One field-returned DPF loaded with high amount of ash is examined using experimental and modeling approaches. The ash-related design factors are collected by coupling the inspection results from terahertz spectroscopy with a calibrated DPF model. The obtained ash packaging density, ash layer permeability and ash distribution profile are then used in the simulation to assess the ash impact on DPF backpressure and regeneration behaviors. The following features have been observed during the simulation: 1. The ash packaging density, ash layer permeability and ash distribution profile should be collected at the same time to ensure the accurate prediction of ash impact on DPF backpressure. Missing one ash property could mislead the measurement of other two parameters and thus affects the DPF backpressure estimation. 2. The ash buidup would gradually increase the frequency for the backpressure-based active soot regeneration.
Hydraulics still in control of off-highway needs Engineers continue to master electronic controllers and software to help systems manage engine speeds and boost efficiency, to the ultimate benefit of both OEMs and end-users. Off-highway calibration challenges—big and complex As the final set of Tier 4 regulations kick in for engines greater than 750 hp (560 kW), calibration efforts must contend with complex engine and aftertreatment systems. Engine manufacturers and service providers deal with this complexity, but does it need to be so? DEF delivery modelling for SCR systems Researchers characterize a 0-D model of a urea delivery module, oriented to model-based control and to the simulation of the system response to fault injections finalized to diagnosis validation.
Abstract This paper presents a concept for new piston expander utilizing nozzle as part of a secondary steam cycle to recover exhaust energy. A commercial 1D simulation tool, AVL BOOST, was used to model the system, and comparison study was carried out between the conventional and nozzle piston expanders. It was found the nozzle piston expander could increase output power from a minimum of 0.73kW up to a maximum of 4.75kW. The simulation study has shown that the concept of using nozzle to admit steam into the piston expander has potential to improve engine system level efficiency.
Characterization of Particulate from Biodiesel-Blended Engine Equipped with Exhaust Nonthermal Plasma Charger Using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis
Abstract Encouraging the use of alternative fuels available in Thailand is mainly due to fuel crisis within the past few decades. The government has recently drafted a renewable energy long-term plan to increase biofuel production. This has emboldened biodiesel to be used as fuel for agriculture and transportation, in particular. Diesel engines are promising for reducing carbon dioxide emissions related fuel energy consumption. Ordinarily, diesel combustion generates particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in trade-off relationship. However, advanced techniques for engine technology and aftertreatment devices have been abundantly developed to mitigate these hindrances. To break the trade-off emissions, an example technique is to fuel engines with biodiesel incorporated with exhaust gas recirculation. Among available options, nonthermal plasma (NTP) is one of the techniques that charges exhaust gas with high power electricity to reduce some emissions.
Sales of diesel-powered light vehicles are up 70% and the latest engines are cleaner than ever. But the diesel industry still faces significant headwinds to greater penetration.
A team of researchers from the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a mutant yeast strain that could lead to a more efficient and economical biofuel production process, and from non-food sources.
Andy Pontius, Chief Technologist for Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies in North America, talks about even lighter-weight exhaust systems and meeting future powertrain-systems expectations.
Novel aluminum-rich steel alloy could find structural use in road vehicles and even aircraft.
Abstract With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
Abstract There are some problems “windows fog up a lot” for ventilation system. We have Test Development Procedure to prevent the fog problems. But, Many fog problems occurred in the cars that we made. So in this paper, new ventilation system is needed and developed. The Smart Ventilation System automatically controls indoor air quality even though the blower motor is off. There are two sensors that is used for AutoDefogSensor system and CO2 CONTROL system.. The sensor is on when blower motor and heater control is off. We use these signals and make new ventilation logics. We evaluate this system in chamber & '13 winter test in USA.
Reducing Automobile CO2 Emissions with an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Utilising Thermoelectric Generators and Heat Pipes
Abstract Exhaust heat recovery systems are used to make use of otherwise wasted heat from a car engine. The purpose of exhaust heat recovery systems is to reduce the fuel consumption of the car and consequently reduce CO2 emissions. The unique system design described herein utilises thermoelectric generators (TEGs) and heat pipes with its key advantage being it is a passive solid state design. The use of these components creates a few design constraints. For example, both the TEGs and heat pipes have operating temperature limitations. In this paper, a naphthalene heat pipe preheat exchanger is proposed to deal with this problem. Exhaust conditions measured from a representative spark ignition engine were used in a numerical simulation to predict the performance of the exhaust heat recovery system. If 8 modules are used and the engine is producing 8kW of mechanical power, the system is predicted to produce 53.75W of electrical power.
Abstract In this study, SCR system is employed to selectively reduce NOX that is a major cause of environmental pollution from diesel engines. In particular, this paper focuses on urea injection strategies dependent on NO/ NOX ratio. An injection control algorithm is developed based on the chemical ratio between the amount of engine out NOX data obtained from Engine Management System (EMS) and the amount of NH3. Therefore, in order to decide the amount of injection quantity, the NO/NOX ratio from the engine out NOX should be considered in order to minimize NH3 slip while maximizing NOX reduction. Experiments are conducted with a 2.2-liter diesel engine for passenger vehicles with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). Real time control, using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) duty ratio for dosing module and supply module, is performed by real time computer with its injection control algorithm developed in the Matlab Simulink environment.
