Display:

Results

Viewing 211 to 240 of 23141
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/5
In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets this document will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/1
The document is intended to promote and develop safe practices, effective procedures and improved technology related to training of aircraft ground operations in winter conditions to ensure the highest possible levels of safety for passengers, flight crew and ground personnel. It can be utilized to develop a set of commonly agreed training practices and procedures for the de-icing/anti- icing of aircraft on the ground reflecting current industry best practice. It shall ensure continued compliance with all relevant standards and regulatory requirements, and shall ensure that it continues to reflect current industry best practice.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/2
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing equipment. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/3
This document covers the standards for qualifying staff, different aspects of de-icing/anti-icing fluids. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-20
WIP Standard
J2358
This SAE Standard defines the safety and performance requirements for Low Speed Vehicles ("LSV"). The safety specifications in this document apply to any powered vehicle with a minimum of 4-wheels, a maximum level ground speed of more than 32 km/h (20 mph) but less than 40 km/h (25 mph), a maximum rated capacity of 500 kg (1100 lb), and a maximum gross vehicle weight of 1135 Kg (2500 lb), that is intended for transporting not more than four (4) persons and operating on designated roadways where permitted by law. Personal Neighborhood Vehicles (PNVs) have the same general specifications as LSVs, but the maximum level ground speed is limited to 32 km/h (20 mph).
2015-10-16
Article
The Proterra Catalyst all-electric transit bus nabs double-digit miles per gallon equivalent (MPGe), vastly outperforming its diesel, compressed natural gas, and diesel hybrid-electric rivals.
2015-10-16
Article
The new NormaQuick SSL connector from Norma Group is designed for passenger, commercial, and off-highway vehicles.
2015-10-12
Article
Recognizing the power of technologies such as energy storage and nanotechnology and seeking ways to accelerate their impact, Argonne has created two new collaborative centers that it is hoping will provide an innovative pathway for business and industry to speed discoveries to market.
2015-10-09
Article
Volkswagen will pay billions in penalties for rigging 11 million diesel cars to skirt emission standards. Unfortunately, the industry hasn't learned from its past mistakes. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at VW's recent digital fraud. 
2015-10-07
Magazine
HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematics functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces. Standards step forward in design of off-highway electronics Functional safety standards are starting to impact many development projects, while the auto industry's AUTOSAR standard is being deployed to help enable software reuse and simplify designs. Leveraging automotive lightweighting techniques to improve off-highway emissions Where systems engineers can gain efficiencies in off-highway equipment is agnostic, they'll take it anywhere, and so they should, but one of the ways, often underestimated, is through the use of strong and lightweight advanced materials. Waste heat recovery for the long haul A WHR system based on an organic Rankine cycle has been developed for a long-haul Iveco Stralis truck.
2015-10-05
Article
Engineers should expect government regulators in the U.S. and Europe to more strictly enforce existing rules and tighten emission-testing protocols, close gaps between laboratory and real-world testing, and perform more spot checks that can catch abuse after new vehicle models are approved for sale.
2015-09-30
Article
Combining a DPF with an SCR catalyst into one device will enable the faster light-off times required by the more stringent new regs due in Sept. 2017.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2774
Hoon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Minje Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Nankyu Lee, Jinil Park, Jong-Hwa Lee
Abstract To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons. Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2797
Meichun Peng, Yue Zheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Jiahao Wang
Abstract This paper studies the characteristics of fuel consumption and exhaust emission of city transit buses, and analyzes the fuel saving rate and exhaust pollutants reduction effect of LPG-HEV buses relative to LPG buses. The running speed, fuel consumption, exhaust emission and other variables of 3 LPG-HEV buses that aren't plug-in hybrid, and 2 LPG buses were measured by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under real driving situations of city transit buses in Guangzhou, China. The test data was analyzed to make a comparison between LPG-HEV and LPG buses. The study results show that the running speed of city buses in real driving modes is mainly distributed in the range of 0 to 35 km/h, and the average value is 18km/h, while the acceleration is distributed in a range from −0.5 to 0.5m/s2 mainly. The average fuel consumption of LPG-HEV buses is 51.02 l/100km, and is 6.23% lower than that of LPG buses.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2800
Meichun Peng, Xuqi Liu, Quanzhen Lin
Abstract The paper develops an engine emission test driving cycle of heavy duty city transit buses. A real-world emission test is performed by PEMS in Guangzhou, Foshan and Shenzhen which are the three big cities in the Pearl River delta in southern China. Sets of 107767 data were sampled, including vehicle speed, transmission gears, and exhaust emission, etc. Engine speed and torque were calculated based on the vehicle speed and transmission ratio, then normalized and standardized. The methods of principle component analysis and cluster analysis were used for developing a driving cycle. The real-world continuous run mode was separated into1625 micro-trips, and 12 basic characteristic parameters were used to describe the characteristic of continuous run mode and micro-trip modes. Dimension of characteristic matrix of micro-trips was reduced by principle component analysis, and 1625 micro-trip modes were clustered into 5 categories.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2814
Rakhesh B., Bakara A S, Sarwate A
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2819
Vasu Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Aksh Nagpal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2810
Piotr Lijewski, Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski
Abstract The paper describes the measurement of PM emission from an excavator engine under actual operating conditions. The exploration of the relations between the engine operating parameters and its emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of engine operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated when, beside the PM mass. The particle size distribution and number (PN) also need to be measured. An important technical issue is the difficulty in fitting the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. excavator), which is why the presented investigations were carried out in a laboratory under simulated operation. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through the excavator hydraulic system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
R. Saravana Venkatesh, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, exhaust gas recirculation is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions, in this a part of exhaust gas is tapped from exhaust manifold or later and recirculated to air intake pipe before intake manifold. Critical to such engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper exhaust gas mixing with intake air. The variation in exhaust gas mass fraction at each intake port should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/− 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. Exhaust gas homogeneity for various intake configurations was studied using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics for a 4 cylinder, 3.8 L, Diesel fuelled, common rail, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before exhaust gas mixing till all the four intake ports.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2880
Fabio Luz Almeida, Philip Zoldak, Marcos de Mattos Pimenta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables prediction of premature failures and study of new promising concepts. In industry, numerical simulation has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests prior to spending resources on alternatives with lower likelihood of success. The internal combustion Diesel engine plays an important role in Brazil, since they are used extensively in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability. In this case, the most critical pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) or soot. The reduction of their levels without affecting the engine performance is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for guiding the combustion analysis by the prediction of NOx emissions and soot using numerical simulation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2904
Z. Gerald Liu, Nathan Ottinger, Christopher Cremeens, Annamarie Murray, Dana McGuffin
Abstract U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2015-09-29
Collection
This technical paper collection covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to powertrain performance, emissions, and electronic controls. Topics include system-level and component-level integration and optimization, emissions, fuel economy, combustion, air charging, EGR systems, fuel systems, valvetrains, engine brakes, waste heat recovery, calibration, steady-state and transient performance, engine/powertrain/drivetrain controls, model-based controls, sensors, OBD, and HIL.
2015-09-29
Collection
This technical paper collection explores total vehicle and powertrain technologies for on and off-road commercial vehicles aimed at reduction of CO2 emissions through design, analysis, and testing techniques. The topics may include energy analysis/management/optimization, current and proposed emission legislation, certification techniques, powertrain integration, weight reduction, idle reduction, and friction/parasitic reduction.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2795
Jayesh Mutyal, Sourabh Shrivastava, Rana Faltsi, Markus Braun
Abstract Stringent diesel emission regulations have been forcing constant reduction in the discharge of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Current state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions are falling short of achieving these limits. For this reason engine manufacturers are looking at different ways to meet the emission regulations. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is emerging as preferred technology for meeting stringent NOx emission standards across the world. SCR system designers face several technical challenges, such as avoiding ammonia slip, urea crystallization, low temperature deposits and other potential pitfalls. Simulation can help to develop a deep understanding of these technical challenges and issues, identify root causes of problems and help develop better designs. This paper describes the modeling approach for Urea Water Solution (UWS) spray and its interaction with canister walls and exhaust gases.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2803
Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
Abstract The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance was decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2772
Amy Kopin, Steven Musselman
Abstract For decades, the medium- and heavy-duty (“MD/HD”) commercial vehicle industry has focused on improving freight efficiency in order to lower customers' total operating costs. To optimize fuel efficiency, most manufacturers no longer focus on discreet components but instead look at the complete vehicle and operations. The path to future efficiency gains is not sufficiently clear when looking towards 2030; what is clear is that one solution will not work for all manufacturers or vehicle applications. Therefore, fuel efficiency regulations must be sufficiently adaptive to allow a variety of technical approaches to ensure the needs of the commercial truck market are met. This paper explores further the ideas presented in other papers that focus on regulation of engine-only emissions as an approach for HD vehicles.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2771
Kevin A. Newman, Paul Dekraker, Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Prashanth Gururaja
In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2778
Joe Steiber, Coralie Cooper, John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
Medium- and Heavy Duty Truck fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant contributors to overall U.S. GHG emissions. Forecasts of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle activity and fuel use predict increased use of freight transport will result in greatly increased GHG emissions in the coming decades. As a result, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a regulation requiring reductions in medium and heavy truck fuel consumption and GHGs beginning in 2014. The agencies are now proposing new regulations that will extend into the next decade, requiring additional fuel consumption and GHG emissions reductions. To support the development of future regulations, a research project was sponsored by NHTSA to look at technologies that could be used for compliance with future regulations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2777
Gary Salemme, Erik Dykes, Daniel Kieffer, Michael Howenstein, Matthew Hunkler, Manik Narula
Abstract Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 23141

Filter