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Viewing 241 to 270 of 24398
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0126
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles in the broad context of evolving engine technology; the move to more real-world, transient testing and much tighter tailpipe emissions regulations. The specific context here is the launch of BSVI regulations for gasoline passenger cars in India. The key approach described here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on low PGM levels with the emphasis on new materials technology to significantly alter the functional balance between PGM and “promoters”. We will focus on the design of materials with the spinel structure and have developed catalyst products that synergize low levels of PGM (so-called SPGM) leveraging the key properties of the advanced spinel oxides.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0123
Fabien Ocampo, Naotaka Ohtake, Barry W. L. Southward
Abstract In order to achieve NOx tailpipe targets of current diesel regulation standards two main catalytic technologies have been employed, specifically NH3-SCR and LNT. However both of these technologies face challenges with the implementation of newer / colder test cycles such as “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), combined with CO2 targets (95 g/km is 2020 target in Europe). These cycles will require higher NOx Storage Capacity (NSC) in the low temperature region (120-350°C). Conversely, lean-burn Gasoline vehicles, with their higher operational temperatures, will require improved NSC over a broader temperature range (200-500°C). Therefore, the development of NSC materials to meet these opposing requirements is an area of extensive study by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), washcoaters, and raw materials suppliers. Today, ceria is a key component in the formulation of active NSC washcoats.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0125
Sougato Chatterjee, Mojghan Naseri, Jianquan Li
Abstract The next generation advanced emission regulations have been proposed for the Indian heavy duty automotive industry for implementation from 2020. These BS VI emission regulations will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced PM (Particulate Matter) control along with Particle Number limitations. This will require implementation of full DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and simultaneous NOx control using SCR technologies. DPF technologies have already been successfully implemented in Euro VI and US 10 HDD systems. These systems use low temperature NO2 based passive DPF regeneration as well as high temperature oxygen based active DPF regeneration. Effective DPF and DOC designs are essential to enable successful DPF regeneration (minimize soot loading in the DPF) while operating HDD vehicles under transient conditions. DOC designs are optimized to oxidize engine out NO into NO2, which helps with passive DPF regeneration.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0133
Ashok Kumar, Junhui Li, Jinyong Luo, Saurabh Joshi, Aleksey Yezerets, Krishna Kamasamudram, Niklas Schmidt, Khyati Pandya, Prachetas Kale, Thangaraj Mathuraiveeran
Abstract Advanced emission control systems for diesel engines usually include a combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC). The performance of these catalysts individually, and of the aftertreatment system overall, is negatively affected by the presence of oxides of sulfur, originating from fuel and lubricant. In this paper, we illustrated some key aspects of sulfur interactions with the most commonly used types of catalysts in advanced aftertreatment systems. In particular, DOC can oxidize SO2 to SO3, collectively referred to as SOx, and store these sulfur containing species. The key functions of a DOC, such as the ability to oxidize NO and HC, are degraded upon SOx poisoning. The impact of sulfur poisoning on the catalytic functions of a DPF is qualitatively similar to DOC.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0138
B Sakthivel, R Sridhar, Subin Ansh, B Srinivasan, J Suresh Kumar
Abstract The air pollution is increasing at an alarming rate now a day mainly due to emissions coming out of automotive vehicles. The exhaust emissions gases are hazardous to human health. The increased number of vehicles on road will make the scenario even worse. In order to control the pollution level, the regulatory bodies are now implementing stringent emission norms. In India, the regulatory authorities has framed the transition of BS IV to BS VI emission norms in 2020 by skipping the BS V emission norms which makes the automotive industries to work on more advanced fuel management technologies. It is more tedious to control the tail pipe emissions beyond BS IV emission norms with the conventional carburetor system since it is operating on open loop system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0142
Zahra Nazarpoor, Steve Golden, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract Stricter regulatory standards are continuously adopted worldwide to control heavy duty emissions, and at the same time, fuel economy requirements have significantly lowered exhaust temperatures. The net result is a significant increase in Precious Group Metal (PGM) usage with current Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) technology. Therefore, the design and development of advanced DOC with ultra-low PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvement is necessary. The advanced DOC is synergized PGM (SPGM) with Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO). The presence of MMO in SPGM is responsible for NO oxidation to NO2 which is critical for the passive regeneration of the downstream filter and SCR function. This paper outlines the development of MMO for application in modern DOCs and addresses some specific challenges underlying this application.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0143
Saroj Pradhan, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Pragalath Thiruvengadam, Berk Demirgok, Marc Besch, Daniel Carder, Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy
