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Viewing 181 to 210 of 24399
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Renjie Zhou, Wanyang XIA, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei
Downhill mountain road is the accident prone section because of its complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to negligence or failure of judgment. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, subjects to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environment. This study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and geographic information, giving drivers safety speed in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's miscarriage of justice or brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill. Firstly, establish the commercial vehicle driving model, main brake and auxiliary brake model, and study the characteristics of the driving conditions under the change of slope length and slope. Gather the real-time information of the vehicle, such as vehicle weight, speed, gear and engine speed to calculate the vehicle braking torque.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0931
Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Joseph Ulrey
While not commonly in production today, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are likely to see widespread deployment to meet stringent EU6.2 and China particulate number (PN) standards. In many ways the operating conditions for GPFs are orthogonal to those of their diesel counterparts, and this leads to different and interesting requirements for the control strategy. We will present some generic system architectures for exhaust systems containing a GPF and will lay out an architecture for the GPF control strategy components which include: regeneration assist feature, soot estimation algorithm, GPF protection. Lastly, we will show validation data of the control strategy under different operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0963
Hoon Cho, Thomas Brewbaker, Devesh Upadhyay, Brien Fulton, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Many excellent papers have been written about the subject of estimating engine-out NOx on diesel engines based on real-time available data. The claimed accuracy of these models is typically around 6-10% on validation data sets with known inputs. This reported accuracy typically ignores the uncertainty around the inputs, thus arriving at an optimistic estimate of the model accuracy in a real-time application. In our paper we analyze the effect of uncertainty on the accuracy of engine-out NOx estimates via a numerical Monte Carlo simulation and show that this effect can be significant. Even though our model is based on an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this sensor is limited in its capability to reduce the effect of other measured inputs to the model. We give a brief presentation of the model and focus on the uncertainty analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0993
Sheng-Chieh cheng, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ko Wei Lin
Due to the deterioration of the Earth's environment, many governments around the world strengthen vehicles emission regulation more and more strictly. In order to measurement vehicles exhaust emissions on the real road situation. We establish a Simple Emission Measurement system (SEMS) to detect the amount of real time emission. The SEMS use stoichiometric theory to predict fuel consumed, accumulated CO2 and NOX mass by detect NOX volume concentration, O2 volume concentration and exhaust air flow rate. The Simple Emission Measurement system has been validated by engine test using ESC (European Stationary Cycle) and ETC (European Transient Cycle) test procedure, and the result shows the error of emission data is about ± 10% compare to the emission analyzer in the vehicle testing laboratory.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1318
Prashant Khapane, Suresh Bhosale
Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirement for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the programme when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering change that is expensive, time consuming and stressful. And like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model physics of sand media and also solve complex multi-physics problem of impact of whole vehicle with sand dune. This paper discusses various challenges faced during developing state-of-the-art modelling method for sand media and whole vehicle impact with the sand dune.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Mountainous roads have complex terrain. Traditional vehicle active safety system, such as ABS, only play a role when there's an emergency situation, and the loading rate is not high in the heavy vehicle. So the traffic accident rate is still high in the mountainous area. Researches show that if drivers react before the accident 2-3 s there could be 90% reduction in the accident rate. This safety speed warning system is combined with the digital map, which makes the drivers see the mountainous road information beyond the horizon. Compared to the road standard speed limit, the system combination with the road information and characteristics of heavy vehicle itself can provide a more accurate and more useful safety warning speed limit. It can effectively reduce the incidence of accidents.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0721
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, André Nicolle, Olivier Colin
This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the formation and oxidation of soot in typical Diesel combustion. A common rail ECN spray A injector (single axial-oriented orifice) was tested in a optically accessible test-chamber at engine relevant conditions. High-speed OH* and high-speed 2D extinction imaging were performed simultaneously to link together the flame chemistry and the soot data information. The experiments were carried out for different fuels (EU Diesel, JetA1, n-dodecane) performing parametric variations of the boundary conditions. The proposed analysis methodology enabled the identification of the sooting behavior of each fuel by evaluating the relationship between two of the measured parameters, namely lift-off length and the soot maximum axial extinction value (Max KL). The relationship between these two parameters allowed to distinguish the behavior of the different fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0605
