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Viewing 151 to 180 of 23141
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0956
Amin Reihani, Benjamin Corson, John W. Hoard, Galen B. Fisher, Evgeny Smirnov, Dirk Roemer, Joseph Theis, Christine Lambert
Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) are one type of lean NOx reduction technology typically used in smaller diesel passenger cars where urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems may be difficult to package . However, the performance of lean NOx traps (LNT) at temperatures above 400 C needs to be improved. The use of Rapidly Pulsed Reductants (RPR) is a process in which hydrocarbons are injected in rapid pulses ahead of a LNT in order to expand its operating window to higher temperatures and space velocities. This approach has also been called Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) by Toyota. There is a vast parameter space which could be explored to maximize RPR performance and reduce the fuel penalty associated with injecting hydrocarbons. In this study, the mixing uniformity of the injected pulses, the type of reductant, and the concentration of pulsed reductant and oxygen in the main flow were investigated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, advancements in emission legislation and engine control both enable and require further improvements and application of new techniques. To address upcoming real world emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to address this issue is applying virtual sensors which utilize already available sensor information in an ECU to provide estimates of not measured emissions. For real world application it is important that the virtual sensor works in varying environmental and operating conditions and here the choice of input variables can have a strong impact. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of DOE and iterative identification of polynomial models is extended to address varying conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0961
Satish Narayanan Ramachandran, Gillis Hommen, Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Frank Willems, Frank Kupper
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission-legislation limits. Simultaneously, low fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
The future emission regulation (B.S-V) in India has created new challenges to meet the particulate matters (PM) limit for diesel cars. When comparing BS-IV with expected BS-V emission norms, the limits for PM and NOx has been reduced by 80% & 28% respectively. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technology to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detail on road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (<350 PPM Sulfur) & BS IV fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0964
Klaus Hadl, Reinhard Ratzberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Martin Schuessler, Waldemar Linares, Hannes Pucher
This paper describes the development of a 0-D sulfur poisoning model based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx slip after the NOx Storage Catalyst (NSC), but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with the sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NSC kinetic model, the combination of the two models results in a “EAS Model” able to predict the deteriorating on NOx storage/conversion in a NSC with the increase of sulfur absorbed under lean operating conditions, exhibiting higher NOx emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned. Additionally, the so called “deterioration factors” used to reflect the lower NOx conversion and higher NO2/NO ratio with increasing sulfation in the NSC model were determined for different sulfur levels.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0967
Rohil Daya, John Hoard, Sreedhar Chanda, Maneet Singh
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its lightoff temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal or salt phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0968
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Chrysoula Pagkoura, Souzana Lorentzou, Georgia Kastrinaki
Catalysts that have been extensively investigated for applications in direct soot oxidation on Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are very often based on mixed oxides of ceria with zirconia, materials known to assist soot oxidation by enhancing the supply of oxygen from the catalyst to soot. Besides the catalyst composition that significantly affects soot oxidation, other parameters such as morphological characteristics of the catalyst imposed by the synthesis technique followed, as well as the reagents used in the synthesis may also contribute to the performance of the catalyst. In the present work, two ceria-zirconia catalyst samples with different zirconia doping were subjected to different milling protocols with the aim to shift the catalyst particle size distribution curve to lower values. The produced catalysts were further evaluated with respect to their soot oxidation activity following established protocols from previous work at this laboratory.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0969
Johann C. Wurzenberger, Sophie Bardubitzki, Susanne Kutschi, Robert Fairbrother, Christoph Poetsch
The steadily decreasing emission limits and the continuous quest to improve fuel economy are key driving forces to optimize internal combustion engines. To meet emission targets, the application of advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems became an indispensable part of modern engine concepts. With the goal to abate gaseous engine emissions and also to reduce particulate matter, modern exhaust aftertreatment systems typically combine different types of honeycomb catalysts, wall flow particulate filters, dosing systems and control. Boundary conditions like packaging limitations, costs, overall pressure drop and cold-start duration intuitively lead to the attempt to combine the abatement functionality of different aftertreatment devices in a single device. Catalyzed wall flow filters apply coatings featuring oxidation catalyst, LNT, SCR or also combined functionalities. A higher level of functional integration raises the complexity in the design and layout.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0970
