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Viewing 151 to 180 of 24398
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0983
Masaaki Ito, Frank Katsube, Yasuhiko Hamada, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Asako
Alternative Particle Number Emission Test Method Establishment Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles in 2011. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) are mandatory for the above-mentioned PN regulations. These filter technologies are to be continued to evolve for the near future tighter PN regulation. However, PN emission test for filter technology development is currently and mainly carried out with chassis dynamometer, which is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN emission test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0995
Olle Berg, Lars-Gunnar Simonson
The Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) is often used to dilute automotive exhaust with ambient air for measurement of emissions from vehicles. If the CVS is equipped with a Smooth Approach Orifice (SAO) to measure dilution air flow, the exhaust flow of the vehicle can then be calculated as the difference between dilution and total flow. Calibration of the CVS and SAO is routinely done using ambient air, but recently it has been shown that water vapor has a significant influence on this calibration and thus has this requirement been added to current emission legislation. However, if this is done then the effect of CO2 in exhaust has not been considered. Further on, when using the CVS to measure exhaust flow, only the Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) will be affected by the diluted exhaust gas composition. The measurement of dilution air will still be unaffected and thus will the resulting exhaust flow be influenced by the unbalanced conditions of the CFV compared to the SAO.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
The goal of this paper is to present guidelines for interpreting soot natural luminosity images that are taken from within the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder research engine, which is fitted with a window in the piston-crown. In the experiments, fuel is injected near top-dead-center and luminosity from soot that forms as a result of the combustion process is imaged. Then, CFD simulations are run, from which soot luminosity and in-cylinder soot distributions are predicted. A luminosity to soot-distribution transfer function is developed from the CFD results and the transfer function is subsequently applied to the experimentally-obtained luminosity images in order to approximate soot distributions in the physical engine with improved accuracy. This method is applied to multiple operating conditions in order to develop the guidelines presented herein. Although this work builds on previous efforts, this is the authors’ first published work on this particular topic.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0922
Akito Takayama, Takahiro Kurokawa, Hiroki Nakayama, Takuya Katoh, Makoto Nagata
New Pd-Rh type CC-TWC (three way catalysts in CC (close-coupled) position) has been developed to improve low-temperature gas activity. In this study Pd top and Rh bottom layered TWC was used, and Ba and La were tested as an additive to Pd, respectively. Alumina was used for Pd support and La or Ba was co-supported to Pd. The catalysts were aged at 950C for 200hrs and CO, HC and NOx performance were evaluated. As a result, Pd-La catalyst showed higher gas performance than Pd-Ba catalyst. The reason and mechanism of this phenomenon were investigated by three points. First one is Pd activation by the additives, second one is Pd particle size by increasing thermal durability of alumina support, and third one is specific NOx adsorption and desorption by the additives. Pd activity seemed to be increased by La addition but details of activation energy analysis and characterization of Pd by XPS, etc. are under investigation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji yabuzaki
PN regulation including Euro6 will be scheduled / tightened worldwide for gasoline engine especially GDI(Gasoline Direct Injection) engine. To meet PN regulation with GDI engine, particle filter which is also utilized for a diesel engine is needed. There are two types of particle filters for gasoline engine (Gasoline Particulate Filter ; GPF). One is bare GPF (additional type) , the other is coated GPF (replaced type). "Replaced" GPF (coated GPF) has advantages of cost / space / pressure drop compare to “Additional" GPF (bare GPF). There are three key performances for coated GPF. Firstly, three way performance is equivalent or more than three way catalyst. Secondly, a low pressure drop which is not to affect engine power and fuel consumption. Finally, a high PN filtration efficiency to meet the PN regulations. ZONE coating technology which is utilized for three way catalyst is also effective for GPF to improve three way performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1005
Yizhou Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, David Rothamer
