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Viewing 22051 to 22080 of 22386
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Marvin W. Jackson
The exhaust hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations of a single-cylinder engine, operating on a 25% (wt.) ethyl alcohol – 75% gasoline fuel, are compared to those operating on gasoline. For comparisons at the same airfuel ratio but lower than 15.3, the addition of ethyl alcohol to gasoline reduces the exhaust hydrocarbon concentrations and increases the nitrogen oxide concentrations. At the same air-fuel ratio but higher than 15.3, the addition of ethyl alcohol reduces both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations. However, tests with automobiles, operating at the same air-fuel ratio with both fuels, indicate that the addition of ethyl alcohol causes an increase in “surge” and, in some cases, results in a power loss. To overcome these performance problems, the ethyl alcohol-gasoline fuel should be operated at about the same percent theoretical air as gasoline. For comparisons at the same per cent theoretical air, the addition of ethyl alcohol to gasoline has little effect on the exhaust hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Jay A. Bolt
Alcohol has been promoted and used as a motor fuel for more than 50 years. However, United States ethyl alcohol production is small compared with gasoline production. High latent heat of vaporization of alcohol makes possible some increase of power over gasoline. The heating value of alcohol is low and energy content of alcohol blends is less than that of gasoline; fuel consumption of blends is therefore increased. The ability of ethanol to improve the octane number of gasoline has diminished as the octane number of gasoline has improved. There is no published evidence that alcohols can appreciably reduce air pollution problems.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
E. S. Starkman, H. K. Newhall, R. D. Sutton
Three factors are of consequence when considering the comparative performance of alcohols and hydrocarbons as spark ignition engine fuels. These are: relative amounts of products of combustion produced per unit of inducted charge, energy inducted per unit of charge, and latent heat differences among the fuels. Simple analysis showed significant increases in output can be expected from the use of methyl alcohol as compared to hydrocarbon and somewhat lesser improvement can be expected from ethyl alcohol. Attendant increases in fuel consumption, disproportionate to the power increase, can also be predicted. More sophisticated analysis, based upon thermodynamic charts of combustion products, do not necessarily improve correspondence between prediction and engine results.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
John P. Harris, Charles Lipson
The fatigue life of a metal part subjected to a spectrum of load intensities cannot be adequately evaluated from the results of a constant stress vs. cycles (S-N curve) experiment alone. A number of experiments have been conducted on this subject in the past, each for different materials and under different loading conditions. A review of this data reveals somewhat conflicting conclusions. An attempt is made to resolve some of these differences and to suggest a consistent approach which would take into consideration the differences, and yield a solution which coincides with each of the individual results. In conclusion a spectral loading problem is worked out, demonstrating the application of this approach to reliability predictions.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Charles D. Wood, Park W. Espenschade
Abstract This paper shows the results of an experimental investigation of the nature and characteristics of erosion of metals by high-speed impingement of airborne dust particles. The influence of various parameters upon the rate of erosion is shown. The manner in which the rate of erosion varies with certain of these parameters indicates that erosion occurs through the ductile displacement of the eroded material by the impinging dust particle.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
J. A. Graham, D. R. Olberts, L. C. Wolf
Abstract A method of estimating component life is presented. This method reduces the time required to tabulate load spectra from oscillograph records and simplifies the life computation. Only the upper levels of the spectra are counted. The slopes of the abbreviated load spectrum plot and S-N curve, and a series of graphs are used to estimate equivalent damage cycles at the top load level. Equivalent damage cycles may then be used to estimate life, establish the load level and the length of laboratory tests, or provide a basis for redesign of the component.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Paul J. Maynard, Herbert R. Hazard, Richard A. Duffee
This paper discusses the general effects of the physical, technological, and economic environments of Southeast Asia on the design, operation, and maintenance of mechanical and electronic equipment. The need for better information on applicable environmental parameters, and the relationship of this problem to the pressing requirement for applying U.S. research, development, and engineering abilities to the problems of “remote area” countries, are emphasized.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
W. E. SCHILKE
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Miles L. Brubacher, Donel R. Olson
