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Viewing 181 to 210 of 22754
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1257
David B. Roth, Iago Gonzalez Tabares, Anxo Sotelo Álvarez
Abstract Cooled LPL EGR is a proven means of improving the efficiency of a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct-Injection engine. One of the most significant hurdles to overcome in implementing a LPL EGR system is dealing with condensation of water near the entrance of the turbocharger's compressor wheel. A gasoline engine, and to a greater extent a spark ignition engine running on Natural Gas, will encounter enough water condensation at some steady-state conditions to damage the compressor wheel due to the high-speed collision between the compressor blades and the water droplets. As an alternative to not utilizing beneficial EGR at the condensing conditions, the team at BorgWarner have developed a LPL EGR mixer that is effective at condensing and collecting the water droplets and routing the water around the compressor wheel. The new Condensing EGR mixer was developed from the known concept of utilizing a mild venturi section to enhance EGR delivery and mixing.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1253
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Julia Miersch
Abstract The use of Low Pressure - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is intended to allow displacement reduction in turbocharged gasoline engines and improve fuel economy. Low Pressure EGR designs have an advantage over High Pressure configurations since they interfere less with turbocharger efficiency and improve the uniformity of air-EGR mixing in the engine. In this research, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains of LP EGR over the base calibration. The main sources of the efficiency improvement are then quantified individually, focusing on part-load de-throttling of the engine, heat loss reduction, knock mitigation as well as decreased high-load fuel enrichment through exhaust temperature reduction.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1244
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
Abstract It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high/full load operation because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while TIT control requires enrichment of the Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio, with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, a promising technique, consisting of the introduction of a low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, is analyzed by means of a 1D numerical approach with reference to a downsized turbocharged SI engine. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon and the knock occurrence.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1259
Tapio Pohjalainen, Martti Larmi
Abstract This study presents a novel crank mechanism which enables easy and fast compression ratio adjustment. The novel crank mechanism and piston travel are explained and highlighted. The basic idea is that eccentric gear is installed on a crankshaft web. Eccentric gear is fitted to the big end of the connection rod and eccentricity is controlled by rotating the control gear a discrete amount. Thus the position of eccentricity is varied and controls an effective stroke length. The compression ratio is adjusted to best fit current load demand, either optimizing fuel efficiency or engine power and torque. Adjustments are individual to each cylinder. The system is capable of adjusting from min to max within 10 milliseconds [ms]. Emphasis is on reduction of CO2 emissions and reducing fuel consumption, especially at part load condition. The governing mechanical equations are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
Abstract The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1654
Billy G. Holland, Thomas L. McKinley, Bill R. Storkman
Abstract Cooled EGR continues to be a key technology to meet emission regulations, with EGR coolers performing a critical role in the EGR system. Designing EGR coolers that reliably manage thermal loads is a challenge with thermal fatigue being a top concern. The ability to estimate EGR cooler thermal fatigue life early in the product design and validation cycle allows for robust designs that meet engine component reliability requirements and customer expectations. This paper describes a process to create an EGR cooler thermal fatigue life model. Components which make up the EGR cooler have differing thermal responses, consequently conjugate transient CFD must be used to accurately model metal temperatures during heating and cooling cycles. Those metal temperatures are then imported into FEA software for structural analysis. Results from both the CFD and FEA are then used in a simplified numerical model to estimate the virtual strain of the EGR cooler.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0755
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Toshio Yamada, Daisuke Tsunoda, Mingzhao Xie, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Koji Morikawa
Abstract The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0761
Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Koji Morikawa
Abstract In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of preignition occurrence in highly boosted SI engine at low speed and high load operating conditions, directphotography of preignition events and light induced fluorescence imaging of lubricant oil droplets during preignition cycles were applied. An endoscope was attached to the cylinder head of the modified production engine. Preigntion events were captured using high-speed video camera through the endoscope. As a result, several types of preignition sources could be found. Preignition caused by glowing particles and deposit fragments could be observed by directphotography. Luminous flame was observed around the piston crevice area during the exhaust stroke of preignition cycles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0783
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz, Bradley Denton
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions are driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. To minimize inevitable downsides of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages, the Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed. The core of the D-EGR engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional low-pressure loop (LPL) EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes and also compared to the baseline. The first part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, emissions, combustion stability, and robustness at throttled part load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0781
