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1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856008
Bertil Aldman
Sweden's accidents have increased in the past three years. The number of vehicles on the road has also increased. The increase in two-wheeler accidents was so dramatic that the Swedish Government appointed a special group of experts to assess areas of possible improvement. The group's recommendations are outlined
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856005
Franco Rossi
This report outlines Italian safety concerns. Domestic statistics have shown a slight decrease in casualties due to road accidents and a stable situation with regard to injuries. Italy has adopted approximately 55 ECE regulations and 46 Community Directives. Active and passive safety measures are outlined. Emission limits and noise pollution legislation are under consideration.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856010
David Lyness
The report reviews United Kingdom safety developments since 1982. The mandatory seatbelt regulation is under evaluation. Improved steering wheel design, accident data analysis, car occupant protection, side impact protection, and pedestrian protection are outlined. Motorcycle safety measures are being developed.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856009
Takashi Shimodaira
The number of casualties in Japan has been increasing. The use of seatbelts by drivers and passengers of motor vehicles became law in September 1985. Electronic control equipment is expected to increase rapidly. Safety Standards are currently undergoing revision.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856025
David C. Viano, Ian V. Lau
Abstract There are currently two accepted criteria for assessment act exposures. Our studies have shown an interaction between the deformation velocity and level of compression during impact, resulting in a greater compression tolerance for low-speed impact than for high-speed loadings. High-speed thoracic impact can cause critical or fatal injury in physiologic experiments before exceeding the acceleration or compression tolerance. The velocity-sensitive tolerance is represented by the maximum product of velocity of deformation and compression, which is derivable from the chest compression response. As the magnitude of this “viscous” response increases, the risk of serious or fatal injury increases. This paper discusses the analysis of available literature and results from our laboratory and demonstrates the need for a viscous tolerance criterion to assess chest impact protection in high-velocity impact.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856024
Rolf H. Eppinger, Jeffrey Marcus
Blunt thoracic impact as experienced by automobile occupants in frontal impact has received considerable research attention over the past 20 years. These efforts have provided the basis for the development of test dummy impact response specifications as well as evaluation criteria to be used in conjunction with the dummy to evaluate the hazard of various crash situations. This paper will attempt to extend the current understanding if thoracic injury production by examining the results of 82 impact tests to determine the effects that several fundamental parameters have on the production of injuries in the thorax.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856026
M. G. Langdon
As part of the development of a simulation model for side impact accidents, it has been necessary to develop a model of the human thorax. This is required to provide both the correct dynamic interface with the simulation of the car structure and a reasonable criterion of injury probability. In terms of designing structures (such as additional padding) that will maximise occupant protection, it is important to have a good understanding of the dependence of injury on the time history of the impact forces. It is only possible to develop a complete model of a system as complex as the thorax in terms of a step-by-step simulation. However, an analytical model has also been developed to describe the third order mass/spring/damper system that forms a major subsystem in the step-by-step simulation. This differs from the ordinary second order mass/spring/damper system by having an additional spring in series with the damper, which gives a softer response to a sudden impact.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856031
Bertil Aldman, Janusz Kajzer, Dominique Cesari, Robert Bouquet, R. Zac
Improvement of pedestrian safety is considered a priority in crash injury protection. Dummies, however, are not able to give a humanlike and repeatable impact response in pedestrian tests. The Biomechanical Laboratory of ONSER in France and the Department of Traffic Safety of Chalmers University in Götheborg, Sweden have designed a new dummy for pedestrian testing. The dummy is designed according to the latest available anthropometric and biomechanical data. Its symmetry around the vertical axis allows repeatability for the kinematic and injury parameters. It allows a measurement of uncommon biomechanical parameters related to injury mechanisms. Its leg is instrumented to determine the distribution of forces and momenta applied to the leg.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856035
Michael Perel
The Ford CHESS computer program was used to evaluate headlamp performance as a function of various influencing factors such as beam pattern, aim, and overall intensity. The degree to which the model was sensitive to headlamp, driver, and environmental variables was assessed. The results showed that only small increases in performance could be achieved by beam pattern modifications, improved aim, and increased overall intensity. Part of the difficulty in identifying performance improvements was found to be the low sensitivity of the CHESS figure of merit to changes in beam photometrics. Suggestions are made for upgrading the CHESS evaluation methodology to make the performance metrics more sensitive to differences in beam design.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856037
Christine M. Haslegrave
Abstract Many physically handicapped drivers have difficulties in using ordinary car controls, and modifications need to be made to their vehicles. A review of the types of adaptations and equipment that are available for this in Europe has identified the principal aspects that need to be considered in their design. For safety and ease of use, it is important to match the characteristics of a control conversion to the driver's capabilities, taking into account the location and mode of operation of the control, together with the operating forces and the range of movement. Many of these adaptations are highly individual, and it is also important to encourage innovation and flexibility in design to increase the possibilities for severely disabled people to obtain the mobility accepted as the norm by the rest of the population. Modern technology permits the use of sophisticated control systems, and a high degree of power assistance can be provided on steering and brakes.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856039