Abstract Reliable motor vehicle emission predictions are needed to ensure sound policy decisions. This study reports on a comparison between measured in-tunnel fleet emissions and predictions made with two new Australian vehicle emission software programs (COPERT Australia and PΔP) for one air pollutant: nitrogen oxides (NOx). Measurements were taken from a 6.8 km tolled motorway tunnel that links several major roads in Brisbane, Australia. The validation study suggests that modelled vehicle emissions of NOx are similar to those measured in the tunnel with a prediction error less than ±25% for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. A possible reason for the difference is a suspected younger and cleaner fleet in the tunnel as compared with the Queensland average fleet. Further analysis of license plate information is anticipated to verify this.
Real Driving Emissions - A Game Changer for the Industry?: Mastering On-Road Emissions Targets with Integrated Vehicle Testing Solution AVL M.O.V.E
Abstract Today heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and non-road machinery are certified in emission labs via common legislative test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles highly exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for passenger cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 with EU VI to tackle this problem. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger cars with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on. RDE is imposing new challenges and complexity on today's approach for the development of vehicles and engines.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air - A Case Study at the Vicinity of Fuel Filling Stations in New Delhi, India
Abstract Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air are potentially toxic among the air pollutants. They are present in the urban atmosphere due to both exhaust emissions from vehicles and evaporative emissions at fuel filling stations. The present study aims to provide an indication of ambient levels of benzene, a carcinogenic VOC in the immediate vicinity of petrol filling stations in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR). The monitoring of benzene is conducted across the vicinity of petrol stations to ascertain the effect of outside pollutant concentration on forecourt area. Continuous monitoring of benzene was achieved by an air quality monitoring facility stationed across the selected locations at four selected fuel filling stations. It was observed that the average concentrations of benzene measured during the study ranged between 2.28 ppb - 9.43 ppb.
Tightening vehicle efficiency and emissions regulations and increasing demand for onboard electrical power means that higher voltages, in the form of supplemental 48-volt subsystems, may soon be nearing production.
Virtual casting improves powertrain design As designers continue to look for ways to cut weight and increase performance, casting simulations are helping optimize designs through faster, more accurate predictions of the casting process used to create key components. Horse racing America's pony cars are a favorite of racers and fans alike, so racing them against each other is natural. SAE 2015 World Congress Preview Tech trends and exhibitor products are highlighted. Tech trends and exhibitor products are highlighted in this special section, which features an exclusive interview with Honda R&D America's Jim Keller. Replicating the racing experience Professional driving simulators can be successfully exploited to shorten the traditional design-prototype testing-production process relative to a new racecar.
General Motors' Fuel Cell Chief Engineer revealed some interesting technical developments during the recent 2015 SAE Hybrid and EV Technology Symposium.
Recommended Practice for Measurement of Static and Dynamic Characteristic Properties of Aircraft Tires
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish guidelines for the measurement of static and dynamic characteristic properties of aircraft tires. It is intended as a general guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to frequent changes to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
Procedure for the Continuous Sampling and Measurement of Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Turbine Engines
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the continuous sampling and analysis of gaseous emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. The measured gas species include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), total hydrocarbons (CHα where"α" is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel) and water vapor (H₂O). This ARP excludes engine operating procedures and test modes, and is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode. It is recognized that there will probably be major advances in the gas analysis measurement technology. It is not the intent of this ARP to exclude other analysis techniques, but to form the basis of the minimum amount of conventional instruments (those in common industry usage over the last fifteen years) required for the analysis of aircraft engine exhaust.
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact. While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines, the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor.
A new electrode design for lithium-ion batteries has been shown by Purdue researchers to potentially reduce the charging time from hours to minutes by replacing the conventional graphite electrode with a network of tin-oxide nanoparticles.
New approach to HVAC case design incorporates an optimized center section and side sections that can be shaped and sized for specific performance and packaging. Blower fan remains in separate case and a dual-fan design is available for more precise airflow management between outside air and recirculating air.
Let's face it: gasoline at $1.80 a gallon has been great for car owners. But despite cheap gas, vehicle fuel efficiency is still a primary concern for new-car shoppers. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the latest J.D.
Procedure for the Continuous Sampling and Measurement of Non-Volatile Particulate Matter Emissions from Aircraft Turbine Engines
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) consists of methodologies for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. The methods describe means of sampling and measuring particle mass concentration, particle number concentration and reporting of emissions indices through the use of an appropriate sampling system and instrumentation that goes beyond the measurements of visible obscuration as described in ARP 1179 for Smoke Number (SN).
Performance Levels and Methods of Measurement of Electromagnetic Compatibility of Vehicles, Boats (up to 15 m), and Machines (16.6 Hz to 18 GHz)
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of radio frequency radiated emissions and immunity. Each part details the requirements for a specific type of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the applicable frequency range of the test method. The methods are applicable to a vehicle, boat, machine or device powered by an internal combustion engine or battery powered electric motor. Operation of all engines or motors (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle, boat, machine or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the vehicle, boat, machine or device is in operation is included. Operator controlled equipment is included or excluded as specified in the individual document parts. As a special case, CISPR 12 applies to battery powered floor finishing equipment, but robot carpet sweepers are excluded. By reference, IEC CISPR 12 and CISPR 25 are adopted as the standards for the measurement of vehicle emissions.
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding "pass-thru programming" of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
Development of Combustion Solution Meeting CPCB II Emission Norms for Medium Duty Diesel Engines with Mechanical Fuel Injection System
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.