A U.K.-based consortium led by Nissan is aiming at greater energy density with advanced energy management from Hyperdrive Innovation.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements for a flexible, lightweight, low pressure, self-extinguishing, integrally heated silicone hose assembly. The hose has a fully fluorinated fluoropolymer inner liner and is primarily intended for use in aircraft potable water systems with an environmental operating temperature range of -65 °F (-54 °C) to +160 °F (+71 °C).
The new TFSI V6 features a 90-degree cylinder splay, balance shaft, turbocharger located in the vee, strategic cooling and hybridization.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of plating’s and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory perform statistical analysis based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning.
Development of Air less Urea Dozing Architecture for Better Optimum Spray Characteristics and to Avoid Urea Crystallization
Abstract The urea NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an effective technique for the reduction of NOx emitted from diesel engines. Urea spray quality has significant effect on NOx conversion efficiency. Air less injection is one of effective, less complex way of injecting urea spray into the Exhaust stream. Further with air less injection it become more challenging in an engine platform of ~3 to 4L where Exhaust mass flow and temperature are relatively less. The droplet diameter and velocity distribution of De-Nox system has taken as input along with Engine raw emission data for a numerical model. The atomization and evaporation of airless urea injection systems were modeled using computational fluid dynamics. The numerical model was validated by the experimental results.
Abstract Air Pollution is a major concern in our country due to which Indian Government has taken a decision to move from BS-IV to BS-VI which is nearly 90% reduction in NOx and 50% in particulate matter along with addition of particulate number regulation for BS-VI in comparison to BS-IV norms in very short span of time. Vehicle manufacturers are also having the challenge to produce low cost and fuel efficient product with BS-VI solution in order to meet tightening emission regulations and increasing needs of lower fuel consumption. Detailed study is done with different approaches to meet BS-VI emission which is elaborately explained in different aspect of engine design and after treatment parameter with its pros and cons. After Treatment selection plays an important role in engine development to meet stringent emission legislations and customer demands. Strategies for BS-VI were described with the advantage and drawbacks for after treatment selection.
Abstract During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the mass is not necessarily correct, because it might well be that not the mass but the number of particles and the characteristics of them (size, composition) have a higher impact on health. During the diesel engine combustion process, soot particles are produced which is very harmful for the atmosphere. Particulate matter is composed of much organic and inorganic composition which was analyzed after the optimization of SCR and EGR engine out.
Combined Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Numerically Using CONVERGE CFD Tool
Abstract The infliction of rigorous emission norms across the world has made the automobile industry to focus and dwell upon researches to reduce the emissions from internal combustion engines, namely diesel engines. Variation in fuel injection timing has better influence on reduction of engine exhaust emissions. This papers deals with the variation of fuel injection timing along with fuel injection pressure numerically on a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and direct injection diesel engine running at full load condition using CONVERGE CFD tool. As the piston and bowl geometry considered in this work is symmetric, only 60 degree sector of the piston cylinder assembly is considered for numerical simulation over complete 360 degree model.
Parametrical and Tribological Investigation of Ring Parameters Using Ring Dynamics Simulation for Blow-By, LOC and Friction Reduction
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
Abstract In recent times control of emissions has been the major issue resulting strict emission norms. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction is a major concern over the years and diesel engine has big hand when compared to gasoline. Several promising techniques have been developed, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is one of the effective ways to trim down the NOx emissions by keeping thermal efficiency identical to diesel engine. However, this concept lags in controlling CO and HC emissions. Methanol fuel blends are chosen as it significantly improves the combustion quality. Oxygen content in methanol drags attention as it can compensate HC and CO emissions caused by HCCI mode of combustion. In this work conventional diesel engine is converted into HCCI engine by mounting diesel vaporizer at inlet manifold to attain homogenous mixture. An experimental investigations have been carried out to analyse performance and emission characteristics using different methanol blends.
Abstract Heat energy produced in the combustion chamber of an IC engine cannot be completely converted into useful work due to heat transfer losses. This leads to a fall in the performance of the engine. To overcome this, pistons have been coated with different materials like molybdenum disulphide, chromium nitrides and other materials. These thermal barrier coatings have improved the performance of the engine by preventing heat loss. In this experiment, the performance and emission characteristics of a tungsten carbide coated piston was investigated. WC was coated on the piston surface by EB-PVD Process. The WC coated piston was tested in an MK20 engine using an eddy current dynamometer. The performance of uncoated and WC coated pistons were compared and analyzed. An increase in combustion chamber temperature was obtained while using WC coated piston, which was observed by increased exhaust gas temperature.
Abstract The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Numerical Study and Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Valve Angle of EGR on Exhaust Gas Flow
The automotive industry in world is facing the problem of reduction of emissions coming out of the engine. Also, the stringent emission norms imposed by the regulating body for transition from BS IV to BS VI urges the auto makers to concentrate on new technologies to reduce the emissions. One of the major emissions coming out of the diesel engine is oxides of nitrogen (NOx) which is detrimental to human health. This NOx emission is formed when the combustion temperature of engine exceeds the threshold limit. There are several methods available to reduce these NOx emissions formed in-cylinder. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one such system, which reduces the NOx emission formed inside the engine by supplying a portion of the exhaust gases. By re-circulating exhaust gases, the air admitted to the engine is diluted. Further, due to the high latent heat of vaporization of water, water vapor tends to absorb more amount of heat that is generated during combustion.
