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Viewing 22051 to 22080 of 22710
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710343
H. C. Lamberton
The subject is dealt with briefly in three parts: 1. The requirements of, and constraints imposed on airport systems planning. 2. Impact on the environment. 3. The methods available for effecting airport compatibility.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710344
Robert C. Einsweiler
If airports compatible with the environment are to be built, changes must be made in the decision making process--what is studied, who participates, and who decides. The current emphasis on reducing the noise and pollution effects of airports offers long term solutions to compatibility, but limited improvement during the decade of the 70's. An expansion of the scope of the airport system plan and airport master plan is proposed augmented by a new operations plan.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710347
Alan Robinette
The applications of natural resource analysis can and should be directed to all phases of planning, including site or corridor selection, design, construction, and operation. Based on present capability to interpret and use natural resource systems as parameters for development decisions as well as for conservation decisions, the basic strategy for perpetuating natural resource values must be to alter our conception from that of preservation vs. consumption within a specific sector to one of integration and optimizing the total system. Similarly, to allow a common base for total planning applications, the conception that natural resources have uniform requirements for protection should be replaced by the recognition that each resource system has a varying level of vulnerability and sensitivity beyond which development cannot be tolerated.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710333
Warren Christopher
The first part discusses federal legislation and regulations as they relate to aircraft noise abatement. The comprehensive and pervasive federal scheme is emphasized. The second part summarizes attempts by state and local entities to control aircraft annoyances through altitude, noise level, and curfew ordinances. The third part discusses the power of an airport proprietor with respect to enforcing aircraft noise abatement measures. The fourth part discusses the availability of injunction and damage suits in dealing with aircraft noise. The fifth part relates the needs for and obstacles to land use planning for aircraft noise abatement purposes. The sixth part discusses the legal basis for claims for damages based upon sonic boom.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710334
Warren Christopher
Part I discusses the power of state and local governments to control aircraft noise at airports not owned or operated by the governmental entity making the regulation. This part indicates that, because of the pervasive federal control over the navigable airspace, local attempts to establish minimum altitudes of flight, maximum noise levels, or night curfews have generally been held unenforceable. Part II considers the unsettled question of the power of the proprietor of an airport to make and enforce regulations with respect to the control of aircraft noise.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710335
Lyman M. Tondel
Part I emphasizes the increased public need for air transport over the past few years, with the resulting greater magnitude of the noise problem in spite of extensive efforts to reduce it. Part II summarizes the most significant developments in the realm of Federal legislation and regulation since 1965. Part III reviews the most significant United States court cases in the last five years. It points to the renewed, but largely unsuccessful, efforts to obtain injunctions in airport noise cases and explains their lack of success. It then reviews the principal cases in which damages have been sought or recovered. Finally, in Part IV, it discusses some of the reasons why land use planning has not been effective in most places and spells out some possible means of improving the legal framework for such planning.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710337
William H. Megonnell
Complaints about aircraft emissions began with introduction of jets. At airports, aircraft pollutant emission densities are similar to those from other operations in surrounding cities; and as other emissions are controlled, aircraft will become proportionately more significant. The need for control is clear. Low-smoke combustors are being installed voluntarily by airlines, but only after suits were filed by several State air pollution control agencies; similar voluntary action is expected to solve the fuel-dumping problem. Federal preemption of aircraft emission regulations invalidates State control, and regulations will be published in 1971.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710339
William T. Westfield
The present regulatory tool for assessment of aircraft smoke emission, the Ringelmann Chart, is described; some of the shortcomings associated with its use for aircraft are discussed; research and development efforts to improve on this system are described. The gaseous pollutants, their relative importance in an airport area and research underway or needed is also discussed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710338
George D. Kittredge, Barry D. McNutt
The National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA) initiated a program in 1967 on the characterization and control of aircraft emissions. The program, which is being carried out through contract research and cooperative government-industry studies, covers the measurement of emissions, development of testing instrumentation and procedures, and basic research in emission control technology. Some of the general results of this program are presented. A brief description of NAPCAs plans for future research is included. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible emission control techniques and regulatory considerations which will affect future standard setting.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710340
