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Viewing 211 to 240 of 24398
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1018
Gianluca Padula, Philipp Schiffmann, Matthieu Lecompte, Olivier Laget
The growth of ground vehicle traffic has a detrimental effect on health and environment. NOx are at the origin of respiratory diseases. Consequently, the emission of NOx, among other pollutants, are more and more limited by stringent emission standards. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one consolidated after-treatment technique to reduce the emissions of NOx. The system currently used consists in the injection of an urea water solution (UWS) upstream a catalytic converter. The use of such liquid ammonia precursors presents different problems, pointed out in several studies. Indeed, The temperature required to release NH3 is high, causing problems especially during cold operations, with a consequent undesired wall-film formation, due to the lack of evaporation. The cycles of heating and cooling cause a solid deposit formation, that affects the performance and the durability of the system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1282
Ashish Jaiswal, Tarun Mehra
Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressurizing the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0596
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Fabrizio Ponti
Upcoming more stringent emission regulations throughout the world represent a real challenge, especially in case of Diesel systems for passenger cars, where the need of additional aftertreatment has a big impact in term of additional system cost and available packaging space. Therefore, the need for strategies that allow managing combustion towards lower emissions, that require a precise control of the combustion outputs, is definitely increasing. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains many information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. A recent research from the same authors of this paper demonstrated that the combustion noise in particular can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1322
Kunihiko Yoshitake, Hiroyuki Tateyama, Atsushi Ogawa
It is essential for cars to display a level of waterproofness that enables them to drive over a flooded road without stalling or other negative consequences. A project seeking to replace driving tests on flooded roads by simulation has developed a simulation technology using the VOF method. It was demonstrated that appropriately imparting the degree of change in vehicle speed and vehicle height and the engine intake amount during the test as the simulation conditions makes it possible to reproduce the pattern of water infiltration and the amount of water infiltration resulting from differences in the shape and the position of the intake ports.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0364
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Vasyl Mateichyk, Yurii Gutarevych, Mykola Tsiuman, Nataliia Goridko
Abstract The article suggests the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the engine heating system with a phase-transitional thermal accumulator when the vehicle is in motion in a driving cycle. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the vehicle heating system within thermal accumulator and catalytic converter under operating conditions. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gases to accumulate energy during engine operation. The article describes the methodology to evaluate vehicle fuel consumption and emission in the driving cycle according to the UNECE Regulation № 83-05. The methodology takes into account the environmental parameters, road conditions, the design parameters of the vehicle, the modes of its motion, thermal state of the engine cooling system and the catalytic converter.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0284
Anand Subramaniam, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand Deshpande
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0234
Arun Narayanan, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract In Earth Moving Machines, performance of an attachments play crucial role in determining the machine performance. Application of the machine is one of the main factors to be considered for bucket design. Different types of buckets are offered in the market to suit the particular application. Trenching, digging, moving loose material are some of the operations done with the backhoe bucket. While operating in these areas bucket handles intact soil, granules, loose rocks etc. Properties of these materials play important role in bucket design methodology. In this paper efforts are made towards understanding the properties of soil along with soil failure mechanism and utilizing these inputs to design a backhoe bucket for better machine productivity. Mathematical modeling and Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) are the tools used for design and validation of this work.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0053
Sumit Rawat, Kumar Patchappalam, Abhijit Sahare
Abstract BSIV implementation for commercial vehicle in pans India effectively from April 2017. It’s very challenging job for performance and emission engineer to meet engine performance & fuel economy with stringent emission norms for high power and torque density HD diesel engine. In Altitude, lack of air availability & combustion energy passes by mechanical waste gate, lead to lower boost at partial load in waste gate region; which in turn leads to poor engine performance & fuel efficiency and higher turbo speed. To control the turbocharger design speed limit various methodologies adopted like engine derating or optimizing the combustion parameters leads to poor vehicle performance. Combustion parameter optimsation is having limited scope for turbocharger speed control.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0043
Peter Heuser, Stefano Ghetti, Devising Rathod, Sebastian Petri, Sascha Schoenfeld