Surveys of smog forming pollutants from the exhaust of the California car population have shown a tremendous range of emissions between the worst and the best cars. The California MVPCB conducted a study at Scott Research Laboratories to determine the effectiveness and cost of various tune-up approaches to the auto exhaust emission problem. Four phases of tune-up were explored and pertinent facts and data are included in this paper. Three major engine systems affecting emissions of older cars are ignition, carburetion, and exhaust valve leaks. Exhaust control is predicted to be a $150,000,000 annual business and the incentive exists to develop more effective and cheaper control systems.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
L. G. Wilder
An analysis is made of the factors which influence the selection of equipment by contractors working overseas. The nature and size of the job, availability of equipment, availability of parts and service, and final disposition of the equipment are some of the basic guidelines determining type of equipment to be used. The author recommends that equipment manufacturers not sell equipment overseas until it is proved in the field and it is a standardized model with adequate availability of parts in the foreign country.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
D. Jack Gibson
A maximum temperature of zero F is recommended for the transportation, distribution, and display of frozen foods. The author suggests that the transportation industry adopt a policy of self-policing to avoid the passage of regulatory state legislation. He discusses the maximum protection of perishable food products from the point of view of maintenance of equipment and driver training.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
C. E. NORTON, P. J. BAKER
This paper explains the material and processing developments which account for the fatigue life advantages of the NDur-300 and NDur-600 lines of ball bearings recently announced by New Departure. Included in this explanation is a description of the nature of the change in the bearing resulting from the exclusive new process used in both classifications of NDur bearings. The methods of testing are detailed and the results of the testing presented graphically. These results are shown to indicate that the rating claims published for NDur bearings are very conservative. The article closes with some notes on the methods of assessing the life advantages to be gained through the use of NDur bearings in specific types of applications.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
R. J. Moulton
This paper deals with facilitation of the handling and clearance of international air cargo and the efforts made towards this end by intergovernmental organizations, notably the International Civil Aviation Organization. It stresses the importance of rapid processing on the ground and discusses in detail the various measures that need to be taken by governments, airport administrations and carriers to accomplish this. These measures include items such as reduction and simplification of clearance documents, liberal application of sample or selective techniques in clearance examination, provision of adequate handling, clearance and warehousing facilities at international airports and simplified trans-shipment procedures.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Harvey J. Wexler
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
David D. Thomas
Accident prevention is one of the FAA's prime statutory responsibilities. Some of the efforts in carrying out these responsibilities are described in this paper, and the following FAA programs are briefly explained: (1) an air carrier maintenance system of establishing airworthiness alert values so that timely maintenance can be performed, (2) outline of a concentrated program to prevent false fire warnings, (3) development and expansion of positive control in Air Traffic Service, (4) flight checking of airline captains by special trained inspectors, (5) participating in CAB-FAA schooling on accident investigation, and (6) dissemination of safety literature in the general aviation field.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
J. B. Durant
Cooperative work on diesel smoke measurement has been conducted for more than twenty years. Results of this work have shown that smoke measurement can be reasonably exact if conducted properly. Application of experimental results and the experience of the Smokemeter Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) are presented as the state-of-the-art, outlining techniques and guides necessary for acceptable smoke measurement. Information is provided on choice of smokemeter type, smokemeter operation, sampling, expression of data, and visual rating. The CRC Smokemeter Group recommends that this information be used as a basis for general work and communication in diesel smoke measurement.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Robert P. Keller
A reliable product is essential to the automotive industry. Experimental stress analysis complemented by life testing, as shown in this paper, plays a vital role in developing sound brake and suspension components. Testing techniques to provide rapid solutions are employed on a variety of structural members. The application of simple principles with regard for limitations provides solutions to a multitude of endurance problems. Rules are given to guide the beginner and to refresh the memory of the experienced test and development engineer. Careful use of the methods shown coupled with attention to the principles expounded will result in reliable designs.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
David B. Dobson
Standardized modular construction keynotes the development of multipurpose automatic test equipment. This paper first propounds the philosophy behind building block electronic test equipment and outlines the elements of a program to establish a national standard, Second, it describes a set of studies performed for U.S. Army Ordnance by RCA and summarizes the results, and third, describes briefly the actual hardware that has been designed and built on the bases of the study results.
