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Viewing 211 to 240 of 22873
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Jai Gopal Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1030
Ashok Kumar, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract The high global warming potential of nitrous oxide (N2O) led to its inclusion in the list of regulated greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants [1, 2]. The mitigation of N2O on aftertreatment catalysts was shown to be ineffective as its formation and decomposition temperatures do not overlap. Therefore, the root causes for N2O formation were investigated to enable the catalyst architectures and controls development for minimizing its formation. In a typical heavy-duty diesel exhaust aftertreatment system based on selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia derived from urea (SCR), the main contributors to tailpipe N2O are expected to be the undesired reaction between NOx and NH3 over SCR catalyst and NH3 slip in to ammonia slip catalyst (ASC), part of which gets oxidized to N2O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1007
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles but a period of rapidly evolving engine development, tighter tailpipe regulations and material supply issues present a unique challenge to catalyst developers. This paper presents an initial study outlining the development of spinel mixed metal oxides for application in modern TWC and addresses some specific challenges underlying this application. Lab and flow reactor data in the study showed how the spinel structure has significant potential in various aspects of the TWC with the necessary improvement in thermal stability. Some initial engine data show three-way performance at or near stoichiometric in a PGM and rare earth free spinel coating and a synergy effect when combined with PGM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1066
Frank Adam, Jan Schoenhaber, Armin Wagner
Abstract The introduction of vehicle emission and fuel economy standards (CO2) accelerates the introduction of new platform and powertrain combinations into the market place. All of these combinations will require unique exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that comply with the current emission legislation. The optimization of each unique aftertreatment solution requires the proper application of catalyst technologies at the lowest PGM concentrations. The optimization process needs to be fast, reliable, realistic and cost attractive. It is arguable that performing the aftertreatment optimization on a chassis dynamometer is variable, time consuming and expensive. This work demonstrates how a synthetic gas bench (SGB) can be used to simulate stoichiometric engine emissions and aftertreatment performance. The SGB procedure duplicates the vehicle NEDC engine-out emissions and catalyst heat-up profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1062
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll, Stefan Simescu
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds that may form during combustion and/or are present in the unburned portion of the fuel and lubricating oil which ultimately become part of the exhaust. Many of these compounds are considered toxic or carcinogenic. Since these compounds are present in very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining representative and repeatable results. Engine testing is typically performed using a dilution tunnel. With a dilution tunnel, the collection of a representative sample is important. Experiments were performed with a modified EPA Method TO-9A to determine the equilibration time and other sampling parameters required for the measurement of SVOC in dilute exhaust. The results show that representative results can be obtained with this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0755
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Toshio Yamada, Daisuke Tsunoda, Mingzhao Xie, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Koji Morikawa
Abstract The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0752
Zhi Wang, Yunliang Qi, Hui Liu, Yan Long, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Occurrence of sporadic super-knock is the main obstacle to the development of advanced gasoline engines. One of the possible inducements of super-knock, agglomerated soot particle induced pre-ignition, was studied for high boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The correlation between soot emissions and super-knock frequency was investigated in a four-cylinder gasoline direct injection production engine. The test results indicate that higher in-cylinder soot emission correlate with more pre-ignition and super-knock cycles in a GDI production engine. To study the soot/carbon particles trigger super-knock, a single-cylinder research engine for super-knock study was developed. The carbon particles with different temperatures and sizes were introduced into the combustion chamber to trigger pre-ignition and super-knock.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0255
Claudia Meis, Stefan Mueller, Stephan Rohr, Matthias Kerler, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract Battery aging in electric and hybrid vehicles is a major issue, and one which has to be taken into consideration during all stages of the vehicle lifecycle. It depends on many factors, such as the cell chemistry, the cell design and stress factors as well as the current rate, ΔDOD and temperature. The stress factors have been identified as being crucial due to their influence on two important battery parameters: capacity and inner resistance. Battery aging models are essential to describing the interacting influences that stress factors have on battery parameters. They provide insights about battery aging without the need for extensive measurements. Various battery aging models with widely varying capabilities are described in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide a decision guide for utilizing the most appropriate aging model for the major stages of the vehicle lifecycle: vehicle development, operation (onboard and offboard) and post-operation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0810
Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point (IBP) of gasoline to Final Boiling Point (FBP) of diesel. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODEn) have high oxygen content and cetane number, are promising green additive to diesel fuel. In this paper, WDF was prepared by blending diesel and gasoline at ratio of 1:1, by volume; the mass distribution of oligomers in the PODE3-4 product was 88.9% of PODE3 and 8.46% of PODE4. Diesel fuel (Diesel), WDF (G50D50) and WDF (80%)-PODE3-4 (20%) (G40D40P20) were tested in a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine, combustion characteristic, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results showed that: at idling condition, G40D40P20 has better combustion stability, higher heat release rate, higher thermal efficiency compared with G50D50.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0809
