Display:

Results

Viewing 151 to 180 of 22541
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2845
Jianye Su, Min Xu, Peng Yin, Yi Gao, David Hung
Abstract Spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine, especially in downsized boosted engine platform, has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. SIDI engines are also getting a larger share of the gasoline engine market which is traditionally dominated by the port fuel injection (PFI) engines in the U.S., European and Chinese vehicles. However, higher particle number emissions associated with operating the engine at higher loads pose additional challenges for meeting future stringent emissions regulations. In this study, the potential of using multiple injection strategies (double injection and triple injection strategy during the intake stroke in homogeneous combustion mode) to reduce particle number emissions in a 2.0 liter boosted SIDI gasoline engine at 1000 rpm, 11 bar BMEP condition was investigated using Horiba MEXA SPCS1000 PN measurement instrument.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2841
Jing Qin, Xiang Li, Yiqiang Pei
Abstract The aim of this research is to experimentally investigate the effects of combustion parameters [ignition timings, injection timings, excess air ratio (λ)] and lubricating oil on particulate matter (PM) emissions from a 2.0 L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (T-GDI) engine fueled with gasoline (octane number = 97), methanol/gasoline blends and pure methanol. The results of this paper show that the PM number concentration mostly presents a typical bimodal distribution in figures. The particle number concentration mainly concentrates in the nucleation mode. With the increase of methanol volume fraction in the blended fuel, the PM emissions decrease significantly. Furthermore, there are few particles when the engine fueled with pure methanol. As advancing ignition timing, the total PM number rises by over about 200%. Under the pre-ignition condition, the higher in-cylinder temperature may also accelerate the formation of the nucleation mode particles.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2843
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Abstract Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2839
Christophe Barro, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in the NOx emissions. In earlier research it was observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is based on three reasons: increased turbulence (1) and heat (2) from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to smaller main injection for similar load conditions (3). The second effect of heat addition during the soot oxidation is debated in the literature. The experimental investigation presented in the current work provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of soot formation and reduction using post injections under different operating conditions. The experimental data have been obtained using a cylindrical constant volume chamber with high optical access. The soot evolution has been obtained using 2-color-pyrometry.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2840
Juan J. Hernández, Rosario Ballesteros, Javier Barba, José Guillén-Flores
Abstract In order to reduce the pollutant emissions (NOx and PM) of diesel engines, the addition of small gaseous fuel amounts or dual mode operation have been proved as potential techniques. This paper is focused on a detailed characterization of the particles emitted from a single cylinder diesel engine when part of the diesel fuel (5 to 20% by energy) is replaced by a gaseous fuel (producer gas, mainly composed by H2, CO, CH4 and inert compounds) coming from biomass steam gasification. The engine was run at constant speed and torque and different EGR rates. Particle samples were collected by means of fiber glass filters placed in a dilution mini-tunnel. Simultaneously, during tests, part of the exhaust gas was conducted to an SMPS to determine the particle size distribution.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2838
Xiangang Wang, Zhangsong Zhan, Tiegang Hu, Zuohua Huang
Abstract Performance and particulate emissions of a modern common-rail and turbocharged diesel engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel fuels were comparatively studied. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to measure particle size distribution and number concentration. Two biodiesel fuels, BDFs (biodiesel from soybean oil) and BDFc (biodiesel from used cooking oil), as well as ultra-low sulfur diesel were used. The study shows that biodiesels give higher thermal efficiency than diesel. Biodiesels give obviously lower exhaust gas temperature than diesel under high engine speed. The differences in fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature between BDFs and BDFc are negligible. The first peaks of heat release rate for biodiesels are lower than that of diesel, while the second peaks are higher and advanced for biodiesels. BDFs show slightly slower heat release than BDFc during the first heat release stage at low engine speed.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2837
Jinyoung Jang, Young-Jae Lee, Ohseok Kwon, Minseob Lee, Jeonghwan Kim
