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2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0009
Bingjie Zhang, Siti Khalijah Mazlan, Shuheng Jiang, Alberto Boretti
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
2015-01-30
Article
A new electrode design for lithium-ion batteries has been shown by Purdue researchers to potentially reduce the charging time from hours to minutes by replacing the conventional graphite electrode with a network of tin-oxide nanoparticles.
2015-01-30
Article
New approach to HVAC case design incorporates an optimized center section and side sections that can be shaped and sized for specific performance and packaging. Blower fan remains in separate case and a dual-fan design is available for more precise airflow management between outside air and recirculating air.
2015-01-28
Article
Let's face it: gasoline at $1.80 a gallon has been great for car owners. But despite cheap gas, vehicle fuel efficiency is still a primary concern for new-car shoppers. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the latest J.D.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
ARP6320
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) consists of methodologies for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. The methods describe means of sampling and measuring particle mass concentration, particle number concentration and reporting of emissions indices through the use of an appropriate sampling system and instrumentation that goes beyond the measurements of visible obscuration as described in ARP 1179 for Smoke Number (SN).
2015-01-23
Standard
J551/1_201501
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of radio frequency radiated emissions and immunity. Each part details the requirements for a specific type of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the applicable frequency range of the test method. The methods are applicable to a vehicle, boat, machine or device powered by an internal combustion engine or battery powered electric motor. Operation of all engines or motors (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle, boat, machine or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the vehicle, boat, machine or device is in operation is included. Operator controlled equipment is included or excluded as specified in the individual document parts. As a special case, CISPR 12 applies to battery powered floor finishing equipment, but robot carpet sweepers are excluded. By reference, IEC CISPR 12 and CISPR 25 are adopted as the standards for the measurement of vehicle emissions.
2015-01-15
Standard
J2610_201501
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding “pass-thru programming” of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
With growing need for air quality improvement the emission norms are becoming stringent than ever, triggering a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission standard and engine performance has to be ensured with improved fuel efficiency, and control cost. To comply with future emission standards, intensive efforts are required to optimize the overall engine out emissions with reduce dependency on exhaust after treatment systems. This paper highlights about strategies employed in developing BS V emissions compliant engine for SUV application. The authors have assumed the limits of EURO 5 emission norms as equivalent to BS5 for this purpose. An existing BS IV compliant engine is selected as a base engine and engine out emission targets were defined considering certain conversion efficiency for the after treatment system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0040
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Abstract Diesel engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to gasoline engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by April 2014 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Abstract Use of diluting agents in neat vegetable oil to reduce its density and viscosity, is arguably the best alternative route for vegetable oil usage in diesel engines. It is suitable where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production is not feasible. In this study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was diluted with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was termed as D100. An exhaustive field trial on a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine indicated that full load brake thermal efficiency of D100 was 26.4% followed by CI10, CI20 and CI30 test fuels. Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke were impressively reduced by a margin of 17-63% for the isopropyl alcohol containing test fuels as compared to the diesel baseline. However, oxides of nitrogen emissions were marginally higher for the isopropyl alcohol blends.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
Abstract The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favorable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a “Hydrogen Economy” are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Abstract Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in pollutant emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however - the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for three different operating points on a research single cylinder engine. Special focus lies on the partially/unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions which are typically high when CNG is well premixed and burning in a globally lean combustion environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Abstract Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel used for diesel engines, owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effects of DEE blends with diesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. The engine tests are carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the full load. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of DEE (by volume) are blended with diesel. Beyond 25% DEE blend, the viscosity and density of the blended fuel reduces as compared to the acceptable limits, that can further reduces the lubricity and create potential wear problems in sensitive fuel injection pump and fuel injector design. The laboratory fuel tests showed that DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel. The blended fuel retains the desirable physical properties of diesel fuel but includes the cleaner burning capability of DEE.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Abstract Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. Hence considerable research has been directed to improve low temperature activity of catalysts used in diesel application. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature (LOT). To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Abstract Selection of EGR system is very complex for a particular engine application. The performance of the EGR system depends highly on the Cooler Heat Transfer Efficiency. Cooler effectiveness drops over a period of operation due to soot deposition, HC condensation, and fuel quality. This phenomenon is called as Cooler Fouling. Fouling cannot be avoided completely but the level of performance drop over time has to be studied and minimized. The minimum pressure drop and the highest efficiency in fouled condition is the target for selection of a cooler. In this study, various parameter combinations like tube shape and profile, tube length, number of tubes, tube diameter, and pitch of corrugations, which influence the cooler performance were tested. A better understanding of each of its effect on cooler effectiveness and fouling behavior was obtained. The tube shape was changed from rectangular to circular, also from smooth surface to corrugate.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0089
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Michele Miccio, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0100
Prasanna G Bhat, Neelkanth V Marathe, Bhaskar Melage, Hirak Gayan, Dadarao Narwade, Narendra Pawar, Dharmdev Vyas, Samadhan Awate, Abhishek Meshram, Pramod Ghadage, PJM Khan
Abstract The Objective of the work is to upgrade existing series of multi cylinder DI turbocharged intercooled diesel engines to meet revised stringent Stage-II emission norms for diesel genset application. In this engine tuning activity, focus is given on optimization of engine without any major modification on engine design features. In recent years, the demand use and penetration of diesel operated generating sets for the power generation application has sharply rise in India. These sharp rises in the DG engines have made the high impact on pollutants emitted by these sets. Hence, concerned authorities have first enforced the limits on the pollutants emitted by these sets in the year 2004. Further these emission limits were tightened recently and reduced the emissions from diesel engines. Concerned authorities implemented the revised emission norms with effective from July 2014. The reduction in NOx+HC emission is around 62% for the engines having rated power above 75 kW.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
Abstract The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. Based on experimental data, a range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0105
Prakash Kamat, Yogesh Aghav, Nitin Gokhale, M N Kumar
Abstract An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower the trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect, a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that they affect local in-cylinder emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Sachin gogia, Senthur Pandian, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass filtration and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
Abstract India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion. Swirl and tumble are forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0093
S. Jayagopal
Abstract The automobile industries have seen a great evolution since 19th century. Reducing the NOx emissions from Diesel engines remains as a challenging issue as the emission standards for Diesel engines & its powered vehicles have become more stringent than ever before. As one has to develop for improved life-style, something has to be sacrificed and one among them is global warming. So, many nations have come up with regulations to control exhaust emissions of the vehicles. In the case of Medium & Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, the emissions to be met on Engine Dynamometer on both ESC & ETC cycles for BS-IV or Euro-IV as on date. In which, the optimizing the emission parameters are logically used to meet Random NOx requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
Abstract BS III norms (BS IV in 13+26 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future sooner or later. The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent emission norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be incorrect to say there have been little work been done specifically on after-treatment systems which has been built for Indian market and driving conditions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow emissions sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of Particulate Matter (PM). Mass flow controllers operating at 5Hz are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a bag emissions analyzer.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat, Sukrut Thipse, Neelkanth V Marathe, Narendra Pawar, Hirak Jyoti Gayen, Dadarao Narwade, Bhaskar Melage, S V A Achari
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers, agricultural machines and in small house-hold applications in India as well as other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies in such engines are very expensive and also becoming complex. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. In the present work, an existing two cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine is upgraded with Turbocharged & Intercooled (TCIC) version to meet the revised stringent stage-II emission limits. The two cylinder diesel engine has been upgraded with optimum selection of turbocharger, intercooler and EGR valve to control the EGR mass flow rate.
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