Display:

Results

Viewing 22051 to 22080 of 22822
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720627
Louis H. Mayo
The increasing public concern in recent years over the problem of environmental noise has resulted in the enactment of technology-based regulatory agencies and statutory measures to control technological applications. Most of the earlier controls, however, were reactive measures rather than positive efforts to assure development of a new technology in the public interest. This situation is beginning to change as new environmental codes are being implemented in various states and cities. This paper describes how the noise factor has influenced the planning of transportation systems by various legislative and regulatory entities at the federal, regional, state, and local levels.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720626
Thomas C. Young
Concern over noise emissions has increased significantly. This paper relates the noise emission problem to other pollution efforts and defines alternative abatement strategies. Major technical and economic parameters are discussed based on the present state-of-the-art. A balanced approach to noise abatement is suggested.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720604
Max Ephraim,
The diesel electric locomotive as a source of gaseous emissions is reviewed. Locomotive operation is outlined to provide an understanding of diesel engine application, operation, and controls. Methods of evaluating gaseous emissions are offered for consideration as industry standards. Present-day exhaust emission levels are presented. Specific recommendations are offered to the locomotive manufacturers, the railroads, and to governmental regulating bodies to effect improved exhaust emission levels.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720598
Harry Pearson
The paper briefly reviews the evolution of modern aero engines and analyzes the forces which motivate continued technical development, especially the interaction with growth in traffic and aircraft size. The contribution of improved propulsion systems to the economics and regularity of air transport is examined, with particular reference to developments during the past decade. There is some discussion of the environmental factors, particularly noise, raised by civil aviation, the progress already made to deal with them, and the possibilities for the future. The overall benefits of powerplant technical development, particularly as they affect the general and traveling public, are summarized. Examples are drawn from both the United States and European scenes.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720610
Melvin Platt, E. Karl Bastress
Aircraft emissions and their impact upon air quality have been studied at four major air carrier airports and two general aviation airports. Predicted concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, due to aircraft emissions alone, have been found to exceed their respective national ambient air quality standards. In the case of nitrogen dioxide, aircraft emissions contribute significantly to excessive concentrations. On the other hand, aircraft contributions to excessive concentrations of particulates and sulfur dioxide are small in areas to which the public has “reasonable access.”
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720611
D. M. Rote, I. T. Wang, L. Wangen, J. Pratapas, Lois Leffler, Glen Cato
The airport air quality monitoring program conducted at both O'Hare and Orange County airports is discussed and preliminary results are presented. Aircraft and related ground vehicular data are presented along with a summary of engine emissions. These data are discussed and their use in the activity simulation models is described. The models used for activity simulation and calculation of air quality are described briefly.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720612
William T. Westfield
An afterburning turbofan engine was operated over a range of simulated altitudes and Mach numbers to determine if correlation existed between static sea level emissions and those at altitudes and flight speeds. Data were taken at a point about 27 feet downstream of the exhaust nozzle exit and on the centerline of flow. No apparent effect of altitude or flight speed on emissions, either gaseous or particle, was observed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720615
Albert G. Lucas, George W. Niepoth
The present spark ignition, reciprocating piston, gasoline engine is examined against the basic requirements for an automotive powerplant. The important requirement of emission control is shown to affect these basic requirements. The emission potential of this engine and the prospect of reducing its emissions to an acceptable level are explored. The effect of these factors on future gasoline engines is discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720605
Mark Sherbinsky
The heaviest class of intercity trucks is examined using the 1967 Census of Transportation to establish a representative sample of vehicles with truck-miles as the major delineator. Representative road types and vehicle loading factors are selected. Computer simulation of the vehicle and road is used to establish histograms of percent engine load versus engine RPM. The above is then combined with modal emission levels to allow projection on a weighted truck-mile basis, to the entire intercity population of this class vehicle. Heavy class is defined as over 26000 lb. GVW.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720606
Irving J. Rubin
A reduction in truck emissions in metropolitan areas can be accomplished through 1) the installation of pollution control devices, and 2) the more efficient utilization of trucks in the movement of goods. This paper discusses the government-mandated standards for truck emission control, and reviews the various methods employed or suggested for improving the efficiency of trucks -- such as the “off-hours” delivery system -- as well as alternative vehicle modes for moving goods. The conclusion is that improving the efficiency of trucks can reduce congestion -- and costs to both truckers and shippers -- and, at the same time, it also can reduce pollution.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720607
Robert E. Field
The ecology of our environment has recently been of great concern to all of us. In the bus business, we have gone from horse drawn carriages, to electric, to steam power to diesel power to obtain an efficient, clean operating vehicle. A great deal of effort has been expended in determining the components of the emissions of the diesel engine. Great strides have been made in reducing these emissions. GMC Truck & Coach has developed and released an Environmental Improvement Program that reduces smoke to the invisible range and meets Federal standards for HC, CO and NOx. Odor also is eliminated as a problem.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720609
