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Viewing 181 to 210 of 23344
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team’s math-based modeling and simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicle powertrain analysis, with a goal of improving the simulation results to be less than 10% error to experimental data. The team used the modeling and simulation tools for evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture changes (hardware), and controls code development and testing (software). The first step was model validation to experimental data, as the plant models had not yet been validated. This paper includes the results of the team’s work in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EcoCAR 2 Advanced vehicle Technical Competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
Abstract As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1264
Tarun Mehra, Naveen Kumar, Salman Javed, Ashish Jaiswal, Farhan javed
Abstract Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has higher FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pretreatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalyzed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed and this mixture is Trans esterified with no pre-treatment process using molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were close to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0735
J. Javier Lopez, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length (LOL). Size and mass of soot particles increase through the diffusion flame and finally they are partially oxidized at the flame front. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. However, there is a clear lack of published research related to the characterization of soot oxidation. Thus, the main objective of the current research is to provide more knowledge and insight into the soot oxidation processes. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, in-cylinder optical thickness (KL) was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color pyrometry.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0915
Keld Johansen, Anders Widd, Frank Zuther, Hannes Viecenz
Abstract For trucks today, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalysts are combined in this sequential order in diesel exhaust systems with the drawback of insufficient temperature for the SCR catalyst during cold start and large volume. The problems can potentially be solved by integrating the SCR catalyst into the particulate filter as one multifunctional unit. For off-road and heavy-duty vehicles applications with fully managed passive NO2-soot regenerations, integration of V-based SCR formulations on the DPF (V-SCRonDPF) represents an attractive solution due to high sulfur resistance accompanied by low-temperature NOx conversion and improved fuel economy. Engine bench tests together with an NO2-active DOC show that it is possible to manage the NO2/NOx ratio so both a high NOx conversion and still a low soot balance point temperature is obtained. The soot balance point is almost unaffected by the fast SCR reaction when urea is introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0949
Ryuji Kai, Tsuyoshi Asako, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Abstract Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a key emission control component utilized in diesel engine applications for NOx reduction. There are several types of SCR catalyst currently in the market: Cu-Zeolite, Fe-Zeolite and Vanadia. Diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers down select their production SCR catalyst primarily based on vehicle exhaust gas temperature operation, ammonia dosing strategy, fuel quality, packaging envelope and cost. For Vanadia SCR, the operating temperature is normally controlled below 550oC to avoid vanadium sublimation. In emerging markets, the Vanadia SCR is typically installed alone or downstream of the DOC with low exhaust gas temperature exposure. Vanadia SCR is also utilized in some European applications with passive DPF soot regeneration. However, further improvement of Vanadia SCR NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required to meet future emission regulations (i.e.: HDD Phase 2 GHG).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0752
Pranab Das, Mayur Selokar, P.M.V. Subbarao, J.P. Subrahmanyam
Abstract A single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine is modified to run in HCCI-DI mode using a novel in-cylinder dual injection strategy. In this present investigation effect of 2nd injection timing, premixed equivalence ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emission behavior is studied. Based on the characteristics of combustion, performance and emission behavior, 2nd injection timing is optimized at a constant split ratio (80%) and engine speed (1500 rev/min). Premixed equivalence ratio was varied (up to 0.38) at the optimized 2nd injection timing condition. It is identified that 2nd injection timing and premixed equivalence ratio play an important role in controlling the occurrences of all combustion parameters of HCCI-DI combustion. EGR was introduced in the cylinder to understand its effect on various combustion parameters and emission behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0758
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Yan Long, Shouzhi Xiang, Jianxin Wang
Abstract Particle Number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and Maximum Brake Torque timing (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0726
Jonathan Martin, Chenxi Sun, Andre Boehman, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract This experimental study involves optimization of the scheduling of diesel post injections to reduce soot emissions from a light-duty diesel engine. Previous work has shown that certain post injection schedules can reduce engine-out soot emissions when compared to conventional injection schedules for the same engine load. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post injection scheduling for a range of engine conditions on a light duty multicylinder turbodiesel engine (1.9L GM ZDTH). For each engine operating condition, a test grid was developed so that only two variables (post injection duration and the commanded dwell time between main injection and post injection) were varied, with all other conditions held constant, in order to isolate the effects of the post injection schedule. Results have identified two distinct regimes of post injection schedules that reduce soot emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0737
