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HISTORICAL
1982-03-01
Standard
J1375_198203
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies some basic and general conditions that should be considered when making electrical starter motor applications.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821228
N. D. Eryou, D. MacMartin, S. M. Dubuc, D. Gourley
A transportable test cell for the measurement of motor vehicle emissions and fuel consumption was developed for Environment Canada. The test cell incorporates a bus containing exhaust gas analyzers and the dynamometer/exhaust gas sampling control system plus a trailer mounted electric absorption chassis dynamometer, which rejects absorbed vehicle energy into the local utility grid. The test cell was developed for testing of in-use motor vehicles with curb weights up to 2726 kg (6000 lbs) in major Canadian urban centers. It is designed for all-weather road transport and easy deployment, requiring only connections to a building power supply. The design and operation of the test cell are described, along with its intended use.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821217
Karl V. Wood, James D. Ciupek, R. Graham Cooks, Colin R. Ferguson
Particles have been collected from a direct injection diesel engine at varying dilution ratios and air temperatures for four different operating conditions. Particulate samples have been introduced into a mass spectrometer ion source with a direct insertion probe thus dispensing with the extraction processes typically used in chemical characterization. The sample is volatized and then chemically ionized using isobutane. Typical mass spectra are presented for each operating condition. The samples analyzed have a mean molecular weight of 195 amu with a standard deviation of approximately 100 amu. Application of tandem mass spectrometry for species identification is illustrated. Both negative and positive chemical ionization are employed to identify carboxylic acids in the particulate. Several types of ms-ms scans are shown to have utility in this study, including scans which provide molecular weight profiles for compounds having common functional groups.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821246
Douglas R. Lawson, Jerome G. Wendt
Precipitation chemistry measurements have been made at many California locations, with recorded extreme pH values as low as 2.89 from Pasadena and 3.5 from geologically sensitive Sequoia National Park. However, in northern areas of the state experiencing good air quality, very little acid deposition occurs. California's acid precipitation is apparently locally produced, since there are no major pollution source regions upwind of the state. This is attributable to the extremely rapid rates observed for conversion of NOx to nitric acid and SO2 to sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Recent monitoring data illustrate extreme variations in precipitation chemistry from adjacent sites and even at the same location from one year to the next. Enrichment factor calculations show that in contrast with data from other locations in the world, nitric acid dominates over sulfuric acid in California's rainfall in many locations.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821112
Robin T. Harrison, W. A. Murphy
A Task Force of the SAE Motorcycle Committee was chartered to develop a method of classifying environmental impact potentials of off-highway motorcycles. The Task Force concentrated on the potential of the machines–even though environmental impact is also strongly affected by the operator, the type of resource, and the conditions under which these interface. The Task Force concluded that off-highway motorcycles can be classified according to their acoustic impact, using easily performed SAE stationary tests. Willie classifying off-highway motorcycles according to their surface impact potential appears possible, non-machine factors (such as rider attitude and skill, terrain, soil, etc.) are far more important than the machines themselves in assessing any actual surface impact. Other than sound and ground, environmental impact potentials from off-highway motorcycling are very minor.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820462
Hang Xu, P. S. Myers, O. A. Uyehara
A technique to determine time and space resolved particulate number density and size in the cylinder of an operating diesel engine is described and sample data presented. Basically the technique uses Mie scattering of a laser beam passed through the jet of gases leaking through a 0.015 diameter orifice inserted into the combustion chamber. Number density and size are inferred from measurements of scattering as a function of angle of scattering. The data show a linear relationship between exhaust measurements using this technique and Bosch smoke meter readings as well as an approximately linear relationship between in-cylinder measurements of number density and mass measurements made by collecting particulates flowing through the 0.015 in, orifice on a filter.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820868
G. Kurylowich, A. J. P. Lloyd
The significant advance in microprocessor technology has been recognized by the aircraft community. Over the past several years, strong interest has been expressed in integrating this technology into vehicle equipment subsystems. Thus, the analog control technologies of the past are slowly being replaced by digital control. Of interest in this paper are the significant improvements that can be made in the areas of environmental control, crew escape, and brake systems. The areas that are being addressed with respect to the environmental control system are discussed in the paper; the areas of concern are cooling control, simplification of valve design, and fault detection. The current problems in relation to crew escape and braking systems are described. The manner in which microprocessor technology can relieve these problems are presented. Work in this area by the Boeing Company is also described.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820836
