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Viewing 241 to 270 of 23234
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1720
Anurag Durve, Jyotirmoy Barman, Rizwan Khan
Abstract Direct injection compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in light duty applications but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. Alternate fuels, particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbocharged, intercooled, DI diesel engine has been alternatively fuelled with biodiesel and its 20% blend with commercial diesel. The effect of biodiesel addition to diesel on engine performance, combustion, and emissions were studied in a turbocharged, high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Biodiesel/diesel blends with different biodiesel fractions were used and compared with neat biodiesel and diesel at different engine loads and speeds.
2016-03-24
Article
In this Q&A, Toyota Technical Center President Seiya Nakao discusses future mobility development, technical innovation, Toyota's recent reorganization, and the ever-changing automotive engineering profession.
2016-03-23
Article
Cummins, MTU, and Deutz, among others, offer a preview of the technology they're developing to meet the European Union’s Stage V emissions regulations for off-highway equipment that could commence in 2019.
2016-03-18
Article
U.S. market sales for diesel-engine vehicles increased 4.2% in 2015, despite a drop in diesel car models available for sale as a result of VW's emissions scandal.
2016-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9073
S. Kent Hoekman, Amber Broch
Abstract Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an octane-boosting gasoline additive that has been used for over 50 years. This usage has been controversial; particularly in modern gasoline vehicles equipped with advanced emissions control systems. There is concern that extended use of MMT will lead to build-up of Mn-containing deposits on engine and emissions system components, thereby adversely affecting vehicle emissions performance and durability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the effects of MMT on gasoline vehicles, with an emphasis on modern, Tier 2 vehicles. Numerous test programs have been conducted - including wide ranges of vehicle model years, technology types, and testing conditions. The reported MMT effects over this body of literature are not consistent.
2016-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9152
Satoshi Asami, Toshihiko Shiraishi
Abstract High hydrocarbon emissions during the cold start period is a wellrecognized challenge that has increasing importance in moving towards green vehicles. A model-based controller is a helpful way to reduce cold start hydrocarbon emissions. In our previous work, a model-based controller for a Spark-Ignition engine and an after-treatment system have been developed by using the balanced truncation technique. In this work, the objective was to determine whether balanced truncation surpasses the other model reduction methods. Guyan reduction was selected to compare with balanced truncation for reducing both a linear structural model and the linearized cold start model. An interpretation of the inner domain in Guyan reduction was determined for the linearized cold start model.
2016-03-07
Article
Eaton’s high-pressure 35NG hose and low-pressure NG-TW hose for compressed natural gas (CNG) applications are certified to ANSI NGV 4.2 Class A and D, and ANSI NGV 3.1 Class B and C.
2016-03-03
Article
SDCmaterials will partner with Car Sound and supply the company with Nano-on-Nano material for its catalytic converters, using substantially less precious metal.
2016-03-03
Standard
J2683_201603
This SAE Standard applies to Carbon Dioxide R-744 refrigerant used to service motor vehicle passenger air-conditioning (A/C) systems designed to use CO2 (R-744). Hermetically sealed, refrigerated cargo systems are not covered by this document.
2016-02-29
Article
Ford begins its switch in April. GM expects most models to have R-1234yf by late 2016. And Mercedes is fitting an onboard fire-suppression system to allay engineers' fears of potential fire danger.
2016-02-29
WIP Standard
AIR6418
The scope of this document will consider a broader range of contaminants than ARP4418. In addition, it may provide guidance for measuring on wing, as well as in test cells, Finally, it may also discuss transient measurements, as well as steady state measurements.
2016-02-22
Article
Expert presenters at the 13th annual SAE Hybrid & EV Symposium agreed vehicle hybridization minimally will need to become mainstream technology in order for OEMs to meet pending global CO2 emission requirements.
2016-02-19
Article
easyJet has set new targets for 2020 that will contribute to a reduction of 7% over the next five years compared to ‎it‎s emissions today.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-04
Article
A University of Delaware research team is developing technologies aimed at ending the reign of high-cost platinum fuel cell stacks.