Stringent fuel-efficiency and criteria-pollutant standards call for new combustion strategies. The Advanced Combustion Catalyst and Aftertreatment Technologies consortium led by Southwest Research Institute reinvents existing technologies and experiments with new catalysts to meet standards.
Pinnacle Engines signed a technology partnership agreement with Greaves Cotton in India to deliver a BS VI-compliant engine to the three-wheeler OEM market in India.
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
The use of the chassis dynamometer test cells has been an integral part of the vehicle development and validation process for several decades, involving specialists from different fields, not all of them necessarily experts in automotive engineering. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER TESTING: Addressing the Challenges of New Global Legislation (WLTP and RDE) sets out to gather knowledge from multiple groups of specialists to better understand the testing challenges associated with the vehicle chassis dynamometer test cells, and enable informed design and use of these facilities.
The new vehicle test center in Auburn Hills, MI, will feature a chassis dyno for emissions testing, powertrain development programs and benchmarking.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document covers the requirements for a Snowcompressor with carrier vehicle used to clear snow from airport operational areas by compressing the volume of collected snow into smaller volumes for loading into a hauling/dump truck or for depositing reduced-volume windrows for snow banking. The term carrier vehicle represents the various self-propelled prime movers that provide the power necessary to move snow and ice control equipment during winter operations. For two-stage rotary plows that primarily are used to cast heavy concentrations of snow away from airport operational areas such as runways and taxiways, see ARP5539.
Procedure for the Calculation of Sampling Line Penetration Functions and Line Loss Correction Factors
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method for assessing size dependent particle losses in a sampling and measurement system of specified geometry utilizing on the non-volatile PM (nvPM) mass and number concentrations measured at the end of the sampling system. The penetration functions of the sampling and measurement system may be determined either by measurement or by analytic computational methods. Loss mechanisms including thermophoretic (which has a very weak size dependence) and size dependent losses are considered in this method along with the uncertainties due to both measurement error and the assumptions of the method. The results of this system loss assessment allow development of estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentrations to account for the system losses facilitating estimation of the nvPM mass and number at the engine exhaust nozzle exit plane.
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
In a production vehicle that Tula tested, conventional operation yielded what was termed an “objectionable” audible boom at 47 Hz with production calibration. However, under DSF operation all firing patterns resulting in frequencies between 44 Hz and 48 Hz were avoided.
This SAE Aerospace Resource Document (ARD) document covers the requirements for a self-propelled GRV, intended for use at airports to collect spent aircraft de-icing fluid (ADF) from the surface of de-icing areas. This unit will recover de-icing fluid from the surface, which will be stored in a containment unit on the vehicle. The GRV must be capable of night and day operations in all weather conditions, as required.
Metamaterial Technologies looks to enter the solar power market by providing advanced photovoltaic technology to the aerospace and defense industry.
This SAE Standard applies to 12 V, flooded and absorptive glass mat lead acid automotive storage batteries of 200 minutes or less reserve capacity and cold crank capacity greater than 200 amperes. This life test is considered to be comprehensive in terms of battery manufacturing technology; applicable to lead-acid batteries containing wrought or cast positive grid manufacturing technology and providing a reasonable correlation for hot climate applications. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
Abstract Large-scale emergency or off-grid power generation is typically achieved through diesel or natural gas generators. To meet governmental emission requirements, emission control systems (ECS) are required. In operation, effective control over the generator’s acoustic emission is also necessary, and can be accomplished within the ECS system. Plug flow mufflers are commonly used, as they provide a sufficient level of noise attenuation in a compact structure. The key design parameter is the transmission loss of the muffler, as this dictates the level of attenuation at a given frequency. This work implements an analytically decoupled solution, using multiple perforate impedance models, through the transfer matrix method (TMM) to predict the transmission loss based on the muffler geometry. An equivalent finite element model is implemented for numerical simulation. The analytical results and numerical results are then evaluated against experimental data from literature.
Abstract The ability to accurately predict exhaust system acoustics, including transmission loss (TL) and tailpipe noise, based on CAD geometry has long been a requirement of most OEM’s and Tier 1 exhaust suppliers. Correlation to measurement data has been problematic under various operating conditions, including flow. This study was undertaken to develop robust modelling technique, ensuring sensible correlation between the 1-D models and test data. Ford use Ricardo WAVE as one of their 1-D NVH tools, which was chosen for the purpose of this benchmark study. The most commonly used metrics for evaluating the acoustical performance of mufflers are insertion loss (IL), TL, and noise reduction (NR). TL is often the first step of analysis, since it represents the inherent capability of the muffler to attenuate sound if both the source and termination are assumed to be anechoic. It can also be reliably measured and numerically simulated without having to connect to an engine.
Tackling NVH one dB per day New tools and technologies are helping engineers reduce vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness. Artificial intelligence becomes a reality Automakers could be among the leaders in deploying AI in free-standing, high-reliability environments. But developers must determine how to mitigate undesirable side-effects. Lidar: autonomy's mission-critical component Automated-driving capability likely won't happen without Lidar. But what technology-and at what price? Formula One goes longer, lower, wider for 2017 New rules make the cars faster and more aggressive-looking, with a wider track, wider tires and bigger wings. Editorial: Core Ford, New Ford...OneFord? SAE Standards News Seeking a common language for vehicle automation Supplier Eye Are you innovating for NVH?
The purpose of this information report is to present the factors that affect the design and development of aircraft jet blast windshield rain removal systems. Rain removal system design will generally be unique to specific aircraft. Design of these systems typically requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with a laboratory development program and a flight test validation program. Published windshield rain removal performance test data is available only for limited windshield configurations.