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Technical Paper
1966-02-01
M. Patrick Sweeney, Miles L Brubacher
With an activated exhaust control program in California and its imminent prospect nationwide, recently attention has been focused on simplifying exhaust hydrocarbon measurement for potential use as a tuneup garage diagnostic tool. Work has been underway to evaluate new instrumentation and procedures for hydrocarbon measurement suitable for field use. It is concluded that: 1. With a “one minute” cycle, measured emissions seem to correlate adequately with the California procedure. 2. There are prototype instruments which are inherently much less susceptible to environment of use. 3. For engine diagnostic purposes, the principal uses of hydrocarbon measurements would be: An initial check- almost any engine malfunction raises hydrocarbons; hence, if low, engine does not need tuneup work. Recheck after tuneup-an increase in hydrocarbons indicates a tuneup oversight or error, and the car would then be checked further.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
E. W. Beckman, W. S. Fagley, Jorma O. Sarto
Air pollution problems in California required control of vehicle exhaust emissions. The early development of catalytic converters and direct flame afterburners led to relatively complex mechanisms with substantial added cost to the vehicle. An evaluation of the primary factors affecting exhaust emissions indicated the feasibility of control by engine modification alone. A series of engine modifications were subsequently developed which reduced the exhaust emissions to below the California standard of 275 ppm hydrocarbons and 1.5 percent carbon monoxide and are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
EARL BARTHOLOMEW
As an alternative to oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust system, a research program conducted by Ethyl indicates that the volume of the combustibles discharged from the cylinders can be minimized by redesign of fuel-induction systems. The objective is achievable without lowering of the level of acceleration performance or increase of fuel consumption. A two-stage carburetion system is employed in combination with a dual or single manifold. The single-barrel primary stage of the carburetor, which is used alone in cruising up to about 70 miles per hour, provides good mixture preparation and close to uniform fuel distribution to the cylinders. The one or two barrels of the second stage are brought into operation when maximum performance is desired. Other features of carburetors and manifolds are described that contribute to emission reduction.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Keith H. Rhodes
Abstract The reduction to practice of a stratified charge combustion system for automotive engines in the form of a bolt on competitive product was attempted in 1960 and 1961, as part of an all out company program aimed at smog elimination. The system and devices that resulted from this Walker Manufacturing Co. project showed promise as a fuel economy system, but in the end held little promise for smog reduction. Insights of Project Stratofire that led to definition changes, theory modifications, and finally to the project cancellation are set forth.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Miles L. Brubacher
The California legislature, engine manufacturers, fleet operators, and enforcement agencies have pursued an active program of diesel smoke reduction since 1939. This program has resulted in creditably low smoke levels. While diesels do not contribute substantially to total community air pollution problems, the public complains about the bad appearance of diesel smoke. There are many fruitful approaches for fleet operators to reduce diesel smoke, including more strict maintenance, fuel additive, driver indoctrination, and engine derating. Fleets in the Los Angeles area have achieved excellent smoke reduction by these methods and, at the same time, maintain clean, first-class, economical operations. Two of these fleets are analyzed in this report.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
G. C. Hass, M. P. Sweeney, J. N. Pattison
A study of driving conditions in the central Los Angeles area has led to the formulation of a new chassis dynamometer test cycle for exhaust emissions testing. A single vehicle was used to develop a street route representing a variety of morning peak hour commute trips. A cycle was then compared against the street route with seven vehicles of varying size to assess the validity of the cycle in terms of mode pattern and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Robert C. Schmidt, Al W. Carey, Roy Kamo
The production of pollutants and an increasing need for pollution management are an inevitable concomitant of a society with a high standard of living. The automotive diesel engine is used more than any other type of engine for transporting freight over highways. Two kinds of pollution to be considered with regard to the diesel engine are the dark exhaust smoke and odor, of which the public is quite cognizant, and the less obvious but possibly toxic carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and trace compounds of other toxic materials. This paper discusses sampling, measurement techniques, and established standards for exhaust smoke and odor. Examination of diesel exhaust shows it to be less offensive in terms of harmful effects than the invisible exhaust from other types of engines. The major problem is exhaust color and odor.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
B. W. Millington, C. C. J. French
The impact of the Californian regulations on Europe, and their applicability to European conditions, is considered with particular reference to the diesel engine. In Europe photochemical smog is scarcely a problem; the toxic effect of carbon monoxide is the greater hazard. The emission by diesel engines of this and other toxic gases is low, but the exhaust smoke emission may be objectionable. Theories of smoke formation in combustion are considered, and methods of smoke measurement are described, including their shortcomings. The present position of European antismoke legislation is outlined, and characteristics of the diesel engine controlling smoke emission are examined. Finally, the performance of antismoke fuel additives, which may allow uprating of 10-15%, and the problems associated with their use, are described.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
J. E. Erbs, R. R. Stickling
During the F-1 rocket engine program, turbine exhaust gases have been successfully used to film cool large thrust chamber nozzle extensions. This design concept provides the engine with a detachable nozzle of low weight, simple construction, and a service life equivalent to that of the basic engine. Several nozzle extension concepts are reviewed, and a comparison is made in terms of operational advantages and engine application as defined by required nozzle geometry, heat flux, and available coolant. The particular application for which the gas-cooled concept is the most desirable engineering choice is discussed in detail. Experimental data obtained during development are presented, with particular emphasis given to thermal analysis considerations. The correlation observed between predicted and measured temperatures is also discussed.
