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Viewing 181 to 210 of 22368
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Achombili Asango, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler
Abstract The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature. Particle size effects are more significant for high soot content.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alessandro Libriani
Abstract Synthetic rubber is used in automobiles for various applications. Tires, seals, gaskets, engine mounts, wiring cables and under the hood hoses are just a few examples. Synthetic rubber is a man-made material that uses several components as polymers, resins, carbon black, fillers, vulcanizing agents, reinforcement agents. It is a material that heavily depends on oil for its constituency, therefore it has a large carbon footprint. This study proposes the use of natural filler for automotive seals using synthetic rubber in order to reduce the impact on the environment. Calcium carbonate is the most preponderant choice as material filler because it is abundant in nature and is mined extensively. Calcium carbonate is also present in several structures in nature. Oyster shells have a great amount of it as well as egg shells. Egg shells also constitute an environmental bio-hazard when discarded in a landfill due to the organic inner membrane. The use of discarded egg shells is limited to few applications, mainly pharmaceutical.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tingting Zhang, Xiaomin Xie, Zhen Huang
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively. The feedstock growing stage of microalgae and Jatropha curcas was found to be the most fossil energy-intensive stage.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Atsushi Mizutani
Abstract This paper describes the development of high efficiency and compact bumper recycling equipment for facilitating bumper recycling globally. Various equipment to remove paint coat from bumper has been developed since 90s', using mechanical, physical or chemical method. However, it is difficult to promote bumper recycling without realizing cost effective overall system from paint coat removal to pelletizing. Our company jointly developed method of mechanically removing paint coat and has committed to bumper recycling in the form of outsourcing since 2000. In 2010, a dedicated plant for recycling bumpers was launched on the premises of our Oppama Assembly Plant in Japan. In the future, promoting bumper recycling at other overseas assembly plants is necessary as vehicle production will expand globally. Having more compact and cost effective recycling system compared to the one at the Oppama plant is required since the scale of the system including bumper crushing, paint coat removal, and pelletizing has to match processing capacity at these plants rather than equipping large one like Oppama's.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kenneth Rose, Heather Hamje, Liesbeth Jansen, Corrado Fittavolini, Richard Clark, Maria Dolores Cardenas Almena, Dimitris Katsaounis, Christos Samaras, Savas Geivanidis, Zissis Samaras
Modern diesel vehicles utilize two technologies, one fuel based and one hardware based, that have been motivated by recent European legislation: diesel fuel blends containing Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). Oxygenates, like FAME, are known to reduce PM formation in the combustion chamber and reduce the amount of soot that must be filtered from the engine exhaust by the DPF. This effect is also expected to lengthen the time between DPF regenerations and reduce the fuel consumption penalty that is associated with soot loading and regeneration. This study investigated the effect of FAME content, up to 50% v/v (B50), in diesel fuel on the DPF regeneration frequency by repeatedly running a Euro 5 multi-cylinder bench engine over the European regulatory cycle (NEDC) until a specified soot loading limit had been reached. The results verify the expected reduction of engine-out particulate mass (PM) emissions with increasing FAME content and the reduction in fuel economy penalty associated with reducing the frequency of DPF regenerations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Qi Jiao, Rolf Reitz
Abstract 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stephen Johnson, Peter Croswell, Michael Smith
Abstract “Zoning” a catalytic converter involves placing higher concentrations of platinum group metals (PGM) in the inlet portion of the substrate. This is done to optimize the cost-to-performance tradeoff by increasing the reaction rate at lower temperatures while minimizing PGM usage. A potentially useful application of catalyst zoning is to improve performance using a constant PGM mass. A study was performed to assess what the optimum ratio of front to rear palladium zone length is to achieve the highest performance in vehicle emission testing. Varying the zone ratio from 1:1 to 1:9 shows a clear hydrocarbon performance optimum at a 1:5.66 (15%/85%) split. This performance optimum shows as both a minimum in FTP75 non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions as well as a minimum in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide light-off temperature. Overall, an improvement of 18%, or 11 mg/mi of combined NMOG+NOx emissions was obtained without using additional PGM. This study shows how the competing forces of active PGM site concentration and available surface area interact in modern three way catalyst design.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tae-il Yoo, Hanhee Park, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
Abstract Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability. Therefore, accomplishing both fuel economy and good NVH performance has become a significantly challenging task in eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hai Wu, Wen Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Xinlei Wang
Abstract A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design. The simulation studies with internal recycle processes produced promising results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yiqun Huang, John Colvin, Asanga Wijesinghe, Meng Wang, Deyang Hou, Zuhua Fang
