Pinnacle Engines signed a technology partnership agreement with Greaves Cotton in India to deliver a BS VI-compliant engine to the three-wheeler OEM market in India.
The use of the chassis dynamometer test cells has been an integral part of the vehicle development and validation process for several decades, involving specialists from different fields, not all of them necessarily experts in automotive engineering. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER TESTING: Addressing the Challenges of New Global Legislation (WLTP and RDE) sets out to gather knowledge from multiple groups of specialists to better understand the testing challenges associated with the vehicle chassis dynamometer test cells, and enable informed design and use of these facilities.
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
The new vehicle test center in Auburn Hills, MI, will feature a chassis dyno for emissions testing, powertrain development programs and benchmarking.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document covers the requirements for a Snowcompressor with carrier vehicle used to clear snow from airport operational areas by compressing the volume of collected snow into smaller volumes for loading into a hauling/dump truck or for depositing reduced-volume windrows for snow banking. The term carrier vehicle represents the various self-propelled prime movers that provide the power necessary to move snow and ice control equipment during winter operations. For two-stage rotary plows that primarily are used to cast heavy concentrations of snow away from airport operational areas such as runways and taxiways, see ARP5539.
Procedure for the Calculation of Sampling Line Penetration Functions and Line Loss Correction Factors
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method for assessing size dependent particle losses in a sampling and measurement system of specified geometry utilizing on the non-volatile PM (nvPM) mass and number concentrations measured at the end of the sampling system. The penetration functions of the sampling and measurement system may be determined either by measurement or by analytic computational methods. Loss mechanisms including thermophoretic (which has a very weak size dependence) and size dependent losses are considered in this method along with the uncertainties due to both measurement error and the assumptions of the method. The results of this system loss assessment allow development of estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentrations to account for the system losses facilitating estimation of the nvPM mass and number at the engine exhaust nozzle exit plane.
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
In a production vehicle that Tula tested, conventional operation yielded what was termed an “objectionable” audible boom at 47 Hz with production calibration. However, under DSF operation all firing patterns resulting in frequencies between 44 Hz and 48 Hz were avoided.
This SAE Aerospace Resource Document (ARD) document covers the requirements for a self-propelled GRV, intended for use at airports to collect spent aircraft de-icing fluid (ADF) from the surface of de-icing areas. This unit will recover de-icing fluid from the surface, which will be stored in a containment unit on the vehicle. The GRV must be capable of night and day operations in all weather conditions, as required.
Metamaterial Technologies looks to enter the solar power market by providing advanced photovoltaic technology to the aerospace and defense industry.
This SAE Standard applies to 12 V, flooded and absorptive glass mat lead acid automotive storage batteries of 200 minutes or less reserve capacity and cold crank capacity greater than 200 amperes. This life test is considered to be comprehensive in terms of battery manufacturing technology; applicable to lead-acid batteries containing wrought or cast positive grid manufacturing technology and providing a reasonable correlation for hot climate applications. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
Abstract The ability to accurately predict exhaust system acoustics, including transmission loss (TL) and tailpipe noise, based on CAD geometry has long been a requirement of most OEM’s and Tier 1 exhaust suppliers. Correlation to measurement data has been problematic under various operating conditions, including flow. This study was undertaken to develop robust modelling technique, ensuring sensible correlation between the 1-D models and test data. Ford use Ricardo WAVE as one of their 1-D NVH tools, which was chosen for the purpose of this benchmark study. The most commonly used metrics for evaluating the acoustical performance of mufflers are insertion loss (IL), TL, and noise reduction (NR). TL is often the first step of analysis, since it represents the inherent capability of the muffler to attenuate sound if both the source and termination are assumed to be anechoic. It can also be reliably measured and numerically simulated without having to connect to an engine.
Abstract Large-scale emergency or off-grid power generation is typically achieved through diesel or natural gas generators. To meet governmental emission requirements, emission control systems (ECS) are required. In operation, effective control over the generator’s acoustic emission is also necessary, and can be accomplished within the ECS system. Plug flow mufflers are commonly used, as they provide a sufficient level of noise attenuation in a compact structure. The key design parameter is the transmission loss of the muffler, as this dictates the level of attenuation at a given frequency. This work implements an analytically decoupled solution, using multiple perforate impedance models, through the transfer matrix method (TMM) to predict the transmission loss based on the muffler geometry. An equivalent finite element model is implemented for numerical simulation. The analytical results and numerical results are then evaluated against experimental data from literature.
Tackling NVH one dB per day New tools and technologies are helping engineers reduce vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness. Artificial intelligence becomes a reality Automakers could be among the leaders in deploying AI in free-standing, high-reliability environments. But developers must determine how to mitigate undesirable side-effects. Lidar: autonomy's mission-critical component Automated-driving capability likely won't happen without Lidar. But what technology-and at what price? Formula One goes longer, lower, wider for 2017 New rules make the cars faster and more aggressive-looking, with a wider track, wider tires and bigger wings. Editorial: Core Ford, New Ford...OneFord? SAE Standards News Seeking a common language for vehicle automation Supplier Eye Are you innovating for NVH?
The purpose of this information report is to present the factors that affect the design and development of aircraft jet blast windshield rain removal systems. Rain removal system design will generally be unique to specific aircraft. Design of these systems typically requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with a laboratory development program and a flight test validation program. Published windshield rain removal performance test data is available only for limited windshield configurations.
Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. It is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2017, the 9th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings focus on: • Future challenges for engines and emissions • Smart Technologies Changing Farming • Cyber Physical Systems in Agriculture Business • OEM View of the Future of the Construction Machinery Industry • Powertrain Developments • CO2 Reduction • CVT Transmission Platform Technology • Autonomous and Connected Trucks
Nissan Europe product planning boss Ponz Pandikithura says total cost of ownership of EVs will drop dramatically.
SAE J1979/ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
In Japan, environmentally-friendly vehicles, such as HV, PHV, EV, and FCV, have been researched and developed as solutions to the energy and environmental problems, but none of these vehicles have been fully satisfactory in all respects, such as environmental performance, vehicle performance, and adaptability to existing infrastructure. Hino Motors, Ltd. launched a hybrid bus in 1992 as a pioneer in hybrid commercial vehicles and has sold more than 10,000 hybrid buses and trucks. An electric-powered minibus designed under the concept of short travel distance and high charging frequency was developed to make use of Hino’s abundant experience in the development of HV and the past market results it has achieved. Since 2012, these buses have operated in three areas as community buses.
Concerning the limitation of greenhouse gases, the Kyoto protocol in 1997defined the first hard facts. A steady increase in the number of participating states as well as a rigorous focus on emission limits - even if some important countries did not sign or withdraw from the protocol - led to high pressure on existing technologies. The presentation therefore will start by discussing the four pillars of possible CO2 reduction options and will lead to the question why there is a correlation to assistance systems on hydraulic excavators. Finally innovative excavator assistance systems and their support to the objectives on CO2 reduction will be presented.
Abstract No abstract available.
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
With the implementation of EURO VI and similar emission legislation, the industry assumed the pace and stringency of new legislation would be reduced in the future. The latest announcements of proposed and implemented legislation steps show that future legislation will be even more stringent. The currently leading announced legislation, which concerns a large number of global manufacturers, is the legislation from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Both announced new legislation for CO2, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Phase II. CARB is also planning additional Ultra Low NOx regulations. Both regulations are significant and will require a number of technologies to be used in order to achieve the challenging limits. AVL published some engine related measures to address these legislation steps.
Along with the European Union’s objective of further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, manufacturers of agricultural machines want to make their contribution and highlight potential fuel savings. The research project “EKoTech - Efficient fuel use in agricultural technology”, funded by the German Ministry of Agriculture, involves well-known manufacturers and research facilities. The essential objective of this project is to identify savings realized since 1990 and savings potentials until 2030. Further aims are the development of a method and a tool for the evaluation of efficiency measures in process chains and the formulation of recommendations for manufacturers, operators and research facilities. A comprehensive search of fuel consumption and power requirement data of relevant machines and processes provides the database. Additionally typical region-specific operational structures, machine equipment and process chains define model farms.
Globally, many jurisdictions are working toward greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that will take effect in the next decade and require GHG reductions of up to 25% from 2017 legislated levels. While diesel engines will require increasingly complex improvements, high pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas can provide GHG reductions of approximately 20% (75% or more with renewable natural gas / bio-methane) while preserving the same power density, torque and performance as diesel. This paper will provide an overview of the improvements in the Westport™ HPDI 2.0 components as well as performance and emissions results demonstrated to-date. The potential and challenges of higher injection pressures will be explored while also investigating sources of and methods to eliminate methane venting on the vehicle.
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities in the truck industry and especially the efforts of DAF Trucks N.V. in improving traffic safety and the environmental impact related to trucks. Proposals regarding legislation, new technologies and the approach to be followed, in order to reach the desired goals, are presented. Various new technologies investigated in DAF Trucks N.V., like platooning are explained, to show the open perspective of the company towards finding solutions and the commitment to invest in this effort. As a significant message this paper wants to convey, is the need for all the stakeholders to work together in an joint effort to achieve the best possible results.
Highly diversified market needs, non-harmonized regulations and new technological trends in future construction machinery industry will challenge OEMs in defining their appropriate development strategies. Main trends like “efficiency”, “safety/security” as well as “connectivity” are considered as important driving forces in future product - and customer service - developments. Some examples are given for the above mentioned trends. Chances and related risks of such development trends are considered as well.
FPT Industrial offers a broad range of natural gas engines, with solutions from 136 to 400 hp (101 to 298 kW) for light, medium, and heavy vehicles. The brand is also in the advanced stages of trialing natural gas engines for agricultural equipment, says brand president Annalisa Stupenengo.
Innovations for lightweighting Tough fuel-economy bogies for 2021 and beyond are driving new approaches to materials use, as seen in these case studies. Axellent progress AAM's new Quantum drive-axle technology is a leap forward in lightweight, efficient driveline systems aimed at 2020 and beyond. Low-temperature combustion ready for prime time? At SAE's High-Efficiency IC Engines Symposium, Delphi said its new, third-generation GDCI is promising, but even LTC proponents admit that challenges remain. More automation for ECU testing The latest fault-insertion tests enable engineers to run more test cases in less time.
Uber announced a partnership with Aurora Flight Sciences to develop electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft for its Uber Elevate Network. Aurora’s eVTOL concept is derived from its existing XV-24A LightningStrike VTOL X-Plane subscale vehicle demonstrator aircraft.