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2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2874
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
Abstract Using lift axles enables fleet to increase the load capacity of a vehicle, eliminating the need for multiple trips, thus reducing operational costs. In a project to assess the potential of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by lifting axles on unloaded semi-trailers, lift axle regulations in various jurisdictions and the studies that led to these regulations were analyzed. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) was used for fuel consumption track test evaluations. The tests were conducted on unloaded two-axle van semi-trailers, four-axle van semitrailers, and B-trains, and resulted in fuel savings of 1.3% to 4.8%, depending on vehicle configuration and the number of axles lifted during the test.
2015-09-22
Article
French start-up Adgero aims to retrofit rail-compatible semi-trailers with ultracapacitor-based hybrid drive units. The Adgero Hybrid System, it is claimed, is the first kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) for heavy-duty trucks.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2395
Vikhyat Chaudhry, Ishan Mishra
Abstract This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2400
Craig Lawson, Irfan Madani, Ravinka Seresinhe, Devaiah K. Nalianda
Abstract With the rapid growth in passenger transportation through aviation projected to continue into the future, it is incumbent on aerospace engineers to seek ways to reduce the negative impact of airliner operation on the environment. Key metrics to address include noise, fuel consumption, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide emissions, and contrail formation. The research presented in this paper generates new aircraft trajectories to reduce these metrics, and compares them with typical scheduled airline operated flights. Results and analysis of test cases on trajectory optimization are presented using an in-house aircraft trajectory optimization framework created under the European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative, Systems for Green Operation Integrated Technology Demonstrator. The software tool comprises an optimizer core and relatively high fidelity models of the aircraft's flight path performance, air traffic control constraints, propulsion and other systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2426
Anupam Kumari, Tushar Choudhary, Y Sanjay, Pilaka Murty, Mithilesh Sahu
Abstract In comparison to other thermal power cycles, gas turbine based energy conversion cycles exhibit superior thermodynamic performance as well as reduced emission. Gas turbine manufacturers and research & development (R&D) organizations are working on modification in basic gas turbine (BGT) cycle, which are intended to improve the basic gas turbine cycle thermodynamic performance and reduce emissions. The present work reports a comparison of thermodynamic performance, NOx and CO emission for basic and intercooled gas turbine (IcGT) cycles. Various cycle operating parameters such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), combustor-primary-zone-temperature, equivalence-ratio, and residence time of gas turbine based cycles has been examined. IcGT cycle exhibits higher gas turbine specific work and gas turbine efficiency in comparison to BGT cycle for the same rp,c and turbine rotor inlet temperature.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2477
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract This paper presents the conceptual design of a new low-cost measurement system for the determination of pollutant concentrations associated with aircraft operations. The proposed system employs Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and passive electro-optics equipment installed in two non-collocated components. The source component consists of a tuneable small-size and low-cost/weight LIDAR emitter, which can be installed either on airborne or ground-based autonomous vehicles, or in fixed surface installations. The sensor component includes a target surface calibrated for reflectance and passive electro-optics equipment calibrated for radiance, both installed on an adjustable support. The proposed bistatic system determines the column-averaged molecular and aerosol pollutant concentrations along the LIDAR beam by measuring the cumulative absorption and scattering phenomena along the optical slant range.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2484
Michele Trancossi, Antonio Dumas, Guido Niccolai, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper focuses on the key problem of future aeronautics: which relates on energy efficiency and environmental footprint on a scientific point of view. Reducing emissions and increasing the energy efficiency would be both a key element to propel the market and increase the diffusion of personal aerial transport against ground transportation. Novel vehicle concepts and systems will be necessary to propel this innovation which could revolutionize our way of moving. This paper approaches an energetic preliminary design of a vehicle concept which could fulfill this social and cultural objective. Low cost energy efficient vehicles, which could be suitable for personal use with a high economic efficiency and without needs of airports, seem actually a real dream. Otherwise, is it a feasible goal or a scientific dream? Otherwise, a design method based on first and second law and thermodynamic and constructal law could allow reaching those goals.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2562
Tak W. Chan, Wajid Chishty, Craig Davison, David Buote
Abstract This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.