Measurements of the particle size distribution (PSD) provide important insight into the nature of particulate matter (PM) and its sources as stricter PM emission regulations (both mass & number based) are being implemented. A previous study by the authors suggested a link between the change in PSD shape and changing amounts of direct-injected fuel. In this study, the effect of direct-injected fuel on the PSDs from dual-fuel combustion strategies is investigated in greater depth. The PSD data were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and acquired in a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine operated using conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two diesel/natural gas dual-fuel combustion strategies. Three different direct-injection (DI) fuels (diesel, 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane (farnesane), and a primary research fuel (PRF) blend) and two different injector nozzles were used in this study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters into the engine room and sometimes reaches to the position of air inlet duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion routes. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to be narrower and the undercover tends to be larger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine room becomes higher and causes to increase the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is giving a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of water level prediction method while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multi body and fluid dynamics analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1007
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Increasingly stringent legislation aims to reduce exhaust gas particulate levels - and not only for vehicle with Diesel engines. Various authorities have set limits for the mass of particulate (PM) emitted over a legislative driving cycle and the EU has added particle number (PN) limits. Additionally, there is considerable interest in particulate emissions from engine types traditionally assumed to have zero particulate emissions - port fuel injected vehicles running on gasoline, LPG and CNG. Regional specifics such as drive cycles mean that the legislative particulate emissions result varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even where the same vehicle is used for testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran ZHANG
Diesel automotive engines after-treatment systems face greater challenges with every iteration of emission norm legislation. Major improvements in tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple selective reduction catalysts (SCR) with an ammonia oxidizer (CUC) are proposed to cover operation over wide temperature range, however, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to many unmeasurable states. Usage of sophisticated model based predictive controls (MPC) makes the control task straight forward and less error prone compared to classic PID control. This paper shows the application of MPC to a SCR multi-brick system. Storage levels for SCR are calculated by optimization based on NOx conversion efficiency keeping tailpipe NH3 slip under emission limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA’s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1017
Michael Rößler, Amin Velji, Corina Janzer, Thomas Koch, Matthias Olzmann
The proportion of nitrogen dioxide in the engine-out emissions of a Diesel engine is of great importance for the conversion of the total oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in SCR catalysts. Particularly at lower engine loads and lower exhaust temperatures an increase of the already low NO2/NOX fraction will enhance the SCR operation significantly. For this purpose the understanding of the NO2 formation during the Diesel combustion and expansion stroke is as substantial as being aware of the different thermodynamic impacts and engine operating parameters that affect the formation process. To determine the influences on the NO2 emission level several variation series were performed on a single cylinder research engine. Especially the charge dilution parameters like the air-fuel ratio and the EGR rate as well as the injection parameters could be identified to be decisive for the NO2 formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0913
Evangelos Georgiadis, Toru Kudo, Dr Olaf Herrmann, Ken Uchiyama, Juergen Hagen PhD
In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For SCR system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, DENSO has developed a novel exhaust reverse flow concept, combined with a blade mixer, increasing mixing length and total mixing performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1019
Bentolhoda Torkashvand, Andreas Gremminger, Simone Valchera, Maria Casapu, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Olaf Deutschmann
Abstract The required gas temperature for complete oxidation of methane to water and CO2 over conventional exhaust catalysts is above 450°C which is higher than the exhaust gas temperature. For lean-burn turbocharged engines, a solution to this problem is positioning the catalyst upstream of the turbine to take advantage of higher temperatures closer to the engine resulting in faster kinetics over the catalyst. Pre-turbine placement of the catalyst will also result in higher pressures depending on engine design and operation point. An increase in pressure leads to a longer residence time of the exhaust gas stream inside the catalyst. Consequently, a pre-turbine catalyst placement can lead to higher conversion levels if the catalytic reaction is in the kinetically controlled regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1166
Gareth Milton, Paul Bloore, Khizer Tufail, Barnaby Paul Coates, Ian Newbigging, Allan Cooper, Paul Shayler
In order to achieve fleet average CO2 targets, mass-market adoption of low CO2 technologies is required. Application of low cost technologies across a large number of vehicles is more cost-effective in reducing fleet CO2 than deploying high-impact, costly technology to a few. Therefore, to meet the CO2 reduction challenge, commercially viable, low cost technologies are of significant interest. This paper presents results from the ‘ADEPT’ collaborative research program which focuses on CO2 reduction through the application of intelligent 48V electrification to diesel engines for passenger car applications. Results were demonstrated on a C-segment vehicle with a class-leading 4-cylinder 1.5 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. Electrification was applied through a high power, high efficiency, switched reluctance belt-integrated starter generator (B-ISG) capable of both generation and motoring, and an Advanced Lead Carbon Battery for energy storage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0603