Magazine
1966-02-01
Magazine
1966-01-01
Magazine
1965-12-01
Technical Paper
1965-10-20
H. A. ABERSFELLER
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
G. A. Kozloff
Abstract The British commercial vehicle industry is going through a period of major change to keep pace with market needs and to comply with the new Construction and Use Regulations introduced recently. The changes will involve new thinking relative to cab configuration, engine output, and general requirements involving higher tonnage vehicles. The designs will consider both home and export needs in order to achieve as much standardization as possible. It is believed the British industry will maintain its highly competitive position in world markets as a result of these developments.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
John D. Caplan
The results of studies of atmospheric chemistry of smog formation serve as guidelines for determining a rational basis for control of vehicle emissions. These guidelines indicate the desirability of reactive hydrocarbon reduction and the futility of nitric oxide reduction from vehicles. A system of classifying hydrocarbons as to their reactivity in smog formation is presented. Its application, in combination with, gas chromatographic analyses, to both exhaust hydrocarbon and evaporative hydrocarbon vehicle emissions is illustrated. Utilization of this approach for determining the importance of exhaust versus evaporative hydrocarbon emissions, and for measuring efficacy of control by changes in both vehicles and fuel composition is recommended.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
Alexander J. Lapointe, Ernest A. Petri
Protective coatings have recently come into extensive use for preventing damage to car finishes and other exposed areas of cars in transit or in exterior storage. Fluid leakage and many airborne contaminants such as industrial wastes, insects and insecticides, and mineral residues contribute to this damage. Spray coatings are very effective against iron base fall-out and other solid soils but have a limited effect on other destructive deposits. This paper discusses the development of new coatings that give increased protection to paints and elastomers and which will be safer to use on incompletely cured finishes.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
J. H. Freeman, R. C. Stahman
Vehicle performance and engine efficiency are evaluated from the point of view of carburetion versus gasoline injection. The author discusses measurement of combustion efficiency; maldistribution and fuel precipitation effects; how to determine maldistribution; heat rejection mixture strength and timing effects; exhaust gas composition and vehicle performance in road service; and octane requirement; effects.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
Al Hundere
After more than thirty years of effort to obtain a simple and accurate fuel-air ratio indicator for mixture control of piston engines, it was recently discovered that mixture ratios can be simply, accurately, and consistently defined by the use of an exhaust gas temperature indicator of high sensitivity and very fast response. The first mixture indicator using EGT was placed on the market in 1962, and there have been five such indicators advertised to date. There are presently over 10,000 aircraft engines that have their diets controlled with the ALCOR Mixture Control Indicator. The development of the EGT method of mixture control is described and design requirements are presented and explained. Data are presented on the effect of fuel-air ratio on exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, horsepower and brake specific fuel consumption. Effect of engine variables is descussed and data presented. The use of an EGT indicator as an engine analyzer for trouble detection is discussed and data presented.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
Lee Bush
Abstract IN MOST INDUSTRIES, costs of operation are cut by standardization and increased unit production. The aircraft industry, however, has four unique factors, each of which enters into efforts to reduce the cost of airplane ownership. These are: The degree of federal regulation, the high cost of handcraftsmanship even on an assembly line, the value of parts reduction, and activity of the airplane operator, himself.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
E. S. Starkman, H. K. Newhall
The influence of nonequilibrium in the expansion gases of spark ignition engines has been studied theoretically to determine how power output and exhaust gas composition might be affected. Comparing a gas which is frozen in composition during expansion with a composition which continuously is in equilibrium shows the difference in expansion work can be as large as 10%. Maximum influence is in the fuel-air ratio range of chemically correct mixture. It was found that carbon monoxide and nitric oxide concentrations in the exhaust more nearly reflect the frozen composition than the equilibrium expansion. This is particularly true for the range of mixture ratios -- from lean to chemically correct.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
E. N. Cantwell, A. J. Pahnke
Exhaust manifold reactors have been designed which, with air injection, reduced hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from unmodified passenger car engines to very low levels. The high efficiency of the reactors resulted from the exceptional thermal insulation achieved by circulating exhaust gases around the reactor core and by using multiple radiation shields. Practical application of shielded, recirculation reactors is presently limited by the lack of durable materials of construction.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