Abstract Dual loop EGR systems (having both a high pressure loop EGR and a low pressure loop EGR) have been successfully applied to multiple light-duty diesel engines to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 and Euro 5/6 emissions regulations [1, 2], including the 2009 model year VW Jetta 2.0TDI. Hyundai and Toyota also published their studies with dual loop EGR systems [3, 4]. More interest exists on the low pressure loop EGR effects on medium to heavy duty applications [5]. Since the duty cycles of light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel applications are very different, how to apply the dual loop EGR systems to heavy duty applications and understanding their limitations are less documented and published. As a specific type of heavy duty application, this paper studied the dual loop EGR effects on the retrofit applications of heavy duty diesel for delivery and drayage applications. The reduction of NOx emissions and the impact on fuel economy and controls are discussed. The dual loop EGR systems were fully developed and demonstrated over the full engine speed and load range including transient conditions with a nearly 50% NOx reduction over light to medium loads for drayage truck applications relative to the 2004 emissions level.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Alberto Vassallo, Richard C. Peterson, Joaquin De la Morena
Abstract Future diesel combustion systems may operate with significantly higher levels of boost and EGR than used with present systems. The potential benefits of higher boost and EGR were studied experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine with capability to adjust these parameters independently. The objective was to study the intake and exhaust conditions with a more optimum combustion phasing to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining proper constraints on emissions and combustion noise. The engine was tested at four part-load operating points using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. Two of the operating points correspond to low-speed and low-load conditions relevant for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The other two points focus on medium load conditions representative of the World-wide harmonized Light-duty Test Procedures (WLTP). For the NEDC relevant conditions, improved fuel consumption was not achievable due to combustion noise constraints and the requirement for a very high turbocharger efficiency improvement of more than 20%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle Pickett, Kristine Dalen, Anders Ivarsson
Abstract Quantitative measurements of the total radiative heat transfer from high-pressure diesel spray flames under a range of conditions will enable engine modelers to more accurately understand and predict the effects of advanced combustion strategies on thermal loads and efficiencies. Moreover, the coupling of radiation heat transfer to soot formation processes and its impact on the temperature field and gaseous combustion pollutants is also of great interest. For example, it has been shown that reduced soot formation in diesel engines can result in higher flame temperatures (due to less radiative cooling) leading to greater NOx emissions. Whereas much of the previous work in research engines has evaluated radiation based on two- or three-color detection with limited spatial resolution, this work uses an imaging spectrometer in conjunction with a constant volume pre-burn vessel to quantify soot temperatures, optical thickness, and total radiation with spatial and spectral (360-700 nm) resolution along the flame axis.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure. The applicable window of the injection timing for the n-butanol fuel was much narrower than that of the conventional diesel fuel because of the constraints of misfiring and excessive pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Erica King, David Wallace, E. Robert Becker
Abstract Platinum Group Metal (PGM) use is dominated by the automotive industry. The PGM market is sensitive to shifts in the drivers for emission control and the delicate supply-demand balance. Technology shifts in the emission control industry are particularly impactful because of the automotive market's dominance and the consequent ability to significantly affect metal prices. On the supply side, evolving ore ratios of platinum, palladium and rhodium, production ramp-up times, geopolitical factors, and labor relations contribute to a challenging production environment. This is mitigated by a growing above-ground supply from spent autocatalysts. The availability of spent autocatalyst is critical to alleviate the pressure on primary supply and is especially important in light of the hurdles primary PGM producers face. This paper reviews technology developments, legislative drivers, and consumer trends in the automotive industry and their impact on PGM demand. Evolving emission regulations for criteria pollutants around the world put pressure on catalyst performance and durability while greenhouse gas standards bring new challenges to the operating environment of these catalysts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Anne Marie Lewis, Gregory Keoleian, Jarod Kelly
Abstract As lightweight materials and advanced combustion engines are being used in both conventional and electrified vehicles with diverse fuels, it is necessary to evaluate the individual and combined impact of these technologies to reduce energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This work uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the total energy and GHG emissions for baseline and lightweight internal combustion vehicles (ICVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) when they are operated with baseline and advanced gasoline and ethanol engines. Lightweight vehicle models are evaluated with primary body-in-white (BIW) mass reductions using aluminum and advanced/high strength steel (A/HSS) and secondary mass reductions that include powertrain re-sizing. Advanced engine/fuel strategies are included in the vehicle models with fuel economy maps developed from single cylinder engine models. Results show that while the ethanol engine has the highest efficiency and therefore, highest MPGe, the increased energy required to produce ethanol outweighs this benefit.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Susanna Paz, Rosa Delgado, David Riba