Joonsik Hwang, Yongjin Jung, Choongsik Bae
Abstract The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the soot particles in a compression ignition engine was investigated and compared with conventional diesel fuel. The indicated mean effective pressure of approximately 0.65 MPa was tested under an engine speed of 1200 revolutions per minute. The fuels were injected at an injection timing of −5 crank angle degree after top dead center with injection pressures of 80 MPa. Detailed characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. Soot aggregates were collected on TEM grid by thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. High-resolution TEM images revealed that the WCO biodiesel soot was composed of smaller primary particle than diesel soot. The mean primary particle diameter was measured as 19.9 nm for WCO biodiesel and 23.7 nm for diesel, respectively.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0902
Koichi Ashida, Hirofumi Maeda, Takashi Araki, Maki Hoshino, Koji Hiraya, Takao Izumi, Masayuki Yasuoka
Abstract To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0890
Barbara Graziano, Florian Kremer, Stefan Pischinger, Karl Alexander Heufer, Hans Rohs
Abstract The current and future restrictions on pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines require a holistic investigation of the abilities of alternative fuels to optimize the combustion process and ensure cleaner combustion. In this regard, the Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB) Cluster at Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University aims at designing production processes for biofuels as well as fuels optimal for use in internal combustion engines. The TMFB Cluster's scientific approach considers the molecular structure of the fuels as an additional degree of freedom for the optimization of both the production pathways and the combustion process of such novel biofuels. Thus, the model-based specification of target parameters is of the utmost importance to improve engine combustion performance and to send feedback information to the biofuel production process.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
Abstract The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1002
Yuichiro Murata, Tomoko Morita, Katsuji Wada, Hiroshi Ohno
Abstract A new concept for trapping NOx and HC during cold start, the NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC), is proposed. N-TWC adsorbs NOx at room temperature, and upon reaching activation temperature under suitable air-fuel ratio conditions, it reduces the adsorbed NOx. This allows a reduction in NOx emissions during cold start. N-TWC's reduction mechanism relies on NOx adsorption sites which are shown to be highly dispersed palladium on acid sites in the zeolite. Testing on an actual vehicle equipped with N-TWC confirmed that N-TWC is able to reduce emissions of NOx and HC during cold start, which is a challenge for conventional TWCs.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. In this system, the TWC generates the NH3 for the SCR catalyst from the feedgas NOx during rich operation. Therefore, this approach benefits from high feedgas NOx during rich operation to generate high levels of NH3 quickly and low feedgas NOx during lean operation for a low rate of NH3 consumption. It was assumed that the exhaust system needed to include a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and an U/B SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards during the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0957
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Robert Russell, Akua Asa-Awuku, Thomas Durbin
Abstract Biofuels, such as ethanol and butanol, have been the subject of significant political and scientific attention, owing to concerns about climate change, global energy security, and the decline of world oil resources that is aggravated by the continuous increase in the demand for fossil fuels. This study evaluated the potential emissions impacts of different alcohol blends on a fleet of modern gasoline vehicles. Testing was conducted on a fleet of nine vehicles with different combinations of ten fuel blends over the Federal Test Procedure and Unified Cycle. The vehicles ranged in model year from 2007-2014 and included four vehicles with port fuel injection (PFI) fueling and five vehicles with direct injection (DI) fueling.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1017
Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
Abstract Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0440
Julio Carrera, Alfredo Navarro, Concepcion Paz, Alvaro Sanchez, Jacobo Porteiro
Recent emissions standards have become more restrictive in terms of CO2 and NOx reduction. This has been translated into higher EGR rates at higher exhaust gas temperatures with lower coolant flow rates for much longer lifetimes. In consequence, thermal load for EGR components, specially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during the development. Consequently a new Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA) procedure has been developed in order to calculate durability. The TMA calculation is based on a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation (CFD) in which a boiling model is implemented for obtaining realistic temperature predictions of the metal parts exposed to possible local boiling. The FEM model has also been adjusted to capture the correct stress values by submodeling the critical areas. Life calculation is based on a Multiaxial Fatigue Model that has also been implemented in FEM software for node by node life calculation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0597
Christian Schulz, Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Thorsten Brands, Thomas Huelser, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract Maintaining low NOx emissions over the operating range of diesel engines continues to be a major issue. However, optical measurements of nitric oxide (NO) are lacking particularly in the core of diesel jets, i.e. in the region of premixed combustion close to the spray axis. This is basically caused by severe attenuation of both the laser light and fluorescent emission in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applications. Light extinction is reduced by keeping absorption path lengths relatively short in this work, by investigating diesel jets in a combustion vessel instead of an engine. Furthermore, the NO-detection threshold is improved by conducting 1-d line measurements instead of 2-d imaging. The NO-LIF data are corrected for light attenuation by combined LIF and spontaneous Raman scattering. The quantified maximum light attenuation is significantly lower than in comparable previous works, and its wavelength dependence is surprisingly weak.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1306
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
Abstract Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0734