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions is driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed to minimize some of the challenges of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages. The D-EGR engine is a high efficiency, low emissions internal combustion engine for automotive and off-highway applications. The core of the engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional LPL EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes. The second part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, knock resistance, combustion stability, and maximum load potential at high load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0784
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz
Abstract In light of the increasingly stringent efficiency and emissions requirements, several new engine technologies are currently under investigation. One of these new concepts is the Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine. The concept utilizes fuel reforming and high levels of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) to achieve very high levels of thermal efficiency. While the positive impact of reformate, in particular hydrogen, on gasoline engine performance has been widely documented, the on-board reforming process and / or storage of H2 remains challenging. The Water-Gas-Shift (WGS) reaction is well known and has been used successfully for many years in the industry to produce hydrogen from the reactants water vapor and carbon monoxide. For this study, prototype WGS catalysts were installed in the exhaust tract of the dedicated cylinder of a turbocharged 2.0 L in-line four cylinder MPI engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0863
Hideyuki Ogawa, Peilong Zhao, Taiki Kato, Gen Shibata
Abstract Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1264
Junseok Chang, Yoann Viollet, Abdullah Alzubail, Amir Faizal Naidu Abdul-Manan, Abdullah Al Arfaj
Abstract This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize the octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. It is assumed that a vehicle was equipped with two fuel tanks and two injection systems; one port fuel injection and one direct injection line separately. Each tank carried low octane and high octane fuel so that real-time octane blending was occurred in the combustion chamber when needed (Octane On-Demand: OOD). A refinery naphtha was selected for low octane fuel (RON=61), because of its similarity to gasoline properties but a less processed, easier to produce without changing a refinery configuration. Three oxygenates were used for high octane knock-resistant fuels in a direct injection line: methanol, MTBE, and ETBE.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
J3094
Create a standard for measurement of the performance characteristics of an Internal Heat Exchanger. The standard should make it easier to innovate designs and bring improvements to this new technology.
2015-04-08
Magazine
Hydraulics still in control of off-highway needs Engineers continue to master electronic controllers and software to help systems manage engine speeds and boost efficiency, to the ultimate benefit of both OEMs and end-users. Off-highway calibration challenges-big and complex As the final set of Tier 4 regulations kick in for engines greater than 750 hp (560 kW), calibration efforts must contend with complex engine and aftertreatment systems. Engine manufacturers and service providers deal with this complexity, but does it need to be so? DEF delivery modelling for SCR systems Researchers characterize a 0-D model of a urea delivery module, oriented to model-based control and to the simulation of the system response to fault injections finalized to diagnosis validation.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0126
Meng Choung Chiong, Srithar Rajoo, Alessandro Romagnoli
Abstract This paper presents a concept for new piston expander utilizing nozzle as part of a secondary steam cycle to recover exhaust energy. A commercial 1D simulation tool, AVL BOOST, was used to model the system, and comparison study was carried out between the conventional and nozzle piston expanders. It was found the nozzle piston expander could increase output power from a minimum of 0.73kW up to a maximum of 4.75kW. The simulation study has shown that the concept of using nozzle to admit steam into the piston expander has potential to improve engine system level efficiency.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0111
Sarapon Thitipatanapong, Sathaporn Chuepeng, Poranat Visuwan
Abstract Encouraging the use of alternative fuels available in Thailand is mainly due to fuel crisis within the past few decades. The government has recently drafted a renewable energy long-term plan to increase biofuel production. This has emboldened biodiesel to be used as fuel for agriculture and transportation, in particular. Diesel engines are promising for reducing carbon dioxide emissions related fuel energy consumption. Ordinarily, diesel combustion generates particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in trade-off relationship. However, advanced techniques for engine technology and aftertreatment devices have been abundantly developed to mitigate these hindrances. To break the trade-off emissions, an example technique is to fuel engines with biodiesel incorporated with exhaust gas recirculation. Among available options, nonthermal plasma (NTP) is one of the techniques that charges exhaust gas with high power electricity to reduce some emissions.
2015-03-27
Article
Sales of diesel-powered light vehicles are up 70% and the latest engines are cleaner than ever. But the diesel industry still faces significant headwinds to greater penetration.
2015-03-25
Article
A team of researchers from the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a mutant yeast strain that could lead to a more efficient and economical biofuel production process, and from non-food sources.
2015-03-13
Article
Andy Pontius, Chief Technologist for Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies in North America, talks about even lighter-weight exhaust systems and meeting future powertrain-systems expectations.