2015-09-10
Book
Charles Lu, Srikanth Pilla
This set consists of three books, Design of Automotive Composites, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications all developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites focuses on the latest use of CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) methods in design and failure analysis of composite materials and structures, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications, focuses on processing and characterization of biocomposites, their application in the automotive industry and new perspectives on automotive sustainability. Together, they are a focused collection providing the reader with must-read technical papers, hand-picked by the editors, supporting the growing importance of the use of composites in the ground vehicle industry. Dr. Charles Lu is H.E.
2015-09-09
Article
A Schaeffler-developed electric powertrain faces the grueling demands of motorsports competition during the upcoming second season of FIA Formula E racing.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2390
Shashi Aithal, Stefan Wild
Abstract Design and optimization of automotive engines present unique challenges on account of the large design space and conflicting constraints. A notable example of such a problem is optimizing the fuel consumption and reducing emissions over the drive cycle of an automotive engine. There are over twenty design variables (including operating conditions and geometry) for the above-mentioned problem. Conducting design, analyses, and optimization studies over such a large parametric space presents a serious computational challenge. The large design parameter space precludes the use of detailed numerical or experimental investigations. Physics-based reduced-order models can be used effectively in the design and optimization of such problems.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2391
Dimitris Tsokolis, Stefanos Tsiakmakis, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Anastasios Kontses, Zisis Toumasatos, Georgios Fontaras, Athanasios Dimaratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Marotta, Zissis Samaras
The paper describes the development of a modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were selected. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary data for the validation of the vehicle simulation models. In order to minimize the sources of uncertainty and the effects of flexibilities, a reference “template model” was developed to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the above mentioned template model. The various components and sub-modules of the models, as well as their input parameters, have been defined with the support of the respective OEMs.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2388
Jordan Rudloff, Alessio Dulbecco, Gregory Font
IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) has a large experience in the development of engine simulation platforms. During the last decade, the Dual Flame Model (DFM), a physical 0-dimensional (0D) combustion model designed for Diesel applications, was developed and continuously improved. The DFM formalism allows to represent quite precisely the in-cylinder combustion process scenario, by accounting for the first order relevant physics impacting fuel oxidation. First of all, this allows to account for the impact of engine actuators on combustion (e.g. injection systems performing complex injection strategies, Low Pressure and High Pressure EGR loops,…) and then to describe the pollutant emissions formation processes, being chemical kinetics strongly dependent on the in-cylinder thermochemical conditions. The aim of this communication is to present the potential of using the DFM model in the different stages of a Diesel engine development process for pollutant emissions optimization.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2396
Philippe Moreau, Patricia Valerio, Alain Brillard, Valerie Tschamber, Jean-Francois Brilhac, Yves Hohl, Regis Vonarb, L. Germanese, B. Courtalon
Abstract We present an experimental and modelling methodology developed at LGRE research laboratory to characterize soot oxidation in the presence of different atmospheres (NO2, NO2/O2), simulating passive regeneration which occur in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Based on this methodology which aims at deriving the kinetic parameters for soot combustion, the thermal reactivity of different soot has been studied and compared. Soot were produced from a prototype Liebherr engine and on an engine dynamometer at R&D Moteurs company, under two engine cycles and for two different fuels. Small soot masses (15-30mg) were deposited on the quartz frit of the reactor and submitted to a gas flow (NO2 or NO2/O2), under different temperatures. The mole fractions of NO2, NO, CO2 and CO at the reactor outflow were measured by infrared analyzers. The soot oxidation rate and the sample remaining mass were deduced from CO/CO2 emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2408
Nicola Giovannoni, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Francesco Pulvirenti
Abstract In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2433
Anders N. Johansson, Petter Dahlander