Abstract This study focused on the effect of engine oils on regulated emissions, particulates and fuel economy. Three engine oils of the same SAE grade (synthetic oil with poly alpha olefins (PAOs), Group III base oil, and Group III genuine oil with additive package) were used in one gasoline and one diesel vehicle. A GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) vehicle and a diesel vehicle without DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) were selected because those vehicles obviously emit more particulates than port-injection gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles with DPF. A combined mode consisting of the US EPA emission test cycles FTP-75 and HWFET was used for these tests. HORIBA and PIERBURG gas analyzers were used to measure regulated emissions and fuel economy, respectively. Unregulated emissions and particulates were analyzed by FTIR and PPM-S, respectively. Samples (300 ml) of test engine oil were taken periodically just after each test, and the colors of the sampled oil compared.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2836
Haichao Fu, Yinhui Wang, Xinyan Li, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract An experimental study of particulate matter (PM) emission was conducted on four cars from Chinese market. Three cars were powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and one car was powered by a port fuel injection (PFI) engine. Particulate mass, number and size distribution were measured based on a chassis dynamometer over new European driving cycle (NEDC). The particulate emission behaviors during cold start and hot start NEDCs were compared to understand how the running conditions influence particulate emission. Three kinds of gasoline with RON 91.9, 94.0 and 97.4 were tested to find the impact of RON on particulate emission. Because of time and facilities constraints, only one cold/hot start NEDC was conducted for every vehicle fueled with every fuel. The test results showed that more particles were emitted during cold start condition (first 200s in NEDC). Compared with cold start NEDC, the particulate mass and number of hot start NEDC decreased by a wide margin.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2834
Barouch Giechaskiel, Urbano Manfredi, Giorgio Martini
Abstract In the current diesel vehicle exhaust emissions legislation Particle Number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm are prescribed. The legislation was extended to include Gasoline Direct Injection (G-DI) vehicles since September 2014. Target of this paper was to investigate whether smaller than 23 nm solid particles are emitted from engines in considerable concentration focusing on G-DI engines. The literature survey and the experimental investigation of >15 vehicles showed that engines emit solid sub-23 nm particles. The average percentage over a test cycle for G-DIs (30-40%) is similar to diesel engines. These percentages are relatively low considering the emission limit levels (6×1011 p/km) and the repeatability (10-20%) of the particle number method. These percentages are slightly higher compared to the percentages expected theoretically not to be counted due to the 23 nm cut-off size (5-15%).
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2832
Barouch Giechaskiel, Giorgio Martini
Abstract In the current heavy-duty engine and light-duty diesel vehicle exhaust emission legislation Particle Number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm are prescribed. The legislation was extended to include Gasoline Direct Injection (G-DI) vehicles since September 2014 and will be applied to Non-Road Mobile Machinery engines in the future. However there are concerns transferring the same methodology to other engine technologies, where higher concentration of sub-23 nm particles might exist. This paper focuses on the capabilities of existing PN measurement equipment on measuring solid particles smaller than 23 nm.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2833
Kotaro Tanaka, Masatoshi Takano, Shuji Iimura, Kai Miyamura, Mitsuru Konno
Abstract Recently, highly sensitive near-IR laser absorption spectrometers have been employed to measure ammonia (NH3) emissions. These instruments allow in-situ measurements of highly time-resolved NH3 emission levels in automobile exhaust. However, the effect of the automobile exhaust CO2 in NH3 measurements has not been studied in detail. Because the CO2 concentration in automobile exhaust is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the NH3 concentration, there is a possibility that spectral overlap by CO2 lines and/or the spectral broadening of NH3 by CO2 could affect the measured NH3 levels. This study had two major objectives. First, the effect of CO2 on the measured NH3 concentration was assessed using our developed near-IR laser absorption spectrometer. The second objective was to provide on-board NH3 measurements in the hybrid gasoline automobile exhaust using the developed spectrometer.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2782
Junya Iwasaki, Yasunori Shimizu, Hiroshi Fujita, Moritsugu Kasai
Abstract Automobile exhaust gas contains various harmful substances other than carbon dioxide, so exhaust gas post-processing devices have been developed to reduce their environmental load. Engine oil has contributed to the improvement of automobiles' environmental performance due to its excellent fuel-saving and long-drain properties. Recently, the lifetime of an exhaust gas post-processing device has been reported to decrease due to ash and phosphorus in engine oil. We have developed non-phosphorus and non-ash engine oil (NPNA), in which metal-based detergents and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP) were not contained. We have performed a verification test for NPNA using an actual engine. In a performance test for a diesel particulate filter (DPF), the amount of soot and ash deposited onto a DPF was smaller when NPNA was used than when commercially available engine oil was used.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2808
Tao Tang, Jun Zhang, Shi-jin Shuai, Dongxiao Cao
