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1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720480
G. H. Meguerian, F. W. Rakowsky, E. H. Hirschberg, C. R. Lang, D. N. Schock
IIEC efforts to develop NOx catalysts with improved durability have continued. Properties of several nickel oxide catalysts on pelleted, monolithic ceramic, and metallic supports are discussed and the engineering requirements for their effective use are defined. Some promoted nickel oxide, pelleted catalysts show good low-temperature activity, and produce minimal amounts of ammonia but are strongly deactivated by sulfur in the feed gas. Monolithic and metallic catalysts, on the other hand, although not active at temperatures below 1000 F, are very active at higher temperatures where deactivation by sulfur and ammonia formation are not troublesome.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720498
F. L. Voelz, E. C. Coleman, J. S. Segal, B. G. Gower
The results of a nationwide automobile exhaust emission survey conducted in 1971 are presented and compared to data obtained from a 1970 survey. Average hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are given for engine speeds of idle and 2500 rpm. Vehicle distribution curves for hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are shown for the 1971 data for selected year groups based on emission control devices. Comparison of the distribution curves obtained from the 1971 and 1970 data show that “deterioration” (increased emissions) occurred at both idle and 2500 rpm in the one year period. The effects of carburetor adjustments on idle emissions are compared for the 1971 and 1970 data.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720497
Vincent S. Darago, Charles M. McCuen
The Urban Vehicle Design Competition was inspired by the success of the Clean Air Car Race and the Great Electric Car Race. The academic community recognized the tremendous educational value of these events, and encouraged development of UVDC from its inception. The project was designed by engineering students to benefit students throughout North America. The rules of the competition include technical paper requirements that make the competition extremely attractive to professors who wish to build a course around this theme. The response of more than 2000 engineering students at 80 universities throughout the United States and Canada has indicated the success of the structure of the competition. The first major objective of the UVDC project has been met. Ninety-three teams throughout the country entered the UVDC design portion of the contest. The second portion of the project is the prototype contest of August 1972.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720500
R. P. Doelling, A. F. Gerber, P. M. Kerschner, M. S. Rakow, F. H. Robinson
An investigation was undertaken to determine if gasoline additives could effect a reduction in exhaust HC emissions. Of the multitude of compounds studied, two were found to reduce the increase in HC emissions associated with the accumulation of lead-derived combustion chamber deposits by approximately 50%. A practical combination of these compounds was evaluated in a fleet test which confirmed laboratory engine results. Studies were also conducted in laboratory engines and fleet vehicles to determine the effect of fuel lead level upon this additive's effectiveness and the activity of the additive upon established lead-derived combustion chamber deposits. Results obtained from these programs indicated that the additive would function with fuel lead levels from 1/2-3 g/gal, but that it was not capable of modifying established deposits. A rationale for the observed effect is presented.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720488
R. M. Campau, A. Stefan, E. E. Hancock
Recent vehicle durability experience with low emission concept hardware systems is described. The low-emission concept systems discussed include: thermal reactor only, a combined thermal reactor and HC/CO monolithic catalyst system, and a system combining low thermal inertia exhaust manifolds with dual-bed (NOx and HC/CO) catalytic converters. Problems shown to influence either emission performance or vehicle function during both atypical and normal vehicle operation include: the melting of monolithic structures used to support both the NOx and the HC/CO catalytic promoters, the deleterious effect of the sulfur content of gasoline on the performance of pelleted NOx catalysts, and the loss of emission control with malfunctioning engine components. Vehicle fuel economy and performance losses with these types of systems is documented. Current redesign efforts on these low emission concept vehicle systems in an attempt to overcome the durability problems are described.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720486
K. Tanaka, M. Akutagawa, K. Ito, Y. Higashi, K. Kobayashi
This paper describes the extensive effort and progress made by the Toyo Kogyo Company in developing emission control systems applicable to small vehicles with small displacement reciprocating engines, in order to achieve the very stringent targets established by the IIEC program. Three concept emission package systems have been selected as showing promise to achieve the targets, and these packages have been under evaluation for emission performance and durability in the total vehicle systems, which were experimentally built. These package systems incorporate component systems such as thermal reactors, EGR, catalytic converters, and other subcomponents to assist these main component systems. Despite the effort made to date, none of these package systems have reached the stage of satisfying the HC/CO targets over extended vehicle mileage, or the NOx target, even at zero vehicle miles. The durability of these package systems has been revealed as unsatisfactory.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720487
T. Inoue, K. Goto, K. Matsumoto
