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Viewing 181 to 210 of 23234
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0660
Thomas Reinhart, Marc Megel
Abstract This paper describes the potential for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0947
Junhui Li, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess, Shadab Mulla
Typical Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalyst composition includes precious metal components (Pt, Pd, and/or Rh), responsible for NO oxidation during lean operation and NOx reduction during rich operation. It was found that redox history of commercial LNT catalyst plays a significant role on deciding its NOx conversion under Lean/Rich cyclic condition. Further test had shown that fully formulated LNT catalyst being pre-reduced had shown much better NO reduction activity during the temperature-programmed reduction (TPRx) of NO than the same LNT catalyst being oxidized. The following study with Rh-only and Pt-only catalyst had demonstrated that Rh plays a key role on the large variation of the NO reduction function due to oxidation state change over LNT catalyst.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0953
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Brad Walker
In order to meet LEV III, EURO 6C and Beijing 6 emission levels, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can potentially implement unique aftertreatment systems solutions which meet the varying legislated requirements. The availability of various washcoat substrates and PGM loading and ratio options, make selection of an optimum catalyst system challenging, time consuming and costly. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodologies have been used in industry since the 1990s. One of the earliest applications was at Motorola where the methodology was applied to the design and production of a paging device which Consumer Reports called “virtually defect-proof”.[1] Since then, the methodology has evolved to not only encapsulate complicated “Variation Optimization” but also “Design Optimization” where multiple factors are in play. In this study, attempts are made to adapt the DFSS concept and methodology to identify and optimize a catalyst for diesel applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0980
Jerzy Merkisz, Jacek Pielecha, Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1176
Karim Hamza, Ken Laberteaux
Abstract This work presents a modeling approach for estimation of the equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for real driving patterns and charging behaviors. In general, modeling of the equivalent GHG for a trip made by a PHEV not only depends on the trip trace in question, but also on the electric range of the vehicle and energy consumption in previous trips since the last charging event. This can significantly increase the necessary computational burden of estimating the GHG emissions using numerical simulation tools, which are already computationally-expensive. The proposed approach allows a trip numerical simulation starting with a fully charged battery to be re-used for GHG estimation of a trip that starts with any initial state of charge by re-allocating the appropriate amount electric energy to an equivalent gas consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0606
Chaitanya Wadkar, Bassem H. Ramadan
Abstract A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0565
SoDuk Lee, Charles Schenk, Joseph McDonald
Abstract As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 [1]”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Abstract A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0906
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. A fully integrated GT-Power engine model with physics based sub-models was developed to capture any positive or negative synergies between the technologies. The two zone multi-cylinder engine model included typical thermodynamic subroutines, with predictive combustion, flame quench and knock models, along with map-based turbocharger models to capture key combustion and efficiency behaviors. The engine model was calibrated to data from a boosted GDI engine and exercised through one series of current and production viable technology configurations for 2025 regulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1141
Kevin A. Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0656
Jung Hyun Kim, Taewoo Kim, SungJin Park, JungJae Han, Choongsoo Jung, Young rock Chung, Sangsoo Pae
Abstract In cold start driving cycles, high viscosity of the lubrication oil (engine oil) increases the mechanical friction losses compared with warmed up condition. Thus, an engine oil warm up system can provide the opportunity to reduce the mechanical friction losses during cold start. In this study, an engine oil heater using EGR is used for the fast warm up of the engine oil. This paper presents the effect of the engine oil heater on the fuel economy and emissions over a driving cycle (NEDC). A numerical model is developed to simulate the thermal response of the powertrain using multi-domain 1-D commercial powertrain simulation software (GT-Suite) and it is calibrated using test data from a full size sedan equipped with a 2.0L diesel engine. The model consists of an engine model, coolant circuit model, oil circuit model, engine cooling model, friction model, and ECU model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0687
Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Kevin Hallstrom, Ansgar Wille