Abstract Three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles have proven to be an effective alternative fuel strategy that has shown superior low NOx benefits in comparison to diesels equipped with SCR. However, recent studies have shown the TWC activity to contribute to high levels of tailpipe ammonia emissions. Although a non-regulated pollutant, ammonia is a potent pre-cursor to ambient secondary PM formation. Ammonia (NH3) is an inevitable catalytic byproduct of TWCduring that results also corresponds to lowest NOx emissions. The main objective of the study is to develop a passive SCR based NH3 reduction strategy that results in an overall reduction of NH3 as well as NOx emissions from a stoichiometric spark ignited natural gas engine. The study investigated the characteristics of Fe-based and Cu-based zeolite SCR catalysts in storage, and desorption of ammonia at high exhaust temperature conditions, that are typical of stoichiometric natural gas engines.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Abstract Emissions of diesel engine are considered to be harmful to health especially particulate emissions. Therefore, the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPF) were successively forced by government due to reducing the emission limits to a level where inner engine measures are not sufficient anymore. To limit additional fuel consumption by increasing backpressure over the DPF, the collected soot has to be regenerated continuously or discrete by active regeneration. Active regeneration is usually realized by injecting additional fuel either due to the engines injection system into the combustion chamber (late post injection) or via an additional fuel injection device in the exhaust line. This enables increasing exhaust temperature and / or an exothermic reaction in the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the aftertreatment system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0147
Stefan Lueckenbach, Uwe Moser, Bernd Haake, Johannes Frank
Abstract The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0180
Swaminathan Ramaswamy, Christophe Schorsch, Mario Kolar
Abstract Automotive OEMs are adapting various “green” technologies to meet the upcoming and anticipated regulations for reducing direct and indirect GHG emissions equivalent to CO2. Using compact devices and lightweight components on the aggregates, OEMs get the benefit of carbon credits towards their contribution in reducing CO2 emissions. With regards to the HVAC systems, enhancements such as ultra-low permeation hose assemblies and adoption of low GWP refrigerant have shown promising results in reducing the direct GHG emissions by controlling refrigerant permeation & indirect GHG emissions by using compact and high efficiency compressors, compact heat exchangers, and other technologies that contribute to weight reduction and ultimately impact CO2 emissions. Traditional AC lines are routed/installed in space that accommodates the relative movement between the engine and chassis by connecting the various parts.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0032
Anuroopa Varsha, Andreas Rainer, Prabhu Santiago, Ramdas Umale
Abstract Modern day diesel engines use systems like Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Variable Geometric Turbo Charger (VGT), inlet throttle for air regulation, multiple injection strategies, high pressure rail systems for fuel regulation to optimize the combustion for meeting the strict emission and fuel consumption demands. Torque based ECU structures which are commonly used for diesel engines require a large amount of calibration work. Conventional manual methods for emission and fuel consumption optimization (Full factorial or Line search method) results in increased test bed usage and it is almost impossible to use these methods as the number of parameters to optimize are very high. The conventional DoE tests have been limited by the necessity of calibration engineer’s expertise and manual prescreening of test points to be within thermal & mechanical limits of engine systems. This subsequently leads to excessive screening of variables; which is time consuming.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0030
Sudhi Uppuluri, Ajay M Naiknaware, Hemant R Khalane
Abstract With the upcoming regulations for fuel economy and emissions, there is a significant interest among vehicle OEMs and fleet managers in developing computational methodologies to help understand the influence and interactions of various key parameters on Fuel Economy and carbon-di-oxide emissions. The analysis of the vehicle as a complete system enables designers to understand the local and global effects of various technologies that can be employed for fuel economy and emission improvement. In addition, there is a particular interest in not only quantifying the benefit over standard duty-cycles but also for real world driving conditions. Present study investigates impact of exhaust heat recovery system (EHRS) on a typical 1.2L naturally aspirated gasoline engine passenger car representative of the India market.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0039
A Abhilash Reddy, J M Mallikarjuna
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are now trending in automobile field because of good fuel economy and low exhaust emissions over their port fuel injection (PFI) counter parts. They operate with a lean stratified mixture in most of conditions. However, their performance is dependent on mixture stratification which in-turn depends on fuel injection pressure, timing and strategy. But, the main challenge to GDI engines is soot and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, they can be reduced by employing multi-stage fuel injection strategy. Therefore, in the present work, an effort has been made to study the effect of fuel injection parameters on soot emissions of a GDI engine using the CFD analysis. In addition, the study is also extended to evaluate the performance, combustion and other emission characteristics of the engine. First the engine is modelled using the PRO-E software. The geometrical details of the engine are obtained from the literature.