Shoichi Sano, Yoshimi Furukawa, Shuji Shiraishi
Abstract At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856044
Yuji Uemura, Saiichirou Oshita, Toshihiro Konno, Toshiyuki Kobuna, Yoshihiro Yoshida
Abstract Low tire pressure can have adverse effects on a vehicle, such as abnormal tire wear, increased tire rolling loss, tire burst due to excessive heat generated, poor running stability due to reduced cornering power, and hydroplaning phenomenon. The purpose of a low tire pressure warning device is to give adequate warning to a driver when tire pressure falls below the specified level, calling attention to the need for countermeasures, such as adding tire pressure or tire repairs. Thus, the equipment is to reduce the adverse effects of low tire pressure, insure safer operation, and achieve better economy. For this, various warning devices have been developed and reported. The tire pressure warning system presented in this paper was developed to incorporate a user-friendly feature that would tell the driver which of the four wheels has low tire pressure, combined with low system price.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856133
A. Chenevez, H. J. Kraft, E. Landsberg, Sadao Takeda, I. D. Neilson, Ralph J. Hitchcock
This discussion paper reviews trends and priorities in road and vehicle safety. Seatbelts, drunken driving awareness, rear stoplights, industry-government cooperation, anti-lock or anti-skid braking, steering systems, lighting and electronics have improved safety. Vehicle design and construction, International Uniform Safety Standards for harmonization of standards, information exchange, and component design are areas for development.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856131
Masanori Motoki, Tsutomu Asah
In this study, with a final objective of obtaining such data necessary for the international standardization of eye ranges of motorcycle riders in the future, we selected five different models of motorcycles (with engine capacities ranging from 250 cc class to 1,000 cc class) comprising four typical motorcycle types and measured the eye locations and riding positions of 456 Japanese and American motorcycle riders mounted on those motorcycles. As a result, we found that when the shoulder location is adopted as the origin, four items-namely, distances between shoulder and handle grip, shoulder and hip, shoulder and eye, and the angle formed by the locations of eye, shoulder, and hip-are nearly constant, regardless of differences in vehicle frame dimensions. Therefore, the eye range of motorcycle riders can be located from the relative positions between the handle grip and hip point.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856125
Bertil Aldman, Janusz Kajzer, Hans Gustafsson, Åke Nygren, Claes Tingvall
Injuries to motorcyclists lead to permanent disability more often than injuries to car occupants (10 percent versus 6 percent). The use of helmets has decreased the risk of head injuries. Other injuries leading to permanent disability are currently concentrated on the extremities (about 70 percent). Almost all are due to fractures located in joints where knees, elbows, shoulders, and ankles are the modest common spots. In a study based on 200 motorcycle accidents, it was shown the existing protective clothing had no effect on the incidence of fractures to knees, elbows, and shoulders. Based on that knowledge, a new motorcycle suit was constructed. The main goal was to find a shock-absorbing material to protect knees, elbows, and shoulders in an accident. Confor Foam, a medium-density urethane foam, was tested and found to possess relevant characteristics.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856127
G. L. Donne, P. M. F. Watson
This paper discusses the problems inherent in the braking of motorcycles and other powered two-wheeled vehicles and suggests ways in which antilock brake systems and other engineering measures can assist riders. Evidence is presented of the failure of many motorcyclists to brake effectively, and it is suggested that advances in engineering will lead eventually to an improvement in braking behaviour. Results obtained by the antilock system installed in ESM-2 are compared with those obtained by a variety of riders.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856117
B. J. Kelleher, M. J. Walsh, R. D. Vergara, J. T. Herridge, R. H. Eppinger
As part of an ongoing NHTSA/Battelle/Calspan research program, 16 experimental vehicle-to-pedestrian impacts at 25 mph are being performed using the Calspan sled facility. The instrumented vehicle tests buck represents a vehicle front end that can be equipped with either an unmodified hard production-type bumper or a modified compliant pedestrian-compatible bumper. The instrumented pedestrian surrogates are unembalmed whole body anatomic specimens. The test matrix involves carefully paired subjects for comparison of the modified and unmodified configurations. Individual results are reported regarding pedestrian kinematics, measured forces and accelerations, physiological trauma incurred, and estimates of associated impairment, as well as an overall evaluation of injury- mitigating potential of the bumper system modifications.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856097
Clarke B. Gorte, Ronald C. Joyner, Kjell Pedersen, Carl C. McConnell
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
1985-01-01
Technical Paper
856088
G. Klaus, R. Sinnhuber, G. Hoffmann
European and American side impact research efforts are directed toward the realization of further increases in existing levels of passive safety. Because side impact accident experience here and abroad exhibits many similarities, governments of the European community and the United States should cooperate and agree on a common test procedure including common test devices and test parameters. Within this context, Volkwagen studied the deformable side impact barriers presently under discussion in the United States and Europe. The results of this comparative study are presented. In addition to this comparison, the comparative evaluations of dummies and human subjects by the German Research Association for Automobile Technology (Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik-(FAT)) as well as the Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI) developed by NHTSA are discussed.