Yilu Lin, Timothy Lee, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% diesel), ABE20 and diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10∼CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0749
Kelvin Xie, Tadanori Yanai, Zhenyi Yang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0788
Xiangyu Meng, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Yuqiang Li, Wuqiang Long, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0787
Valentin Soloiu, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp, Tyler Naes, Remi Gaubert
Abstract In this study, Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) was investigated with alternative fuels, S8 and n-butanol. The S8 fuel is a Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) produced from natural gas. PCCI was achieved with a dual-fuel combustion incorporating 65% (by mass) port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol and 35% (by mass) direct injection (DI) of S8 with 35% exhaust gas recirculation. The experiments were conducted at 1500 rpm and varied loads of 1-5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The PCCI tests were compared to an ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) baseline in order to determine how the alternative fuels effects combustion, emissions, and efficiencies. At 3 and 5 bar BMEP, the heat release in the PCCI mode exhibited two regions of high temperature heat release, one occurring near top dead center (TDC) and corresponds to the ignition of S8 (CN 62), and a second stage occurring ATDC from n-butanol combustion (CN 28).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0803
Konstantinos Michos, Georgios Bikas, Ioannis Vlaskos
Abstract A new global NOx emissions formation model, formulated by a single analytically derived algebraic equation, is developed with relevance to post-flame gases. The model originates from subsets of detailed kinetic schemes for thermal and N2O pathway NO formation, needs no calibration and is quick to implement and run. Due to its simplicity, the model can be readily used in both 1D and 3D-CFD simulation codes, as well as for direct post-processing of engine test data. Characteristic timescales that describe the kinetic nature of the involved NO formation routes, when they evolve in the post-flame gases independently the one from another, are introduced incorporating kinetic information from all relevant elementary reactions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0792
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Yeo, Patrick Kirchen
Abstract Diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of natural gas (NG) is a promising strategy to progress the application of NG as a commercially viable compression ignition engine fuel. Port injection of gaseous NG applied in tandem with direct injection of liquid diesel fuel as an ignition source permits a high level of control over cylinder charge preparation, and therefore combustion. Across the broad spectrum of possible combustion conditions in DIDF operation, different fundamental mechanisms are expected to dominate the fuel conversion process. Previous investigations have advanced the understanding of which combustion mechanisms are likely present under certain sets of conditions, permitting the successful modeling of DIDF combustion for particular operating modes. A broader understanding of the transitions between different combustion modes across the spectrum of DIDF warrants further effort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0825
William Fedor, Joseph Kazour, James Haller, Kenneth Dauer, Daniel Kabasin
Abstract LEV-3 regulation changes require 100% SULEV30 fleet average by 2025. While present applications meeting SULEV30 are predominately small displacement 4-cylinder engines, LEV-3 standards will require larger displacement engines to also meet SULEV30. One concept previously investigated to reduce the cold start engine-out HC emissions was to heat the fuel injected during the cold start and initial engine idle period. Improved atomization and increased vaporization of heated fuel decreased wall wetting and unburned fuel. This resulted in more fuel available to take part in combustion, thus reducing the required injected fuel mass and HC emissions. Single cylinder engine testing with experimental heated Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) injectors was conducted at 40°C engine coolant and oil temperature conditions. The operating mode simulated cold start idle operating conditions, with split injection for improved Catalyst Light-Off (CATLO) times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0826
Arumugam Sakunthalai Ramadhas, Hongming Xu
Abstract Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine start ability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount of the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions like NEDC or FTP. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of the intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0807
Christopher W. J. Mabson, Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven N. Rogak, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Abstract This paper examines the combustion and emissions produced using a prototype fuel injector nozzle for pilot-ignited direct-injection natural gas engines. In the new geometry, 7 individual equally-spaced gas injection holes were replaced by 7 pairs of closely-aligned holes (“paired-hole nozzle”). The paired-hole nozzle was intended to reduce particulate formation by increasing air entrainment due to jet interaction. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine at different speeds and loads, and over a range of fuel injection and air handling conditions. Emissions were compared to those resulting from a reference injector with equally spaced holes (“single-hole nozzle”). Contrary to expectations, the CO and PM emissions were 3 to 10 times higher when using the paired-hole nozzles. Despite the large differences in emissions, the relative change in emissions in response to parametric changes was remarkably similar for single-hole and paired-hole nozzles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0822