Vicente Cuapio Espino, Akshay Bichkar, Joycer D. Osorio
Software development for automotive application requires several iterations in order to tune parameters and strategy logic to operate accordantly with optimal performance. Thus, in this paper is presented an optimizer method and tool used to tune calibration parameters related to torque estimation for a hybrid automatic transmission application. This optimizer aims to minimize the time invested during the software calibration and software development phases that could take significant time in order to cover the different driving conditions under which a hybrid automatic transmission can operate. For this reason, an optimization function based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm using Matlab software helps to find optimized calibration values based on a cost function (square sum error minimization).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0951
Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Daniel Escobar Valdivieso
To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world operation. In such concept, the on-line availability of engine-out NOx emission is crucial. Here, the use of a Virtual NOx sensor is of great added value. Virtual sensing enables more direct and robust emission control allowing for example engine-out NOx determination during conditions in which the hardware sensor is not available. Furthermore, with use of the sensor, the engine control strategy can be directly based on NOx emission data, resulting in reduced response time and improved transient emission control. This paper presents the development and on-line implementation of a Virtual NOx sensor, using in-cylinder pressure as main input.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1045
Ioannis Papadopoulos, Simon Becker, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kunzel PhD, Armin Frommer PhD
The oil emission of an internal combustion engine has a direct impact on CO2 and particle emission. Thereby reducing the oil emission, especially in the context of stricter emission requirements in the automotive industry, is becoming a center of attention. To achieve this goal, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the formation of the oil emission in the internal combustion engine is necessary. In order to determine the oil emission caused by the piston group, the exhaust is sampled and analyzed via a mass spectrometer in the exhaust manifold directly after the exhaust valve. For the detection of the lubricating oil, which contains long-chain hydrocarbons, the mass spectrometer is operated in the high-pass filter mode. The oil emission is evaluated in stationary and transient operation of the engine for assessing specifically selected design parameters of the piston group, in order to make differentiated and detailed statements about the oil emission mechanisms.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0909
Zhe Zhang, Mats Abom, Hans Boden, Mikael Karlsson
Air pollution caused by exhaust particulate matter (PM) from vehicular traffic is a major health issue. Increasingly strict regulations of vehicle emission have been introduced and efforts have been put on both the suppression of particulate formation inside the engine cylinders and the development of after-treatment technologies such as filters. With modern direct injected engines that produce a large number of really small sub-micron particles, the focus has increased even further and now also include a number count. The problem of calculating particle trajectories in flow ducts like vehicle exhaust systems is challenging but important to further improve the technology. The interaction between particles and oscillating flows may lead to the formation of particle groups (regions where the particle concentration is increased) yielding a possibility of realizing particle agglomeration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. This paper presents simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces using an implementation of a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. The approach uses an unstructured mesh allowing complex geometries to be modelled and includes a range of dynamic contact angle models as the boundary conditions for the VOF and LS at the surface. The methodology has been validated against a number of test cases such as drop behaviour impacting on a solid surface in previous work.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0382
Oscar Hernandez Cervantes, Antonio Espiritu Santo Rincon
The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI). The control system was developed with a low cost open source platform for further function expansion, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop automated tests for engine calibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0921
Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Alex Graper, Andrew McIntosh, William Kaminski
The automotive aftermarket industry is an extremely cost competitive market to say the least. Aftermarket manufacturers are sought by customers primarily for their ability to replace an OES for a fraction of the cost. This pressurizes the manufacturers to yield on performance abilities to get a share in the market place. The TWC system in gasoline vehicles not only acts as an emissions reduction device but is an integral part of the overal vehicle performance itself, especially since the introduction of OBD II systems in 1995. An inefficient catalyst not only leads to excessive tailpipe emissions but also acts detrimental to vehicle fueling and hence overall performance. The aftemarket catalyst industry which is regulated by EPA and CARB for gasoline engines is subject to meeting a mandatory performance standard for the same reason. There are several advancement in catalyst technologies to gain performance but this may or may not apply to the aftermarket manufacturers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0956