2016-02-02
Article
Intertek’s Milton Keynes Transportation Technologies laboratory has developed a portable vehicle exhaust emissions testing system that enables manufacturers to report real-world driving emissions.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0164
Arunkumar Madeswaran, Balasubramanian Natarajasundaram, Bhavanakumar Ramamoorthy
Abstract In Modern Passenger Car Braking system, Disc brake plays a vital role in providing better performance and safety, in which brake pads are most critical part to decide the overall brake performance. In such brake pads, there are some technical challenges such as wear rate, abnormal noise & environmental issues with existing asbestos material. Hence we made a research to furnish suitable eco-friendly & cost effective solution. The main objective of this paper is to introduce asbestos-free automotive organic brake pad. Our research work intends to make organic brake pad by using natural fibre with organic ingredients such as kenaf and other composite materials in right proportion. Kenaf fibre is one of the natural fibres, which will improve heat resistance and strength of the brake pad. Initially, kenaf fibre is mixed with other composite materials and compacted at an optimal pressure by using hand-press machine.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0148
Garima Kushwaha, Samir Saraswati
Abstract Unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission results because part of the fuel inducted into the engine escapes combustion. HC emission is dependent on many mechanisms such as adsorption and desorption of fuel in oil layer, flame quenching, fuel escaping into crevices and accumulation of fuel in engine deposits, etc. Out of these, the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism contributes to about 25-30% of total engine-out HC emissions. In this work adsorption/desorption mechanism is studied considering the engine to be fueled with different fuels. The fuel adsorbed/desorbed in lubricating oil is modeled with a one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE). One dimension PDE is chosen as the transverse flow across the oil film is considered to be negligible. The PDE is solved using finite difference explicit scheme in which the space derivatives and the time derivatives are approximated with a second order central difference method and forward Euler method, respectively.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0153
Anand Krishnan Manoharan, B. Ashok, Saravanan Kumarasamy
Abstract Alternative fuels for both spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have become very important owing to increased environmental protection concern, the need to reduce dependency on petroleum and even socioeconomic aspects. An appropriate sustainable fuel alternative has turn out to be a main concern and bio-diesel is one of the sustainable fuels. The path of interest in biodiesel has highlighted its advantages which include decrease in hydrocarbon and particulate matter. Meanwhile its shortcoming includes higher emission of oxides of nitrogen. This work is an attempt to develop a mathematical relationship to predict thermal NOx in CI engine fuelled with neat biodiesel. Attention was focused on using in-cylinder pressure based variables to predict NOx. In cylinder pressure measurement is a valuable tool for the analysis of CI engine combustion, which is used for finding the heat release rate, ignition delay, etc.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0152
A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, P Sakthivel, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuel for gasoline engines to tackle the problems associated with nation’s energy security and environmental pollution. Ethanol can be used as a sole fuel or gasoline blending component for use in spark ignition engines. BIS Specification 2796: 2013 permitted to blend 10% ethanol in gasoline and the concentration may be further increased in coming years in India. Research on combustion of ethanol blended gasoline on modern gasoline engine is highly desirable. This paper highlights the experimental investigation carried out on the latest generation multipoint fuel injection system passenger car engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends in a climatic controlled test cell to study the in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Part load tests at regular speed intervals were conducted using ethanol blends. Combustion duration decreased with increase in engine load and speed for the all test fuels.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0102
Vinayak Jadhav, Shubham Kanchan, Sukrut Thipse, Kishorkumar Kavathekar, Ashwin Dsouza, Shailesh Sonawane
Abstract Environmental pollution has proven to be a big threat to our eco-system and pollution from automobiles using conventional fuels is a major contributor to this. Alternative fuels are the only immediate option that can help us counter the ever rising environmental pollution. In today’s date we cannot directly replace an IC engine, so the most efficient option available is using a fuel that can work with the IC engines other than gasoline and diesel. CNG proves to be the most promising fuel. A diesel engine converted to stoichiometric CNG engine was used for optimization. The paper deals with the improvement of engine power from 50HP to 60HP and up-gradation of the emission from BS-III to BS-IV norms of a multi-cylinder naturally aspirated engine. This was achieved by varying the compression ratio, valve-lift profile, intake plenum volume, runner length, spark-advance timing, fuel injection location, exhaust pipe length and catalytic converter selection.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0140
Chinmaya Mishra, Naveen Kumar, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar
Abstract In the present experimental investigation, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel-biodiesel blends and antioxidant containing biodiesel test fuels was carried out. The potential suitability of aromatic amine based antioxidants to enhance the oxidation stability of biodiesel on one hand and reduction of tail pipe oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the other were evaluated. Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) was considered as the antioxidant and Calophyllum Inophyllum vegetable oil was taken as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The test fuel samples were neat diesel (D100), 10% and 20% blend of Calophyllum biodiesel with diesel (CB10 and CB20) and 1500 ppm of TBHQ in CB10 and CB20 (CBT10 and CBT20). The results indicated that neat biodiesel blended test fuels (CB10 and CB20) exhibited lower brake thermal efficiency compared to the diesel baseline by a margin of 3% to 10% at full load.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0143
K. Krishnamoorthy, V. Saishanker
Abstract With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0142
A S Ramadhas, Hongming Xu
Abstract Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0023
Pravesh Chandra Shukla, Tarun Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0252
Aravind Vadiraj
Abstract This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
2016-01-25
Article
Motiv Power Systems and Creative Bus partner to build a zero emission all-electric school bus. The new Starcraft e-Quest XL will have a range of 85 mi (137 km) and be capable of a 50% charge within 2 hrs.
2016-01-20
Article
A significant chunk of Audi's €24B technology investment will be in automated/autonomous systems. Chairman Stadler provides details.
2016-01-15
Journal Article
2015-01-9044
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang
Abstract A real-time mean-value engine model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque and pollutant emissions, including NOx and soot, has been developed, calibrated and assessed at both steady-state and transient conditions for a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The chemical energy release has been simulated using an improved version of a previously developed model that is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure has been evaluated on the basis of the inversion of a single-zone model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was derived starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls. NOx and soot emissions were simulated on the basis of semi-empirical correlations that take into account the in-cylinder thermodynamic properties, the chemical energy release and the main engine parameters.
2016-01-11
Article
The clean-sheet Pacifica bristles with innovations, including a plug-in hybrid variant featuring FCA's in-house engineered EVT.
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