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Viewing 181 to 210 of 23257
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0676
Mohamed Shaaban Khalef, Alec Soba, John Korsgren
Abstract An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on an experimental 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light-duty diesel engine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the emissions and fuel consumption trade-off for different concept combinations. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with the EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after engine calibration optimization. During low load engine operation where throttling may be required to achieve the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. The cooling impact on high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0697
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Ludovica Luise, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In this paper, the effect of the oxygen addition on engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated. The experimental study was carried out in a small single-cylinder PFI SI four-stroke engine. The addition of the 5% vol and 10% vol of oxygen was performed in the intake duct. Typical urban driving operating conditions were investigated. The engine emissions were characterized by means of gaseous analyzers and a smokemeter. Particle size distribution function was measured in the size range from 5.6 to 560 nm by means of an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). An improvement in terms of engine power output, without BSFC penalty, and HC emissions with oxygen addition was observed at all the investigated operating conditions. On the other hand, NOx and PM emissions increase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0698
Zheng Xu, Zhou Zhou, Tao Wu, Tong Li, Chuanhui Cheng, Haiting Yin
Abstract Engine downsizing has become a leading trend for fuel consumption reduction while maintaining the high specific power and torque output. Because of this, Turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) technology has been widely applied in passenger vehicles even though a number of technical challenges are presented during the engine development. This paper presents the investigation results of three key issues in the combustion development of a 2.0L TGDI engine at SAIC motor: fuel dilution, smoke emission and low speed stochastic pre-ignition(LSPI). The effect of the injection timing and injection strategy on fuel dilution and smoke emission, and LSPI are the focus of the experimental study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0691
Gurneesh S. Jatana, Brian C. Kaul, Robert Wagner
Abstract Spark-ignition (SI) engines can derive substantial efficiency gains from operation at high dilution levels, but sufficiently high-dilution operation increases the occurrence of misfires and partial burns, which induce higher levels of cyclic-variability in engine operation. This variability has been shown to have both stochastic and deterministic components, with residual fraction impacts on charge composition being the major source of the deterministic component through its non-linear effect on ignition and flame propagation characteristics. This deterministic coupling between cycles offers potential for next-cycle control approaches to allow operation near the edge of stability. This paper aims to understand the effect of spark strategies, specifically the use of a second spark (restrike) after the main spark, on the deterministic coupling between engine cycles by operating at high dilution levels using both excess air (i.e. lean combustion) and EGR.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1187
Nobuaki Mizutani, Kazunobu Ishibashi
Abstract While carbon supported PtCo alloy nanoparticles emerged recently as the new standard catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in polymer membrane electrolyte fuel cells, further improvement of catalyst performance is still of great importance to its application in fuel cell vehicles. Herein, we report two examples of such efforts, related to the improvements of catalyst preparation and carbon support design, respectively. First, by lowering acid treatment voltage, the effectiveness for the removal of unalloyed Co was enhanced significantly, leading to less Co dissolution during cell operation and about 40% higher catalyst mass activity. It has been also found that the use of nonporous carbon support material promoted mass transfer and resulted in substantial drop of overpotential at high current and low humidity. This result may suggest an effective strategy towards the development of fuel cell systems that operate without additional humidification.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1141
Kevin A. Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team’s math-based modeling and simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicle powertrain analysis, with a goal of improving the simulation results to be less than 10% error to experimental data. The team used the modeling and simulation tools for evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture changes (hardware), and controls code development and testing (software). The first step was model validation to experimental data, as the plant models had not yet been validated. This paper includes the results of the team’s work in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EcoCAR 2 Advanced vehicle Technical Competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Abstract A low pressure exhaust gas recirculation system (LP EGR system) enables the expansion of the EGR operating area than that of the widely used high pressure EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions can be improved. In order to meet the EU 5 emissions regulations, an exhaust throttle LP EGR system was used. The EU5 vehicles developed using this system have greater merits than other vehicles. However, because the exhaust throttle LP EGR valve is installed adjacent to the after-treatment system, the material of the LP EGR valve itself must be stainless steel in order to withstand the thermal stress, consequently, the cost is increased. Therefore, in order to achieve cost rationalization for EU6 vehicles, an intake throttle LP EGR system is developed and applied to replace the exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In order to apply the intake throttle LP EGR system, the EGR valve is installed in front of the turbo charger compressor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
Abstract As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
