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Viewing 151 to 180 of 22710
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1008
Vitaly Prikhodko, Josh Pihl, Todd Toops, John Thomas, James Parks, Brian West
Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1025
Gordon J. Bartley
The drive to more fuel efficient vehicles is underway, with passenger car targets of 54.5 mpg fleet average by 2025. Improving engine efficiency means reducing losses such as the heat lost in the exhaust gases. But, reducing exhaust temperature makes it harder for emissions control catalysts to function because they require elevated temperatures to be active. Addressing this conundrum was the focus of the work performed. The primary objective of this work was to identify low temperature limiters for a variety of catalyst aftertreatment types. The ultimate goal is to reduce catalyst light-off temperatures, and the knowledge needed is an understanding of what prevents a catalyst from lighting off, why, and how it may be mitigated. Collectively these are referred to here as low temperature limiters to catalyst activity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1026
Padmanabha Reddy Ettireddy, AdamJ Kotrba, Thirupathi Boningari, Panagiotis Smirniotis
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst as an active, durable and selective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start conditions. A series of various metal oxide- incorporated zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques, the resulting catalysts were characterized and tested in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz reactor using ammonia as the reductant. Once the catalysts with the best performance were identified, experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type. Initial catalyst formulations have been achieved optimum NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 ºC – 350 ºC (at a GHSV of 80,000 h-1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0772
Ashish Jagannath Chaudhari, Vinayak Kulkarni PhD, Niranjan Sahoo PhD
Most undesirable emissions are exhausted by the spark ignition (SI) engines affect the environment and cause various problems such as ozone depletion, acid precipitation, global warming, respiratory hazards etc. The primary pollutants from the engine (such as NOx) which when mixed in the atmosphere react with ozone and create the secondary pollutant that are more harmful to human health. So, it is important to use alternative fuels having good performance and lower emissions as compared to petrol fuel. But, when the alternative fuels are considered, the important properties like octane number may or may not be same as that of conventional petroleum fuels (Morganti et. al., 2013). In such situation, the optimum compression ratio which gives best performance needs to be evaluated by variable compression ratio (VCR) study.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1009
Cameron W. Tanner, Kenneth Twiggs, Tinghong Tao, David Bronfenbrenner, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama
The EPA Tier 3 standard set in 2014 calls for a 65% reduction in combined NOx and NMOG pollutants from 86 to 30 mg/mile between 2017 and 2025 to improve air quality. In 2012, the EPA set a target to double fleet average fuel economy by 2025 as compared to 2010. The European Union has enacted and is in the process of phasing in regulations with similar objectives. For gasoline-powered cars and trucks, approximately 75% of emissions over a standard regulatory test like FTP-75 are released in the first 40 s after cold-start. Reductions in cold-start emissions will be part of the strategy to meet these challenging new regulations. The techniques that are proven to speed catalyst light-off to lower cold-start emissions are to move the converter upstream (close-coupling), to reduce the heat capacity of the converter, and to utilize catalysts that are active at low temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0058
Robin Smit, Phil Kingston
The environmental impacts of road traffic are commonly evaluated at different scales using transport and emission models and, in the case of air pollution, dispersion and exposure models. As models are simplifications of reality, their limitations and accuracy should be clearly established. The development of reliable motor vehicle emission inventories is needed to ensure sound policy decisions. Similarly, local-scale traffic management measures (e.g. intelligent traffic light control, dynamic speed limits) often have relatively small effects on traffic emissions, so sensitive and accurate models are needed to predict the extent of their environmental impacts. A dedicated version of the COPERT vehicle emissions software was recently developed for Australia to adequately reflect local fleet composition, fuel composition and driving characteristics. The software was released in October 2013.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0056
Thanthep Puphunwivat
Real Driving Emissions – A game changer for the industry? Mastering On-Road Emissions Targets with Integrated Vehicle Testing Solution AVL M.O.V.E Speaker: Ernst-Georg Lorinser Today, heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and off-road machinery are still certified on emission test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles may massively exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 to tackle this issue. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger car with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0051
Bradley Glenn Orr, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh, Petros Lappas
The internal combustion engine, used in a majority of automobiles, does not convert all of the energy in the fuel into mechanical work. Most of the energy is converted into heat which is in the exhaust gases. All this heat is wasted when the exhaust gases are expelled to the atmosphere. An exhaust heat recovery system will extract some of this heat and convert it into electricity. This electricity will be used to charge a car battery therefore reducing the load on the car alternator and consequently saving fuel. Any fuel saving results in the reduction of CO2 emissions. This project will make use of two particular technologies, heatpipes and thermoelectric generators (TEGs). Heatpipes are a passive heat transfer devices which can have thermal conductivity values which are orders of magnitude higher than copper. TEGs are heat engines with no moving parts. When there is a temperature difference over the two sides of the TEG, a voltage is created and consequently power can be generated.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0055
Neeraj Kumar, Prashant Kumar, M. Sithananthan, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are a class of air pollutants with high volatility in the ambient environment and currently there are various kinds of VOCs that can be detected by chromatography or any other analytical measurement techniques. Present study is mainly focused on the VOCs which are generated through the use of conventional transportation fuels i.e., VOCs including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and isomers of xylene (BTEX) namely meta (m-), ortho (o-), and para (p-) xylene. They are given more priority due to their toxicity to both human and environment. Considering the mounting evidences of the effects of air pollution on health, the present study was undertaken to review the levels of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indian atmosphere reported during the year 1999 - 2013. The literature review reveals various methods applied to monitor the concentration of VOCs and also includes the techniques used to control & capture them.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0057
Jooyoung Park, Daehyun Choi, Yeonsik Kang, Seangwock Lee, Yongseok Cho, Taemin Kim
Regulations on emissions of diesel engines are being enhanced with the increase of worldwide concern on harmful effects of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on health. To satisfy these emission regulations, various after-treatment systems such as Lean NOx Traps (LNT) and Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) technology have been developed. Among them, Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) is known as one of the most effective methods to satisfy emission standards. SCR system injects urea-water solution on the exhaust gas flow, generating ammonia (NH3), through the decomposition reaction of urea-water solution, removing NOx through three types of chemical reaction of SCR catalyst. One type of reaction is standard SCR reaction, which occurs when there is more NO than NO2 in the exhaust gas. When the amount of NO is the same with NO2, the type of SCR reaction, called, 'fast reaction', becomes popular among the three reactions.
