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1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810276
J. A. Sell, R. K. Herz, E. C. Perry
Carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaust from an engine operated under Computer Command Control were measured with infrared diode laser spectroscopy. CO levels were measured before and after the catalytic converter for various air-fuel ratios, using two different carburetors and using both analog and digital carburetor controllers. The response time of the spectrometer was 0.025 s, which was fast enough to resolve the rapidly varying CO concentrations. Using signal-averaging techniques the CO component was isolated which was due to the modulation of the carburetor's fuel metering rod. A component at the firing frequency of a single cylinder was also isolated; this component results from maldistribution of fuel to the engine's eight cylinders. Fourier transforms of the data yielded relative amplitudes of CO oscillation as a function of frequency.
1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810429
James W. Butler, Paul D. Maker, Thomas J. Korniski, Larry P. Haack
A gas analysis system is described which is composed of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a total hydrocarbon analyzer. This combination of instrumentation along with a unique sampling system allows on-line analysis of regulated and non-regulated emissions. Data are presented demonstrating the system's capability for analysis of regulated and non-regulated emissions from catalyzed and non-calatyzed exhaust. To demonstrate the accuracy of the analysis system, both oxygen and carbon mass balance data are given for an experiment involving the three/way catalysis of a steady-state gas stream synthesized to resemble the exhaust from a gasohol fueled engine. The use of these techniques for the analysis of vehicle emissions is also demonstrated.
1980-11-01
Technical Paper
801440
Charles A. Amann
The evolution of increasingly stringent standards for passenger-car exhaust emissions has increased the need for more sophisticated engine controls. In the era prior to emissions control, the dependent variables were fuel economy, driveability, and convenience and cost to the customer. The principal independent variables were spark advance and air-fuel ratio. With the tailpipe emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen now added to the list of dependent variables, a number of additional concepts have been introduced on production automobiles. Among these are exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), the oxidizing catalytic converter, and the three-way catalytic converter. These developments, in combination with tighter emission standards and new fuel-economy mandates, have complicated the engine control problem. This presentation focuses on the definition of that problem.
HISTORICAL
1980-11-01
Standard
J900_198011
The purpose of this SAE STandard is to provide standard test procedures for crankcase emission control systems and/or devices. The procedures included are for determining: a. The flow rate of the blowby of an engine; b. The flow rates through the crankcase emission control system inlet and outlet. This code is written to cover crankcase emission control systems which are designed to reduce the emission of engine blowby gases to the atmosphere. The code includes the following sections: 3. Definitions and Terminology; 4. Test Equipment; 5. Test Procedures; 6. Information and Data to be Recorded; 7. Data Analysis; 8. Presentation of Information and Data.
1980-11-01
Technical Paper
801422
J. E. Tomassoni, G. K. Bell
Initial efforts for developing regulations for improved rear underride protection focused on very high strength (rigid) structures with low ground clearance. To determine optimal performance characteristics for guard structures, a comparative engineering analysis was performed using a car crash simulation model with a variety of guard, force-deformation characteristics. From this analysis the risk of injury to occupants of passenger cars was determined based on excessive underride (decapitation potential), and collision forces imparted to the occupant. Variables in the analysis included collision speed, car size, occupant free travel distance, and the rear wheel position of the heavy vehicle, as well as the various force-deformation characteristics representing the different types of underride guard systems.
1980-11-01
Technical Paper
801432
P. Fontanet
The present paper reports the urban driving statistical survey achieved by CCMC on a twenty three passenger car sample, driven in four European towns. Statistics of engine speed as well as statistics of power utilized have been worked out and related to mechanical characteristics of the vehicles. From these preliminary works, CCMC has derived the engine speeds and loads which define, at best, the noisiness of the different passenger cars. These engine speeds and loads should be used during certification tests in order to get a better evaluation of their noise nuisance. These works have been used as a basis for the drafting of various practical procedures. One of them has been elaborated in the 8th working group of SCI TC 43 of ISO and is now proposed as an international standard.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801381
David M. Stehouwer
The environmental, energy, and economic factors causing increased interest in recycling used engine oil are reviewed. Current used oil disposal practices and the choices of recycling used oil as a fuel supplement or a re-refined lubricant are discussed Use as a fuel supplement for stationary combustion units has raised concern over lead emissions. However, reduced use of lead in gasoline in combination with current stack gas emission control systems should eliminate this concern. Although it is technically feasible to produce a high quality engine oil from re-refined base stocks, the acceptance of re-refined engine oils will depend upon the re-refiners ability to insure quality from batch-to-batch. A small energy savings, equivalent to about 1.4 billion liters (9.0 million barrels) of crude per year, is possible if the used engine oil now used for road oiling or dumped is recycled by available methods.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801360
Ken R. Stamper
A series of evaporative emission tests was conducted to determine the influence of the addition of methanol to gasoline and length of service on evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles. Results from these tests show that using a 10% methanol/90% gasoline blend increases evaporative emissions by 130% for short-term use and 220% for long-term use relative to the evaporative emissions produced using a reference gasoline. The evaporative hydrocarbon emissions produced when the vehicles were operating on the methanol blend had a slightly higher photochemical reactivity than those produced from the reference gasoline.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801359
MICHAEL P. WALSH, GEORGE D. KITTREDGE
