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Viewing 211 to 240 of 24446
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0940
Jesus Emmanuel De Abreu Goes, Louise Olsson, Malin Berggrund, Annika Kristoffersson, Lars Gustafson, Mikael Hicks
Abstract Even though substantial improvements have been made for the lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst in recent years, the durability still remains problematic because of the sulfur poisoning and sintering of the precious metals at high operating temperatures. Hence, commercial LNT catalysts were aged and tested in order to investigate their performance and activity degradation compared to the fresh catalyst, and establish a proper correlation between the aging methods used. The target of this study is to provide useful information for regeneration strategies and optimize the catalyst management for better performance and durability. With this goal in mind, two different aging procedures were implemented in this investigation. A catalyst was vehicle-aged in the vehicle chassis dynamometer for 100000 km, thus exposed to real conditions. Whereas, an accelerated aging method was used by subjecting a fresh LNT catalyst at 800 °C for 24 hours in an oven under controlled conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0931
Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Joseph Ulrey
Abstract While not commonly in production today, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are likely to see widespread deployment to meet stringent EU6.2 and China particulate number (PN) standards. In many ways the operating conditions for GPFs are orthogonal to those of their diesel counterparts, and this leads to different and interesting requirements for the control strategy. We will present some generic system architectures for exhaust systems containing a GPF and will lay out an architecture for the GPF control strategy components which include: regeneration assist feature, soot estimation algorithm, GPF protection. The regeneration assist feature uses spark retard to increase exhaust temperature. The soot estimation algorithm describes how we can estimate soot from an open loop model or from a normalized pressure metric. The GPF protection feature controls oxygen flow to limit the soot burn rate.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0930
Christine K. Lambert, Timothy Chanko, Mark Jagner, Jon Hangas, Xin Liu, James Pakko, Carl Justin Kamp
Abstract To meet future particle mass and particle number standards, gasoline vehicles may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. Soot levels for gasoline engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can potentially cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) during rapid aging cycles and at real time low mileages, and compare the filter performances to both fresh and very high mileage filters. Current rapid aging cycles for gasoline exhaust systems are designed to degrade the three-way catalyst washcoat both hydrothermally and chemically to represent full useful life catalysts. The ash generated during rapid aging was low in quantity although similar in quality to real time ash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji Yabuzaki
Abstract In the near future, particulate number (PN) regulations, including the Euro 6 regulations, will be going into effective and becoming more stringent around the world targeted at gasoline engine vehicles. There is a type of particulate filter that has used for diesel engine vehicles, as a means to satisfy PN regulations. There are two types of particulate filters. One is a “bare” or “adding-type” GPF that is uncoated with catalyst, and the other is a replaceable-type GPF that is coated with catalyst. The replaceable-type GPF (coated GPF) has advantages in terms of cost-performance, installation space, and lower level of pressure drop, compared to the uncoated GPF. The three main functions required for a coated GPF are, an improvement of three-way catalytic performance, lowering of pressure drop, and PN filtration efficiency improvement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0927
Carl Justin Kamp, Shawn Zhang, Sujay Bagi, Victor Wong, Greg Monahan, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang
Abstract Diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment components, especially the diesel particulate filter (DPF), are subject to various modes of degradation over their lifetimes. One particular adverse effect on the DPF is the significant rise in pressure drop due to the accumulation of engine lubricant-derived ash which coats the inlet channel walls effectively decreasing the permeability of the filter. The decreased permeability due to ash in the DPF can result in increased filter pressure drop and decreased fuel economy. A unique two-step approach, consisting of experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations using ultra-high resolution 3D imaging data, has been utilized in this study to better understand the effects of ash accumulation on engine aftertreatment component functionality.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0983
Masaaki Ito, Frank Katsube, Yasuhiko Hamada, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Asako
Abstract Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles back in 2011[1]. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is significant factor for the above-mentioned PN regulation. This filter technology is to be continuously evolved for the near future tighter PN regulation. Generally, PN filtration performance test for filter technology development is carried out with chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer or simulator [2]. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN filtration performance test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0997
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Luis Sousa, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte
Abstract The gap between regulated emissions from vehicle certification procedures and real-world driving has become increasingly wider, particularly for nitrogen oxides (NOx). Even though stricter emission regulations have been implemented, NOx emissions are dependent on specific, short-duration driving events which are difficult to control, therefore high concentrations of these pollutants are still being measured in European cities. Under certification procedures, vehicle emissions compliance is evaluated through standards, recurring to driving cycles performed on chassis dynamometer under controlled laboratory conditions. Different countries use different standard cycles, with the US basing their certification cycle on FTP-75 and Europe using NEDC (Euro 5/6c)/WLTP (Euro 6d).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor, Allen Aradi
Abstract The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Abstract Over half of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. To analyze the potential impact of cross-sector cooperation in reducing these emissions, we formulate a bi-level optimization model where the transportation sector can purchase renewable energy certificates (REC) from the electricity generation sector. These RECs are used to offset emissions from transportation in lieu of deploying high-cost fuel efficient technologies. The electricity generation sector creates RECs by producing additional energy from renewable sources. This additional renewable capacity is financed by the transportation sector and it does not impose additional cost on the electricity generation sector. Our results show that such a REC purchasing regime significantly reduces the cost to society of reducing GHG emissions. Additionally, our results indicate that a REC purchasing policy can create electricity beyond actual demand.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0682
Yuedong Chao, Haifeng Lu, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Yuan Shen, Shuang Yuan