Anthony D'Amato, Yan Wang, Dimitar Filev, Enrique Remes
Government regulations for fuel economy and emission standards have driven the development of technologies that improve engine performance and efficiency. These technologies are enabled by an increased number of actuators and increasingly sophisticated control algorithms. As a consequence, engine control calibration time, which entails sweeping all actuators at each speed-load point to determine the actuator combination that meets constraints and delivers ideal performance, has increased significantly. In this work we present two adaptive optimization methods, both based on an indirect adaptive control framework, which improve calibration efficiency by searching for the optimal process inputs without visiting all input combinations explicitly. The difference between the methods is implementation of the algorithm in steady-state vs dynamic operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0691
Louis-Marie Malbec, Julian Kashdan
Previous experimental data obtained in constant volume combustion vessels have shown that soot-free diffusive flames can be achieved in a Diesel spray if the equivalence ratio at the flame lift-off location is below 2. The so-called Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy is a promising approach to limit the levels of in-cylinder soot produced in Diesel engines and potentially reduce the dependence on the Diesel particulate filter. However, implementing such strategies in light-duty engines is not straightforward due to the effects of charge confinement , non-steady boundary conditions and spray-spray interactions compared to the simplified configuration of a free-jet in a constant-volume combustion vessel. The present study aims at trying to gain a better understanding of the requirements in terms of injector and engine settings in order to reach the LLFC regime in a light-duty engine. Experiments were performed on a 0.5L single-cylinder optical engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system.The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0636
Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Nhut Lam, Arne Andersson, Bengt Johansson
The concept of double compression, and double expansion stages (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration separates high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses. The presence of an additional expander stage also allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate at a given speed-load point. The simulations were constrained by limiting the range of maximum motoring pressures from 200 bar to 300 bar, and the maximum pressure during combustion to 300 bar. The maximum motor pressure was varied by constraining the compression ratio of the high pressure unit and adapting the low pressure unit accordingly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehardun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle comply with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1327
Prashant Khapane, Vivek Chavan, Uday Ganeshwade
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge the capability of a vehicle to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water; wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for the assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. An extended simulation methodology, making use of the passive scalar model has been established to understand water impingement and splashing in a greater detail, which are the two critical performance parameters during vehicle wading. A passive scalar acts as a pseudo catalyst in the target fluid phase of the multiphase CFD simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0954
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Gary Neely, Michael Carter, Seungju Yoon, Cary Henry
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOx emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions. This paper details cold and hot-start FTP thermal management requirements to achieve ultra-low NOX levels with a turbocompound engine. Additionally, the energy requirements of various aftertreatment configurations were explored and data will be presented to highlight the impact of turbocompounding on cold-start emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0952
Michael B. Hopka, David Bilby, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
The resistive particulate matter sensor (PMS) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous on diesel vehicles as a means to diagnose particulate filter (DPF) leaks. By design the device provides an integrated measure of the amount of PM to which it has been exposed during a defined measurement period within a drive cycle. The state of the art resistive PMS has a large deadband before any valid output related to the accumulated PM is realized. As a result, most DPF monitors that use the PMS consider its output only as an indicator that a threshold quantity of PM has amassed at the sensor rather than a real-time measure of concentration. This measurement paradigm has the unfortunate side effect that as the PM OBD threshold decreases, or the PMS is used on a vehicle with a larger exhaust volume flow, the duration of measurement required to reach the same PM sensor output increases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0958
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Gary Neely, Seungju Yoon, Cary Henry, Bryan Zavala