Progress of the Federal program for control of pollutant emissions from motor vehicles is summarized, through the 1968-1980 period. The standards mandated by the Clean Air Act have now been achieved. The future will see greater emphasis on maintaining the control of emissions from passenger cars in service, as opposed to more stringent emissions standards for new cars. More emphasis will also be placed on standards for highway vehicles other than passenger cars and on control of added pollutant types, such as particulate emissions from diesel powered vehicles.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801357
Charles M. Heinen
The paper covers highlights of SAE activity on emissions control from the early efforts of Campbell and others in the 1930's to the present time. Evidence of substantial involvement in the Los Angeles “smog” composition led to the development of analytical tools for continuous evaluation of exhaust. With these tools and other basic information, it became possible to develop many control devices. Over 20 of these devices have been added as standards have tightened. The negative result has been increasing cost and complexity. The crankcase and evaporative systems have been controlled, but the principal emissions have come from the exhaust, and therefore most of the controls were directed to this source. Combustion within the engine has been the principal area of attention, but when this did not meet the requirements of the existing statues, combustion beyond the exhaust ports became important. Notable contributions to this art were air pumps, afterburners and catalysts.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801352
Shintaro Miyawaks, Kazuto Date, Yukio Akasaka, Tsutomu Maeda
Performance and the compatibility of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a blending component for motor gasolines were assessed for Japanese passenger cars. MTBE was found to be an excellent road octane booster. But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of MTBE-containing gasoline were observed to differ from conventional gasoline. The addition of MTBE changed the equivalence ratio of the mixture and reduced the calorific value of the fuel. Engine cleanliness, ORI and crankcase oil deterioration were not influenced by MTBE gasoline. MTBE gasoline was compatible with the elastomers and metals used for fuel system of Japanese passenger cars and was found to behave similarly to conventional gasoline. From these results, MTBE was judged to be an excellent octane appreciator in motor fuel for Japanese passenger cars.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801379
K̇. R. Houser, S. S. Lestz, M. Dukovich, R. E. Yasbin
An Oldsmobile 5.7 ℓ V-8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluable organic extract was also made using both the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the Bacillus subtilis Comptest. Results are presented for a test matrix consisting of twelve steady state operating conditions chosen to reflect over-the-road operation of a Diesel engine powered automobile. Generally methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads the methanol was found to induce what was defined as “knock limited” operation.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801378
R. Pefley, J. Nebolon, H. Adelman
In the last twelve years there has been an expanding study throughout the world which has reestablished alcohols as fuels and as prime candidates for extending and supplementing petroleum fuels in the ground transportation sector. This paper presents a summary of the evidence to date relative to performance and environmental factors as they relate to alcohol fuel use in internal combustion engines.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801375
R. J. Slone, R. W. Scheffel, S. M. Shahed, B. Petersen
Diesel engine exhaust and blowby gases were sampled and analyzed for nitrosamines. Tenax-GC traps were used as collection media. Three different engines were sampled. Tenax-GC material used contained significant quanities of dimethyl nitrosamine as impurities. A cleaning procedure was developed to precondition the traps. No nitrosamines were detected in either exhaust or blowby down to levels of 90 pptr and 10 pptr respectively.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801374
E. Ulku Goff, James R. Coombs, David H. Fine, Thomas M. Baines
Crankcase emissions from four different Diesel engines, using four different types of lubricating oils, were analyzed for volatile nitrosamines. The results showed large differences in nitrosamine output between different crankcase oils tested in the same engine. Composite emission rates of NDMA from the heavy duty diesel engines tested ranged from 4.4 to 136 μg/hr. Large differences were also observed when the same brand of oil was used in different engines. The controlling factors appear to be the nitrosamine producing capacity of the oils, the NOx levels in the crankcase, and the emission flow rate from the crankcase.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801372
Richard E. Gibbs, James D. Hyde, Stanley M. Byer
Particulate emissions data are presented from a group of 19 in-use diesel automobiles. Five driving cycles and three fuel/lubricating oil combinations have been used to obtain particulate emissions data and also to collect particulate samples for chemical and bioassay characterization studies. Particulate samples were solvent extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the emitted particulate. Particulate and SOF data are presented for emission/distance, emission/time and emission/fuel consumed basis by vehicle manufacture, driving cycle, and fuel/oil subcategory. Some SOF samples have been used in the bioassay test of Ames, and these results are presented for different vehicles and driving cycles. Particulate emissions, SOF emissions and bioassay activity results are presented in terms of mileage accumulation effects.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801371
Harry E. Dietzmann, Mary Ann Parness, Ronald L. Bradow
Regulated gaseous, particulate and several unregulated emissions are reported from four heavy-duty diesel engines operated on the chassis version of the 1983 transient procedure. Emissions were obtained from Caterpillar 3208, Mack ENDT 676, Cummins Formula 290 and Detroit Diesel 8V-71 engines with several diesel fuels. A large dilution tunnel (57′ × 46″ ID) was fabricated to allow total exhaust dilution, rather than the double dilution employed in the stationary engine version of the transient procedure. A modal particulate sampler was developed to obtain particulate data from the individual segments of the 1983 transient procedure. The exhaust gas was analyzed for benzo(a)pyrene, metals, N2O, NO2, individual hydrocarbons and HCN. Sequential extractions were performed and measured versus calculated fuel consumptions were obtained.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801370
Timothy P. Cox
An attempt at quantification of emission sensitivity of heavy-duty gasoline engines to variations in the 1984 Federal Certification transient test cycle was made. A brief overview of the Federal Test Procedure is presented, followed by emission test results from several dynamometer controller miscalibration modes. In general, the results indicated that certain modes of controller calibration can produce significant emission variations well within the limits of the 1984 FTP validation criteria. The data indicated that some validation criteria require tightening or respecification to assure repeatable test results.