Abstract The Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emission legislation will come into force in 2020, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, cost and development time. Solutions for the EURO VI on-road legislation in Europe, from which the BS-VI limits are derived, have been developed and have already been implemented. To a certain level these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, several market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a very strict timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this paper, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the exhaust aftertreatment side. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0042
Subhanker Dev, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Sanjeev Gothekar, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract With the announcement, as per draft notification GSR 187 (E) dated 19th Feb 2016 issued by MoRTH (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways), on vehicle emission standards to leapfrog from BS IV to BS VI by 2020, diesel engines would be greatly facing challenges to meet the stringent emission requirements of 90% reduction in PM and 50% reduction in NOx emissions simultaneously. Up to BS IV, in-cylinder strategies utilizing higher fuel injection pressure, higher intake boost, lower to moderate EGR, optimized combustion chamber design and lower intake manifold temperature would be sufficient. But meeting emission levels at BS VI levels would require a combination of both in-cylinder combustion control and after treatment system [1]. However, unlike Europe and US markets where wide spread adoption of after treatment solution is viable, for Indian market it would be impeded by infrastructure availability, system cost and cost of ownership.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0056
Suramya Naik, David Johnson, Laurence Fromm, John Koszewnik, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, Neerav Abani
Abstract The government of India has decided to implement Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards from April 2020. This requires OEMs to equip their diesel engines with costly after-treatment, EGR systems and higher rail pressure fuel systems. By one estimate, BS-VI engines are expected to be 15 to 20% more expensive than BS-IV engines, while also suffering with 2 to 3 % lower fuel economy. OEMs are looking for solutions to meet the BS-VI emissions standards while still keeping the upfront and operating costs low enough for their products to attract customers; however traditional engine technologies seem to have exhausted the possibilities. Fuel economy improvement technologies applied to traditional 4-stroke engines bring small benefits with large cost penalties. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, emissions standards with much improved fuel economy at lower cost is the Opposed Piston (OP) engine.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0052
Gopalakrishna Acharya, K.A. Subramanian, R K Malhotra
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. Buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0063
Parashuram R Chitragar, K V Shivaprasad, G N Kumar
Abstract Hydrogen’s combustion properties made it as a gifted fuel and energy carrier to combat the current scenario of depletion of the fossil fuels and crisis of environmental pollution problems. Its superior thermo physical properties and least toxic emissions are favorable to use it in an internal combustion (IC) engine as an alternative fuel. This paper describes an experimental analysis of performance and emission parameters for a four cylinder, four stroke SI engine by supplementing hydrogen fraction with gasoline. Tests were carried out by using hydrogen fraction from 0-10% in step of 2% by volume. Study revealed an improvement in brake power, efficiency and brake specific energy consumption up to 8% hydrogen fractions in comparison with gasoline operation while volumetric efficiency decreased for all hydrogen fractions. Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC) emissions were reduced and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) was slightly increased for all hydrogen fractions than gasoline.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0074
Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Divesh Bhatia, Viresh Dutta, Lalit Mohan Das, Srinivas Jilakara, GP Subash
Abstract Air pollution caused by vehicular tail pipe emissions has become a matter of grave concern in major cities of the world. Hydrogen, a carbon free fuel is a clean burning fuel with only concern being oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed. The present study focuses on the development of a hydrogen powered multi-cylinder engine with low NOx emissions. The NOx emissions were reduced using a combination of an in-cylinder control strategy viz. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and an after treatment method using hydrogen as a NOx reductant. In the present study, the low speed torque of the hydrogen engine was improved by 38.46% from 65 Nm to 90 Nm @ 1200 rpm by operating at an equivalence of 0.64. The higher equivalence ratio operation compared to the conventional low equivalence ratio operation lead to an increase in the torque generated but increased NOx as well.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0073
B Ashok, K Nantha Gopal, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal, Sushrut Alagiasingam, Suryakumar Appu, Aravind Murugan
Abstract With the alarming increase in vehicular population, there is depletion of fossil fuel availability. Hence to overcome the difficulties, alternative fuels are tested and used in parts of the world. One of the difficulties with usage of alternate fuels is their high viscosity in comparison to fossil fuels. To overcome this, preheating of biofuel is a good option as it makes the fuel less viscous. In our research, we have used a helical coil heat exchanger to preheat the inlet fuel using the engine’s exhaust gas, making the system more sustainable since no external energy is used. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of preheating device a simulation study has been carried for the ethanol based biofuels. For simulation work, a set of boundary conditions has been arrived based on the experimental analysis. The results from the experiment such as velocity of air and fuel inlet were utilized as input for simulation work.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0072
Moqtik Bawase, M R Saraf