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Seungju Yoon, Michael Carter, Cary Henry
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOx emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions. This paper details the work done to explore the feasibility of various configurations of Traditional Technology (diesel oxidation catalyst-diesel particulate filter-selective catalytic reduction (SCR)) and Advanced Technology (passive NOx adsorber or diesel oxidation catalyst – SCR on Filter – SCR) to demonstrate ultra-low NOx emissions from heavy-duty engines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0643
Thompson Lanzanova, Macklini Dalla Nora, Hua Zhao
The more strict legislation for internal combustion engines CO2 emissions demands higher engine efficiency. The use of renewable fuels, such as bioethanol, may play a vital role to reduce not only CO2 emissions but also oil dependency. An option to increase spark ignition (SI) four stroke engine efficiency is to use the so called over-expanded cycle concepts by variation of the valve events. The use of an early or late inlet valve closure reduces pumping losses (the main cause of the part load low efficiency in SI engines) and decreases the effective compression ratio. The higher expansion to compression ratio leads to better use of the produced work and also increases engine efficiency. This study presents the engine combustion, performance and emissions of the unthrottled stoichiometric operation of a four valves four stroke single cylinder camless engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0607
Nahid Pervez, Ace Koua Kue, Adarsh Appukuttan, John Bogema, Michael Van Nieuwstadt
Designing a control system that can robustly detect faulted emission control devices under any environmental and driving conditions is a very challenging task for any OEM. To gain confidence in the control strategy and the values of tunable parameters requires that the test vehicles are subjected to their limits during the development process. Complexity of modern powertrain systems along with the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) monitors with multidimensional thresholds make it very difficult to anticipate all the possible worst case situations. To find the optimum solution of this problem in traditional calibration process can be very time and resource intensive. One possible solution is to take a data driven calibration approach. In this method, large amount of data is collected by collaboration of different groups working on same powertrain. Later the collected data is mined to find the optimum values of tunable parameters for respective vehicle functions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0911
Krishna Chilumukuru, Aniket Gupta, Michael Ruth, Michael Cunningham, Govindarajan Kothandaraman, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Howard Hess
Light duty emission certification levels such as Tier 2 Bin 2 (equivalent of Tier 3 Bin 30) are 70% and 88% lower in NOx and HC respectively from current Tier 2 Bin 5 level. For light duty chassis certified automotive applications, the weighting factor of the cold portion of the FTP-75 (federal transient procedure) cycle is 43% of the overall emissions certification value. NOx and HC emissions must be mitigated at much lower exhaust temperatures as compared to diesel aftertreatment systems currently in production. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture to improve low temperature NOx and HC conversion efficiency is proposed. This system consists of a diesel cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst and selective catalytic reduction catalyst on filter (SCRF®) close coupled to the engine for faster warm up. Additionally, a flow-through SCR catalyst is located downstream of the SCR on DPF catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0943
Cory S. Hendrickson, Devesh Upadhyay, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction and control of NH3 slip, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
The problem of accessibility to public transit is a well-documented problem in transportation theory and network literature known as the “Last Mile” problem. A lack of first and last mile specific transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes of transit. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile specific transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options along with a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 39% when compared to a personal vehicle (parking) option.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0941
Liu Yang, Balaji Sukumar, Mojghan Naseri, Penelope Markatou, Sougato Chatterjee
Future emissions regulations proposed for the Asian automotive industry (BSVI for India and NSVI regulations for China) are strict and similar to EU VI regulations. As a result, they will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced Particulate Matter (PM) control. This will drive implementation of full Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) and simultaneous NOx control using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologies. In this work, we present the performance of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), CSF, SCR and Ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) systems utilizing the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC). Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) required for both active and passive filter regeneration applications will be discussed. The sensitivity of key design parameters like catalyst technology, PGM loading, catalyst sizing to meet the regulation limits has been investigated.
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