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Viewing 151 to 180 of 23330
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0935
Gerben Doornbos, Stina Hemdal, Daniel Dahl, Ingemar Denbratt
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0939
Fabian Sonntag, Peter Eilts
Abstract There are numerous methods for accelerated ash loading of particulate traps known from literature. However, it is largely unknown if a combination of these methods is possible and which one generates the most similar ash compared to ash from real particulate filters. Since the influencing variables on the ash formation are not yet fully understood, ashing processes are carried out under carefully controlled laboratory conditions on an engine test bench. The first ashing takes place with low sulfated ash phosphorus and sulfur oil without any methods to increase the quantity of produced ash. The obtained ash is used as a reference and is compared hereinafter with the process examined. Four methods to increase the ash production ratio are investigated. The first one is an increase of the ash content of the lubrication oil through an increase of the additives in the oil. The second one is the additional generation of ash with a burner system where oil is injected into the flame.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0912
MohanKumar Subramaniam, Senthilkumar Pachamuthu, Jayanth Arulanandan, Jenoris Muthiya
Abstract Exhaust after treatment devices in diesel engines play a crucial role in control of harmful emissions. The noxious emission released from diesel engines causes a variety of problems to both human beings and the environment. The currently used devices are implemented with new catalyst technologies like DOC, SCR and catalytic converter are all designed to meet stringent emission regulations. Although these devices have considerable conversion efficiency, they are not without drawbacks. The catalysts used in these devices are rarely available and are also very expensive. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is the device currently employed to collect particulate matter. It also has drawbacks like high back pressure, thermal durability restrictions, regeneration issues and poor collection of smaller size particles. In the case of biodiesel these fine sized particles are emitted in larger quantity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Abstract Aerogels are nanoporous structures with physical characteristics that make them promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems: highly porous with low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) - features that provide favorable characteristics for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (∼0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand high temperatures. Aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method employed in this work for aerogel preparation, describes in detail the benchtop scale testbed and methods used to assess the catalytic activity of RSCE fabricated aerogels, and presents data on the catalytic ability of some promising aerogel chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1268
Yanjun Ren, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Xin Gao, Shichen Lu, Mengzuo Han, Ruobing Zhan, Haobo Xu
Abstract With the help of organic working medium absorbing the solar energy for steam electric power generation, green energy can be provided to automotive accessories so as to improve the vehicle energy efficiency. In the hot summer, the exhausted heat resulting from cars’ directly exposing to the sun can be used to cool and ventilate the passenger compartment. Considering the space occupied by the system in the combination of both practical features for solar heat source--low power and poor stability-- a compact evaporation structure was designed to enhance the solar utilization efficiency. In the research, the heat source of power and temperature variation range was determined by the available solar roof with photo-thermal conversion model. Then started from the ratio of exhausted heat utilization corresponding to evaporator’s characteristic parameter, the performance analysis was made in the different working conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1269
Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The present study was carried to explore the potential suitability of biodiesel as an extender of Kerosene in an off road dual fuel (gasoline start, kerosene run) generator set and results were compared with kerosene base line data. The biodiesel was blended with kerosene in two different proportions; 2.5% and 5% by volume. Physico-chemical properties of blends were also found to be comparable with kerosene. Engine tests were performed on three test fuels namely K100 (Kerosene 100%), KB 2.5 (Kerosene 97.5% + Biodiesel 2.5%) and KB5 (Kerosene 95% + Biodiesel 5%). It was found that brake thermal efficiency [BTE] increases up to 3.9% while brake specific energy consumption [BSEC] decreases up to 2.2% with increasing 5% volume fraction of biodiesel in kerosene. The exhaust temperature for blends was lower than kerosene. The test engine emitted reduced Carbon monoxide [CO] emission was 7.4 % less than using neat kerosene as compared to kerosene-biodiesel blends.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1271
Shubhangi S. Nigade, S. Mutalikdesai
Abstract The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1281
Jatin Agarwal, Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards that is BS-IV. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of greenhouse gases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1287
Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
Abstract In recent years, automakers have been developing various types of environmentally friendly vehicles such as hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHV), electric (EV), and fuel cell (FCV) vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are few commercial solar vehicles on the market. One of the reasons why automakers have not focused attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles under real conditions are unclear. There are two difficulties in measuring the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) vehicles travel under various conditions of sunlight exposure and (2) sunlight exposure conditions differ in each region. To address these problems, an analysis was performed based on an internet survey of 5,000 people and publically available meteorological data from 48 observation stations in Japan.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1286
Takuya Hara, Takahiro Shiga, Kazutaka Kimura, Akinori Sato
