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Magazine
1963-10-01
Magazine
1963-09-01
Standard
1963-08-15
In order to ease the equipment design engineer's problem and at the same time provide a basis for comparing measurements by manufacturer and user this recommended practice sets up standard test procedures for acceptance testing. These conditions and the basic tests to which the characteristics refer are grouped in Section 2 and compose a complete list of defining characteristics of the synchro. Specifications written around synchros have specified certain necessary characteristics for production acceptance testing, such as null voltage and accuracy, under test conditions and techniques that are mainly and properly concerned with accuracy and the shortest possible test time. These characteristics are inherently degraded when the synchro is operating for a period of time at other than room temperature. In synchros this degradation is a factor of high importance
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
K. A. Stonex
This paper will review the problems encountered in review of the ASA Standard D7.1, Inspection Requirements for Motor Vehicles; these problems, from the engineer’s viewpoint, were largely in the area of reaching compromise whereby designs of widely different character can be inspected by the same procedure on the same equipment.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ernest W. Landen
Nitrogen oxides produced in the combustion of compression ignition engines are of some significance because they are quite reactive and can attack lubricating oils and engine parts. Measured amounts in the exhaust gases of diesel engines can be used to evaluate those factors in operation and design which are important in controlling the quantities produced. In the precombustion chamber type of diesel engine, the local peak combustion temperature influences the formation of nitrogen oxides. These localized peak temperatures are controlled by such factors as fuel-air ratio of combustion, duration of fuel injection, timing of fuel injection, inlet manifold air temperature, engine speed, and supercharging. Data presented indicate how these variables affect the formation of nitrogen oxides as measured in the exhaust gases. Higher inlet temperatures and more rapid mixing of the fuel and air than is used in today’s precombustion chamber engines are conducive to the formation of larger quantities of nitrogen oxides.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ned J. Parsekian, Ralph Anteau
The D7 Sectional Committee of the ASA has revised to 1962 standards the codes for inspection requirements for motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers operating on public highways. This paper covers 16 areas of substantial revisions to the code. The paper strongly endorses vehicle inspection as making an important contribution to highway safety and endorses the D7 code as an instrument to provide uniformity, to further reciprocity on vehicle inspection, and to consolidate safety features engineered by the automotive trade.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Robert Montgomery
This paper presents significant changes in the Uniform Vehicle Code established by the National Committee in its 1962 session. Changes pertaining to registration of vehicles, operators’ and chauffeurs’ licenses, accident reporting, and rules of the road are outlined. One of the most important parts of the Code dealing with right of way regulations at intersections where “stop” or “yield” signs exist was revised from the “shifting” rule to the “absolute” rule. Revisions were also made in the equipment section, reflecting technological development in lighting and brake equipment. These modifications are based on findings of the ICC and the Bureau of Public Roads.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
William J. Neff
Environmental aspects significantly influence the design and performance requirements of Ground Effect Machines, both commercial and military. This paper summarizes four methods of approaching the problem, all responsive to specific program goals. The application of each method is described, and results of the analyses are listed. Extension of the methodology of environmental analysis to other transportation concepts is suggested.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
D. L. Dye, W. R. Sheldon
The cosmic radiation environment at 70, 000 ft altitude is described and discussed in terms of its ability (1) to deliver low-LET ionization dose to tissue, and (2) to kill, at high-LET, a fraction of the closely packed cells in an organ in the body. The dose rates and fractional cell lethality values are found to be small, posing no practical restriction to normal flight scheduling for either passengers or crew. Solar flare proton events are shown to develop slowly enough to allow an aircraft to proceed to destination without excessive dose to its occupants.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
W. V. Smith, L. G. Schneider
Since the Navy's habitat is the ocean area of the world, sea water is an environmental factor which must be reckoned with and, if possible, used to advantage where lubrication of ship' s machinery is concerned. Three situations within the above concept are (1) protection from the environment, (2) utilization of the environment, and (3) adaptation of the environment. Illustrations of the above as related to propulsion machinery and some related equipment are found in (1) need for more effective protection against sea water intrusion in turbine and hydraulic systems, (2) certain specific applications using bearings lubricated by sea water only, and (3) potential improvement in the use of sea water as a lubricant.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Ewen McEwen
This paper deals with the problems of designing tractors to be sold all over the world while at the same time minimizing the variables in order to obtain the economies of mass production. The physical, psychological, and legal requirements and difficulties are dealt with and a summary of the maze of European road and safety regulations is included as an Appendix. The author concludes that since these regulations are inescapable, it is in the interests of the industry to support every effort at rationalizing the requirements among the different countries.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
K. V. Kirkpatrick, D. C. Heitshu
Remote hydrostatic power, reciprocal and rotary, offers advantages to farm implement and industrial equipment designers where distance, multiplicity of drives, complexity of motion, or control of speed and (or) direction or rotation present problems. The most efficient system is gained by using individual motors selected for each drive. However, in interest of cost, a universal motor having three speed ranges and a standardized mounting is suggested. The need for test codes, reliability factors, and standard tractor hydraulic systems is obvious. The universal motor also requires a standard, and recommendations are made for the development of these requirements.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
G. C. Hass, J. R. Scanlin
The effect of crankcase emissions and crankcase emission control devices from an air pollution standpoint is discussed in this paper. Blowby flow rates for different engine sizes are presented. The various types of devices which have been approved by the Calif. Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board are described and their strength and weaknesses are discussed. Finally, some of the design and operating problems of systems currently being used are described.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Hubert M. Clark, Gilbert H. Drutchas
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Howard L. Leve
Abstract In complex systems there exist many elements and an associated large number of possible strength failure modes. If the overall reliability goal assigned to the strength failure modes is large and all the failure modes are assumed to be independent, then the reliability goals for each element designed on a strength basis can be very severe. It is shown that sets of strength failure modes are related through environmental considerations. This dependence leads to less severe reliability goals, and thus to lower total design weight, than that found when assuming all the strength failure modes to be independent. The dependence of the failure mode is then associated with the a posteriori behavior of systems, indicating that the strength failure modes can essentially be represented by a few dominant modes. Simple rules are then given for allocating the required overall reliability goal to the dominant strength failure modes, and in turn, to the elements designed from strength considerations.