Jongwon Chung, Namho Kim, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0810
Massimo Cardone, Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The interest of the vehicle producers in fulfillment emission legislations without adopting after treatment systems is driving to the use of non-conventional energy sources for modern engines. A previous test campaign dealing with the use of blends of diesel and propane in a CI engine has pointed out the potential of this non-conventional fuel for diesel engines. The soft adaptation of the common rail injection system and the potential benefits, in terms of engine performances and pollutant emissions, encourage the use of propane-diesel blends if an optimization of the injection strategies is performed. In this work, the performances of a propane-diesel mixture in a research diesel engine have been investigated. The injection strategies of Euro 5 calibration have been used as reference for the development of optimized strategies. The aim of the optimization process was to ensure the same engine power output and reduce the pollutant emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0823
Jason Miwa, Darius Mehta, Chad Koci
Abstract Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Biodiesel is a potential alternative to Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD); however, it often suffers from increased fuel consumption in comparison to ULSD when injection timings and/or pressures are similar. To decrease fuel consumption, increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate the issues associated with its relatively high viscosity and lower energy content. When doing so, the literature indicates decreased emissions, albeit with potentially greater nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in contrast to ULSD. In order to better understand the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions, this study explores the influence of fuel injection pressure on ULSD, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) biodiesel, and their blends in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. In particular, fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to attempt to mimic the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation using ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0887
Erik Svensson, Changle Li, Sam Shamun, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss
Abstract Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0838
Yinhui Wang, Rong Zheng, Shi-Jin Shuai, Yanhong Qin, Jianfei Peng, He Niu, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, Min Hu
An experimental study of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions was conducted on a direct injection gasoline (DIG) engine and a port fuel injection (PFI) engine which both were produced by Chinese original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to investigate the impact of fuel properties from Chinese market on particulate and VOCs emissions from modern gasoline vehicles. The study in this paper is just the first step of the work which is to investigate the impact of gasoline fuel properties and light duty vehicle technologies on the primary and secondary emissions, which are the sources of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in the atmosphere in China. It is expected through the whole work to provide some suggestions and guidelines on how to improve air quality and mediate severe haze pollution in China through fuel quality control and vehicle technology advances.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0906
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. A fully integrated GT-Power engine model with physics based sub-models was developed to capture any positive or negative synergies between the technologies. The two zone multi-cylinder engine model included typical thermodynamic subroutines, with predictive combustion, flame quench and knock models, along with map-based turbocharger models to capture key combustion and efficiency behaviors. The engine model was calibrated to data from a boosted GDI engine and exercised through one series of current and production viable technology configurations for 2025 regulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Abstract A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0924
Shun Nakagawa, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato, Koichi Machida
Abstract The conventional NOx after-treatment system could not perform sufficient NOx removal since exhaust gas temperature falls down by low-fuel-consumption and waste heat recovery of a diesel engine. In order to realize a new after-treatment system with high NOx conversion rate at a low catalyst temperature, studies on adopting an ozone generator (NO oxidization promotion) and a urea reformer (ammonia addition) into the Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system have been conducted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0923
Martin Schneider, Bernd Danckert
Abstract Since the new “Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships” of the International Maritime Organization (IMO; MARPOL Annex VI Tier III) became effective, new technologies in marine applications are needed to fulfill the exhaust-gas limits. The reduction rate of the permissible emissions in the emission control areas (ECA) is about 75 % from Tier II to Tier III. To meet these limits, it is necessary to take additional measures, such as installing a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system. Because harbors are specifically in focus regarding the air quality, a hybrid propulsion system (Diesel-electric) and Exhaust Aftertreatment (EAT) to reduce the emissions and the lifecycle costs by reducing the fuel consumption were planned back in 2012. With the goal in mind of decreasing all relevant emissions, the described compact EAT consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Particulate Matter (PM) removal and a SCR-catalyst.
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