R. D. Henderson
This paper comments on the status of emission regulations; provides estimates of emissions from earthmoving vehicles based on Caterpillar information and compares this with diesel powered off-highway machinery based on Bureau of Mines data; suggests that simple emission test procedures may suffice for the great variety of equipment used in the construction industry if standards are established; and proposes that non-productive testing to prove conformance to standards be minimized.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720124
M. J. Manos, J. W. Bozek, T. A. Huls
A program was conducted to determine the effect of temperature and humidity on exhaust emissions from automotive engines. The objective was to determine if the effects were of sufficient magnitude to require the application of correction factors to measured exhaust emissions to standard humidity and temperature values. Both American and foreign-made vehicles were tested at 20 combinations of ambient temperature and humidity. The effect of temperature and humidity was found to be both unpredictable and of little significance for hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. No correction factors were developed for these exhaust gas constituents. The effect of temperature was found to be of little significance for oxides of nitrogen. However, humidity effects were found to be significant and predictable for oxides of nitrogen.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720760
Harvey W. Rogers
The problem of solid waste collection in the United States is not a new one. The problems of equipment standardization, vectors, aesthetics, and dust and odor control, to mention a few, were approached systematically as the need was recognized. This paper describes the transition from past to present collection practices. This developmental transition can serve as good background information upon which to build future collection technology.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720481
W. E. Bernhardt, E. Hoffmann
During vehicle cold start, emissions, mass flow rates, and catalytic converter space velocities vary by orders of magnitude. Therefore, catalytic exhaust control systems must be designed to operate at high efficiency almost from the moment of engine start-up. Catalysts must reach their operating temperature as quickly as possible. Therefore, the utility of different methods for improving the warm-up characteristics of catalytic systems is illustrated. A very elegant method to speed the warm-up is the use of the engine itself as a “preheater” for the catalytic converters. High exhaust gas enthalpy to raise exhaust system mass up to its operating temperature is obtained by the use of extreme spark retard, stochiometric mixtures, and fully opened throttle. Intensive studies to investigate the effects of concurrent changes of spark timing and air/fuel mixtures on exhaust gas temperature, enthalpy, NOx and HC emissions are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720931
Malcolm Smith
This paper presents the findings of the second year of a planned three-year program to investigate the hydrocarbon losses sustained during the refueling of passenger cars. The magnitude and frequency of occurrence of spills by type of spill were estimated from observations of refueling operations during a five-city, four-season field survey. The magnitude of the average observed loss due to spills was 10.6 g and the probability of a spill loss was 0.329. The average spill loss was 3.5 g per refueling operation or 0.3 g/gal of dispensed gasoline. Measurements of displaced hydrocarbon losses were made under controlled conditions during a laboratory study conducted in the Scott all-weather room. A regression analysis of these data yielded a model which estimates the displaced hydrocarbon loss as a function of dispensed fuel temperature, displaced vapor temperature, and the Reid vapor pressure of the fuel.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720126
Ward W. Wiers, Charles E. Scheffler
The CO2 tracer technique is a method of measuring automotive exhaust mass emissions during arbitrary modes of operation of a car on the 1972 federal emission test driving schedule. This technique allows modal mass measurements of low-emission cars based on undiluted exhaust gas concentrations. The CO2 concentration at the tailpipe is compared with the CO2 in the diluted stream to obtain exhaust flow. This flow, multiplied by tailpipe concentrations of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide, and integrated over the driving mode, gives modal mass emissions. Problems associated with the lag between the time at which a transient maneuver takes place in the engine and the time at which measurements are recorded are also discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720697
D. W. Morrison, R. M. Clarke
This paper reports and analyzes two sets of test data that were taken to determine the interior noise levels of typical heavy-duty trucks. Under controlled test conditions, various stationary tests were run in an effort to correlate their results with those obtained during SAE J366 and J336 dynamic tests conducted at the same time. In addition, sound level exposures were determined for various over-the-road operations in an attempt to correlate these results with the static test results.
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726039
Yoshio Serizawa
Nissan's Experimental Safety Vehicle is a small-sized passenger car. "Small-sized" means small in overall dimensions and light weight. Differences between the Japanese 2,500 pound ESV and the 4,000 pound ESV specifications are outlined. This paper discusses small car safety and ESV specifications
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
725029
J. Wei, D. P. Osterhout, J. C. W. Kuo, C. D. Prater, P. W. Snyder
The general rules adopted in the development of automotive emission control catalytic converter models are to quantify all the essential physical and chemical phenomena related to the converter performance by separate laboratory experiments, and to minimize the complexity of the models by excluding from the models the less important phenomena. By adhering to these rules, predictive catalytic converter math models were constructed for both particle or monolithic support catalysts using either noble or base metal as active ingredients. The models have been used as a useful research and development tool for exploring the direction for improving total emission control systems, including catalyst development, engine calibration modification, converter location and converter design studies. The strategy in the application of the models is to maintain a continuous dialogue between test results and the math model predictions to a total vehicle-converter system that can meet stated goals.