Nowadays the Chinese legislative development and the implementation of advanced technologies to curb HDD emissions have been a subject of worldwide attention. Currently China is warping its efforts to deploy and enforce the launch of nationwide Stage IV and is also preparing for the setup and implementation of future regulation standards. Focus discussion here is on the aftertreatment pathways to meet China current and future emissions standards, based on market uniqueness. This paper seeks to provide retrospectives of the adoption of V-SCR on China stage IV HDD vehicles, through presenting findings from two separate postmortem analyses of field returned catalyst parts and also through comparative study with local catalyst products. The paper also discusses the challenges and possible solutions meeting the WHTC requirement for Stage IV and V city vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0712
Terrence Alger, Mark Walls, Christopher Chadwell, Shinhyuk Joo, Bradley Denton, Kelsi Kleinow, Dennis Robertson
Abstract Experiments were performed on a small displacement (< 2 L), high compression ratio, 4 cylinder, port injected gasoline engine equipped with Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) technology using fuels with varying anti-knock properties. Gasolines with anti-knock indices of 84, 89 and 93 anti-knock index (AKI) were tested. The engine was operated at a constant nominal EGR rate of ∼25% while varying the reformation ratio in the dedicated cylinder from a ϕD-EGR = 1.0 - 1.4. Testing was conducted at selected engine speeds and constant torque while operating at knock limited spark advance on the three fuels. The change in combustion phasing as a function of the level of overfuelling in the dedicated cylinder was documented for all three fuels to determine the tradeoff between the reformation ratio required to achieve a certain knock resistance and the fuel octane rating.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0714
Anders N. Johansson, Petter Dahlander
Abstract Boosting and stratified operation can be used to increase the fuel efficiency of modern gasoline direct-injected (GDI) engines. In modern downsized GDI engines, boosting is standard to achieve a high power output. However, boosted GDI-engines have mostly been operated in homogenous mode and little is known about the effects of operating a boosted GDI-engine in stratified mode. This study employed optical and metal engines to examine how boosting influences combustion and particulate emission formation in a spray-guided GDI (SGDI), single cylinder research engine. The setup of the optical and metal engines was identical except the optical engine allowed optical access through the piston and cylinder liner. The engines were operated in steady state mode at five different engine operating points representing various loads and speeds. The engines were boosted with compressed air and operated at three levels of boost, as well as atmospheric pressure for comparison.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0713
Terrence Alger, Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich
Abstract A series of tests were performed on a gasoline powered engine with a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) system. The results showed that changes in engine performance, including improvements in burn rates and stability and changes in emissions levels could not be adequately accounted for solely due to the presence of reformate in the EGR stream. In an effort to adequately characterize the engine's behavior, a new parameter was developed, the Total Inert Dilution Ratio (TIDR), which accounts for the changes in the EGR quality as inert gases are replaced by reactive species such as CO and H2.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0715
James P. Szybist, Derek Splitter
Abstract Fuel-specific differences in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution tolerance are studied in a modern, direct-injection single-cylinder research engine. A total of 6 model fuel blends are examined at a constant research octane number (RON) of 95 using n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol. Laminar flame speeds for these mixtures, which are calculated using two different methods (an energy fraction mixing rule and a detailed kinetic simulation), span a range of about 6 cm/s. A nominal load of 350 kPa IMEPg at 2000 rpm is maintained with constant fueling and varying CA50 from 8-20 CAD aTDCf. EGR is increased until a COV of IMEP of 5% is reached. The results illustrate that flame speed affects EGR dilution tolerance; fuels with increased flame speeds have increased EGR tolerance. Specifically, flame speed correlates most closely to the initial flame kernel growth, measured as the time of ignition to 5% mass fraction burned.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0723
Ted Lind, Zheming Li, Carlos Micó, Nils-Erik Olofsson, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Mattias Richter, Öivind Andersson
Abstract The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0729
Takeshi Okamoto, Noboru Uchida
Abstract To overcome the trade-offs of thermal efficiency with energy loss and exhaust emissions typical of conventional diesel engines, a new diffusion-combustion-based concept with multiple fuel injectors has been developed. This engine employs neither low temperature combustion nor homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. One injector was mounted vertically at the cylinder center like in a conventional direct injection diesel engine, and two additional injectors were slant-mounted at the piston cavity circumference. The sprays from the side injectors were directed along the swirl direction to prevent both spray interference and spray impingement on the cavity wall, while improving air utilization near the center of the cavity.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0781