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Viktor Schimik, Klaus Gabel
In the presented work the findings from a previous study of the authors on the mechanisms and influence factors of deposit formation in urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) [1] are extended to a broader range of operating conditions and studied in detail. In order to quantify the boundary conditions of deposition, a representative set of deposits was studied during the entire process of formation and decomposition. A box of heat resisting glass was used to observe spray impingement, wall film and deposit formation on a typical mixing element. Leidenfrost and wall wetting as well as transition regimes were observed and correlated with deposition. Temperature measurements were conducted to precisely identify the boundary conditions of deposit solidification. Video technology was used to identify the solidification timescales and deposit growth rates.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of factory style methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements, and pressure on test facility capacity. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats. In addition the process provides objective direction when an engineering target is unspecified or deemed unachievable.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the effects that inappropriate tire pressure has on tread wear and tire and wheel damage. Previous research, such as NHTSA’s Tire Pressure Special Study in 2001, sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) included on all Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s unique on-board data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1720
Anurag Durve, Jyotirmoy Barman, Rizwan Khan
Direct injection compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in light duty applications but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. Alternate fuels, particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbocharged, intercooled, DI diesel engine has been alternatively fuelled with biodiesel and its 20% blend with commercial diesel. The effect of biodiesel addition to diesel on engine performance, combustion, and emissions were studied in a turbocharged, high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Biodiesel/diesel blends with different biodiesel fractions were used and compared with neat biodiesel and diesel at different engine loads and speeds.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-04
Article
A University of Delaware research team is developing technologies aimed at ending the reign of high-cost platinum fuel cell stacks.
2016-02-02
Article
Intertek’s Milton Keynes Transportation Technologies laboratory has developed a portable vehicle exhaust emissions testing system that enables manufacturers to report real-world driving emissions.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0023
Pravesh Chandra Shukla, Tarun Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0143
K. Krishnamoorthy, V. Saishanker
Abstract With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0102
Vinayak Jadhav, Shubham Kanchan, Sukrut Thipse, Kishorkumar Kavathekar, Ashwin Dsouza, Shailesh Sonawane
Abstract Environmental pollution has proven to be a big threat to our eco-system and pollution from automobiles using conventional fuels is a major contributor to this. Alternative fuels are the only immediate option that can help us counter the ever rising environmental pollution. In today’s date we cannot directly replace an IC engine, so the most efficient option available is using a fuel that can work with the IC engines other than gasoline and diesel. CNG proves to be the most promising fuel. A diesel engine converted to stoichiometric CNG engine was used for optimization. The paper deals with the improvement of engine power from 50HP to 60HP and up-gradation of the emission from BS-III to BS-IV norms of a multi-cylinder naturally aspirated engine. This was achieved by varying the compression ratio, valve-lift profile, intake plenum volume, runner length, spark-advance timing, fuel injection location, exhaust pipe length and catalytic converter selection.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0142
A S Ramadhas, Hongming Xu
Abstract Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0148
Garima Kushwaha, Samir Saraswati
Abstract Unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission results because part of the fuel inducted into the engine escapes combustion. HC emission is dependent on many mechanisms such as adsorption and desorption of fuel in oil layer, flame quenching, fuel escaping into crevices and accumulation of fuel in engine deposits, etc. Out of these, the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism contributes to about 25-30% of total engine-out HC emissions. In this work adsorption/desorption mechanism is studied considering the engine to be fueled with different fuels. The fuel adsorbed/desorbed in lubricating oil is modeled with a one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE). One dimension PDE is chosen as the transverse flow across the oil film is considered to be negligible. The PDE is solved using finite difference explicit scheme in which the space derivatives and the time derivatives are approximated with a second order central difference method and forward Euler method, respectively.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0152
