi Liu, Changsheng Su, James Clerc, Arvind Harinath, Leigh Rogoski
Abstract One field-returned DPF loaded with a high amount of ash is examined using experimental and modeling approaches. The ash-related design factors are collected by coupling the inspection results from terahertz spectroscopy with a calibrated DPF model. The obtained ash packing density, ash layer permeability and ash distribution profile are then used in the simulation to assess the ash impact on DPF backpressure and regeneration behaviors. The following features have been observed during the simulation: 1 The ash packing density, ash layer permeability and ash distribution profile should be collected at the same time to ensure the accurate prediction of ash impact on DPF backpressure. Missing one ash property could mislead the measurement of the other two parameters and thus affects the DPF backpressure estimation.2 The ash buildup would gradually increase the frequency for the backpressure-based active soot regeneration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1081
Axel Maier, Ulrike Klaus, Andreas Dreizler, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1071
Qi Jiao, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract Due to the upcoming regulations for particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling study to predict soot emissions (both mass and solid particle number) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines was undertaken to provide insights on how and why soot emissions are formed from GDI engines. In this way, better methods may be developed to control or reduce PM emissions from GDI engines. In this paper, the influence of engine operating parameters was examined for a side-mounted fuel injector configuration in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The present models are able to reasonably predict the influences of the variables of interest compared to available experimental data or literature. For a late injection strategy, effects of the fuel composition, and spray cone angle were investigated with a single-hole injector.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0440
Julio Carrera, Alfredo Navarro, Concepcion Paz, Alvaro Sanchez, Jacobo Porteiro
Recent emissions standards have become more restrictive in terms of CO2 and NOx reduction. This has been translated into higher EGR rates at higher exhaust gas temperatures with lower coolant flow rates for much longer lifetimes. In consequence, thermal load for EGR components, specially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during the development. Consequently a new Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA) procedure has been developed in order to calculate durability. The TMA calculation is based on a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation (CFD) in which a boiling model is implemented for obtaining realistic temperature predictions of the metal parts exposed to possible local boiling. The FEM model has also been adjusted to capture the correct stress values by submodeling the critical areas. Life calculation is based on a Multiaxial Fatigue Model that has also been implemented in FEM software for node by node life calculation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0597
Christian Schulz, Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Thorsten Brands, Thomas Huelser, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract Maintaining low NOx emissions over the operating range of diesel engines continues to be a major issue. However, optical measurements of nitric oxide (NO) are lacking particularly in the core of diesel jets, i.e. in the region of premixed combustion close to the spray axis. This is basically caused by severe attenuation of both the laser light and fluorescent emission in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applications. Light extinction is reduced by keeping absorption path lengths relatively short in this work, by investigating diesel jets in a combustion vessel instead of an engine. Furthermore, the NO-detection threshold is improved by conducting 1-d line measurements instead of 2-d imaging. The NO-LIF data are corrected for light attenuation by combined LIF and spontaneous Raman scattering. The quantified maximum light attenuation is significantly lower than in comparable previous works, and its wavelength dependence is surprisingly weak.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1306
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
Abstract Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1034
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Kenneth Price, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly, Lin Wang
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III/Tier III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel (LDD) passenger vehicles. As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible aftertreatment options to find the best balance between performance, durability and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) provided as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), which is an aqueous urea solution 32.5% concentration in weight with water (CO(NH2)2 + H2O), optimum operating temperatures, and optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is most influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts upstream of the SCR catalyst.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 22873

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