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOx emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions. This paper details engine and aftertreatment NOX management requirements and model based control considerations for achieving Ultra-Low NOX levels. Data will be presented for several Advanced Technology aftertreatment technologies and the integration of those technologies with the engine calibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1288
Noriko Shisa, Shinsuke Ishihara, Yougui Huang, Mikio Asai, Katsuhiko Ariga
Despite methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engine and components in fuel system, there are increasing distribution of methanol-containing gasoline in some area. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is challenging to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis (e.g., GC-MS). In this study, we aim to develop low-cost, portable, and easy-operation sensor that selectively changes its color (from red purple to blue purple) in response to methanol-containing gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid unexpected refueling of methanol-containing gasolines. Our methanol sensor is a thin film of clay mineral (layered double hydroxide, LDH) embedded with dye molecules (oxoporphyrinogen, OxP).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0863
Bader Almansour, Sami Alawadhi, Subith Vasu
One of the most promising platforms for cellulosic biofuel generation is to harness the metabolic processes of endophytic fungi that directly convert lignocellulosic material into a variety of volatile organic compounds. The biofuel co-development framework was initiated at Sandia National Labs. Here, the synthetic biologists develop and engineer a new platform for drop-in fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, using several endophytic fungi including Hypoxylon CI-4A, CO27-A, and Daldinia EC-12. Hence this process has the potential advantage that expensive pretreatment and fuel refining stages can be optimized thereby allowing scalability and cost reduction-two major considerations for widespread biofuel utilization. Large concentrations of ketones along with other volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) were produced by Hypoxylon CO27-A grown over swtichgrass media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0918
Joseph R. Theis, Andrew Getsoian, Christine Lambert
In anticipation that stoichiometric gasoline engines of the future will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with significantly improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the thermal durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between the Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is being funded by the US Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150oC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0925
Tatsuro Sugino, Eriko Tanaka, Huong Tran, Norihiko Aono
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been an essential aftertreatment component for reducing particulate matter (PM) emission for diesel engine vehicles thereby meeting stringent emission regulations. Installation of DPF can achieve high filtration efficiency; however PM filtration causes high pressure drop due to deep bed filtration. Although periodic PM regeneration is needed for keeping low pressure drop, it causes significant deterioration in fuel efficiency. Improving the efficiency of PM regeneration and low pressure drop are major challenges for DPF to meet future CO2 emission regulations. In this paper, a novel morphological catalyst layer for DPF was presented. This catalyst layer located in wall surface of inlet DPF channels and formed highly porous and 3 dimension meshwork shape. These features enhanced not only preventing deep bed filtration for low pressure drop, but also soot-catalyst contact for fast PM regeneration rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0926
Kentaro Iwasaki
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used in the automobile industry for around a decade. As a key technology for emissions control the DPF design needs to be increasingly optimized to expand its function to deal with any emission to meet not only PM/NOx regulation but also CO2 targets through minimizing any fuel penalty. Cost is extremely important to deliver an effective after-treatment catalyst. . Aluminum titanate and cordierite-based material DPFs are very cost effective in part because their properties allow monolith-manufacturing. Furthermore, geometrical design of the DPF channel structure can contribute to multi-functionalization of the DPF to provide further advantages. Practically, square and asymmetric square-designed channel structures in DPF have been utilized on current after-treatment systems. Asymmetric hexagonal-designed channel technology has recently been shown to provide lower backpressure and higher ash-capacity for longer DPF lifetime usage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0927
Carl Justin Kamp, Shawn Zhang, Sujay Bagi, Victor Wong, Greg Monahan, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang
Diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment components, especially the diesel particulate filter (DPF), are subject to various modes of degradation over their lifetimes. One form of DPF degradation is the significant rise in pressure drop due to the accumulation of engine lubricant-derived ash which coats the inlet channel walls effectively decreasing the permeability of the wall. The decreased permeability due to ash in the DPF can result in increased filter pressure drop and decreased fuel economy. A unique two-step approach, consisting of experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations using ultra-high resolution 3D imaging data, has been utilized in this study to better understand the effects of ash accumulation on engine aftertreatment component functionality. In this study, ash permeability was directly measured on the surface of ceramic (cordierite) wafers as a function of ash type (field ash, lab-generated and with chemical/morphological variations) and packing density.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0935