A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, P Sakthivel, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuel for gasoline engines to tackle the problems associated with nation’s energy security and environmental pollution. Ethanol can be used as a sole fuel or gasoline blending component for use in spark ignition engines. BIS Specification 2796: 2013 permitted to blend 10% ethanol in gasoline and the concentration may be further increased in coming years in India. Research on combustion of ethanol blended gasoline on modern gasoline engine is highly desirable. This paper highlights the experimental investigation carried out on the latest generation multipoint fuel injection system passenger car engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends in a climatic controlled test cell to study the in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Part load tests at regular speed intervals were conducted using ethanol blends. Combustion duration decreased with increase in engine load and speed for the all test fuels.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0140
Chinmaya Mishra, Naveen Kumar, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar
Abstract In the present experimental investigation, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel-biodiesel blends and antioxidant containing biodiesel test fuels was carried out. The potential suitability of aromatic amine based antioxidants to enhance the oxidation stability of biodiesel on one hand and reduction of tail pipe oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the other were evaluated. Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) was considered as the antioxidant and Calophyllum Inophyllum vegetable oil was taken as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The test fuel samples were neat diesel (D100), 10% and 20% blend of Calophyllum biodiesel with diesel (CB10 and CB20) and 1500 ppm of TBHQ in CB10 and CB20 (CBT10 and CBT20). The results indicated that neat biodiesel blended test fuels (CB10 and CB20) exhibited lower brake thermal efficiency compared to the diesel baseline by a margin of 3% to 10% at full load.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0153
Anand Krishnan Manoharan, B. Ashok, Saravanan Kumarasamy
Abstract Alternative fuels for both spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have become very important owing to increased environmental protection concern, the need to reduce dependency on petroleum and even socioeconomic aspects. An appropriate sustainable fuel alternative has turn out to be a main concern and bio-diesel is one of the sustainable fuels. The path of interest in biodiesel has highlighted its advantages which include decrease in hydrocarbon and particulate matter. Meanwhile its shortcoming includes higher emission of oxides of nitrogen. This work is an attempt to develop a mathematical relationship to predict thermal NOx in CI engine fuelled with neat biodiesel. Attention was focused on using in-cylinder pressure based variables to predict NOx. In cylinder pressure measurement is a valuable tool for the analysis of CI engine combustion, which is used for finding the heat release rate, ignition delay, etc.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0164
Arunkumar Madeswaran, Balasubramanian Natarajasundaram, Bhavanakumar Ramamoorthy
Abstract In Modern Passenger Car Braking system, Disc brake plays a vital role in providing better performance and safety, in which brake pads are most critical part to decide the overall brake performance. In such brake pads, there are some technical challenges such as wear rate, abnormal noise & environmental issues with existing asbestos material. Hence we made a research to furnish suitable eco-friendly & cost effective solution. The main objective of this paper is to introduce asbestos-free automotive organic brake pad. Our research work intends to make organic brake pad by using natural fibre with organic ingredients such as kenaf and other composite materials in right proportion. Kenaf fibre is one of the natural fibres, which will improve heat resistance and strength of the brake pad. Initially, kenaf fibre is mixed with other composite materials and compacted at an optimal pressure by using hand-press machine.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0252
Aravind Vadiraj
Abstract This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
2016-01-25
Article
Motiv Power Systems and Creative Bus partner to build a zero emission all-electric school bus. The new Starcraft e-Quest XL will have a range of 85 mi (137 km) and be capable of a 50% charge within 2 hrs.
2016-01-20
Article
A significant chunk of Audi's €24B technology investment will be in automated/autonomous systems. Chairman Stadler provides details.
2016-01-15
Journal Article
2015-01-9044
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang
Abstract A real-time mean-value engine model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque and pollutant emissions, including NOx and soot, has been developed, calibrated and assessed at both steady-state and transient conditions for a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The chemical energy release has been simulated using an improved version of a previously developed model that is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure has been evaluated on the basis of the inversion of a single-zone model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was derived starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls. NOx and soot emissions were simulated on the basis of semi-empirical correlations that take into account the in-cylinder thermodynamic properties, the chemical energy release and the main engine parameters.
2016-01-11
Article
The clean-sheet Pacifica bristles with innovations, including a plug-in hybrid variant featuring FCA's in-house engineered EVT.
2016-01-06
Magazine
Time to get personal Industry engineers are combining apps, voice, the cloud, and other technologies such as artificial intelligence to enable drivers to customize their vehicles and anticipate their needs. Technology report GM and TARDEC co-developing fuel cell powered Chevrolet Colorado for military evaluation vehicles and anticipate their needs. Global vehicles Sports cars take center stage in Tokyo
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