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Viewing 211 to 240 of 22418
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stephen Johnson, Peter Croswell, Michael Smith
Abstract “Zoning” a catalytic converter involves placing higher concentrations of platinum group metals (PGM) in the inlet portion of the substrate. This is done to optimize the cost-to-performance tradeoff by increasing the reaction rate at lower temperatures while minimizing PGM usage. A potentially useful application of catalyst zoning is to improve performance using a constant PGM mass. A study was performed to assess what the optimum ratio of front to rear palladium zone length is to achieve the highest performance in vehicle emission testing. Varying the zone ratio from 1:1 to 1:9 shows a clear hydrocarbon performance optimum at a 1:5.66 (15%/85%) split. This performance optimum shows as both a minimum in FTP75 non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions as well as a minimum in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide light-off temperature. Overall, an improvement of 18%, or 11 mg/mi of combined NMOG+NOx emissions was obtained without using additional PGM. This study shows how the competing forces of active PGM site concentration and available surface area interact in modern three way catalyst design.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seung-Jae Yi, Hyung Kee Kim, Sergio Quelhas, Christopher Giler, Dinh Dang, Sang Beom Kim
Abstract A SULEV proposal was investigated for a Hyundai Elantra 1.8L Nu Engine, combining advanced catalyst technologies with optimized engine management control. A washcoat system using 20% less PGM loading and an optimized EMS calibration were developed to meet the 50% development target of the LEV III SULEV30 standards. This paper highlights revisions made to the new control and catalyst systems which include, 1) improved light-off time and cold-start emissions, 2) optimized cold lambda control, 3) reduced number of fuel cut events, 4) a new catalyst technology to match exhaust gas characteristics, and 5) a Pd-only front catalyst with reduced PGM.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Da Yu Wang, David M. Racine, Harry Husted, Sheng Yao
Abstract NOx aftertreatment is an essential subsystem to enable diesel and lean gasoline engines to meet emissions regulations. A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, which uses urea to create ammonia (NH3) for NOx reduction, is one popular form of NOx aftertreatment system. These urea based NOx aftertreatment systems can benefit from closed-loop control when appropriate NH3, NOx, or NO2 exhaust gas sensors are available. For example, knowing exhaust NO2 emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst can help the urea dosing strategy to maximize the efficiency of a urea SCR system. Such sensing capability, combined with ammonia sensing, can provide enhanced closed-loop control of the SCR system as well as information for on-board diagnosis. This paper covers Delphi's progress in developing an exhaust NO2 sensor. Sensor data from a synthetic gas bench and from engine testing is presented for four NO2 sensors, along with investigations into the sensor's sensitivity to a variety of relevant factors such as oxygen concentration, humidity, and operating temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Achombili Asango, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler
Abstract The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature. Particle size effects are more significant for high soot content.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Ming Huo, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and their characteristics suitable for clean combustion, are considered potential fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. As such, n-butanol has received a lot of attention in this regard and has shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is one of the major methods to produce bio-butanol. The goal of this study is to investigate the combustion characteristics of the intermediate product in butanol production, namely ABE, and hence evaluate its potential as an alternative fuel. Acetone, n-butanol and ethanol were blended in a 3:6:1 volume ratio and then splash blended with pure ethanol-free gasoline with volumetric ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% to create various fuel blends. These blends were tested in a port-fuel injected spark-ignited (SI) engine and their performance was evaluated through measurements of in-cylinder pressure, and various exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Nicole Davis, James Lents
Abstract Engine manufacturers have explored many routes to reducing the emissions of harmful pollutants and conserving energy resources, including development of after treatment systems to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the engine exhaust, using alternative fuels, and using alternative fuels with after treatment systems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one alternative fuel in use and this paper will discuss emission measurements for several LPG vehicles. Regulated emissions were measured for five school buses, one box truck, and two small buses over a cold start Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (CS_UDDS), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Central Business District (CBD) cycle. In general, there were no significant differences in the gas phase emissions between the UDDS and the CBD test cycles. For the CS-UDDS cycle the total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are higher than they are from the UDDS cycle. Methane and carbon monoxide emissions are also higher, but the difference isn't as pronounced.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge
Abstract Compressed natural gas (CNG) is widely used as an alternative option in spark ignition engines because of its better fuel economy and in part cleaner emissions. To cope with the haze weather in Beijing, about 2000 gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxis are servicing on-road. According to the government's plan, the volume of alternative fuel and pure electric vehicle will be further increased in the future. Thus, it is necessary to conduct an evaluation on the effectiveness of alternative fuel on curbing vehicular emissions. This research examined the regulated emissions and particulate matter of gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxi over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emission tests in gasoline- and CNG-fuelled, cold- and warm-start modes were done for all five taxies. Test vehicles, Hyundai Elantra, are powered by 1.6L spark-ignited engines incorporated with 5-gear manual gearboxes. The taxis were registered in May and June, 2013, and their millage was within 3500 and 10000 km on odometer when the emission tests were performed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Navin Kumar, Abyarth Behera, Dulari Hansdah, Murugan Sivalingam
