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Viewing 211 to 240 of 22741
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Sachin gogia, Senthur Pandian, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass filtration and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
Abstract India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion. Swirl and tumble are forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0093
S. Jayagopal
Abstract The automobile industries have seen a great evolution since 19th century. Reducing the NOx emissions from Diesel engines remains as a challenging issue as the emission standards for Diesel engines & its powered vehicles have become more stringent than ever before. As one has to develop for improved life-style, something has to be sacrificed and one among them is global warming. So, many nations have come up with regulations to control exhaust emissions of the vehicles. In the case of Medium & Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, the emissions to be met on Engine Dynamometer on both ESC & ETC cycles for BS-IV or Euro-IV as on date. In which, the optimizing the emission parameters are logically used to meet Random NOx requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
Abstract BS III norms (BS IV in 13+26 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future sooner or later. The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent emission norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be incorrect to say there have been little work been done specifically on after-treatment systems which has been built for Indian market and driving conditions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow emissions sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of Particulate Matter (PM). Mass flow controllers operating at 5Hz are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a bag emissions analyzer.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat, Sukrut Thipse, Neelkanth V Marathe, Narendra Pawar, Hirak Jyoti Gayen, Dadarao Narwade, Bhaskar Melage, S V A Achari
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers, agricultural machines and in small house-hold applications in India as well as other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies in such engines are very expensive and also becoming complex. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. In the present work, an existing two cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine is upgraded with Turbocharged & Intercooled (TCIC) version to meet the revised stringent stage-II emission limits. The two cylinder diesel engine has been upgraded with optimum selection of turbocharger, intercooler and EGR valve to control the EGR mass flow rate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Abstract Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-Design™(Longitudinal Structure) metallic substrates with LS foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behaviour in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market in the near future, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
Abstract As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Vehicle manufacturers' develop new ways and technologies to meet the norms levied for cleaner vehicles. Especially in diesel engines, NOx emissions are considered an important pollutant to be treated. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for diesel engines. In order to meet such stringent emission norms without compromising on engine performance, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the solution to achieve EURO 6 NOx emission levels from diesel engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through ammonia which is injected into exhaust stream in the form of Aqueous Urea solution known as DEF.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0108
Vijay Narkhede, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji, Touquire A Sidiquie
Abstract Diesel engines are becoming popular because of more fuel efficient and durability. While the CO and HC impurities are significantly lower than in gasoline engines, the design strategies for reduction of Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides remain a major challenge for environment. The work mainly focused on reduction of NOx from diesel engines using SCR technology under Indian driving conditions and furl availability. With BS III/IV fuel available in the country, the catalyst system of choices the Vanadia Tungsten Titania (VWT) system because of its proven resistance to Sulfur poisoning. However, under urban driving conditions on Indian roads, the major obstacle is the low engine out temperatures which are below the normal operating temperature window (200 to 450 °C) of VWT - SCR.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Abstract Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0142
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shakti Kumar Singh, Mangeshkumar Jadhao
Abstract In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl and injector specifications in 2.34 l off road diesel engine. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically, investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. Then experimental tests were carried out, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination were determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations were evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
2015-01-12
Article
An advanced start-stop system using two different battery chemistries is now in the prototype phase, Johnson Controls officials announced during the first media day at the 2015 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
2015-01-06
Article
Toyota announced at CES that it will grant royalty-free use of all 5680 of its solely owned fuel-cell patents, including those pending from development of the first hydrogen fuel-cell production vehicle, the Toyota Mirai.
2015-01-05
Article
Treating molten metal with ultrasound is cleaner and more efficient than using argon rotary degassing to produce high-quality castings, according to scientists at Brunel University London. Cost reduction is another benefit, demonstrated in the research team's pilot-scale trials.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles.
2014-12-30
Article
With air traffic expected to increase four-fold between now and 2050, a global fleet of composite planes could help reduce carbon emissions by up to 15%, a value researchers say roughly corresponds to current emissions levels.
2014-12-23
Article
The potential impact to public health from GDI engine particulates is driving new developments in fuel delivery, controls, and combustion strategies.
2014-12-23
Article
Plastic composite parts outnumber bio-based material vehicle applications, but "green" projects are making inroads by overcoming various hurdles.
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J551/15
This SAE Standard specifies the ESD test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electronic modules intended for vehicle use. It describes test procedures for evaluating electronic modules in complete vehicles. A procedure for verifying the simulator that is used to generate the electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. Functional status classifications for immunity to ESD are given in Appendix B.
2014-12-12
Article
BorgWarner Chief Technology Officer, Christopher P. Thomas, discusses the company's new exhaust gas recirculation modules, EcoFlash ignition system, and heavy-duty controlled coolant pump for commercial diesel and natural gas engines, as well as the trends driving their development.
2014-12-04
Article
Electric cars offer the big benefit of almost no maintenance. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the almost maintenance-free life of owning an electric car. SAE Eye on Engineering can be viewed at http://youtu.be/iXo_jaFhZvw. 
2014-12-03
Article
The American National Standards Institute on Dec. 2 issued a progress report (http://publicaa.ansi.org/sites/apdl/evsp/ANSI_EVSP_Roadmap_May_2013.pdf) on an organized standardization effort to help electric vehicles thrive in the U.S. marketplace.
2014-12-03
Article
At the recent 2014 L.A. Auto Show, various OEMs put their latest hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles on stage. Engineers developing FCEVs are working against overlapping regulatory clocks, and OEM collaborations are taking the some of the sting out of development time and costs.
2014-11-30
Magazine
Riding on a high Rudi Schurmans and Ben Patel head up Tenneco's suspension and clean air divisions. Ian Adcock discovers what the automotive future holds for them Driverless revolution has begun! Breakthrough Photonic radar promises greater accuracy at lower cost, Ian Adcock discovers Winds of change are here Simulating aerodynamics will make a step-change in vehicle design, as Stephen Remondi, President and CEO of EXA, explains to Ian Adcock
2014-11-26
Article
Lead-acid batteries have clear advantages in cost and low-temperature performance, but Li-ion has its own set of pluses.
2014-11-25
Article
Allison Transmission is offering a new option to fully electrify components used with its H 40/50 EP hybrid propulsion system for transit buses and coaches. Co-developed with Vanner Inc., Increased Accessory Power II provides power from the hybrid system to accessories such as electric air conditioning, electric air compressors, and power steering systems.
2014-11-24
Article
SEMA develops step-by-step system in conjunction with California Air Resources Board to help participating members comply with emissions regulations. Clemson University I-CAR is an active participant, providing laboratory facilities for analysis to aid SEMA members who are aftermarket manufacturers.
2014-11-19
Article
The rise of new geographical auto markets (and stagnation of others), the proliferation of new "connected-car" technologies including automated driving, and a diminishing case for car ownership are among a number of challenges facing automotive industry decision makers.
2014-11-18
Article
Market success of the new fuel-cell sedan depends to a large extent on steady installation of hydrogen fueling stations worldwide.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 22741

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