Among many techniques used for increasing fuel efficiency of a modern Gasoline Direct-Injected (GDI) engine are boosting and stratified operation. In modern downsized GDI engines, boosting is standard in order to achieve a high power output. Boosted GDI-engines have however mostly been operated in homogenous mode and little is known on the effects of operating a boosted GDI-engine in stratified mode. This paper presents the influence on combustion, standard emissions and particulate size distribution in a Spray-Guided, Gasoline, Direct-Injected (SGDI), single cylinder, research engine operated with various levels of boost. The engine was operated in steady state mode at five engine operating points of various load and speed. The engine was boosted with a Roots blower and operated at four levels of boost as well as atmospheric pressure for comparison. The engine was fueled with market gasoline (95 RON) blended with 10% ethanol.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2445
Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In this paper, a detailed analysis of combustion and emissions is carried out on both metal and optical light duty diesel engines equipped with up-to-date combustion architecture. Both engines were fed with glycerol ethers mixture (GEM) in blend (10% and 20% v/v) within a commercial diesel fuel. The engines ran in significant operating points in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) emission homologation area. The results of the experimental campaign on the metal engine show comparable performances between the diesel/GEM blends and the diesel fuel and demonstrate benefits mainly in terms of soot production. The exhaust particles diameters of diesel/GEM blends shift toward smaller dimensions and the total number decreases. Moreover, at lower load conditions, the outputs show a worsening of the unburnt mainly ascribable to the fuel characteristics.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2468
Kar Mun Pang, Hiew Mun Poon, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan, Jesper Schramm
Abstract This work concerns the modelling of soot formation process in diesel spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The key aim is to investigate the soot formation characteristics at different ambient temperatures. Prior to simulating the diesel combustion, numerical models including a revised multi-step soot model is validated by comparing to the experimental data of n-dodecane fuel in which the associated chemistry is better understood. In the diesel spray simulations, a single component n-heptane mechanism and the multi-component Diesel Oil Surrogate (DOS) model are adopted. A newly developed C16-based model which comprises skeletal mechanisms of n-hexadecane, heptamethylnonane, cyclohexane and toluene is also implemented. Comparisons of the results show that the simulated liftoff lengths are reasonably well-matched to the experimental measurement, where the relative differences are retained to below 18%.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2482
Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Sebastian Lorenz, Dieter Brueggemann
Finite fossil energy sources and carbon dioxide as a main cause for climate changes are still under critical discussion. Therefore, scientists work on the replacement of fossil by alternative diesel fuels from biomass. Hence, in this study the in-cylinder combustion and particle number emissions of di-n-butyl ether (DNBE), as a representative of second generation biofuels, and of reference diesel fuel (B0) for comparison were analyzed by several measurement techniques at different injection and boost pressures. The heat release rate and thus the ignition delay as well as the center of combustion were analyzed by monitoring the global in-cylinder pressure signal using a pressure sensor. The combustion process was also visualized by simultaneous imaging of the hydroxyl radical and a spectral range of soot luminescence. This allows the analysis of the in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2485
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Christian Schulz, Philipp Adomeit, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2486
Ajay Singh Verma, M. Muzaffarul Hasan, Ashish Karnwal, Vipul Vibhanshu
Abstract The continuous growth of population and development of industries give rise to massive increase in the global energy demand in recent years. Therefore present work investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of an unmodified four stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine utilizing isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol)-diethyl ether blends with diesel. The different fuel samples were prepared using 10% isopropyl, alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD15), 15% isopropyl alcohol, 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD20) and 20% isopropyl alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD25) with neat standard diesel. All experiment tests were performed with at variable compression ratio 17 and 18 at different load conditions. The effect of blends and compression ratio on combustion parameters viz. peak cylinder pressure and rate of heat release along with exhaust emissions CO, CO2, HC and NOx, were investigated.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2488
Martin Pechout, Ales Dittrich, Martin Mazac, Michal Vojtisek-Lom