Abstract Utilization of higher ethanol blends, 20% ethanol in gasoline (E20), as an alternate fuel can provide apparent benefits like higher octane number leading to improved anti-knocking properties, higher oxygen content resulting in complete combustion. Apart from technical benefits, use of ethanol blends offer certain widespread socioeconomic benefits including option of renewable source of energy, value addition to agriculture feedstock resulting in increase in farm income, creation of more jobs in rural sector and creating job at local levels. Use of higher blends of ethanol can reduce dependence on foreign crude leading to substantial savings in cost of petroleum import. The impact of higher Gasoline-Ethanol blend (E20), on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known for assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for the complete design life of the system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0107
Monanshi Gupta, Yasser Rafat, M. Saad Alam
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as zero emission vehicles because of no exhaust emissions (tailpipe emission). But electric power generation contributes in the well to wheel emissions. Hence, Electric vehicle cannot be regarded as completely pollution free. In Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles, the pollution is from both the tailpipe (exhaust pipe) and from the well to wheel (extraction of the gasoline in this case). Tailpipe emissions are taken in compliance with Bharat stage emission standards. Standard emissions of CO2, NOx, PM and CH from refineries, during extraction of fuel (gasoline/diesel), are considered for well to wheel emissions. In this work a comparative study of tailpipe and well to wheel emissions from EVs and ICE vehicles is carried out. Three vehicle categories namely; Heavy Duty Vehicles, Passenger cars and 2 wheelers and four major pollutants, namely; CO2, NOx, PM and CH (hydrocarbons) are taken into consideration.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0110
Lasse Moklegaard, Amitabh Saran
Abstract Truck and car manufacturers are required to satisfy certain emission standards while driving regulatory prescribed driving cycles on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. In India, the requirement is to use the regulatory Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC), derived from the European Driving Cycle. The MIDC is a modal driving cycle with protracted periods at constant speed and uniform acceleration and deceleration patterns. It does not emulate typical road driving. In this study we instrument vehicles with off-the-shelf On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) loggers to record actual drive data. The recorded vehicle speed profiles are then used as inputs for the vehicle simulation model we develop. The simulation model uses vehicle speed as an input and then calculates power required at the wheel, gear box, and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) for the vehicle to achieve the measured speed profile. We use Willans Approximation to model the ICE fuel flow based on torque and speed.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0119
Ragupathi Soundara Rajan, Vijay Sharma, Ashraf Emran, Devising Rathod, John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt, Thomas Körfer
Abstract The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0118
Satoshi Sumiya, David Bergeal, Kenan Sager
Abstract The Indian government has announced that India will skip BS V legislation and move to BS VI from 2020. In order to meet this NOx emission standard, most vehicles will need to adopt either NOx Storage Catalyst (NSC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). It is shown that these two devices have different NOx reduction temperature windows and different sulfur tolerance. In the LDD application, it is highly important to deal with NOx in the low temperature region directly after a cold start. NSC works in this region with better performance than SCR, but its sulfur tolerance is weaker than SCR. To improve the weakness in low temperature NOx control on SCR, SCRF® which is SCR coated Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was developed and it demonstrated an advantage in light-off performance, due to the advantage in temperature conditions, by minimizing heat loss upstream of the SCR device.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0121
Grigorios C. Koltsakis, Ioannis Kandylas, Vaibhav Gulakhe
Abstract Modern ‘DOC-cDPF’ systems for diesel exhaust are employing Pt-, Pd- as well as Pt/Pd alloy- based coatings to ensure high conversion efficiency of CO, HC even at low temperatures. Depending on the target application, these coatings should be also optimized towards NO2 generation which is involved in low temperature soot oxidation as well as in SCR-based deNOx. Zeolite materials are also frequently used to control cold-start HC emissions. Considering the wide variety of vehicles, engines and emission targets, there is no single optimum coating technology. The main target is therefore to maximize synergies rather than to optimize single components. At the same time, the system designer has nowadays a wide range of technologies to choose from, including PGM alloyed combinations (Pt/Pd), multiple layers and zones applicable to both DOCs and DPFs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0120
Kevin Hallstrom, Sandip D. Shah
Abstract The legislative decision to accelerate the implementation of regulations requiring advanced emissions control in India have accelerated the need to advanced emissions control systems. Particulate filters and NOx abatement technology will be needed to meet the new BSVI standards. Integration of these emission control technologies into engine design poses new challenges to the Indian Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Industry. Each new market that implements advanced emission regulations faces challenges that are unique to the local regulation, the local vehicle design, and the local operating conditions. This paper will review the technology options available for BSVI, their strengths and weaknesses, and potential system designs. Additionally this paper will review how critical design factors such as filter regeneration conditions, duty cycle temperatures, and urea injection can affect the system design and catalyst selection.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0113