1980-10-01
Technical Paper
801373
Gary L. Green, Don Wallace
In-line, full-flow diesel smoke opacity meters have been developed to avoid the many installation and operational problems of using the EPA required end-of-line (open stack) PHS smokemeter. Extensive correlation tests were run to establish relationships between the in-line and PHS meters. These correlation studies included determining the effect of emitted light wave length on particle absorption, effective optical path length measurements and correlation studies with other (Bosch and Hartridge) meters.
HISTORICAL
1980-10-01
Standard
J1180_198010
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to mobile cranes when used in lifting crane service which are equipped with boom length indicating devices. The purpose of this recommended practice is to establish the minimum performance requirements of systems which measure and display to the operator, or other responsible persons, the boom length at which a load is being lifted by cranes with variable length, telescopic booms.
HISTORICAL
1980-10-01
Standard
ARP1256A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the continuous sampling and analysis of gaseous emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. The measured gas species include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total hydrocarbons and water vapor (H2O). This ARP excludes engine operating procedures and test modes, and is not intended for in flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode. It is recognized that there will probably be major advances in the gas analysis measurement technology. It is not the intent of this ARP to exclude other analysis techniques, but to form the basis of the minimum amount of conventional instruments (those in common industry usage over the last fifteen years) required for the analysis of aircraft engine exhaust.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800953
M.G. Bekker
Terrain Damage by tracked vehicles, due to rut making and ground compaction, also results in higher locomotive resistance which lowers fuel economy. Both the damage and the economy may be controlled by proper design, and by the correct use of a right vehicle. To this end, methods of land locomotion mechanics are useful as described in this paper. The application of these methods also suggests some ideas that appear promising for a further study.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800964
Tadataka Asada, Masashi Nagai
First, several technological problems pertaining to the recycle and closed-cycle diesel engines, but different from the problems of general air environment operation engines, were extracted and the expected engine cycle was discussed from a thermo-dynamic viewpoint. Then, land-based testing equipment for the recycle engine was manufactured for a trial, with intention to develop an underwater power source. With the equipment, experiments were carried out to look into the working and the performance of the engine. Furthermore, the equipment was modified and made into a closed-cycle diesel engine for a trial and experiments were conducted. The test results were compared with the results of the thermodynamic analysis, and the suitability of the analysis method was evaluated. Subsequently on the basis of these data, we succeeded in developing under-water practical power source “HIRUP”.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
801215
Peter G. Belitsos
Since product designs are defined and communicated using the language established by engineering drawing standards, the role of these standards and their impact on product quality is examined. This includes: 1. A historical review and analysis of the foundation upon which the engineering drawing standards in this country have been based. 2. The importance of good design and adequate design definition on drawings in a language which is widely recognized and understood. 3. The equal importance of dynamic constantly improving engineering drawing and design standards based on product experience and knowledge acquired in the solution of factory and in-service problems (as illustrated by a number of actual cases). 4. An assessment of the challenges of the 1980's and the advances expected to be made during this decade.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
801152
Robert D. Witcofski
A comparison is made of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as potential future transport aircraft fuels. An assessment is made of each fuel from the standpoint of cost and energy resource utilization, including the areas of fuel production, transmission, airport, facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Safety and environmental aspects are also addressed. Barring significant breakthroughs in the production of liquid hydrogen and methane, synthetic aviation kerosene produced from oil shale or coal appears to be the logical choice from the standpoint of cost and minimal disruption to the current air transportation system.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800984
Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Shoichi Fukazawa
Abstract The size and aggregation of soot particulates emitted from a diesel engine have been investigated using a transmission electron microscope, and the chemical composition in soot particulates were analyzed by a gas chromatograph in order to clarify the mechanisms of growth and combustion in the exhaust pipe. In the present report, the following results have been obtained: (1) When the gas temperature was lowered below 400°C in the exhaust pipe, the soot particle distribution shifted to a larger size, from 50 Å to 100 Å.
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