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726041
Tatsuo Hasegawa
Toyota Motor Company has been endeavoring to make technological progress in the field of vehicle safety, and we have made up our minds to build a Toyota ESV prototype in cooperation with the ESV project of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Japanese Government. Crashworthiness is the major purpose in the Toyota ESV design. Toyota will work to attain current ESV specification and contribute to accident avoidance specifications.
1971-10-26
Technical Paper
710831
A. E. Felt, S. R. Krause
The results of a comprehensive test program using a 1969 383-CID V-8 engine at two compression ratios-9.5:1 and 7.6:1-are reported. Compression ratio changes were effected by piston changes only. Except for necessary ignition timing modifications, no other changes were made in the engine. The effects of compression ratio changes on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were studied in steady-state dynamometer tests and in vehicle tests. At MBT ignition timing or at the same percentage power loss from MBT timing at each compression ratio and with identical carburetion, decreasing the compression ratio from 9.5:1 to 7.6:1 produced the following results: 1. In steady-state dynamometer tests, NO (ppm) and CO (%) emissions were unchanged, HCs (ppm) were decreased, and fuel consumption was increased when equal power was developed at both compression ratios. 2. In vehicle tests using the 7-mode Federal Test Procedure, NO and CO emissions were unchanged and HCs increased somewhat.
1971-10-01
Standard
AIR1221
This checklist is to be used by project personnel to assure that factors required for adequate system electromagnetic compatibility are considered and incorporated into a program. It provides a ready reference of EMC management and documentation requirements for a particular program from preproposal thru acquisition. When considered with individual equipments comprising the system and the electromagnetic operational environment in which the system will operate, the checklist will aid in the preparation of an EMC analysis. The analysis will facilitate the development of system- dependent EMC criteria and detailed system, subsystem, and equipment design requirements ensuring electromagnetic compatibility. It should be noted that all subjects are not covered and that all items listed may not be required on a given program.
1971-10-01
Standard
ARP1256
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the continuous sampling and analysis of gaseous emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. The measured gas species include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total hydrocarbons and water vapor (H2O). This ARP excludes engine operating procedures and test modes, and is not intended for in flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode. It is recognized that there will probably be major advances in the gas analysis measurement technology. It is not the intent of this ARP to exclude other analysis techniques, but to form the basis of the minimum amount of conventional instruments (those in common industry usage over the last fifteen years) required for the analysis of aircraft engine exhaust.
1971-09-01
Standard
AIR1255
This AIR was prepared to inform the aerospace industry about the electromagnetic interference measurement capability of spectrum analyzers. The spectrum analyzers considered are of the wide dispersion type which are electronically tuned over an octave or wider frequency range. The reason for limiting the AIR to this type of spectrum analyzer is that several manufacturers produce them as general-purpose instruments, and their use for EMI measurement will give significant time and cost savings. The objective of the AIR is to give a description of the spectrum analyzers, consider the analyzer parameters, and describe how the analyzers are usable for collection of EMI data. The operator of a spectrum analyzer should be thoroughly familiar with the analyzer and the technical concepts reviewed in the AIR before performing EMI measurements.
1971-09-01
Standard
J312B_197109
This SAE Recommended Practice summarizes the composition of modern automotive gasolines, the significance of their physical and chemical characteristics, and the pertinent test methods for defining or evaluating these properties.
1971-06-01
Standard
J255_197106
Measurement of diesel smoke in an accurate and consistent manner has been a serious problem for engine and vehicle manufacturers, users, and agencies charged with enforcing smoke limits. Several instruments, based on different principles and using different scales, are commonly used. In addition to these, human observation and judgement are often used to relate smoke to a variety of standards. The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to provide an understanding of the nature of diesel smoke, how it can be measured, and how the various measurement methods can be correlated. Except for defining the various types of smoke, the report deals solely with the steady-state measurement of visible, black smoke emitted from diesel engines.
1971-06-01
Standard
J254_197106
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform laboratory techniques for the continuous and bag-sample measurement of various constituents in the exhaust gas of the gasoline engines installed in passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The report concentrates on the measurement of the following components in exhaust gas: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). NOx is the sum of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A complete procedure for testing vehicles may be found in SAE J1094.
Viewing 22051 to 22080 of 22822

Filter