Abstract Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers to contribute to sustainable development. Unlike the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), whose effectiveness is dependent on the carbon intensity of grid electricity, the solar hybrid vehicle (SHV) can be an alternative electric vehicle because of its off-grid, zero-emission electric technology. Its usability is also advantageous because it does not require manual charging by the users. This study aims at evaluating the economic, environmental, and usability benefits of SHV by comparing it with other types of vehicles including PEVs. By setting cost and energy efficiency on the basis of the assumed technology level in 2030, annual cost and annual CO2 emissions of each vehicle are calculated using the daily mileage pattern obtained from a user survey of 5,000 people in Japan and the daily radiation data for each corresponding user.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Abstract Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the life-cycle GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles currently and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1284
Andrew Burnham, Hao Cai, Michael Wang
Abstract A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1292
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract Noise pollution is a major concern for global automotive industries which propels engineers to evolve new methods to meet passenger comfort and regulatory requirements. The main purpose of an exhaust system in an automotive vehicle is to allow the passage of non-hazardous gases to the atmosphere and reduce the noise generated due to the engine pulsations. The objective of this paper is to propose a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach followed to optimize the muffler for better acoustic performance without compromising on back pressure. Conventionally, muffler design has been an iterative process. It involves repetitive testing to arrive at an optimum design. Muffler has to be designed for better acoustics performance and reduced back pressure which complicates the design process even more.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1291
Greig Latham
Abstract Applying the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIOLCA) method to the question of fielding newly manufactured or remanufactured vehicles provides an illuminating view of the economic and environmental advantages of remanufacturing. Sustained accomplishments of policy and engineering have reduced vehicle emissions such that current work has reached the point of diminishing returns. The macroeconomic, global, unprecedented, debt-supercycle-combined with increasing costs of natural resource extraction and vehicle production-demands improved asset and resource utilization. Expanding and exploiting the entire vehicle life cycle is a profitable and sustainable extension of work to date; such extension calls for remanufacturing to move from vehicle components to the entire vehicle. Stretching service lifetimes delay traditional end-of-life recovery practices while radically challenging the status quo.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J. Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Abstract While a number of publications have addressed the high-level requirements of remanufacturing to ensure its commercial and environmental sustainability, considerably less attention has been given to the technical data and associated test strategies needed for any evidence-based decision as to whether a vehicle energy storage system should be remanufactured - extending its in-vehicle life, redeployed for second-life (such as domestic or grid storage) or decommissioned for recycling. The aim of this paper is to critically review the strategic requirements for data at the different stages of the battery value-chain that is pertinent to an Electric Vehicle (EV) battery remanufacturing strategy. Discussed within the paper is the derivation of a feasible remanufacturing test strategy for the vehicle battery system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0833
Lei Meng, Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Chunnian Zeng, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0733
Valentin Soloiu, Tyler Naes, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp, Jose Moncada, Remi Gaubert, Gustavo Molina
Abstract This study investigates combustion and emissions of Jet-A in an indirect injection (IDI) compression ignition engine and a direct injection (DI) compression ignition engine at 4.5 bar IMEP and 2000 RPM. The Jet-A was blended with ULSD that resulted in 75%Jet-A and 25% ULSD#2 by mass. Both engines were instrumented with Kistler pressure sensors in the main chamber and the IDI engine had a second pressure sensor in the pre-chamber. Combustion properties and emissions from both engines using the 75% jet-A blend (75Jet-A) were compared to a baseline test of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #2 (ULSD). The ignition delay was shorter when running on 75Jet-A compared to ULSD in the DI engine. For ULSD, the ignition delay was 1.8 ms and it reduced to 1.7 ms when operating on 75Jet-A (difference of 6%). In the IDI engine the ignition delay for both fuels was 2.3 ms based off the gross heat release in the Pre-Chamber.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0727
Cody William Squibb, Harold Schock, Ravi Vedula, Thomas Stuecken
Abstract In-cylinder visualization experiments were completed using an International VT275-based optical DI Diesel engine operating under high simulated exhaust gas recirculation combustion conditions. Experiments were run at four load conditions to examine variations in fuel spray, combustion, and soot production. Mass fraction burned analyses of pressure data were used to investigate the combustion processes of the various operating conditions. An infrared camera was used to visualize fuel spray events and exothermic combustion gases. A visible, high-speed camera was used to image natural luminosity produced by soot. The recorded images were post-processed to analyze the fuel spray, the projected exothermic areas produced by combustion, as well as soot production of different load conditions. Probability maps of combustion and fuel spray occurrence in the cylinder are presented for insight into the combustion processes of the different conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1187
Nobuaki Mizutani, Kazunobu Ishibashi
Abstract While carbon supported PtCo alloy nanoparticles emerged recently as the new standard catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in polymer membrane electrolyte fuel cells, further improvement of catalyst performance is still of great importance to its application in fuel cell vehicles. Herein, we report two examples of such efforts, related to the improvements of catalyst preparation and carbon support design, respectively. First, by lowering acid treatment voltage, the effectiveness for the removal of unalloyed Co was enhanced significantly, leading to less Co dissolution during cell operation and about 40% higher catalyst mass activity. It has been also found that the use of nonporous carbon support material promoted mass transfer and resulted in substantial drop of overpotential at high current and low humidity. This result may suggest an effective strategy towards the development of fuel cell systems that operate without additional humidification.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1141