Abstract Butanol, which can be produced from biomass, has been suggested as an alternative to ethanol, due to its higher energy density, lower oxygen content and more favorable hygroscopic and corrosive properties. In the Czech Republic, E85 is widely sold at fuel stations and used in ordinary vehicles, both with and without aftermarket control units. This work investigates the potential of ordinary automobiles to run on butanol, and the associated effects on exhaust emissions under real driving conditions. A Škoda Felicia car with a throttle body injection and a Škoda Fabia car with a multi-point port injection have been run on gasoline and its mixtures with up to 85% volume of ethanol, of n-butanol, and of isobutanol (2-methyl-1-propanol). An auxiliary control unit has been used with higher alcohol content. On each fuel, each car was driven 5-6 times along a local test route.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2503
Philippe Moreau, Patricia Valero, Valerie Tschamber, Alain Brillard, Jean-Francois Brilhac, Yves Hohl, Regis Vonarb
Abstract The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible vanadium emissions from different commercially available vanadium-based SCR monoliths. The vanadium sublimation was studied at laboratory scale using a monolith sample (16 mm diameter × 19 mm long). Vanadia vapors were disposed on an alumina bed placed downstream the catalyst sample, in the hot zone of a furnace. Experiments were carried out with a space velocity of 42 000 h−1. The reactive gas flow was composed of 5%O2, 5%H2O, 500ppm NO and 500ppm NH3. Catalyst samples and alumina bed were exposed to this reactive gas flow during 10 hours at 500°C, 600°C, 650°C, 675°C, 700°C and 750°C, successively. After each test, alumina samples were mineralized from HNO3, HF and HCl mixture. The digests were then diluted with high purity water prior, to ICP-MS analysis. The results revealed that, for full body type catalysts, sublimation of vanadium increases in a significant way from an exposure to the reactive gas flow at 675°C.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2501
Thomas Laible, Stefan Pischinger, Bastian Holderbaum
Abstract Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2505
Maria Rosaria Gaballo, Maria Giodice, Alberto Diano, Fabio Fersini, Francesco Miccolis, Soenke Mannal, Stefan Motz
Abstract The world of diesel is becoming more technically complex due to the increasingly restrictive legislation regarding emissions, fuel consumption, and real driving emissions evaluations (RDE). Simulation provides a mechanism for the investigation and optimization of diesel engine performance, new engine concepts, RDE, and after-treatment design. This can contribute to solve the problems that the restrictive legislation creates. In addition to these generally valid capabilities of simulations, our model development is focused on the mission to use correctly sized models to reduce the usage of resources and make simulation an even more rapid and cost effective method. In this contribution, we present our approach for simulation as an advanced integrated tool capable of answering challenging questions presented by emission and fuel consumption reduction in future legislation frameworks.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2506
Paolo Iodice, Adolfo Senatore
Nowadays, due to catalyst improvements and electronic mixture control of last generation vehicles equipped with internal combustion engine, the most significant part of the total emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons takes place during the cold phase, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, with a clear consequence on air quality of urban contexts. The purpose of this research, developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II with reference to an European background, is a deeper analysis of the engine and after-treatment system behaviour within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions: a methodology was developed and optimized to evaluate the cold transient duration, the emitted quantities during the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2504
Gerben Doornbos, Emma Adams, Per-Anders Carlsson, Daniel Dahl, Mats Laurell, Håkan Schyllander, Par Gabrielsson, Milica Folic, Ingemar Denbratt, Magnus Skoglundh
Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions. Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests. The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2490
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines, that is blended with gasoline, typically. Moreover, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling in order to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000, 4000, and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the European homologation urban driving cycle.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2497
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Carlo Beatrice, Chiara Guido, Nicola Del Giacomo, Leonardo Pellegrini, Pietro Scorletti
Abstract The present paper describes the results of a research activity aimed at studying the potential offered by the use of Hydrocracked fossil oil (HCK) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blends as premium fuels for next generation diesel engines. Five fuels have been tested in a light duty four cylinder diesel engine, Euro 5 version, equipped with closed loop control of the combustion. The set of fuels comprises four experimental fuels specifically formulated by blending high cetane HVO and HCK streams and oneEN590-compliant commercial diesel fuel representative of the current market fuel quality. A well consolidated procedure has been carried out to estimate, for the tested fuels, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) vehicle performance by means of the specific emissions at steady-state engine operating points.
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