2017-01-07
Article
Schaffler Group engineers stepped 'out of the box' to develop a new type of e-vehicle aimed at transporting people and goods within the crowded cities of the future
2017-01-06
Article
Active flow control devices based on electric plasmas can smooth the turbulent wakes that sweep off the rear edges of truck trailers travelling at highway speeds.
2017-01-05
WIP Standard
AIR7521
This document summarizes a number of guidance values and measured values in published literature for Substances listed in ARP4418.
2016-12-29
WIP Standard
ARP5718B
This document describes: a. the preparatory steps to test experimental Type II, III, and IV fluids according to AMS1428; b. the recommendations for the preparation of samples for endurance time testing according to ARP5485; c. a short description of the recommended field spray test; d. the protocol to generate draft holdover time guidelines from endurance time data obtained from ARP5485; e. the protocol for inclusion of Type II, III, and IV fluids on the FAA and Transport Canada lists of fluids and the protocol for updating the lists of fluids; f. the role of the SAE G-12 Aircraft Deicing Fluids Committee; g. the role of the SAE G-12 Holdover Time Committee; h. the process for the publication of Type II, III, and IV holdover time guidelines. This document does not describe laboratory testing procedures. This document does not include the qualification process for AMS1424 Type I fluids.
2016-12-22
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using E10 gasoline (10% ethanol mixed with pump gasoline). Performance technologies that are presented include: • Engine Design: application of the four-stroke engine • Applications to address both engine and track noise • Exhaust After-treatment to reduce emissions The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
2016-12-20
Article
Researchers from Iowa State University are expanding fundamental materials studies into research and development of new, all-solid-state technology for batteries.
CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
AIR6212
This document collates the ways and means that existing sensors can identify the platform’s exposure to volcanic ash. The capabilities include real-time detection and estimation, and post flight determinations of exposure and intensity. The document includes results of initiatives with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Transport Canada, various research organizations, Industry and other subject matter experts. The document illustrates the ways that an aircraft can use existing sensors to act as health monitoring tools so as to assess the operational and maintenance effects related to volcanic ash incidents and possibly help determine what remedial action to take after encountering a volcanic ash (VA) event.
2016-12-12
WIP Standard
AIR6130A
14-day material test to determine the cyclic effects of runway deicing compounds on cadmium plated parts.
2016-12-07
Article
Christopher Grundler, the Director of OTAQ for the U.S. EPA, answered questions about Phase 2 rule-making for heavy trucks, global harmonization of emissions regulations, and his outlook for a new national NOx standard. Grundler will be the featured speaker on opening day of the SAE 2017 Government/Industry Meeting taking place January 25-27 in Washington D.C.
2016-12-02
Article
London Mayor Sadiq Khan unveiled the world’s first double-decker hydrogen bus at the end of November as part of a commitment to phase out purchase of new pure diesel buses in the capital's fleet beginning in 2018.
2016-12-02
Magazine
Autonomous plows ahead Agriculture, construction, mining-even marine-are advancing autonomous technology to improve the productivity and safety of vehicles on the job. Expediting engine design Simulation tools drive development of the most complex, fuel- efficient and powerful engines ever seen in off-highway applications. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce vehicles and their high-tech systems are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. The future is not so far-off Enhanced Cat 3500 engine boosts power 20%, trims fuel usage by 10% Phase 2 GHG rules driver for advanced technology, alternative fuels Eaton demonstrates waste heat recovery, variable valve actuation for HD diesels Hyliion develops add-on hybrid system for semi-trailers that reduces fuel consumption by 30% Tech-heavy Iveco Z Truck concept spawns 29 patents EPA's Grundler talks Phase 2 regs
2016-12-01
Article
Ford is to introduce a cylinder deactivation version of its 3-cylinder EcoBoost triple. It will enter production by early 2018 and it is expected to deliver up to a 6% fuel saving with associated CO2 emissions reduction.
2016-11-18
WIP Standard
J100
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
2016-11-16
Magazine
Focus on advanced safety systems and human-factor interventions The impact of REACH on the aviation sector Considered the most comprehensive chemical-regulation legislation to date, REACH presents serious ramifications for the aircraft industry. Lightweighting: What's Next? Experts weigh in on the challenges and future enablers in the battle to reduce vehicle mass. The best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles and improved fuel efficiency via advanced powertrain solutions are pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Autonomous solutions in agriculture Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Zero-emissions electric aircraft: Theory vs. reality
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
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