D. A. Brownson, R. F. Stebar
Factors influencing the effectiveness of exhaust port air injection in oxidizing the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in engine exhaust gas have been investigated in order to establish guidelines for the engineering of vehicle emission control systems. Single-cylinder engine and vehicle studies have demonstrated that the temperature, composition, and residence time of the exhaust gas-air mixture are basic factors determining both the effectiveness of air injection and the type of oxidation process which occurs in the exhaust system. Both luminous and nonluminous oxidation have been observed. These basic factors are affected by such variables as: engine spark timing and air-fuel ratio, insulation and size of exhaust manifolds, injection air temperature and airflow rate, and the warmup characteristics of the air injection system. The warmup characteristics can be influenced particularly by spark timing and exhaust manifold design. By optimizing the operating and design variables, it has been possible to greatly enhance the effectiveness of air injection in reducing hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
L. A. McReynolds, H. E. Alquist, D. B. Wimmer
The deleterious effects of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere result from their sunlight induced reactions with nitrogen oxides to produce photochemical smog. The techniques commonly applied to reduce the contribution of vehicles to smog normally take into account the overall quantity of hydrocarbons discharged to the atmosphere. This neglects the important fact that some hydrocarbons are inert and others react to varying degrees. Therefore, the reactivity of hydrocarbons, in addition to the quantity, is an important variable in any study of vehicular hydrocarbon emission. This study was made to determine the effects of combustion and fuel variables on the relative amount and reactivity of vehicular exhaust and vented hydrocarbon losses. In order to minimize variables, several laboratory simulations with CFR engines were used to represent limits of actual vehicle exhaust. A laboratory test chamber, which provided a suitable environment for the pertinent reactions involving a sunlit atmosphere containing nitrogen oxides, was used to measure photochemical reactivities of pure hydrocarbons, fuel blending components, and exhaust gases.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
R. W. Hum, Basil Dimitriades, R. D. Fleming
Unburned hydrocarbons and other products of combustion are recognized as contributors to photochemical air pollution. The work reported here was a first approach in finding an expression of exhaust gas quality -- or compositional characteristic--that would associate directly with the photochemical activity of the composite sample. Olefins, aromatics, and partial oxidation products have been cited as the principal smog precursors in exhaust gas. However, results of this study indicate that for the general case, collective determination of these classes provides an unreliable indication of reactivity. The findings are expected to be useful in further development of methods to measure -- or predict -- the air polluting potential of exhaust gas with increased reliability.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
J. Baudry
This paper describes the reduction in observed unburned exhaust products when a spark ignition engine is operated with the I.F.P. process of variable mixture strength. The principle of the process is first explained; then the influence of the mixture strength on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in exhaust gases is shown. A comparison of normal carburetion processes and I.F.P. process, based on a stratification of the intake gases, shows how the extension towards the lean mixtures of the limit of the mixture strength results in the reduction of unburned products in the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
R. S. Spindt
The composition of a burned mixture of air and hydrocarbons must reflect the air-fuel ratio of the original mixture. This paper shows that the air-fuel ratio can be calculated by an equation that involves only fuel composition and exhaust gas composition. For this calculation, the hydrocarbon content of the combusted mixture has been measured with a flame ionization detector as a carbon counter.
Magazine
1964-12-01
Technical Paper
1964-10-21
RUSSELL J. NEFF
This report summarizes the work done by the Society of Automotive Engineers in cooperation with the National Bureau of Standards aimed at setting up minimum standards for seat belts for use in motor vehicles. As a result of the legal interpretation of Public Law 88-201, it was necessary that these standards apply to shoulder harnesses and special children's restraint systems in addition to lap belts. This report will summarize the activities of the separate groups involved in the program and cover in some detail the proposed standard which has been devel­oped as a result of their endeavor.
Standard
1964-08-31
This ARP describes a method by which values can be obtained for the absorption of sound in air over a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions. Although it was developed primarily for use in evaluating aircraft flyover noise measurements, the information should be applicable to other noise problems as well.
Magazine
1964-08-01
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