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract In this work, empirical investigations of the diesel-ethanol Premixed Pilot-Assisted Combustion (PPAC) are carried out on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) single-cylinder diesel engine. The tests focus on determining the minimum ethanol fraction for ultra-low NOx & soot emissions, effect of single-pilot vs. twin-pilot strategies on emissions and ignition controllability, reducing the EGR requirements, enabling clean combustion across the load range and achieving high efficiency full-load operation. The results show that both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of higher unburned hydrocarbons. Compared to a single-pilot injection, a twin-pilot strategy reduces the soot emissions significantly and also lowers the NOx emissions, thereby reducing the requirements for EGR. The near-TDC pilot provides excellent control over the combustion phasing, further reducing the need of a higher EGR quantity for phasing control.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0791
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Ramanarayanan Balachandran, Nicos Ladommatos
Abstract Development of new fuels and engine combustion strategies for future ultra-low emission engines requires a greater level of insight into the process of emissions formation than is afforded by the approach of engine exhaust measurement. The paper describes the development of an in-cylinder gas sampling system consisting of a fast-acting, percussion-based, poppet-type sampling valve, and a heated dilution tunnel; and the deployment of the system in a single cylinder engine. A control system was also developed for the sampling valve to allow gas samples to be extracted from the engine cylinder during combustion, at any desired crank angle in the engine cycle, while the valve motion was continuously monitored using a proximity sensor. The gas sampling system was utilised on a direct injection diesel engine co-combusting a range of hydrogen-diesel fuel and methane-diesel fuel mixtures.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0827
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0824
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process at 20°C are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy and combustion phasing of the current and previous cycles. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle, while the HC emissions stay relatively constant. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the amount of residual fuel. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the cranking process progresses. Combustion phasing retard significantly reduces the PM emission. The HC emissions, however, are relatively not sensitive to combustion phasing in the range of interest.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0934
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, James E. Parks, Josh A. Pihl, Todd J. Toops
Abstract Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
Abstract The future emission regulation (BS V) in India is expected to create new challenges to meet the particulate matter (PM) limit for diesel cars. The upcoming emission norms will bring down the limit of PM by 80 % when compared to BS IV emission norms. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technologies to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detailed on-road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (≤350ppm sulfur) & BS IV (≤50ppm sulfur) fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0925
Angus Craig, Jason Warkins, Krishna Aravelli, David Moser, Lucy Yang, Douglas Ball, Tinghong Tao, Deven Ross
Abstract A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated GPFs (gasoline particulate filters). The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC (three way catalyst) in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L of coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were engine-aged on a dynamometer to simulate 150K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at ∼$40 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system backpressure is also presented with various GPF designs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0734
Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Emre Cenker, Gilles Bruneaux, Katsufumi Kondo, Tets Aizawa, Fredrik Westlye, Kristine Dalen, Anders Ivarsson, Tiemin Xuan, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Yuanjiang Pei, Sibendu Som, Wang Hu, Rolf D. Reitz, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Daniele Farrace, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Yuri M. Wright, Muhammad Aqib Chishty, Michele Bolla, Evatt Hawkes
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0914
Yaritza M. López - De Jesús, Peter I. Chigada, Timothy C. Watling, Kaneshalingam Arulraj, Anna Thorén, Neil Greenham, Penelope Markatou
Abstract Future heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines are designed to have higher engine out NOx, for improved fuel economy, while reduction of the emission control technology footprint is also desired. Consequently, higher NOx reduction across compact emission control systems is required. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coating combined with a wall flow particulate filter (SCRF®1) is a technology that enables abatement of NOx emissions in addition to oxidation of soot from diesel engine exhausts. Vanadia based-SCR is well known for NOx reduction and is active for hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) oxidation. This dual functionality (oxidation and reduction reactions) of the V.SCR catalysts plus the filtration achieved by the filter substrate can help certain diesel engine applications achieve the legislative limits with a reduced packaging volume.
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