Abstract Madhuca indica flower is a forest residue used for preparation of food and liquor in tribal areas of India. In this present investigation, bioethanol produced from madhuca indica flower by the fermentation process is proposed as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. As the cetane number of bioethanol is low, an ignition improver is required for better operation. In this study, Diethyl ether (DEE), an ignition improver is fumigated at two different flow rates viz 120 g/h and 240 g/h in the intake manifold along with the air in a single cylinder, four stroke, DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is found to be higher by about 10.47 and 2.46% with 120 g/h and 240 g/h flow rate of the DEE respectively, compared to that of diesel at full load. The brake specific nitric oxide (BSNO) emission is found to be lower for both the flow rates, but the brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) emission are found to be higher for the flow rate of 240 g/h compared to 120 g/h of DEE and diesel at full load.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nicholas Gysel, George Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho
Abstract The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three different biodiesel feedstocks on emissions compared to a baseline CARB ULSD with two heavy-duty trucks equipped with and without aftertreatment technologies. The biodiesels included a soybean oil methyl ester (SME), a waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCO), and a methyl ester obtained from animal fat (AFME), blended at a 50% level by volume with the CARB diesel. The vehicles were equipped with a 2010 Cummins ISX-15 engine with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a 2002 Cummins ISX-450 engine. Both vehicles were tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. For this study, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. In conjunction with these measurements, unregulated emissions, including ammonia (NH3), carbonyl compounds, and light aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for both vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Chinmaya Mishra
Abstract In the present study, ethanol was added in lower proportions to non-edible vegetable oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”, to evaluate various performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder; diesel engine. For engine's trial, four samples were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ethanol in kusum oil (v/v) and the blends were named as E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 respectively. Neat Kusum oil was named as K100. The results indicated that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was found to increase with increase in volume fraction of ethanol in the kusum oil. E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 test fuels exhibited maximum BTE of 25.4%, 26.4%, 27.4% and 27.7% respectively as compared to 23.6% exhibited by the neat Kusum oil. Similarly, full load brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased from 16.3MJ/kWh in case of neat Kusum oil to 15.1MJ/kWh for E20K80 with an almost linear reduction pattern with increased ethanol composition in the test fuel. Full load carbon monoxide emissions were found to be 0.18% volume for neat Kusum oil which was reduced to 0.1% for E20K80.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Romaeo Dallanegra, Rinaldo Caprotti
Abstract The use of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a means to meet ever more stringent worldwide Particulate Matter/ Particle Number (PM/ PN) emissions regulations is increasing. Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) technology has now been successfully used as an effective system for DPF regeneration in factory and service fill as well as retrofit applications for several years. The use of such a technology dictates that it be stable in long term service and that it remains compatible with new and emerging diesel fuel grades. In order to ensure this, neat additive stability data have been generated in a very severe and highly transient temperature cycle and a large selection of current (Winter 2012) market fuels have been evaluated for stability with this FBC technology. Results indicate that FBC technology remains suitable. The incidence of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDIDs) is increasing, particularly for advanced FIE systems. These deposits generate a variety of field issues that can, in extreme cases, require the fitting of a new set of injectors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jim Barker, Colin Snape, David Scurr
Abstract The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA). The focused ion beam technique coupled with time of flight secondary -ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the ability to provide information on diesel engine injector deposits as a function of depth for both organic and inorganic constituents.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohammed Moore Ojapah, Hua Zhao, Yan Zhang
Abstract In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai
Abstract Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study. The emphasis of the investigation is the correlations of the fuel properties such as cetane number, fuel density, GHV (gross heat value) of combustion and oxygen content with the emissions of smoke, THC and NOx.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zhiqiang Zhang, Fuquan Zhao, Liguang Li, Zhijun Wu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu
Abstract Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed. Finally, a closed-loop control strategy for LTC was proposed, which was based on the ion current detecting technology.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Essam F. Abo-Serie, Mohamed Sherif, Dario Pompei, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract A potentially important, but inadequately studied, source of passengers' exposure to pollutants when a road vehicle is stationary, with an idling engine, results from the ingestion of a vehicle's own exhaust into the passenger compartment through the HVAC intake. We developed and applied a method to determine the fraction of a vehicle's exhaust entering the cabin by this route. Further the influence of three parameters: ambient tail-wind speed, vehicle ground clearance and tail pipe angle, is assessed. The study applies Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation to the distribution of exhaust gasses around a vehicle motorized with a 2.2 liter Diesel engine. The simulation employs efficient meshing techniques and realistic loading conditions to develop a general knowledge of the distribution of the gasses in order to inform engineering design. The results show that increasing tail-wind velocity, tail-pipe angle and ground clearance reduces the presence of CO and NO at the HVAC intake.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lennert Sterken, Lennart Lofdahl, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker
Abstract Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results. To decrease the dependency of other effects within the engine bay and underbody, the SUV has been investigated in a closed-cooling configuration with upper and lower grille closed and with a smoothened underbody.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthikeyan N, Anish Gokhale, Narendra Bansode
Abstract The Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) in scooters is used to transmit the power from the engine to the wheels. The CVT transmission consists of a drive pulley and a driven pulley connected to each other through a belt. The centrifugal clutch is attached to the rear pulley which transmits the power to the wheel. The engagement and disengagement of the clutch generates heat and friction heat is generated between the belt and pulley, thereby requiring continuous external cooling for its safe operation. A centrifugal fan is employed for cooling of the CVT belt. Since the cooling fan takes air from atmosphere, there is always a possibility of dust from the atmosphere entering the system, which might cause wear of pulley and belt, thereby decreasing the performance of the transmission system. The objective of the work is to analyze the dust ingress pattern in to CVT housing. The work aims at simulating the possible conditions for dust entry into the CVT housing for a complete scooter and the study of different design proposals to minimize the dust entry without compromising the cooling requirement of CVT.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Charles Sprouse III, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Significant progress towards reducing diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions is possible through the simultaneous Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and Particulate Matter (PM) filtration in a novel device described here as a Diesel Particulate Filter Heat Exchanger (DPFHX). This original device concept is based on the shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometry, where enlarged tubes contain DPF cores, allowing waste heat recovery from engine exhaust and allowing further energy capture from the exothermic PM regeneration event. The heat transferred to the working fluid on the shell side of the DPFHX becomes available for use in a secondary power cycle, which is an increasingly attractive method of boosting powertrain efficiency due to fuel savings of around 10 to 15%. Moreover, these fuel savings are proportional to the associated emissions reduction after a short warm-up period, with startup emissions relatively unchanged when implementing a WHR system. Due to the absence of prior DPFHX research and the unique heat transfer process present, this effort describes construction of a prototype DPFHX and subsequent WHR experiments in a single cylinder diesel engine test cell with a comparison between heat exchanger performance with and without DPF cores installed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, Hassina Bilheux, Jean-Christophe Bilheux, Sophie Voisin, C. Scott Sluder, Joseph Stevenson
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. Exhaust gas laden with particulate matter flows through the EGR cooler which causes deposits to form through thermophoresis and condensation. The low thermal conductivity of the resulting deposit reduces the effectiveness of the EGR system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, industry-provided coolers were characterized using neutron tomography. Neutrons are strongly attenuated by hydrogen but only weakly by metals which allows for non-destructive imaging of the deposit through the metal heat exchanger. Multiple 2-D projections of cooler sections were acquired by rotating the sample around the axis of symmetry with the spatial resolution of each image equal to ∼70 μm. A 3-D tomographic set was then reconstructed, from which slices through the cooler sections were extracted across different planes. High concentrations of hydrocarbon is necessary for imaging deposits and only those coolers which exhibited large organic fractions or hydrated sulfate phases were successfully characterized.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, John Storey, Sam Lewis, C. Scott Sluder
Abstract All high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers become fouled during operation due to thermophoresis of particulate matter and condensation of hydrocarbons present in diesel exhaust. In some EGR coolers, fouling is so severe that deposits form plugs strong enough to occlude the gas passages thereby causing a complete failure of the EGR system. In order to better understand plugging and means of reducing its undesirable performance degradation, EGR coolers exhibiting plugging were requested from and provided by industry EGR engineers. Two of these coolers contained glassy, brittle, lacquer-like deposits which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which identified large amounts of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Another cooler exhibited similar species to the lacquer but at a lower concentration with more soot. The authors propose that lacquer deposits form when oxygenated PAHs present in the exhaust condense on the cooler walls subsequently experience nitric acid catalyzed polymerization in the presence of aldehydes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
C. Scott Sluder, John M.E. Storey, Michael J. Lance