Magazine
1963-10-01
Magazine
1963-09-01
Standard
1963-08-15
In order to ease the equipment design engineer's problem and at the same time provide a basis for comparing measurements by manufacturer and user this recommended practice sets up standard test procedures for acceptance testing. These conditions and the basic tests to which the characteristics refer are grouped in Section 2 and compose a complete list of defining characteristics of the synchro. Specifications written around synchros have specified certain necessary characteristics for production acceptance testing, such as null voltage and accuracy, under test conditions and techniques that are mainly and properly concerned with accuracy and the shortest possible test time. These characteristics are inherently degraded when the synchro is operating for a period of time at other than room temperature. In synchros this degradation is a factor of high importance
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Howard L. Leve
Abstract In complex systems there exist many elements and an associated large number of possible strength failure modes. If the overall reliability goal assigned to the strength failure modes is large and all the failure modes are assumed to be independent, then the reliability goals for each element designed on a strength basis can be very severe. It is shown that sets of strength failure modes are related through environmental considerations. This dependence leads to less severe reliability goals, and thus to lower total design weight, than that found when assuming all the strength failure modes to be independent. The dependence of the failure mode is then associated with the a posteriori behavior of systems, indicating that the strength failure modes can essentially be represented by a few dominant modes. Simple rules are then given for allocating the required overall reliability goal to the dominant strength failure modes, and in turn, to the elements designed from strength considerations.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ernest W. Landen
Nitrogen oxides produced in the combustion of compression ignition engines are of some significance because they are quite reactive and can attack lubricating oils and engine parts. Measured amounts in the exhaust gases of diesel engines can be used to evaluate those factors in operation and design which are important in controlling the quantities produced. In the precombustion chamber type of diesel engine, the local peak combustion temperature influences the formation of nitrogen oxides. These localized peak temperatures are controlled by such factors as fuel-air ratio of combustion, duration of fuel injection, timing of fuel injection, inlet manifold air temperature, engine speed, and supercharging. Data presented indicate how these variables affect the formation of nitrogen oxides as measured in the exhaust gases. Higher inlet temperatures and more rapid mixing of the fuel and air than is used in today’s precombustion chamber engines are conducive to the formation of larger quantities of nitrogen oxides.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ned J. Parsekian, Ralph Anteau
The D7 Sectional Committee of the ASA has revised to 1962 standards the codes for inspection requirements for motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers operating on public highways. This paper covers 16 areas of substantial revisions to the code. The paper strongly endorses vehicle inspection as making an important contribution to highway safety and endorses the D7 code as an instrument to provide uniformity, to further reciprocity on vehicle inspection, and to consolidate safety features engineered by the automotive trade.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Robert Montgomery
This paper presents significant changes in the Uniform Vehicle Code established by the National Committee in its 1962 session. Changes pertaining to registration of vehicles, operators’ and chauffeurs’ licenses, accident reporting, and rules of the road are outlined. One of the most important parts of the Code dealing with right of way regulations at intersections where “stop” or “yield” signs exist was revised from the “shifting” rule to the “absolute” rule. Revisions were also made in the equipment section, reflecting technological development in lighting and brake equipment. These modifications are based on findings of the ICC and the Bureau of Public Roads.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
K. A. Stonex
This paper will review the problems encountered in review of the ASA Standard D7.1, Inspection Requirements for Motor Vehicles; these problems, from the engineer’s viewpoint, were largely in the area of reaching compromise whereby designs of widely different character can be inspected by the same procedure on the same equipment.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
D. L. Dye, W. R. Sheldon
The cosmic radiation environment at 70, 000 ft altitude is described and discussed in terms of its ability (1) to deliver low-LET ionization dose to tissue, and (2) to kill, at high-LET, a fraction of the closely packed cells in an organ in the body. The dose rates and fractional cell lethality values are found to be small, posing no practical restriction to normal flight scheduling for either passengers or crew. Solar flare proton events are shown to develop slowly enough to allow an aircraft to proceed to destination without excessive dose to its occupants.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
W. V. Smith, L. G. Schneider
Since the Navy's habitat is the ocean area of the world, sea water is an environmental factor which must be reckoned with and, if possible, used to advantage where lubrication of ship' s machinery is concerned. Three situations within the above concept are (1) protection from the environment, (2) utilization of the environment, and (3) adaptation of the environment. Illustrations of the above as related to propulsion machinery and some related equipment are found in (1) need for more effective protection against sea water intrusion in turbine and hydraulic systems, (2) certain specific applications using bearings lubricated by sea water only, and (3) potential improvement in the use of sea water as a lubricant.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ewen McEwen
This paper deals with the problems of designing tractors to be sold all over the world while at the same time minimizing the variables in order to obtain the economies of mass production. The physical, psychological, and legal requirements and difficulties are dealt with and a summary of the maze of European road and safety regulations is included as an Appendix. The author concludes that since these regulations are inescapable, it is in the interests of the industry to support every effort at rationalizing the requirements among the different countries.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
K. V. Kirkpatrick, D. C. Heitshu
Remote hydrostatic power, reciprocal and rotary, offers advantages to farm implement and industrial equipment designers where distance, multiplicity of drives, complexity of motion, or control of speed and (or) direction or rotation present problems. The most efficient system is gained by using individual motors selected for each drive. However, in interest of cost, a universal motor having three speed ranges and a standardized mounting is suggested. The need for test codes, reliability factors, and standard tractor hydraulic systems is obvious. The universal motor also requires a standard, and recommendations are made for the development of these requirements.
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