Kevin A. Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team’s math-based modeling and simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicle powertrain analysis, with a goal of improving the simulation results to be less than 10% error to experimental data. The team used the modeling and simulation tools for evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture changes (hardware), and controls code development and testing (software). The first step was model validation to experimental data, as the plant models had not yet been validated. This paper includes the results of the team’s work in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EcoCAR 2 Advanced vehicle Technical Competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
Abstract As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1264
Tarun Mehra, Naveen Kumar, Salman Javed, Ashish Jaiswal, Farhan javed
Abstract Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has higher FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pretreatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalyzed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed and this mixture is Trans esterified with no pre-treatment process using molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were close to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0735
J. Javier Lopez, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length (LOL). Size and mass of soot particles increase through the diffusion flame and finally they are partially oxidized at the flame front. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. However, there is a clear lack of published research related to the characterization of soot oxidation. Thus, the main objective of the current research is to provide more knowledge and insight into the soot oxidation processes. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, in-cylinder optical thickness (KL) was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color pyrometry.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0915
Keld Johansen, Anders Widd, Frank Zuther, Hannes Viecenz
Abstract For trucks today, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalysts are combined in this sequential order in diesel exhaust systems with the drawback of insufficient temperature for the SCR catalyst during cold start and large volume. The problems can potentially be solved by integrating the SCR catalyst into the particulate filter as one multifunctional unit. For off-road and heavy-duty vehicles applications with fully managed passive NO2-soot regenerations, integration of V-based SCR formulations on the DPF (V-SCRonDPF) represents an attractive solution due to high sulfur resistance accompanied by low-temperature NOx conversion and improved fuel economy. Engine bench tests together with an NO2-active DOC show that it is possible to manage the NO2/NOx ratio so both a high NOx conversion and still a low soot balance point temperature is obtained. The soot balance point is almost unaffected by the fast SCR reaction when urea is introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0949
Ryuji Kai, Tsuyoshi Asako, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Abstract Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a key emission control component utilized in diesel engine applications for NOx reduction. There are several types of SCR catalyst currently in the market: Cu-Zeolite, Fe-Zeolite and Vanadia. Diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers down select their production SCR catalyst primarily based on vehicle exhaust gas temperature operation, ammonia dosing strategy, fuel quality, packaging envelope and cost. For Vanadia SCR, the operating temperature is normally controlled below 550oC to avoid vanadium sublimation. In emerging markets, the Vanadia SCR is typically installed alone or downstream of the DOC with low exhaust gas temperature exposure. Vanadia SCR is also utilized in some European applications with passive DPF soot regeneration. However, further improvement of Vanadia SCR NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required to meet future emission regulations (i.e.: HDD Phase 2 GHG).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1270
Xiangshan Fan, Xibin Wang, Kangkang Yang, Yaoting Li, Chuanzhou Wu, Ziqing Li
Abstract The ignition delay times of 2, 5-Dihydrofuran (25DHF) were measured behind reflected shock waves at the pressures of 4, 10atm, temperatures of 1110-1650 K, for the lean (φ= 0.5) and stoichiometric (φ= 1.0) mixtures with fixed fuel concentration of 0.5%. The correlations of ignition delay times to initial parameters were fitted in an Arrhenius-like form for the two fuels by multiregression analysis. Simulations based on Liu model, Somers model and Tran model were presented and compared to experiment data. Subsequently, reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis were performed in low and high temperature to obtain insight into the ignition kinetic by using Liu model. Reaction path analysis shows that there are two main ways in the consumption of 25DHF and the main intermediates are C3H5Y, sC3H5 and propylene etc. Some reactions which involved the main intermediate products presented important effect on the whole ignition of 25DHF.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1278
Shubhangi S. Nigade
Abstract This paper’s analysis approach combines the orthogonal array design of experiments with grey relational analysis for optimization CI engine performance using blend of Madhuca Indica biodiesel as a fuel. Grey relational theory is adopted to determine the best input parameters that give lower emission and higher performance of CI engine. Five design parameters namely; compression ratio, injection pressure, injection nozzle geometry (no. of holes on nozzle of injector), additive (AA-93 TM) and fuel fraction were selected, and four levels for each factor. To reduce an experimental effort the experiments have been performed by employing Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array for various engine performance and emission related responses. Injection nozzle geometry was found to most influencing factors. The optimal combination so obtained was further confirmed through experimentation was suitable for optimizing the performance and emission parameters of diesel engine.
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