Abstract In this paper comparisons were made between the fuel economy improvement between a High Pressure loop (HP) water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and a Low Pressure loop (LP) water-cooled EGR system. Experiments were implemented on a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine in two pars. One was EGR rate as single operating point to compare the different effect of HP- and LP-EGR. The other was mini map from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 14bar because of the relative narrow available range of HP-EGR system. In consideration of practical application of EGR system, the coolant used in this experiment was kept almost the same temperature as in real vehicles (88±3°C) instead of underground water temperature, besides a model was built to calculate constant volume ratio (CVR). The results indicated that the effect of HP-EGR was weaker than that of LP-EGR under the same EGR rate, which could be seen from change of combustion parameters.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0920
Jean P. Roy, Ahmed Ghoniem, Robert Panora, Joseph Gehret, Bruce Falls, David Wallace, Daniel Ott
Abstract All vehicles sold today are required to meet emissions standards based on specific driving cycles. Emissions standards are getting tighter and the introduction of real driving tests is imminent, potentially calling for improved aftertreatment systems. A dual stage catalyst system, with exhaust temperature control, can provide a robust solution to meet challenging modes of operation such as rapid acceleration and other heavy-duty transients. The Ultera® technology, developed and successfully implemented on stationary natural gas CHP (Combined Heat and Power) engines, introduces a second stage catalyst downstream of a three-way catalyst. Air is injected between the two stages to provide oxygen required for the second stage reaction that removes additional CO and NMOG. Critical to the process is to avoid the reformation of NOx.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0599
Yichao Guo
Abstract Misfire is generally defined as be no or partial combustion during the power stroke of internal combustion engine. Because a misfired engine will dramatically increase the exhaust emission and potentially cause permanent damage to the catalytic converters, California Air Resources Board (CARB), as well as most of other countries’ on-board diagnostic regulations mandates the detection of misfire. Currently almost all the OEMs utilize crankshaft position sensors as the main input to their misfire detection algorithm. The detailed detection approaches vary among different manufacturers. For example, some chooses the crankshaft angular velocity calculated from the raw output of the crankshaft positon sensor as the measurement to distinguish misfires from normal firing events, while others use crankshaft angular acceleration or the associated torque index derived from the crankshaft position sensor readings as the measurement of misfire detection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1319
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
Abstract A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1316
Dhaval Vaishnav, Mohsen Ehteshami, Vylace Collins, Syed Ali, Alan Gregory, Matthew Werner
Abstract A jet pump (also known as ejector) uses momentum of a high velocity jet (primary flow) as a driving mechanism. The jet is created by a nozzle that converts the pressure head of the primary flow to velocity head. The high velocity primary flow exiting the nozzle creates low pressure zone that entrains fluid from a secondary inlet and transfers the total flow to desired location. For a given pressure of primary inlet flow, it is desired to entrain maximum flow from secondary inlet. Jet pumps have been used in automobiles for a variety of applications such as: filling the Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) with liquid fuel from the fuel tank, transferring liquid fuel between two halves of the saddle type fuel tank and entraining fresh coolant in the cooling circuit. Recently, jet pumps have been introduced in evaporative emission control system for turbocharged engines to remove gaseous hydrocarbons stored in carbon canister and supply it to engine intake manifold (canister purging).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters to the engine compartment and sometimes reaches the position of the air intake duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is an effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion route. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to become smaller and the undercover tends to become bigger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine compartment becomes higher and causes an increase of the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is causing a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of a water level prediction method in engine compartment while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multibody and fluid dynamics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1327
Prashant Khapane, Vivek Chavan, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1543
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian Gaylard, Jose Escobar
Abstract Vehicle rear and side body soiling has been a concern since the earliest cars. Traditionally, soiling has been seen to be less importance than vehicle aerodynamics and acoustics. However, increased reliance on sensors and cameras to assist the driver means that there are more surfaces of the vehicle that must be kept clean. Failure to take this into consideration means risking low customer satisfaction with new features. This is because they are likely to fail under normal operating conditions and require constant cleaning. This paper numerically investigates features known to have an influence on side and rear face soiling with a demonstration vehicle. These changes include rim design, diffuser strakes and diffuser sharpening. While an exhaustive investigation of these features is beyond the scope of this study, examples of each feature will be considered.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1322
Kunihiko Yoshitake, Hiroyuki Tateyama, Atsushi Ogawa
Abstract Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0918
Joseph R. Theis, Andrew Getsoian, Christine Lambert
Abstract In anticipation that future gasoline engines will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150°C after high mileage aging. A reactor was set up at Ford to follow the catalyst testing protocols established by the USDRIVE ACEC tech team for evaluating catalysts for stoichiometric gasoline direct-injection (S-GDI) engines; this protocol specifies a stoichiometric blend of CO/H2, NO, C3H6, C2H4, C3H8, O2, H2O, and CO2 for the evaluations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0953
Jinyong Luo, Yadan Tang, Saurabh Joshi, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
2017-03-21
Article
AAM technology chief Phil Guys talks about the new Quantum family of drive axles that deliver up to 40% mass reduction and 40% lower parasitics than incumbent axles.
2017-03-17
Article
Commercial vehicles are beginning to adopt alternative energy sources, but the transition remains slow. Batteries and an array of renewable fuels are seeing more usage, but costs and infrastructure remain hindrances for these fragmented technologies.
2017-03-17
Article
The auto industry and other stakeholders have begun digesting the SAE guidebook’s recommended practices,
CURRENT
2017-03-17
Standard
J1455_201703
The scope of this Recommended Practice encompasses the range of environments which influence the performance and reliability of the electronic equipment designed for heavy duty on and off road vehicles, as well as any appropriate stationary applications which also use these vehicle derived components. A few examples of such vehicles are on and off highway trucks, trailers, buses, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment including implements.
2017-03-15
Article
Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that a 12V machine on a small car could achieve over 60% of the energy recovery of a complex full hybrid system, obviating the need for an additional high-voltage battery pack, DC-DC converter and associated control systems.
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