Azael J. Capetillo, Fernando Ibarra, Dominik Stepniewski, Jo Vankan
Abstract Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have become the preferred technology to deal with NOx emissions in Diesel engines. Their efficiency is highly reliant, among other factors, on the uniformity of distribution - known as Uniformity Index (UI) - of NH3 which is injected into the system through a urea-water solution (UWS). SCR system make use of a mixer component designed to achieve the desired UI levels. However, the great variety of exhaust systems, makes it impossible to employ a universal solution. Therefore, each SCR system requires of a tailor made mixer, capable of achieving the required UI, while preventing urea crystallisation and minimising pressure drops. Computer fluid dynamics (CFD) tools together with optimisation techniques based on the design of experiments (DoE) can be used to obtain the appropriate mixer design.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0117
Matti A Harkonen, Alok Trigunayat, Arvind Kumar, Bosco Rajan
Abstract Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), typically with engine displacement volume of less than 1.5L are an integral part of the India’s automobile sector as they are one of the most preferred means of transportation in rural as well as urban India. This market has always been on the rise as a result of rising population, growing commercialization, increasing commercial activities, etc. which are all contributing to the increased demand for intra city transportation. The passenger LDVs such as the three wheeler segment dominates the market as the need for affordable passenger commutation is higher than the need for goods carriage within a city. With BS VI norms slated to be implemented in 2020, it becomes imperative to understand, plan and work out strategies to meet these norms effectively on the Indian roads & actual Indian driving behavior, especially for these LDVs.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0116
Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
Abstract With Bharat Stage VI (BSVI) regulations on the horizon [3],[4]tighter particulate matter (PM) regulations will require the use of wall flow diesel particulate filters for on-road heavy duty (HD) diesel engines in India. The Indian HD vehicle market is very cost sensitive, especially with the majority of engine displacement being less than 7L [5] therefore, after treatment cost plays a significant role in design of the system. Robust wall flow diesel particulate filter solutions with the ability to deliver high filtration requirements required for particle number regulations can be designed in a cost-efficient manner. In this paper advanced design for diesel particulate filters with pressure drop, ash capacity, regeneration, and filtration performance are discussed. Corning’s asymmetric cell technology (ACT) was created to improve ash capacity and reduce pressure drop and has the potential to downsize up to 45%.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0128
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Ketan Krishnamurthy, David Blanco, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Körfer
Abstract Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0127
Antoine Lacarriere, Thierry Seguelong, David Spivey, Ashish DAS
Abstract India is moving to Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) from 2019 significantly lowering particulate mass (PM) , particle number (PN) and Nitrogen Oxides NOx emissions limits, as well as Carbon Dioxide CO2. BSVI’s particulate limits will require the use of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which will need to operate properly under the driving conditions prevalent in India. Furthermore, NOx and CO2 emissions control will include advanced combustion modes with advanced fuel injectiontechnologies based on high pressure fuel injection and smaller injector holes, in combination with active NOx reduction measures. These advanced technologies will increase sensitivity to fuel quality, so will require tighter control of sulfur content, water contamination, fuel stability, lubricity and corrosion. These are real challenges for the robustness and durability of strategies developed for BS-VI and beyond.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0132
Abhilash Jain, Jyotirmoy Barman, Kumar Patchappalam, Srikanth Gedela
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction has established itself to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typically, in this technology, aqueous urea solution is injected into hot exhaust stream which chemically decomposes to form ammonia and then reacts with NOx to form safe byproducts as H2O and N2 over the catalyst surface. However, incomplete thermal decomposition of urea not only reduces the NOx conversion efficiency and increases the ammonia slip, but also leads to the formation of solid crystals that adversely affect the performance of the system by increasing the back pressure and lowering the overall fuel economy. The present study discusses about the main reasons that lead to crystal formation in a vanadium based SCR system on a six cylinder 5.6l diesel engine and also design considerations of decomposition tube that affect the formation of crystals and ways to mitigate them.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0124
Vikram Betageri, R Mahesh
Abstract BS VI or Euro VI Norms mandates the RDE emission compliance for the diesel commercial vehicles. Development of the engine- after treatment system for meeting these requirements needs a greater insight into the emission behavior of the vehicle under current norms i.e. BS IV and Euro V. In other words, quantifying the on road emission of current vehicle will be helpful in developing engine/vehicle for RDE emission compliance. In the current study, the focus is on the assessment of real road NOx emission of a BS IV and Euro V complaint diesel commercial vehicle. The real road emissions of vehicle have been quantified using the onboard NOx sensor mounted on the after treatment system outlet along with a validated exhaust gas model developed and parameterized in engine control unit. The real road NOx emissions were compared with the test bench emissions for various conditions.
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