Abstract Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been demonstrated as one of the most promising technologies to reduce NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. To meet the Euro VI regulations, the SCR system should achieve high NOx reduction efficiency even at low temperature. In the SCR system, NH3 is usually supplied by the injection of urea water solution (UWS), therefore it is important to improve the evaporation and decomposition efficiency of UWS at low temperature and minimize urea deposits. In this study, the UWS spray, urea decomposition, and the UWS impingement on pipe wall at low temperature were investigated based on an engine test bench and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The decomposition of urea and deposits was analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2809
Kohei Yoshida, Yusuke Nozaki, Toshihiro Mori, Yuki Bisaiji, Yuki Haba, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Takao Fukuma
Abstract In this paper, a control strategy to switch NSR (NOx storage and reduction) function from standard DeNOx by rich combustion to DiAir (Diesel NOx After-treatment by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants) and additional advantages to use HCI (Hydrocarbon Injector) during desulfation were introduced. Investigations under a transient cycle suggest that NOx conversion with DiAir is strongly affected by preliminary NOx storage condition in the NSR catalyst. To avoid NOx breakthrough just after starting HC dosing for DiAir, a rich operation to reduce stored NOx was shown to be important and high NOx conversion could be maintained using this control strategy under a transient cycle. Furthermore, by combining HCI and in-cylinder post injection, usage of rich condition for NSR DeSOx can be expand to wider engine speed and load area.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2810
Kihyung Joo, Jin Woo Park, Jin-ha Lee, Seok-Jae Kim, Seungbeom Yoo
Abstract In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2803
Aayush Mehrotra, Simhachalam Juttu, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, J G Suryawanshi
In this paper, Authors tried to investigate the influence of Low Temperature EGR (LtEGR) on NOx, PM emissions and fuel efficiency in NEDC 120 cycle. Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) less than 3.5T vehicle selected for investigation of LtEGR. The existing water cooling circuit modified to suitable to handle the LtEGR concept without changing the existing EGR cooler. Cooled EGR technology has two benefits in terms of handling high EGR ratios and more fresh air within the engine displacement. Under this assumption separate LtEGR layout was prepared for the evolution of superior EGR cooling technologies and low pressure EGR.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2805
Benjamin Kingsbury, Jonathan Stewart, Zhentao Wu, Roy Douglas, Kang Li
Abstract This study describes an innovative monolith structure designed for applications in automotive catalysis using an advanced manufacturing approach developed at Imperial College London. The production process combines extrusion with phase inversion of a ceramic-polymer-solvent mixture in order to design highly ordered substrate micro-structures that offer improvements in performance, including reduced PGM loading, reduced catalyst ageing and reduced backpressure. This study compares the performance of the novel substrate for CO oxidation against commercially available 400 cpsi and 900 cpsi catalysts using gas concentrations and a flow rate equivalent to those experienced by a full catalyst brick when attached to a vehicle. Due to the novel micro-structure, no washcoat was required for the initial testing and 13 g/ft3 of Pd was deposited directly throughout the substrate structure in the absence of a washcoat.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2806
Isaline Lefort, Jose Herreros, Athanasios Tsolakis
Abstract This study investigates the potential of using a partial flow filter (PFF) to assist a wall flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) and reduce the need for active regeneration phases that increase engine fuel consumption. First, the filtration efficiency of the PFF was studied at several engine operating conditions, varying the filter space velocity (SV), through modification of the exhaust gas flow rate, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) concentration. The effects of these parameters were studied for the filtration of different particle size ranges (10-30 nm, 30-200 nm and 200-400 nm). For the various engine operating conditions, the PFF showed filtration efficiency over 25% in terms of PM number and mass. The PFF filtration behaviour was also investigated at idle engine operation producing a high concentration of nuclei particulates for which the filter was able to maintain 60% filtration efficiency.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2795
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions and reducing operating cost by improving the engine's fuel economy. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that heavy duty diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2903
Nobunori Okui, Tetsuya Niikuni
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the future. In the national new-car sales in 2012 of Japan, the total sales of hybrid vehicles kept 26.5% share. In the field of passenger cars, this share was 29.7%. And, this share rose about four times compared to that of 2008 [1]. Also, small delivery hybrid trucks are increased in the commercial vehicle class. Fuel economy of hybrid trucks in the catalog specifications is relatively better than that of the diesel tracks which have no hybrid systems. Nevertheless, hybrid trucks' users report that advantages of fuel economy of hybrid trucks at the real traffic driving conditions are small.