Abstract The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate is a critical parameter of turbocharged diesel engines because it determines the trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. On some heavy duty engines the EGR mass flow is directly measured with a Venturibased sensor and a closed loop control system maintains EGR flow. However, on most light duty diesel engines the EGR mass flow must be estimated. This paper compares two methods for estimating EGR mass flow. The first method, referred to as the Speed Density method, serves as a baseline for comparison and uses sensors for engine speed, intake manifold pressure and temperature, as well as fresh air flow (MAF). The new, second method adds turbo speed to this sensor set, and includes additional engine modelling equations, such as the EGR valve equation and the turbine equation. Special measures are taken to allow the additional equations to execute without issue on production ECMs (Electronics Controls Modules).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1262
Muzammil Khan, Reza Tafreshi, Ahmad J. Mokahal, Mohamed Tarek Mohamed, Mohab Yasser Hanbal, Jayson Elturk
Abstract Two different types of fuel sources, namely conventional diesel and GTL diesel, were used to conduct a study of their effects on engine emissions and performance. Varying loads were applied to obtain concise data when contrasting the aforementioned fuels. Key parameters such as net power output, torque, engine speed and efficiency were measured. The engine and the dynamometer were operated via an automated closed-loop control system. On-road study found that the volumetric fuel consumption of GTL diesel was higher by up to 3.3% when compared to conventional diesel; there were drastic reductions in the levels of regulated emissions when using GTL by 36% for CO, 4.2% for CO2, 47% for THC (total hydrocarbons) and 35% for NOx, compared to conventional diesel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1264
Tarun Mehra, Naveen Kumar, Salman Javed, Ashish Jaiswal, Farhan javed
Abstract Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has higher FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pretreatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalyzed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed and this mixture is Trans esterified with no pre-treatment process using molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were close to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0735
J. Javier Lopez, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length (LOL). Size and mass of soot particles increase through the diffusion flame and finally they are partially oxidized at the flame front. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. However, there is a clear lack of published research related to the characterization of soot oxidation. Thus, the main objective of the current research is to provide more knowledge and insight into the soot oxidation processes. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, in-cylinder optical thickness (KL) was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color pyrometry.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0662
Mark Stuhldreher
Abstract As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been evaluating fuel efficiency data from tests on newer model engines and vehicles. The data is used as inputs to an EPA vehicle simulation model created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model is a physics-based, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies and showing realistic vehicle behavior and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. Under the new light-duty fuel economy standards vehicle powertrains must become significantly more efficient. Cylinder deactivation engine technology is capable of deactivating one or more of its combustion cylinders when not needed to meet power demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1005
Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0547
Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Mahsa Rafigh, Alessandro Gallone, Marcello Rimondi
The predictive capabilities of an innovative multizone combustion model DIPulse, developed by Gamma Technologies, were assessed in this work for a last generation common rail automotive diesel engine. A detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out concerning the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace, as well as NOx and soot emissions for several operating points including both part load and full load points. After a preliminary calibration of the model, the combustion model parameters were then optimized through a Latin Hypercube Design of Experiment (DoE), with the aim of minimizing the RMS error between the predicted and experimental burn rate of several engine operating points, thus achieving a satisfactory agreement between simulation and experimental engine combustion and emissions parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0926
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff, Auli Savimäki
The tightening pollutant emission limits require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOx and particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a part of commercial aftertreatment system (ATS). PM accumulated in DPF is continuously passively or periodically actively regenerated with the assistance of efficient diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) having a high efficiency and durability in hydrocarbon (HC), NO and CO oxidation reactions. A high HC concentration during fuel feeding in active regeneration is demanding for DOC. The deactivation in air, hydrothermal, sulfation and active regeneration conditions were evaluated with platinum (Pt-) and platinum-palladium (PtPd)-DOCs by laboratory simulations using the ageing temperature and time as primary variables. The oxidizing conditions with a high oxygen concentration without HCs were deactivating DOCs clearly more than active regeneration conditions with a low oxygen and high HC concentration at 700-800°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0915
Keld Johansen, Anders Widd, Frank Zuther, Hannes Viecenz
Abstract For trucks today, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalysts are combined in this sequential order in diesel exhaust systems with the drawback of insufficient temperature for the SCR catalyst during cold start and large volume. The problems can potentially be solved by integrating the SCR catalyst into the particulate filter as one multifunctional unit. For off-road and heavy-duty vehicles applications with fully managed passive NO2-soot regenerations, integration of V-based SCR formulations on the DPF (V-SCRonDPF) represents an attractive solution due to high sulfur resistance accompanied by low-temperature NOx conversion and improved fuel economy. Engine bench tests together with an NO2-active DOC show that it is possible to manage the NO2/NOx ratio so both a high NOx conversion and still a low soot balance point temperature is obtained. The soot balance point is almost unaffected by the fast SCR reaction when urea is introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0954
Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly, Michael Zammit, Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel passenger vehicles (LDD). As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible aftertreatment options to find the best balance between performance, robustness and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) typically provided as urea, adequate operating temperatures, and optimum Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is mostly influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts located upstream of the SCR catalyst. Different versions of zeolite based SCR technologies are available on the market today and these vary in their active metal type (iron, copper, vanadium), and/or zeolite type.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0949
Ryuji Kai, Tsuyoshi Asako, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Abstract Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a key emission control component utilized in diesel engine applications for NOx reduction. There are several types of SCR catalyst currently in the market: Cu-Zeolite, Fe-Zeolite and Vanadia. Diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers down select their production SCR catalyst primarily based on vehicle exhaust gas temperature operation, ammonia dosing strategy, fuel quality, packaging envelope and cost. For Vanadia SCR, the operating temperature is normally controlled below 550oC to avoid vanadium sublimation. In emerging markets, the Vanadia SCR is typically installed alone or downstream of the DOC with low exhaust gas temperature exposure. Vanadia SCR is also utilized in some European applications with passive DPF soot regeneration. However, further improvement of Vanadia SCR NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required to meet future emission regulations (i.e.: HDD Phase 2 GHG).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1165
Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Imtiaz Haque, Srikanth Pilla, Zoran S. Filipi, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1265
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Sasikumar Nandagopal
Abstract This work aims at studying the combined effect of oxygen enrichment and emulsification techniques on engine performance behavior of a compression ignition engine fuelled with WCO (waste cooking oil) as fuel. Used sunflower oil collected from a restaurant was chosen as fuel. A single cylinder, water cooled, agricultural oriented, diesel engine was used for the experiments. Initially tests were performed using neat diesel and neat WCO as fuels. Performance, emission, and combustion parameters were obtained. In the second phase of work, WCO was converted into its emulsion by emulsification process using water and ethanol and tested. In the third phase, the engine intake system was modified to admit excess oxygen along with air to test the engine with WCO and WCO emulsion as fuels under oxygen enriched environment. A comparative study was made at 100% and 40% of the maximum load (i.e. 3.7 kW power output) at the rated engine speed of 1500 rpm.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1278
Shubhangi S. Nigade
Abstract This paper’s analysis approach combines the orthogonal array design of experiments with grey relational analysis for optimization CI engine performance using blend of Madhuca Indica biodiesel as a fuel. Grey relational theory is adopted to determine the best input parameters that give lower emission and higher performance of CI engine. Five design parameters namely; compression ratio, injection pressure, injection nozzle geometry (no. of holes on nozzle of injector), additive (AA-93 TM) and fuel fraction were selected, and four levels for each factor. To reduce an experimental effort the experiments have been performed by employing Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array for various engine performance and emission related responses. Injection nozzle geometry was found to most influencing factors. The optimal combination so obtained was further confirmed through experimentation was suitable for optimizing the performance and emission parameters of diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1270
Xiangshan Fan, Xibin Wang, Kangkang Yang, Yaoting Li, Chuanzhou Wu, Ziqing Li
Abstract The ignition delay times of 2, 5-Dihydrofuran (25DHF) were measured behind reflected shock waves at the pressures of 4, 10atm, temperatures of 1110-1650 K, for the lean (φ= 0.5) and stoichiometric (φ= 1.0) mixtures with fixed fuel concentration of 0.5%. The correlations of ignition delay times to initial parameters were fitted in an Arrhenius-like form for the two fuels by multiregression analysis. Simulations based on Liu model, Somers model and Tran model were presented and compared to experiment data. Subsequently, reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis were performed in low and high temperature to obtain insight into the ignition kinetic by using Liu model. Reaction path analysis shows that there are two main ways in the consumption of 25DHF and the main intermediates are C3H5Y, sC3H5 and propylene etc. Some reactions which involved the main intermediate products presented important effect on the whole ignition of 25DHF.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
Abstract The future emission regulation (BS V) in India is expected to create new challenges to meet the particulate matter (PM) limit for diesel cars. The upcoming emission norms will bring down the limit of PM by 80 % when compared to BS IV emission norms. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technologies to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detailed on-road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (≤350ppm sulfur) & BS IV (≤50ppm sulfur) fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0956
Amin Reihani, Benjamin Corson, John W. Hoard, Galen B. Fisher, Evgeny Smirnov, Dirk Roemer, Joseph Theis, Christine Lambert
Abstract Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) are one type of lean NOx reduction technology typically used in smaller diesel passenger cars where urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems may be difficult to package . However, the performance of lean NOx traps (LNT) at temperatures above 400 C needs to be improved. The use of Rapidly Pulsed Reductants (RPR) is a process in which hydrocarbons are injected in rapid pulses ahead of a LNT in order to expand its operating window to higher temperatures and space velocities. This approach has also been called Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) by Toyota. There is a vast parameter space which could be explored to maximize RPR performance and reduce the fuel penalty associated with injecting hydrocarbons. In this study, the mixing uniformity of the injected pulses, the type of reductant, and the concentration of pulsed reductant in the main flow were investigated.
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