The status of Toyota's development of low emission concept packages- 1. NOx and HC/CO Catalytic Converter and EGR, 2. Thermal Reactor, NOx and HC/CO Catalytic Converter and EGR and their components is described. Variations of thermal reactor design, performance and durability characteristics are discussed. Above the throttle valve entry EGR has been found to have desirable flow characteristics with a simple control system. EGR rate over 15% brings about unacceptably poor driveability and fuel economy with smaller vehicles. Many types of catalytic converters for pelleted catalysts have been designed and examined for their performance and durability. A down-flow type converter has relatively good flow distribution and warm-up characteristics. As for HC and CO, a few prototype vehicles have met the 1975 Federal Regulation at low mileage, but the 1976 regulation for NOx of 0.4 gm.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720520
John L. Harned
Performance of packed bed type catalytic converters in controlling hydrocarbon (HC)-carbon monoxide (CO) mass emissions is investigated using a one-dimensional plug flow math model. Converter operation is explained, and the effects that some gas stream conditions and basic parameter values have on converter emission control performance during warmup are evaluated. It is shown that total mass emissions passed by the converter during warmup can be minimized by maintaining gas mass flow and HC-CO concentrations at low values. Converter warmup performance is highly sensitive to changes in bead diameter and catalyst kinetics, but it is relatively insensitive to changes in bed area/length ratio and bed void fraction. New information is presented dealing with the modeling of platinum kinetics, bead temperature stability, and mass and heat transfer j-factors for packed beds.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720518
C. Henault
Because of low nitrogen oxide emissions, a version of the Renault R17 TS equipped with a high-performance engine was selected for the American market. This paper discusses problems encountered in adapting a Bosch electronic fuel injection system to a 1600 cm3 engine to meet American standards up to 1974. The principal problems solved were those posed by intermediary operating speeds. This study also gives an idea of the pollution limits which can be obtained with an injection system which incorporates various important adjustment factors. Engine specifications are presented, as are decriptions of the electric regulation, electric and pneumatic cold-start, and fuel feeding circuits. The various modifications to the engine are also described.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720519
A. L. Thompson
In 1972 models for sale in California, Buick first employed programmed-metered exhaust gas dilution of the engine intake charge as the major means of reducing Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emission levels. With more stringent NOx emission standards applicable nationally to 1973 light duty vehicles, it is probable that similar systems will be more widely used. The major considerations in the decision to use this means of reducing NOx emissions, the design details of the total system, and the field experience to date is discussed. The author concludes with some thought on the limit of usefulness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for NOx reduction, and further refinements needed to approach that limit.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720511
John C. Chipman, John Y. Chao, Ray M. Ingels, Roy G. Jewell, Wendell F. Deeter
The California Air Resources Board conducted an extensive field test program to evaluate a vehicle exhaust recirculation system for control of oxides of nitrogen. The system utilized hot exhaust gases from the crossover and included certain modifications to the carburetion, choke, and crank case ventilation system. It was tested on two fleets of automobiles equipped wtih California approved HC and CO emission control devices. The test program involved periodic measurements of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The effect of the system on vehicle drivability, engine deposits, wear, and oil deterioration was also studied. The Atlantic Richfield Company, under contract to the Air Resources Board, equipped the vehicles with the recirculation system and performed the final engine inspection.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720510
E. N. Cantwell, R. A. Hoffman, I. T. Rosenlund, S. W. Ross
Exhaust manifold thermal reactors, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust particulate trapping systems, and appropriate engine adjustments have been combined to produce total emission control systems which reduce all gaseous and exhaust particulate emissions from passenger vehicles. The first generation system was developed to meet the former United States and State of California emission standards for 1975. Field service tests demonstrated that the emission standards were met, but unexpected operational problems were encountered. Solutions to these problems have been found. Second generation total emission control systems are being developed in an attempt to meet the current United States emission standards for 1975 - 1976. These systems in their present state of development produce very low exhaust emission levels; the hydrocarbons are well below the standards and the carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide levels are quite close to the 1975 - 1976 standards.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720509
James G. Hansel
A wide range of air/fuel ratios and exhaust gas recycle rates were examined in an automotive test engine for the purpose of reducing NOx emissions to low levels. A minimum NOx level of 0.4 g/mile on the 1972 Federal Test Procedure was obtained at a rich A/F of 12 and a recycle rate of 25%. With this combination, the fuel consumption increased approximately 15% and the wide open throttle (WOT) power decreased about 30%. Combustion in the cylinders was good and the vehicle operated smoothly. Comparable results were not obtained with lean mixtures. The results of this study do not establish the feasibility of meeting the 1976 NOx standard with the rich mixture, high recycle technique. Further, the increased CO and HC emissions would have to be controlled by exhaust gas treatment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720646