Abstract Currently, regulations on vehicle evaporative emissions only focus on the sum of Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without taking into account either the detailed hydrocarbon composition nor other chemicals besides hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline evaporation. As a consequence, this composition, also known as speciation, is not always noted and is even more unknown when biofuels such as ethanol are introduced in the market. Furthermore, these regulations do not differentiate the source of these emissions in the vehicle. The programme described in this paper is designed to investigate the influence of the addition of ethanol to gasoline on evaporative emissions. It has tried to go one step ahead of these directives obtaining more detailed characterization of these evaporative emissions. The programme has enabled a list of compounds (methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons) to be determined in evaporative emissions among different ethanol-gasoline fuels (E0, E5-S, E10 and E85), applied to Euro 4 and Flexifuel vehicles by three chromatographic methods based on California Air Resources Board (CARB).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Claire Boland, Robb DeKleine, Aditi Moorthy, Gregory Keoleian, Hyung Chul Kim, Ellen Lee, Timothy J. Wallington
Abstract Automakers have the opportunity to utilize bio-based composite materials to lightweight cars while replacing conventional, nonrenewable resource materials. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to understand the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with the implementation of bio-based composite materials in automotive component production. This cradle-to-grave approach quantifies the fiber and resin production as well as material processing, use, and end of life for both a conventional glass-reinforced polypropylene component as well as a cellulose-reinforced polypropylene component. The comparison is calculated for an exterior component on a high performance vehicle. The life cycle primary energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) are evaluated. Reduced GWP associated with the alternative component are due to the use of biomass as process energy and carbon sequestration, in addition to the alternative material component's lightweighting effect.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, He Ma, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Transient operation is frequently used by vehicle engines and the exhaust emissions from the engine are mostly higher than those under the steady station. An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effect of various valve timings and spark timings on combustion characteristics and particle emissions from a modern 3.0-liter Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. The transient condition was simulated by load increase from 5% to 15% at a constant engine speed with different settings of valve timings and spark timings. The transient particle emission measurement was carried out by a Cambustion DMS500 particulate analyser. The combustion characteristics of the engine during transient operation including cycle-by-cycle combustion variations were analyzed. The time-resolved particle number, particulate mass and particle size distribution were compared and analyzed between different engine settings. The existing transient lambda control cannot maintain stoichiometric combustion in the transition.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Teresa Donateo, Fabio Ingrosso, Daniele Bruno, Domenico Laforgia
Abstract This investigation describes the results of an experimental and numerical research project aimed at comparing mileage and CO2 emissions from two different commercial versions of Daimler AG Smart ForTwo car: conventional (gasoline) and electric (ED). The investigation includes numerical simulations with the AVL CRUISE software package and on-board acquisitions. A data acquisition system has been designed for this purpose and assembled on board of the Smart ED. The system is composed by a GPS antenna with USB interface, two current transducers, a NI-DAQ device and a netbook computer with a LabView-VI. This system provided on-board information about driving cycle and current flows, gathered simultaneously by GPS, transducers and NI-DAQ. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during the recharge of the electric car. The two cars have been tested over a wide range of driving conditions related to different routes, traffic conditions and use of on-board accessories (i.e.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole. This new analysis suggests a technology penetration paradigm where individual manufacturers have a much shorter technology penetration cycle than the overall industry, due to “sequencing” by individual manufacturers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nicholas Gysel, George Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho
Abstract The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three different biodiesel feedstocks on emissions compared to a baseline CARB ULSD with two heavy-duty trucks equipped with and without aftertreatment technologies. The biodiesels included a soybean oil methyl ester (SME), a waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCO), and a methyl ester obtained from animal fat (AFME), blended at a 50% level by volume with the CARB diesel. The vehicles were equipped with a 2010 Cummins ISX-15 engine with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a 2002 Cummins ISX-450 engine. Both vehicles were tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. For this study, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. In conjunction with these measurements, unregulated emissions, including ammonia (NH3), carbonyl compounds, and light aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for both vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zhiqiang Zhang, Fuquan Zhao, Liguang Li, Zhijun Wu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu
Abstract Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed. Finally, a closed-loop control strategy for LTC was proposed, which was based on the ion current detecting technology.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yi Liu, Wei Chen, Matthew Henrichsen, Arvind Harinath
Abstract Diesel emission aftertreatment system is usually designed to meet stringent packaging constraints, rendering a difficult situation to achieve perfect flow distribution inside the catalytic unit. The non-uniform flow pattern leads to a mal-distribution of flow velocity, temperature, and gas species in catalyst unit. Some catalysts are exposed to harsh working environment, while the rest catalysts are underutilized. This lowers the efficiency of overall catalyst unit and thus requires an oversized system to meet emission requirements. The flow mal-distribution also accelerates the uneven catalyst degradation, lowering the system durability. Hence, a quantitative description of packaging impact on catalyst performance is critical to assess the system efficiency and durability. In the present work, a mapping method is developed to combine catalyst performance with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. This method is used to analyze the performance and robustness of a SCR aftertreatment system using a series of packaging designs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sandeep Viswanathan, Stephen Sakai, David Rothamer