Abstract Fouling in EGR coolers occurs because of the presence of soot and condensable species (such as hydrocarbons) in the gas stream. Fouling leads to one of two possible outcomes: stabilization of effectiveness and plugging of the gas passages within the cooler. Deposit formation in the cooler under high-temperature conditions results in a fractal deposit that has a characteristic thermal conductivity of ∼0.033 W/m*K and a density of 0.0224 g/cm3. Effectiveness becomes much less sensitive to changes in thermal resistance as fouling proceeds, creating the appearance of “stabilization” even in the presence of ongoing, albeit slow, deposit growth. Plugging occurs when the deposit thermal resistance is several times lower because of the presence of large amounts of condensed species. The deposition mechanism in this case appears to be soot deposition into a liquid film, which results in increased packing efficiency and decreased void space in the deposit relative to high-temperature deposits.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Helmut Brunner, Mario Hirz
Abstract Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study. In the first step, the publication examines a study of market potential of new small and lightweight vehicle concepts. A mobility inquiry conducted in a mid-sized European city enables an estimation of the potential user groups for alternative vehicle concepts for individual urban traffic. In a second step, the CO2 reduction potential of urban car concepts is simulated for a generic vehicle fleet. This fleet consists of conventional vehicles of various classes (subcompact, compact, mid-sized …) as well as new lightweight urban car concepts. A novel vehicle concept for urban transportation will be presented as well. A comparison with the simulation results of a conventional vehicle fleet shows the potential regarding CO2-reduction and a reduction of parking space by application of future-oriented vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling. The simple rectangular block at two different speeds and three immersion depths in water was utilized for the purpose.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Haichun Yao, Baigang Sun, Huayu Tian, Qinghe Luo, Hongyang Tang
Abstract NOx are the only harmful emissions of hydrogen internal combustion engine. EGR is one of the effective methods to reduce NOx. The traditional EGR is not suitable for hydrogen internal combustion engine. Therefore, the study of influence of hot EGR on hydrogen internal combustion engine is important. A 2.0L hydrogen internal combustion engine with hot EGR system model is employed to optimize the diameter and position of hot EGR based on a simulation analysis. The result shows that both of the combustion temperature and NOx increase as EGR increases due to the rise of intake temperature for low load condition, for heavy load, with the increase of EGR rate, NOx emissions decreases slightly before the mixture equivalence ratio comes to 1and then dropped significantly after the mixture equivalence ratio greater than 1. Unburned hydrogen in TWC has the effect of reducing NOx after catalysts decrease largely. Hydrogen engine combustion characteristics with hot EGR was analyzed, it suggests that EGR hasn't any benefit on combustion and NOx emission under low load condition; however, a significant amount reduce of NOx can be achieved under a rich condition (equivalence ratio greater than 1) by adjusting the EGR rate for high load condition with sacrificing power output slightly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke
Abstract The advantages of applying Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a fuel for internal combustion engines are well known. In addition to a significant operating cost savings due to a lower fuel price relative to diesel, there is an opportunity to reduce the engine's emissions. With CNG combustion, some emissions, such as Particulate Matter (PM) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), are inherently reduced relative to diesel fueled engines due to the nature of the combustion and the molecular makeup of the fuel. However, it is important to consider the impact on all emissions, including Total Hydrocarbons (THC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO), which can increase with the use of CNG. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emission is often reported to decrease with the use of CNG, but the ability to realize this benefit is significantly impacted by the control strategy and calibration applied. FEV has investigated the emissions and performance impact of operating a heavy-duty diesel engine with CNG in a dual fuel mode. The CNG was introduced via injectors mounted to an inlet pipe located upstream of the intake manifold.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure. The applicable window of the injection timing for the n-butanol fuel was much narrower than that of the conventional diesel fuel because of the constraints of misfiring and excessive pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yuwei Zhao, Ying Wang, Shenghua Liu
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion has been shown to be a promising combustion technique to improve the combustion process and simultaneously reduce both Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The combination of port dimethyl ether (DME) induction and in-cylinder diesel direct-injection compression ignition (DICI) combustion was studied in a YTR 2105 engine. The main purposes of this paper were to investigate the effects of DME introduction on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Results obtained revealed that PCCI combustion process was composed of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and conventional diffusion combustion. As the DME quantity was increased, the start of combustion (SOC) was advanced. The peak values of in-cylinder pressure and mass averaged temperature increased as well as the maximum heat release rate of DME HCCI combustion. But the maximum heat release rate of diesel diffusion combustion decreased.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ireneusz Pielecha, Przemyslaw Borowski, Wojciech Cieslik
Abstract The current paper is a continuation of research on fuel atomization presented in SAE 2012-01-1662. The influence of varied position of the injector inside the combustion chamber on combustion, toxic compounds formation and exhaust emission were investigated. The simulation research (injection and combustion with NO formation) was supported with the model using the FIRE 2010 software by AVL. Modelling studies of toxic compounds formation were compared with the results of measurements on single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine. There thermodynamic evaluation indicators and exhaust emission were made.
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