Ross J. Cushman
This paper describes the thermal control system designed to provide environmental and equipment cooling for a Manned Space Station. Ventilation flow patterns have been selected which maintain a comfortable shirt sleeve environment in zero gravity while providing contaminant process flow, as well as the versatility of providing both distributed and localized equipment cooling. The paper also describes process flow systems and equipment required to remove thermal, humidity, and contaminant loads. How the equipment interfaces with a liquid cooling loop system is detailed, including how thermoelectric heat pumps were included for use during degraded operations.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820785
Lawrence R. Smith, Thomas M. Baines
Researchers in the nitrosamine field were contacted on their views of the TEA analyzer and the ThermoSorb/N Air Sampler for nitrosamine analysis. Fifty-eight vehicle interiors were sampled to determine the effects of vehicle type, vehicle age, mode of operation, and ambient conditions on interior nitrosamines. Nitrosamines were found in passenger cars, station-wagons, passenger and cargo vans, pickup trucks, and in new and used heavy-duty trucks, but not in motor homes. The average daily intake of nitrosamines from vehicle interiors for a commuter in a vehicle 3 hours/day was estimated to be less than that from a can of beer or from a strip of bacon.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820784
Ruth A. Zweidinger, Joan T. Bursey, Nora C. Castillo, Ronald Keefe, Doris Smith
Six subcompact automobiles were evaluated in this study for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. The quantitation of VCM was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the single ion mode. The interiors of the automobiles were thermostatically controlled at either 45° or 65° C for 3 hrs before sampling the car interior. Each automobile was sampled for VCM at both temperatures. Samples for qualitative analyses were obtained at 65° C. The GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 147 organic compounds in the automobile which were not found in the ambient air in the vicinity of the test.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821037
Magnus Lenner, Oliver Lindqvist, Evert Ljungström, Inger Lundgren, Åke Rosén
The ability of diesel particles to catalyze the low temperature thermal oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide has been determined. Rate constants for the reaction in bag samples of diesel engine exhaust gases were calculated for different conditions of temperature, dilution and engine load. The reaction rate, which has a negative temperature dependence, was found to be uniformly higher in samples with diesel particles than in corresponding particle-free samples.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820362
Mark R. Logan, Joseph A. Gudgeon, O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers
An intermittent sampling valve was used to investigate local fuel H/C ratio and species concentrations in an operating DI diesel engine. Additionally, predictions of carbon and hydrogen originating from particulates and nonmethane hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen remainders) were made by calculation. Sample H/C ratio was used to assess local fuel phase as gaseous or liquid. Evidence of intermediate species quenching in the lean region between spray plumes was found under low swirl. Reduction in the rate of penetration under high swirl may account for the observed loss in efficiency under this condition.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820293
D. A. Hansen
Analysis of historical precipitation chemistry data shows substantial uncertainty in the pH values derived from them. Consideration of climatological influences on precipitation chemistry suggests that the relatively low acidity inferred for precipitation in large areas of the United States during 1955 to 1956 may have been the result of elevated concentrations of alkaline soil elements. Thus, data from this period may not be suitable for inclusion in any analysis of historical trends in precipitation acidity due to pollutant emissions. Data from scattered sites operated during the 1920s to 1940s show higher sulfate concentrations and lower nitrate concentrations than those measured recently at nearby sites. Because of data limitations in terms of continuity of measurements, their spatial coverage, and their quality, no strong case can be made either for or against long term trends in precipitation acidity and its areal extant in the eastern United States.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820182
Ronald L. Bradow, Roy B. Zweidinger, Frank M. Black, Harry M. Dietzmann