Abstract The Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis System (DEFA) developed at the University of Wisconsin Madison was modified to perform fundamental filtration experiments using particulate matter (PM) generated by a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine fueled with gasoline. The newly modified system, termed the Exhaust Filtration Analysis (EFA) system, enables small-scale fundamental studies of wall-flow filtration processes. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to characterize running conditions with unique particle size distributions (PSDs). The SMPS and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) were used to simultaneously measure the PSD downstream of the EFA and the real-time particulate emissions from the SIDI engine, to determine the evolution of filtration efficiency during filter loading. Corrections were developed for each running condition to compare measured PSDs between the EEPS and the SMPS in the raw, as well as, filtered exhaust stream. Background losses in the EFA system (without a filter sample) were quantified for each operating condition.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaobo Song, Jeffrey Naber, John Johnson
Abstract Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are in use on heavy duty diesel engines for NOx control. An SCR NOx reduction efficiency of higher than 95% is required to meet the proposed increasingly stringent NOx emission standards and the 2014-2018 fuel consumption regulations. The complex engine exhaust conditions including the nonuniformity of temperature, flow, and maldistribution of NH3 present at the catalyst inlet need to be considered for improved performance of the SCR system. These factors cause the SCR to underperform negatively impacting the NOx reduction efficiency as well as the NH3 slip. In this study, the effects of the nonuniformity of temperature, flow velocity and maldistribution of NH3 on the SCR performance were investigated using 1-dimensional (1D) model simulations for a Cu-zeolite SCR. The model was previously calibrated and validated to reactor and steady-state and transient engine experimental data. The SCR engine experimental measurements collected from a transient cycle were used as the baseline for the simulations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nehemiah Sabinus Alozie, David Peirce, Andreas Lindner, Wolfgang Winklmayr, Lionel Ganippa
Abstract The influence of dilution condition is known to affect the particle number size measurements of engine exhaust samples. However, it is preferable to understand how the dynamics of mixing and cooling controls the dilution scheme, rather than the dilution ratio alone as is commonly used. In this study, the effect of mixing and temperature of dilution gas on exhaust samples in a mixing-tube diluter was explored for two engine load conditions. The observed global trends of the particle number concentrations (PNC) using the mixing-tube diluter (MTD) are consistent with the findings published with different dilution systems. Relative to the two operating conditions, it was observed that, the PNC in the sub 30nm diameter were greater during the lower load operation compared to the higher load at all dilution ratios and dilution gas temperatures. Particles from the lower engine load operation were viewed to have more volatile fractions, compared to those measured under the higher load operation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mengting Yu, Vemuri Balakotaiah, Dan Luss
Abstract The particulate matter (PM) emitted by a diesel engine is collected and then combusted in a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A sudden decrease of the engine load of DPF undergoing regeneration, referred to as a drop to idle (DTI), may create a transient temperature peak much higher than under stationary feed conditions. This transient temperature rise may cause local melting or cracking of the filter. We report here the dependence of the maximum temperature following a DTI on the DPF properties and its dependence on the operating conditions. The simulated impact of changes in DPF properties on peak regeneration temperature following a DTI is qualitatively similar to their impact under stationary operation. (1) The maximum DTI temperature and temperature gradient can be decreased by preheating the DPF before igniting the PM. (2) A decrease of the inlet gas temperature and/or a two-step regeneration can decrease the maximum DTI regeneration temperature. (3) The peak DTI regeneration temperature decreases upon an increase of either the filter wall thickness or the solid volumetric heat capacity. (4) When the DPF heat transfer is under axial heat Peclet number (Eqn. (4)) control, the peak temperature decreases upon an increase of the solid conductivity and/or a decrease of the filter aspect ratio (L/D). (5) The peak DTI temperature is a nonlinear function of the cell density. (6) The dependence of the maximum temperature gradient on the maximum regeneration temperature is not always monotonic.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Mattias Mayer, Steven Pierson
Long-term reliability is one of the major requirements for the operation of automotive exhaust aftertreatment systems based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR). For an efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the SCR catalyst it is desirable that the thermolysis of the injected urea water solution (UWS) is completed within the mixing section of the exhaust system. Urea might undergo a number of secondary reactions leading to the formation of solid deposits on system walls. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms and influence factors is a basic requirement to prevent and predict undesired decomposition products. This paper outlines the mechanisms of UWS transport and deposition on a typical mixing element geometry. The conditions leading to deposit formation were investigated based on optical and temperature measurements in a box with optical access. A good correlation with the deposit location observed at the close-to-series exhaust system was found. A chemical analysis complemented the investigations.
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