2015-03-11
Article
Novel aluminum-rich steel alloy could find structural use in road vehicles and even aircraft.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0009
Bingjie Zhang, Siti Khalijah Mazlan, Shuheng Jiang, Alberto Boretti
Abstract With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0018
Dongwon Yeon
Abstract There are some problems “windows fog up a lot” for ventilation system. We have Test Development Procedure to prevent the fog problems. But, Many fog problems occurred in the cars that we made. So in this paper, new ventilation system is needed and developed. The Smart Ventilation System automatically controls indoor air quality even though the blower motor is off. There are two sensors that is used for AutoDefogSensor system and CO2 CONTROL system.. The sensor is on when blower motor and heater control is off. We use these signals and make new ventilation logics. We evaluate this system in chamber & '13 winter test in USA.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0051
Bradley Glenn Orr, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh, Petros Lappas
Abstract Exhaust heat recovery systems are used to make use of otherwise wasted heat from a car engine. The purpose of exhaust heat recovery systems is to reduce the fuel consumption of the car and consequently reduce CO2 emissions. The unique system design described herein utilises thermoelectric generators (TEGs) and heat pipes with its key advantage being it is a passive solid state design. The use of these components creates a few design constraints. For example, both the TEGs and heat pipes have operating temperature limitations. In this paper, a naphthalene heat pipe preheat exchanger is proposed to deal with this problem. Exhaust conditions measured from a representative spark ignition engine were used in a numerical simulation to predict the performance of the exhaust heat recovery system. If 8 modules are used and the engine is producing 8kW of mechanical power, the system is predicted to produce 53.75W of electrical power.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0057
Jooyoung Park, Daehyun Choi, Yeonsik Kang, Seangwock Lee, Yongseok Cho, Taemin Kim
Abstract In this study, SCR system is employed to selectively reduce NOX that is a major cause of environmental pollution from diesel engines. In particular, this paper focuses on urea injection strategies dependent on NO/ NOX ratio. An injection control algorithm is developed based on the chemical ratio between the amount of engine out NOX data obtained from Engine Management System (EMS) and the amount of NH3. Therefore, in order to decide the amount of injection quantity, the NO/NOX ratio from the engine out NOX should be considered in order to minimize NH3 slip while maximizing NOX reduction. Experiments are conducted with a 2.2-liter diesel engine for passenger vehicles with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). Real time control, using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) duty ratio for dosing module and supply module, is performed by real time computer with its injection control algorithm developed in the Matlab Simulink environment.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0058
Robin Smit, Phil Kingston
Abstract Reliable motor vehicle emission predictions are needed to ensure sound policy decisions. This study reports on a comparison between measured in-tunnel fleet emissions and predictions made with two new Australian vehicle emission software programs (COPERT Australia and PΔP) for one air pollutant: nitrogen oxides (NOx). Measurements were taken from a 6.8 km tolled motorway tunnel that links several major roads in Brisbane, Australia. The validation study suggests that modelled vehicle emissions of NOx are similar to those measured in the tunnel with a prediction error less than ±25% for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. A possible reason for the difference is a suspected younger and cleaner fleet in the tunnel as compared with the Queensland average fleet. Further analysis of license plate information is anticipated to verify this.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0056
Thanthep Puphunwivat
Abstract Today heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and non-road machinery are certified in emission labs via common legislative test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles highly exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for passenger cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 with EU VI to tackle this problem. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger cars with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on. RDE is imposing new challenges and complexity on today's approach for the development of vehicles and engines.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0055
Neeraj Kumar, Prashant Kumar, M. Sithananthan, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das
Abstract Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air are potentially toxic among the air pollutants. They are present in the urban atmosphere due to both exhaust emissions from vehicles and evaporative emissions at fuel filling stations. The present study aims to provide an indication of ambient levels of benzene, a carcinogenic VOC in the immediate vicinity of petrol filling stations in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR). The monitoring of benzene is conducted across the vicinity of petrol stations to ascertain the effect of outside pollutant concentration on forecourt area. Continuous monitoring of benzene was achieved by an air quality monitoring facility stationed across the selected locations at four selected fuel filling stations. It was observed that the average concentrations of benzene measured during the study ranged between 2.28 ppb - 9.43 ppb.
2015-03-05
Article
Tightening vehicle efficiency and emissions regulations and increasing demand for onboard electrical power means that higher voltages, in the form of supplemental 48-volt subsystems, may soon be nearing production.
2015-03-03
Magazine
Virtual casting improves powertrain design As designers continue to look for ways to cut weight and increase performance, casting simulations are helping optimize designs through faster, more accurate predictions of the casting process used to create key components. Horse racing America's pony cars are a favorite of racers and fans alike, so racing them against each other is natural. SAE 2015 World Congress Preview Tech trends and exhibitor products are highlighted. Tech trends and exhibitor products are highlighted in this special section, which features an exclusive interview with Honda R&D America's Jim Keller. Replicating the racing experience Professional driving simulators can be successfully exploited to shorten the traditional design-prototype testing-production process relative to a new racecar.
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