Lewis Goldshore
On August 12, 1969, a civil action for injunctive relief and penalties was commenced by the New Jersey State Department of Health against the major airlines using Newark Airport. The lawsuit was the natural outgrowth of more than a decade of unsuccessful attempts by the state to have the problem of jet aircraft smoke corrected. The case was eventually settled by a stipulation, the terms of which provided that the airlines would immediately embark upon a corrective program to retrofit existing aircraft with smokeless combustor cans, which program would be substantially completed by December 31, 1972. This paper examines the chronology of New Jersey's abortive attempts to abate the problem and analyzes the elements of the successful legal action.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710324
J. Parker
Calculations have been made of total pollution emissions at Heathrow Airport, London, from aircraft operations, heating installations, and road traffic. Comparisons were made of concentrations of pollution levels from the airport and from nearby residential areas. Measurements of smoke, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and deposited matter were also carried out in different parts of the airport. Results showed that the airport was not contributing unduly to local pollution. At no time did pollution concentrations at the airport even exceed values which have been found in Central London; the highest values obtained came from road traffic in the central area.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710323
Lester Machta
The two combustion products which future technology will be unable to eliminate from present day jet engines are carbon dioxide and water vapor. The potential climatic change effects of carbon dioxide are considered to be a small part of a larger CO2 problem. Water vapor added to the troposphere forms contrails. The paper will assess the non-conclusive evidence of increased cirrus cloudiness at certain locations. Finally the potential climatic effects of added water vapor in the stratosphere on the radiation budget, the small decrease in ozone, and polar night cloudiness is evaluated in the light of future commercial aviation injections of water vapor.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710326
Delbert S. Barth
Air pollutants emitted from turbine engine aircraft may have adverse effects on man and his environment. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, various organic compounds, and particulate matter are the primary pollutants produced by jet engines. Carbon monoxide at low levels may cause impairment of both time interval discriminations and of visual acuity. Nitrogen dioxide has been associated with reduced ventilatory performance and an increase in acute respiratory illness. Some organic compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, may cause eye irritation, and excess of particulate matter in the atmosphere has been associated with increased chronic respiratory disease. In addition to effects on human health, pollutants emitted from turbine engines may adversely affect plants, animals, soil, water, and man-made materials. Much more research is needed before effects on health and welfare can be specifically related to aircraft emissions.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710325
N. Milford, G. C. McCoyd, L. Aronowitz, J. H. Scanlon
This paper describes the procedures followed in developing and validating computer models of air pollution caused by airports. Such dispersion models are used to calculate how the pollution emitted from the many contributing sources spreads to affect surrounding areas. This simulation permits a realistic evaluation of possible alternative strategies for air pollution abatement. The basic elements of a modeling problem are seen to be the emission sources, the meteorology, and the dispersion parameters; current methods for handling each of these are explained. The treatment of a sample airport is described, and typical results are presented. Finally, the paper indicates some of the areas in which limited knowledge affects the implementation or accuracy of airport dispersion modeling.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710330
Joseph R. Crotti
Because of the lack of leadership from the federal government in regulating aircraft noise around airports, the California legislature mandated the California Department of Aeronautics to adopt noise standards to govern aircraft and aircraft engine noise at airports operating under a permit from the Department. These regulations offer a new approach to the control of noise pollution and the level of noise acceptable to a reasonable person residing in the vicinity of the airport, with due consideration of the economic and technological feasibility of complying with the standards.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710332
Ronald W. Pulling
The paper presents a concise view of federal regulatory activities in the area of aircraft noise. The elements and participants in the noise problem are identified, and the historical background leading to the enactment of federal legislation supporting FAA regulatory activities is presented. The scope and status of FAA regulations, as well as the constraints and alternatives affecting an ultimate resolution of the problem, are reviewed. A prospectus is offered.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710329
John P. Woods