Magazine
1962-03-01
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
Gunter J. Penzias, Stanley A. Dolin, Richard H. Tourin
Rocket engine exhaust gas temperature and spectral emission are important in design and development of rocket engines. A technique of monochromatic radiation pyrometry and instrumentation for applying the technique have been developed. Results of nine rocket engine firings are presented.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
D.F. HAGEN, G.W. HOLIDAY
Abstract To determine the influence of engine variables on the composition of exhaust gas, engine dynamometer tests were conducted on single and multi-cylinder reciprocating engines. The following engine variables were investigated: air-fuel ratio, power output, engine speed, spark timing, exhaust back pressure, valve overlap, combustion chamber deposits, and intake manifold pressure. Hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be considerably affected by changes in air-fuel ratio, spark timing, intake manifold pressure, and combustion chamber deposits. Somewhat less change in hydrocarbon concentration was obtained by varying valve overlap and engine speed. Changes in engine power output and exhaust back pressure had little effect on hydrocarbon concentrations. Carbon monoxide concentrations were principally affected by changes in the air-fuel ratio. No other variables affected carbon monoxide concentration except where air-fuel ratio was indirectly influenced. The influence of changes in the variables on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in pounds per hour was also determined.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
W. M. WIESE, R. J. TEMPLIN, P. C. KLINE
Exhaust hydrocarbon concentrations are known to be very high during deceleration relative to other vehicle operating conditions. Because of this, considerable effort has been spent in developing devices which would reduce exhaust hydrocarbon emission during deceleration. The most promising of these was a manifold-vacuum limiting device; however, its adaptability was hampered by a serious loss of engine braking when the device was operating. An improved device has been developed to reduce the hydrocarbon content of automobile exhaust during deceleration. The new device utilizes the previously-known principle of manifold-vacuum limiting to reduce exhaust hydrocarbon concentration, but in addition, uses retarded engine spark timing to overcome the serious loss of engine braking encountered with previous devices. Retarding spark timing to about 10°ATC during deceleration restores engine braking to the same level as that of a standard car and thereby overcomes the major drawback to the use of deceleration devices of this type.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
R. T. VanDerveer, D. L. Hittler
Sixteen vehicles, representing four different power-to-weight ratios, were tested over the California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board exhaust device evaluation cycle on the road and chassis dynamometer. Data are presented comparing the engine intake air consumption and the sensible heat output for both test methods. These data indicate that the cycle, as conducted on the road, requires more intake air and rejects more exhaust heat than does dynamometer operation. The difference in exhaust heat content for dynamometer operation, as compared to road operation, increases as the power-to-weight ratio increases. Increased horsepower settings for dynamometer testing are evaluated. With increased horsepower requirements it is possible to provide equivalent engine air consumption and exhaust heat approximately equal to road operation.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
W. S. Fagley, Mary V. Sink, C. M. Heinen
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
D. B. Wimmer, L. A. McReynolds
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
M. F. Homfeld, R. S. Johnson, W. H. Kolbe
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
Clair G. Dibert, William M. Fairhurst
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
Leonard Raymond
The paper discusses the types of smog, the differences between London pariculate and Los Angeles photo-chemical smog, the Los Angeles County regulations and the California State laws on exhaust and crankcase control devices; It describes briefly how exhaust contaminants and crankcase emissions can be reduced and the cost of devices. Toxicity aspects, including the work of the U. S. Public Health Service are discussed; The individual and cooperative activities of the oil industry in minimizing air pollution and the research efforts to find sound technical solutions are described. The paper concludes with comments on future trends and the tremendous challenge to various technologies.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
William K. Hodson
Beginning with the value of measuring and controlling maintenance work and the impracticality of customary approaches, the stage is set for the introduction of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS). Explanation of UMS concept follows four factors essential to success of the plan: standard work groupings, spread sheets, bench mark jobs, and development of standard times. Job preparation, travel time, and allowances are discussed. Effectiveness of UMS is shown by a chart on carpentry shop's performance change after UMS installation. Control procedures and forms are discussed.

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