2014-10-07
Magazine
Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2347
Britney J. McCoy, Arman Tanman
Abstract In-use testing of diesel emission control technologies is an integral component of EPA's verification program. Device manufacturers are required to complete in-use testing once 500 units have been sold. Additionally, EPA conducts test programs on randomly selected retrofit devices from installations completed with grants by the National Clean Diesel Campaign. In this test program, EPA identified and recovered a variety of retrofit devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), installed on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (on-highway and nonroad). All of the devices were tested at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. This study's goal was to evaluate the durability, defined here as emissions performance as a function of time, of retrofit technologies aged in real-world applications.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2349
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are a key component in many on- and off-road aftertreatment systems to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions limits. Efficient thermal management and regeneration control is critical for reliable and cost-effective operation of the combined engine and aftertreatment system. Conventional DPF control systems predominantly rely on a combination of filter pressure drop measurements and predictive models to indirectly estimate the soot loading state of the filter. Over time, the build-up of incombustible ash, primarily derived from metal-containing lubricant additives, accumulates in the filter to levels far exceeding the DPF's soot storage limit. The combined effects of soot and ash build-up dynamically impact the filter's pressure drop response, service life, and fuel consumption, and must be accurately accounted for in order to optimize engine and aftertreatment system performance.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2350
Zhiguo Zhao, Guanyu Zheng, Fengshuang Wang, Suying Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
In order to satisfy China IV emissions regulations, a unique design concept was proposed with injector closely coupled with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system outer body. The benefit of this design is significant in cost reduction and installation convenience. One paper was published to describe the vertical inlet layout [1]; this work is the second part describing applications of this concept to horizontal inlet configurations. For horizontal inlet pipe, two mixing pipe designs were proposed to avoid urea deposit and meet EU IV emission regulations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to evaluate two design concepts; experiments were performed to validate both designs. CFD computations and experiments give the same direction on ranking of the two decomposition tubes. With the straight decomposition pipe design and unique perforated baffle design, no urea deposits were found; in addition, the emission level satisfied EU IV regulations.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2351
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2353
Harry Dwyer, Seungju Yoon, David Quiros, Mark Burnitzki, Roelof Riemersma, Donald Chernich, John Collins, Jorn Herner
Abstract A novel ambient dilution tunnel has been designed, tested and employed to measure the emissions from active parked regenerations of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The 2007 certified engine had greater regulated emissions than the 2010 certified engine. For a fully loaded 2007 DPF there was an initial period of very large mass emissions, which was then followed by very large number of small particle emissions. The Particle Size Distribution, PSD, was distributed over a large range from 10 nm to 10 μm. The parked regenerations of the 2010 DPF had a much lower initial emission pattern, but the second phase of large numbers of small particles was very similar to the 2007 DPF. The emission results during regeneration have been compared to total emissions from recent engine dynamometer testing of 2007 and 2010 DPFs, and they are much larger.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2391
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard K. Stobart, John Rutledge, Edward Winward
Abstract A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2429
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2431
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved Singh, A K Sehgal, B Basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil Kumar, G Gopal
Abstract In this paper, experimental evaluation was carried out on a 6.0 L heavy duty CNG engine which has been optimized for 18 percent hydrogen blended CNG (HCNG). Optimization test results shows that use of HCNG results in reduced CO, THC & CH4 emissions by 39, 25 & 25 percent respectively and increase in NOx by 32 percent vis-a-vis CNG. After optimization the engine was subjected to endurance test of 600 hours as per 15 mode engine simulated city driving cycle with HCNG. The performance & emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per European Transient Cycle (ETC). Test results indicate that there were no significant changes observed in engine power output over the complete endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) measurements were consistent at all the 15 modes of engine simulated city driving cycle.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2432
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Abstract Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI (effective as of 2014) exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines have been brought close to zero level. This means that the advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation in which electric transit buses are also entering the market. The motivation to use natural gas could still be diesel fuel substitution and to some extent, also reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 22541

Filter