This summary paper introduces the three panelists who have prepared contributing papers and who will summarize their own papers, Messrs Crotti, Meynell, and Pulling. It also attempts to set the stage and highlight some of the issues. The public is increasingly demanding relief from aircraft noise, and demanding evidence that all possible remedial action has been taken. State governments, concerned for the health and welfare of their citizens, are considering whether they may be in an ideal position to act as a regulatory catalyst in this area.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710331
B. W. Meynell
Because aviation is international, some (but not all) of the measures needed to reduce aircraft noise disturbance should be undertaken internationally. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is up to this task if national authorities give it its proper role: it has already made the right start towards establishing aircraft noise certification standards.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710318
G. P. Sallee
The sources of pollution from aircraft and airports are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the industry's current understanding of the magnitude and control technology applicable to such sources. The progress of industry activity in reducing pollution from aircraft is presented, including on-going research directed at defining the impact, source strength, and applicable control technology. The unknowns and the areas in which research is needed and not currently under way also are identified.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710320
John M. Swihart
The feasibility of commercial supersonic flight has been questioned on the basis of air pollution and an alleged potential for altering the world's climate and weather. A study conducted by Boeing reveals no basis for any of these claims. However, in some cases more data are required to show there is no effect.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710322
James A. Fay, John B. Heywood
Two aspects of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft are reviewed. The first is the dispersal of aircraft exhaust emissions in the vicinity of airports; the second is the dispersal of exhaust trails in the upper atmosphere. Techniques available for modeling this dispersal and how they might be applied to the airport problem are discussed. Field studies of airport pollution are then reviewed to assess current pollutant levels around airports and the aircraft's contribution to those levels. The possibility of contrail formation from jet emissions at high altitude is then considered and the effect of uncertainties in the trail mixing processes evaluated.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710321
Charles C. Schimpeler
This paper discusses some of the most vital issues relating to the processes of airport planning compatibility with the existing man-made and natural environment. Airport planning must be approached within the context of the total urban system.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710311
William B. Becker
For many years, the airlines have devoted time, talent, and money to the reduction of both noise and air pollution. The various steps taken by the airlines since 1952 toward noise alleviation are outlined. The need for local government compatible land use control is advocated. The advances made by the airlines in reducing the total amount of pollution created per aircraft engine is described. The further reduction of emissions, as each new jet engine comes into air transport usage, is discussed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710305
J. B. Large
The paper outlines briefly the history of Applied Acoustics. It then discusses the need to train engineers and scientists who can tackle the problem of environmental noise control. Because of the embryonic nature of this discipline, the author makes a case for a special approach to the education of post-graduate specialists. The Institute of Sound and Vibration Research is given as an example of how one University in the United Kingdom has organized its resources to train these specialists.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710303
Don Jensen
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710301
David L. Coffin
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710302
Ralph G. Smith
The paper discusses how atmospheric exposure to lead affects health. Sources of lead in the atmosphere are explored, lead aerosol is described, and the importance of lead in the diet is discussed. Methods of detecting lead in the human system are detailed. The paper suggests that a threshold limit of atmospheric lead be firmly established.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710299
I. T. T. Higgins
The effects of sulfur oxide pollution are discussed, with reference to the literature. Levels of sulfur oxide and particulates in the air are determined for different areas, and many geographic comparisons are made. Dose/response relationships of sulfur oxide and smoke are established, and it is concluded that a safe level of both in the air would be 100 μgm/m3 or less.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710300
Bertram D. Dinman
The physiology of carbon monoxide is discussed in the human respiratory system. The details of the relationship of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin are outlined, and the effects of specific concentrations of CO are shown. Acute and chronic exposures to CO create certain effects on the various bodily systems, and these are described in detail.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710298
M. C. Battigelli
The paper outlines the effects of oxides of nitrogen upon the respiratory system. Toxic effects of different kinds of exposure (acute and chronic, experimental, occupational, and environmental) are detailed. Data are given from the literature to support the conclusions. An attempt is made to determine a safe level of nitrogen oxides.
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