Yasuhiko Saijo, Mitsuhiko Ueki, Hirokazu Watanabe, Yoichiro Tejima
Abstract Honda developed a technology to quantify automotive steel corrosion from the rust reduction current detected by a proprietary developed sensor. The values calculated based on Faraday's law did not match the actual measured values for the mass loss of iron due to the added resistance of rust formed between electrodes on the sensor. It was determined that the resistance of rust depends on the environment, and this issue was resolved by setting the correction values for that influence. As a result of this research it was found that the values calculated from the sensor measurements matched those from the mass loss of test specimen on a vehicle. Honda is utilizing this newly developed technology for corrosion research and field data collection.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0730
Tsutomu Miyadera
Abstract A pre-treatment technique for improving coating adhesion on stainless steel has been developed. This method dramatically enhances the adhesion between the stainless steel and the coating by pre-treating the stainless steel with a known nickel strike plating for a short period of time. Furthermore, when this process was applied to stainless fuel filler pipes to improve corrosion resistance, layout restrictions and chipping covers became unnecessary, costs were reduced, and vehicle weight was lowered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0264
Jeya Padmanaban
Abstract This study examined the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Death Certificate file to identify frequency and rate of accidental CO poisoning deaths associated with exhaust gases of stationary vehicles in enclosed areas. A comprehensive search was then made to determine whether or not there was an increase in such deaths with the introduction of “smart keys” (available as standard equipment beginning in 2004). For 2000-2011 CY, the CPSC file contained 4,760 death certificate records for ICD-10 code X47 (accidental poisoning by exposure to other gases and vapors). The manual review of narratives for these records covered 2004-2011 and found 1,553 CO poisoning deaths associated with vehicle exhaust, including 748 for enclosed areas. For these 748 incidents, information on victim and location was then identified, and an exhaustive effort was undertaken to determine whether the vehicles involved were equipped with rotary or smart keys.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0831
Wonah Park, Youngchul Ra, Eric Kurtz, Werner Willems, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The low temperature combustion concept is very attractive for reducing NOx and soot emissions in diesel engines. However, it has potential limitations due to higher combustion noise, CO and HC emissions. A multiple injection strategy is an effective way to reduce unburned emissions and noise in LTC. In this paper, the effect of multiple injection strategies was investigated to reduce combustion noise and unburned emissions in LTC conditions. A hybrid surrogate fuel model was developed and validated, and was used to improve LTC predictions. Triple injection strategies were considered to find the role of each pulse and then optimized. The split ratio of the 1st and 2nd pulses fuel was found to determine the ignition delay. Increasing mass of the 1st pulse reduced unburned emissions and an increase of the 3rd pulse fuel amount reduced noise. It is concluded that the pulse distribution can be used as a control factor for emissions and noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1010
Hongsuk Kim, Hoyeol Lee, Sunyoup Lee, Gyubaek Cho
Diesel burners have been used to regenerate diesel particulate filters (DPF) because of their simplicity in engine torque control and less oil dilution by fuel compared with the commonly used in-cylinder post fuel injection method. We previously developed a novel diesel burner using rotating plasma as an ignition source and found it to be effective in DPF regeneration. Here, we carry out in-depth studies on combustion efficiency of this plasma-ignited diesel burner and investigate the effects of influential factors such as plasma power, the amount of fresh air supplied, and O2 concentration in the exhaust gas on combustion characteristics of the burner. The obtained results show that fresh air supplied to the burner plays an important role in ignition and the early stage of combustion, and O2 concentration in the exhaust gas is identified as the most dominant factor for combustion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0391
Yoshihiro Sukegawa, Kazuhiro Oryoji
Abstract A 3D simulation technique to estimate density of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines is proposed. The technique is based on a two-equation model consisting of coupled conservation equations of soot particle number and mass and fluid transportation equations. The nucleation rate of soot particles was obtained from a database built by simulation of elementary reaction with the proposed technique. Two approaches were explored to obtain the nucleation rate. One involves 0-dimensinal SI simulation and the other involves 1-dimensinal flame propagation simulation. The estimation results were verified with measurement data obtained with a single cylinder SI engine a homogeneous pre-mixed fuel was supplied. It was confirmed that appropriate results could be obtained with the 1-dimensional approach for the nucleation rate model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0761
Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Koji Morikawa
Abstract In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of preignition occurrence in highly boosted SI engine at low speed and high load operating conditions, directphotography of preignition events and light induced fluorescence imaging of lubricant oil droplets during preignition cycles were applied. An endoscope was attached to the cylinder head of the modified production engine. Preigntion events were captured using high-speed video camera through the endoscope. As a result, several types of preignition sources could be found. Preignition caused by glowing particles and deposit fragments could be observed by directphotography. Luminous flame was observed around the piston crevice area during the exhaust stroke of preignition cycles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0781
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions is driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed to minimize some of the challenges of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages. The D-EGR engine is a high efficiency, low emissions internal combustion engine for automotive and off-highway applications. The core of the engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional LPL EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes. The second part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, knock resistance, combustion stability, and maximum load potential at high load conditions.
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