The possibility that NO2 artifactually converts polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons to biologically active species in diesel particle sampling is explored. NO2 was injected into dilution air upstream of the exhaust mixing point at varvinq concentra-ting levels with both passenger car and truck driving simulations. Ames test specific activity and nitropyrene levels were seen to increase above base levels when the NO2 level exceeded 5 to 10 ppm. Extract responses to added NO2 in transient drivinq appeared to initially increase, then level off above about 20 ppm. It is suggested that some requestering of nitratable orqan-ics may be responsible. Reexposure of filtered particles to diluted gas phase diesel exhaust caused little increase in nitroaromatics or Ames activitv. It appears that NO2 levels below about 5 ppm are relatively safe from filter artifacts.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820187
Michael J. D’Aniello
This paper consists of two principle parts. In Part I, the known processes for the recovery of noble metals from supported catalysts are reviewed. Part II of this paper details the development and application, on a laboratory scale, of a platinum and palladium recovery process based on a solution extraction process. Several variables for the solution extraction process were evaluated. These variables included choice of oxidant, extraction time and temperature, physical state of the catalyst pellets, and potential pretreatment steps. The best recovery of both platinum and palladium was obtained by extraction with 1-5% (v/v) nitric acid in 6 M hydrochloric acid yielding platinum and palladium recoveries of 85-95% and 89-99%, respectively, for a series of used catalysts with varying accumulated mileages.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820188
Ronald F. Davies
METHODS of recycling platinum group catalysts, including regeneration, stripping and refining, substrate removal and refining are reviewed. The author intends to present a method of regenerating spent automotive catalyst at the oral presentation.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820051
C. Bassoli, B. Tosco Filtri
Emission testing of light duty diesel engines performed by means of a number of testins facilities that are connected to a central control system is described. Two kind of benches are available; steady state and inertial. The first is mainly used to obtain emissions and fuel consumption maps in a fully automatic fashion. The data are then processed to predict the fuel consumption and emissions of a given driving cycle. The other kind of bench performs a comprehensive car simulation and therefore permits the execution of dynamic cycles such as the 1975 Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Both the diluted gas sampling and the driving actuation are automatically done by computer. Experimental results obtained on a IVECO 4-cyl turbocharsed IDI diesel engine for light duty operation are presented.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820399
Larry E. Heisey
Electric Vehicle (EV) battery chargers must safely and completely recharge EV batteries and do so with minimum involvement of the users. Industry generated standards for EV components promoting safety, interchangeability and uniformity of features and functions will enhance user acceptance of EV’s. Many standards already exist for battery chargers which are similar to those used for EV’s. By reviewing existing standards together with the unique requirements of EV battery chargers, the industry will be in a position to establish standards when it has matured sufficiently to do so.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820402
Edward F. McBrien
This paper provides an overview of electromagnetic compatibility considerations between battery powered, automotive type, electric vehicles and other electrical and electronic services. A brief historical background is provided along with a review of test data and available standards. The paper recommends that despite procedural difficulties, SAE J551 should be used to measure and compare electromagnetic radiation from electric vehicles. Similarly, SAE J1113 should be used to measure electromagnetic susceptibility. The paper also recommends that acceptable procedures for determining electromagnetic compatibility of electric vehicles and other services be more fully developed.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820608
Dennis F. Larson
Public environmental concern has resulted in federal, state, and local legislation aimed at reducing industrial wastes discharged into our nation’s waterways. Conventional techniques of controlling chromium discharges relied on the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) to a trivalent state (Cr+2) which would form an insoluble hydroxide that could then be precipitated from the waste stream. The net result is a conversion of liquid waste to solid waste. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act with its cradle to grave responsibilities, has encouraged the development and implementation of methods aimed at reducing losses of valuable raw materials. One such system now allows the plating department to take full advantage of the natural inherent recovery capabilities of rinse tanks for little or no cost at all.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820606
Freeman Walker
Eastern’s new plating shop has an uncluttered overhead in the tank areas, all plating lines are in one room, and second floor plating areas are above full access pit areas. The shop has down-draft ventilation, more than one hundred tanks 3 feet × 5 feet and larger, and was built into an existing structure. This was accomplished in a cost effective design which was constructed on time and within budget and which provides a shop that is easy to maintain, monitor, and modify. Special attention was given to meeting environmental regulations.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820487
E. Hitzemeyer