2015-01-15
Standard
J2610_201501
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding “pass-thru programming” of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0040
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Abstract Diesel engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to gasoline engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by April 2014 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0142
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shakti Kumar Singh, Mangeshkumar Jadhao
Abstract In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl and injector specifications in 2.34 l off road diesel engine. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically, investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. Then experimental tests were carried out, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination were determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations were evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
Abstract As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Vehicle manufacturers' develop new ways and technologies to meet the norms levied for cleaner vehicles. Especially in diesel engines, NOx emissions are considered an important pollutant to be treated. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for diesel engines. In order to meet such stringent emission norms without compromising on engine performance, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the solution to achieve EURO 6 NOx emission levels from diesel engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through ammonia which is injected into exhaust stream in the form of Aqueous Urea solution known as DEF.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Abstract Use of diluting agents in neat vegetable oil to reduce its density and viscosity, is arguably the best alternative route for vegetable oil usage in diesel engines. It is suitable where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production is not feasible. In this study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was diluted with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was termed as D100. An exhaustive field trial on a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine indicated that full load brake thermal efficiency of D100 was 26.4% followed by CI10, CI20 and CI30 test fuels. Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke were impressively reduced by a margin of 17-63% for the isopropyl alcohol containing test fuels as compared to the diesel baseline. However, oxides of nitrogen emissions were marginally higher for the isopropyl alcohol blends.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
Abstract The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favorable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a “Hydrogen Economy” are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Abstract Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel used for diesel engines, owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effects of DEE blends with diesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. The engine tests are carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the full load. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of DEE (by volume) are blended with diesel. Beyond 25% DEE blend, the viscosity and density of the blended fuel reduces as compared to the acceptable limits, that can further reduces the lubricity and create potential wear problems in sensitive fuel injection pump and fuel injector design. The laboratory fuel tests showed that DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel. The blended fuel retains the desirable physical properties of diesel fuel but includes the cleaner burning capability of DEE.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
With growing need for air quality improvement the emission norms are becoming stringent than ever, triggering a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission standard and engine performance has to be ensured with improved fuel efficiency, and control cost. To comply with future emission standards, intensive efforts are required to optimize the overall engine out emissions with reduce dependency on exhaust after treatment systems. This paper highlights about strategies employed in developing BS V emissions compliant engine for SUV application. The authors have assumed the limits of EURO 5 emission norms as equivalent to BS5 for this purpose. An existing BS IV compliant engine is selected as a base engine and engine out emission targets were defined considering certain conversion efficiency for the after treatment system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Abstract Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in pollutant emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however - the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for three different operating points on a research single cylinder engine. Special focus lies on the partially/unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions which are typically high when CNG is well premixed and burning in a globally lean combustion environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion. Swirl and tumble are forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Abstract Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. Hence considerable research has been directed to improve low temperature activity of catalysts used in diesel application. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature (LOT). To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0089
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Michele Miccio, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Abstract Selection of EGR system is very complex for a particular engine application. The performance of the EGR system depends highly on the Cooler Heat Transfer Efficiency. Cooler effectiveness drops over a period of operation due to soot deposition, HC condensation, and fuel quality. This phenomenon is called as Cooler Fouling. Fouling cannot be avoided completely but the level of performance drop over time has to be studied and minimized. The minimum pressure drop and the highest efficiency in fouled condition is the target for selection of a cooler. In this study, various parameter combinations like tube shape and profile, tube length, number of tubes, tube diameter, and pitch of corrugations, which influence the cooler performance were tested. A better understanding of each of its effect on cooler effectiveness and fouling behavior was obtained. The tube shape was changed from rectangular to circular, also from smooth surface to corrugate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Sachin gogia, Senthur Pandian, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass filtration and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Abstract Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
Abstract The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. Based on experimental data, a range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
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