Christoph Boerensen, Dirk Roemer, Christian Nederlof, Evgeny Smirnov, Frank Linzen, Felix Goebel, Brendan Carberry
The biggest challenge in emission control for compression ignited internal combustion engines is the suppression on NOx. In the US, NOx-levels have been regulated strictly for a long time, but recently the introduction of the real-world-driving legislation (RDE) aggravated the requirements in Europe dramatically; they can only be fulfilled by a system, that operates robustly under all driving conditions. Emission control is based on engine-internal optimizations to reduce the feedgas in conjunction with aftertreatment technologies, that are generally selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or lean NOx traps (LNT) based systems. Due to its ability to control high amounts of NOx, SCR is widely used in heavy-duty applications and is becoming more popular in light-duty and passenger car applications as well.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1296
David Charles Weber, Yimin Liu, Perry MacNeille
The future of sustainable transportation is to use as much electric power as possible that is derived from sustainable sources (e.g. solar, wind, hydro). This paper evaluates the benefits of trains of vehicles that are mechanically connected together for long distance travel as a means to the attainment of coast-to-coast travel using only electric power. The technical challenges are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 exposure is a serious health risk for people if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. The severity of the risk depends on the concentration of CO2 and the length of the exposure. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration is detrimental to the customer but hard to detect. For applications where CO2 is used as the refrigerant for the air-conditioning system, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In this paper, CFD is used to simulate the concentration of CO2 in the event of a leak. The methodology along with the advantages and limitations will be discussed. The simulations are being carried out in a C-segment car with five occupants in panel recirculation mode, as shown in the picture below.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0747
John Storey, Samuel Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Raynella Connatser, Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey, Mark Sellnau
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited primarily by the fuel properties. High reactivity gasoline fuels have been reported to help achieve partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) at light-to-medium load conditions. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON91 E10) and a high reactivity gasoline (RON80), were compared on a Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEP) to a medium load condition (1500 rpm/6 bar IMEP and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEP). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet located in-between.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0592
Robin Holmbom, Bohan Liang, Lars Eriksson
Turbocharging plays an important role in the downsizing of engines. Model-based approaches for boost control are going to increasing the necessity for controlling the wastegate flow more accurately. In today’s cars, the wastegate is usually only controlled with a duty cycle and without position feedback. Due to nonlinearities and varying disturbances a duty cycle does not correspond to a certain position. Currently the most frequently used feedback controller strategy is to use the boost pressure as the controller reference. This means that there is a large time constant from actuation command to effect in boost pressure, which can impair dynamic performance. In this paper, the performance of an electrically controlled vacuum-actuated wastegate, subsequently referred to as vacuum wastegate, is compared to an electrical servo-controlled wastegate, also referred to as electric wastegate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1018
Gianluca Padula, Philipp Schiffmann, Matthieu Lecompte, Olivier Laget
The growth of ground vehicle traffic has a detrimental effect on health and environment. NOx are at the origin of respiratory diseases. Consequently, the emission of NOx, among other pollutants, are more and more limited by stringent emission standards. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one consolidated after-treatment technique to reduce the emissions of NOx. The system currently used consists in the injection of an urea water solution (UWS) upstream a catalytic converter. The use of such liquid ammonia precursors presents different problems, pointed out in several studies. Indeed, The temperature required to release NH3 is high, causing problems especially during cold operations, with a consequent undesired wall-film formation, due to the lack of evaporation. The cycles of heating and cooling cause a solid deposit formation, that affects the performance and the durability of the system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0160
Longjie Xiao, Gangfeng Tan
In the background of the increasing amount of car ownership in the world, the amount of heat that is not utilized in automobile exhaust should not be ignored, and the importance of using automobile exhaust gas for power generation is gradually being realized and valued by people. However, the urban traffic environment is changeable. The frequent start and stop as well as the acceleration and deceleration of the car will lead to the fluctuation of gas temperature and flow and then the temperature fluctuation of the thermoelectric module’s hot end, which reduces the power generation efficiency of thermoelectric module. By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the temperature fluctuation of the hot end of thermoelectric module can be effectively reduced, but the system volume is large, and the working fluid circulation needs additional energy supply.
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