Illumination-, marking-, signalling-lighting devices and their installation have been regulated since motor vehicles are on the road, first by the local administrations and later by governments. Increased interstate traffic dictated harmonisation of various national requirements. A compilation of the most important regulations shows the status of their harmonisations.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821185
L. S. Bernstein, N. D. Brinkman, R. R. Carlson
The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC), under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted controlled tests to determine the effects of 10% ethanol-gasoline blends on emissions, fuel economy, and driveability of 14 - 1980 model year cars representing several emission-control technologies. Two types of ethanol blends were tested, a simple blend with no volatility adjustment, and two volatility-adjusted blends. Addition of 10% ethanol to gasoline resulted in statistically significant changes in emissions, driveability, and efficiency. Statistically significant effects were also found as a result of volatility adjustment. However, because of the limited fleet size, these results should not be used to quantitatively predict effects of the use of ethanol-gasoline blends in the total U.S. vehicle population.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821161
Edward Red, Keith Hale, Make McDermott, Ben Mooring
Applications of modern technology make it possible for handicapped people confined to wheelchairs to travel in vehicles in both driver and passenger modes. This is consistent with the trend of increased independence and mobility for the handicapped confined to wheelchairs. Concurrent with this trend is the development of wheelchair restraint devices/systems to restrain the wheelchair and provide the wheelchair occupant some measure of protection in normal and abnormal (crash) driving situations. The proliferations of these devices, some of which afford minimal restraint to the wheelchair occupant, led representatives of the Texas Transportation Institute and the Mechanical Engineering Division of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), with the funded support of the Veterans Administration (VA), to conduct a program to test and evaluate representative restraint devices currently being marketed. This paper describes the progress that has been made in this program to-date.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820878
James L. Franklin, Ted J. Kramer
This paper details the development of standardized avionic enclosures for Naval aircraft, with particular emphasis on the package’s thermal design. The packaging system is unique in that it can accommodate modules of two different standardized sizes (ISEM-2A and 1/2 ATR), and modules having three different cooling modes -conduction cooled, flow-through cooled, and heat pipe cooled. The three module cooling modes, together with required package dissipation rates of 125 watts/MCU and pressure drops below 2.8 mm mercury create a great deal of complexity in the optimization of the thermal system. A computerized optimization program was therefore utilized to achieve specific designs, with results reported for various module mixes and heat exchanger designs.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820813
D. E. Seizinger, T. M. Naman, W. F. Marshall, C. R. Clark, R. O. McClellan
Diesel particulate and gaseous emissions, fuel economy, and mutagenic activity of the particulate extracts were measured for 22 light-duty diesel vehicles representing 1979 through 1982 model-year production of domestics and imports. These vehicles were operated on a chassis dynamometer in a temperature controlled environment. The objectives of this study included measuring effects of fuel aromaticity [0 to 37%], ambient test temperature [25, 50, 75, and 100°F], and vehicle duty cycle on particulate emissions and associated biological activity. Results of this investigation showed that ambient temperature environmental changes on the operating vehicle had virtually no effect on particulate and mutagenicity measurements. Increasing fuel aromaticity in three test vehicles did not show a definitive relationship of particulate level versus fuel aromaticity.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820787
Melvin N. Ingalls, Robert J. Garbe
This study was performed to provide a method of estimating concentrations of vehicle generated pollutants in areas where people and vehicles are in close proximity. A list of common exposure situations was extracted from hypothetical daily activity routines. For each situation, an appropriate dispersion model was selected. The range of real world physical variables for each situation was examined. From this range, typical and severe actual situations were chosen. Pollutant concentrations were calculated for each typical and severe situation using the appropriate dispersion model. Emission factors of one gram per mile or minute were used to facilitate scaling.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820783
Lawrence R. Smith, Penny M. Carey
This paper describes the characterization of regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions, particularly aldehydes, from ten 1978 and 1979 high mileage catalyst-equipped gasoline fueled automobiles which have been driven for approximately 50,000 miles. The ten automobiles were evaluated as-received and after a tune-up to manufacturer’s specifications, over the Light-Duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET). Exhaust constituents measured, in addition to the regulated emissions, include: aldehydes, particulates, sulfides, amines, and several additional compounds.
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