Luis R. Lazo, John B. Bohle
The paper presents both qualitative and quantitative data on the relationship of emerging Personal Rapid Transit systems and the environment. Specific reference is made to comparison of these systems with the U.S. air pollutant inventory and with the automobile. Thermal pollution and reduction of power supply requirements for these transit systems are considered. Definitive specification information for interior/exterior noise levels, in comparison with other transportation modes and with background conditions, are provided. Visual aesthetics of guideway, station, and vehicle design are presented as the most challenging remaining problem in the integration of Personal Rapid Transit systems into the society.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720644
E. J. Croke, K. G. Croke, J. E. Norco
The significance of the impact of transportation system characteristics on the urban quality has resulted in a need to evaluate certain transportation air quality-oriented policy statements regarding the effect of present efforts to reduce emissions from automobile operation or to design transportation systems that do not constitute a danger to air quality. The evaluation of these policies requires the integration of planning techniques from both transportation and environmental fields. The classical transportation system planning process involves a well-established sequence of data acquisition and systems analysis activities. Likewise, the regional air pollution planning procedures also depend on the use of a sequence of empirical models that require a substantial data base.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720645
Richard K. Brail
The contribution of future transportation system configurations to air pollution is examined. The necessary linkages between transportation and land use systems are recognized, and projections of population growth and distribution made. It is found that although future air quality resulting from transportation will be markedly improved over current pollution levels, the increased vehicle-miles traveled yearly in the United States will require substantial investment in transportation networks and shifts in demand for various transportation modes.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720641
H. Hedrich, P. J. Gaede
Abstract The aspects of comprehensive environmental protection must be taken into account in the very first concept phase of any technical development. For this reason the requirement for operation at low noise level, exhaust-free propulsion and a high measure of safety is among the primary demands within the performance catalog of the TRANSRAPID and TRANSURBAN transport technology. A comparison with conventional means of transport shows the advantages of the new systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720643
John E. Hirten
Transportation plays a large role in our style of life, work, and many of our activities. At the same time, our present transportation technology has been a major contributor to the deterioration of environmental quality, particularly air quality. This paper discusses the efforts of the U. S. Department of Transportation to grapple with the problems of transportation and air quality. Of principal concern to the Department is the requirement for States to prepare plans to meet 1975 air quality standards. DOT has been involved in reviewing these plans, addressing the transportation control aspects, and future efforts which may be undertaken to meet the standards. In addition, the Department has a specific environmental impact mandate in its various legislative authorities which includes air pollution and transportation related environmental quality problems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720659
C. Kenneth Orski
The lingering uncertainties about the ability of the source control strategy alone to achieve and maintain the national ambient air quality standards in certain metropolitan areas argue strongly in favor of widening our options. A mixed abatement strategy, combining the progressive improvement of the technology of exhaust emission control with deliberate efforts to reduce the use of cars in the cities is proposed. The effectiveness and feasibility of various forms of vehicle restraints are examined.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720661
Robert U. Ayres
The basis for formulating so-called “uniform” emission standards for motor vehicles is examined and found to be inconsistent with the widely accepted principle that “the polluter should pay,” if consideration is given to the problems caused by pollution rather than the sources of emissions. Atmospheric pollution problems are geographically limited and also depend upon other variables such as time of day, and weather conditions. The major problems are associated with Southern California and other cities of the southwest, and congested urban areas. It is proposed that emissions standards should be made flexible in order to reflect these environmental variations, and thus to achieve the maximum environmental improvement for the least total cost to vehicle owners and users.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720657
Ralph K. Hillquist
Regulation of noise from motor vehicles is an inevitability. To provide optimum benefit to the community at a minimum of additional cost to its citizens, these regulations must recognize the responsibilities of all parties involved, provide uniform requirements as appropriate to the level of government, and embody a flexibility to adapt to new findings and circumstances. Both manufacturer and operator, as regulatees, must be considered in the drafting of vehicle noise restrictions.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720658
Kenneth G. Knight