HISTORICAL
1985-01-01
Standard
J1212_198501
The purpose of this report is to provide general recommendations for the design and operation of mobile forestry machines which can help reduce the possibility of fire. The term "Mobile forestry machines" is intended to include those off-road machines which are designed especially for, or adapted to be used in, the planting, site preparation, harvesting, processing, and transporting of trees. The diversity of machines and systems falling within this scope prohibits detailed specifications, and therefore recommendations are of a general nature.
HISTORICAL
1985-01-01
Standard
J1255_198501
This SAE Standard includes the definitions of specification terms most commonly used to describe both wheeled and crawler type feller bunchers. The purpose of this document is to provide a uniform method of defining specification terms for feller/bunchers.
HISTORICAL
1985-01-01
Standard
J1254_198501
This SAE Standard includes names of major components and parts peculiar to this type of machine. Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been provided to describe the principles to be used in applying this document.
1984-11-01
Technical Paper
841687
Christopher A. Kidd, Robert M. Kreeb
THE METHANOL BUS ENGINE CONVERSION PROGRAM HAS AS ITS PRIMARY FOCUS THE MODIFICATION OF A DETROIT DIESEL ALLISON (DDA) 6V-71N DIESEL-CYCLE ENGINE FROM DIESEL FUEL TO NEAT METHANOL. THIS ENGINE IS CURRENTLY INSTALLED IN APPROXIMATELY 70 PERCENT OF U.S. TRANSIT BUSES. A SUBSTANTIAL NUMBER OF THESE ENGINES ARE EXPECTED TO REMAIN IN SERVICE FOR THE NEXT 20 YEARS. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHANOL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY FOR THESE ENGINES WILL ALLOW TRANSIT PROPERTIES THAT ARE PROPERLY PREPARED TO QUICKLY SWITCH TO A NON-PETROLEUM FUEL DURING TIMES OF PETROLEUM SHORTAGE. THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN OVERVIEW OF A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP A METHANOL ENGINE CONVERSION KIT FOR THE DDA 6V-71N TRANSIT ENGINE, AND PRESENTS THE DETAILED FINDINGS OF THE FIRST PHASES OF THIS MULTI-PHASED EFFORT.
1984-11-01
Technical Paper
841737
Brian D. Rabe
This paper examines the turbulent past and uncertain future of improving vehicle occupant protection through NHTSA vehicle safety regulations and mandatory seat belt legislation. The paper analyzes the pros, cons, and controversies associated with automatic restraints and mandatory seat belt laws. It emphasizes the conflicting data, reports, and testimonies presented to the NHTSA prior to its July 11, 1984 ruling. Recommendations are also presented on how best to protect vehicle occupants through regulation and legislation.
1984-10-01
Technical Paper
841332
S. Takeda
Eucalyptus oil and orange oil have high octane values and they seem to have potential of alternative fuels for spark ignition engines. The purpose of this paper was to investigate various engine performances including acceleration, engine wear and deposit formation during road tests. For eucalyptus oil and orange oil blended with gasoline, engine startability and drivability was nearly equal to gasoline.
1984-10-01
Technical Paper
841331
Kurt Weidmann, Holger Menrad
A standard Volkswagen 4-cylinder swirl-chamber Diesel engine was used to test the performance of alcohol-Diesel fuel blends, the alcohols involved being ethanol and methanol. The fuels had a content of oxygenate components of about 30% by volume. A solubilizer was added to prevent phase separation. The blend remained stable down to −20°C. The Diesel fuel used in the blend had a low cloud point and CFPP rating. At the Volkswagen research test facility, the fuel blends were tested for performance, exhaust emissions and fuel economy. In order to obtain detailed information on customer acceptance the alcohol-Diesel fuel blends are now being tested in a fleet of 30 Bundespost vehicles in the Ruhr region. The article discusses customer response, vehicle performance and wear.
1984-10-01
Technical Paper
841333
S. S. Trevitz, S. S. Lestz, W. D. Taylor
Several synthetic fuels derived from shale and coal were evaluated with respect to a reference petroleum-based Diesel fuel. Tests conducted using a single-cylinder DI Diesel engine were designed to quantitatively compare the fuels on the basis of performance, combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions, particulate emissions, and biological activity of the solid phase soluble organic fraction. The biological activity was assessed using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The shale fuels studied were a Paraho marine Diesel fuel and a light shale oil condensate from the Logan Wash in situ retorting operation. The coal liquids, Solvent Refined Coal-II and Exxon Donor Solvent, could not be run neat; therefore, they were blended 20% and 40% by volume with the certified DF-2 baseline fuel. Of the synthetic fuels tested, only the Paraho marine Diesel fuel exhibited the qualities of a good finished Diesel fuel.
1984-10-01
Technical Paper
841334
Lois E. Freeman, Granger K. Chui, Daniel A. Crowl, Richard J. Roby
A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
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