America's need for mass transportation systems to meet the challenge of maintaining urban mobility in the 1970's coincides with a growing public awareness and concern for environmental problems including noise pollution. In rail rapid transit, significant technological advances have already been made and used in modern systems on a voluntary basis to alleviate the effects of operational noise and vibration on both passenger and community. Since quiet costs money, experience has generally proven that enforced legislation is necessary to obtain quieter products from industry. However, the rail rapid transit systems of this country are essential public services which will play an increasingly vital role in urban transportation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720655
A. S. Cooper
Reasonable and effective laws for the enforcement of motor vehicle noise have been enacted and successfully applied in California. Specific laws to prohibit both sale and operation of noisy vehicles were necessary. Measurements by both instruments and human ear judgments are practical and necessary at this time. Noise limits should be gradually reduced commensurate with the needs of the public and the capability of the technology. Future controls on noise producing components, in addition to the complete vehicle, appear to be necessary to obtain desirable minimum levels. California has pioneered interim solutions to portions of this environmental problem and has developed the expertise along with the practical experience to achieve further advancements in solving the problems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720648
Robert Witherspoon
Deciding what to do about the motor vehicle is characterized by conditions of complexity, value conflicts and uncertainty about the future. Doing something faces the difficulty of affecting a fragmented policy making process. Under such circumstances the most appropriate way to proceed is by seeking additional knowledge through research and experimentation. Research should start from the premise that motor vehicle restraints for clean air would probably entail measures much greater in scale and severity than currently contemplated. Measures of this magnitude imply practical and political problems of an entirely different order, and very probably, profound changes in city form and function as we know them today.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720650
Jack Kinstlinger
The systems approach to transportation planning has proven itself to be sound and effective. To accommodate itself to today's values, however, the planning process must be broadened so that it considers community impacts as fully as economic impacts. While current legislation and regulations mandate such an approach, additional research and data gathering are required to allow the full evaluation of community impacts. Transportation planning must conceive of strategies other than constructing new facilities. These include economic and land development policies and low capital intensive alternatives. More citizen participation and better intergovernmental decision-making on a metropolitan-wide basis are required if urban transportation plans are to gain public support and if their timely implementation is to be realized.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720624
Rodger F. Ringham
From various sources of information it is clear that truck noise is a definite public nuisance. Early noise control efforts were very productive in that many heavy duty trucks did not have mufflers, and the addition of this device made clear improvements. Further improvement requires treatment of many sources significant to the overall level. It is felt that today's “tight but attainable” 88 dBA for heavy trucks can reduce to 86 dBA by 1975 and 8k dBA by 1978 with a lot of hard work. There is promise for meaningful noise regulation in the “real world” as indicated by “calibratability” of non-standard sites.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720623
Theodore Berland
Trucks are the major source of noise on our streets and highways, affecting the sleep and sanity of millions of city and suburban residents. Truck noise sources are many, but mainly are engine and tires. Since the automotive and trucking industries have not volunteered to quiet truck noises, the Federal government will have to legally require they do so.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720620
Eric O. Stork
Federal regulatory involvement with the automobile industry, automotive emissions of air pollutants in particular, is the main emphasis of this paper. Government concern with automotive air pollution is traced from the early 1950's to the present. The present document will focus on the process by which the government brings to bear the well being and concerns Of the American people in relation to automobile-caused air pollution.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720619
David V. Ragone
Universities, in the process of pursuing their classical roles, the generation and dissemination of knowledge, can contribute significantly to the resolution of automotive air pollution problems if they recognize problem-oriented, as well as discipline-oriented approaches to education. In addition to the classical roles, both faculty and students can contribute as unbiased, but informed, third parties who can validate technical arguments in controversial areas for the public.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720617
J. C. Ellis
The national concern over air quality and the understanding of the role of the internal combustion engine powered passenger car as a contributor of atmospheric pollutants has imposed new design criteria upon both the automobile manufacturer and the petroleum refiner. For the passenger car engine builder these criteria have been specified by the emission standards required by the Clean Air Amendments of 1970. With certain exceptions, gasolines for these low-emitting passenger cars have not yet been specified nor have their required quality and performance characteristics been clearly spelled out. This paper attempts to judge the influence of emission control requirements on future gasoline quality. Lead anti-knocks, hydrocarbon compositions and gross physical properties are among the factors considered and an effort is made to quantify the effects of changes in these characteristics on emissions and to estimate their impact on the industry.
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