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Viewing 151 to 180 of 24428
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0953
Jinyong Luo, Yadan Tang, Saurabh Joshi, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0954
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Gary Neely, Michael Carter, Seungju Yoon, Cary Henry
Abstract The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1018
Gianluca Padula, Philipp Schiffmann, Matthieu Lecompte, Olivier Laget
Abstract Ever growing traffic has a detrimental effect on health and environment. In response to climate warming and health concerns, governments worldwide enforce more stringent emission standards. NOx emissions limits are some of the most challenging to meet using fuel-efficient lean-burn engines. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one consolidated NOx after-treatment technique using urea water solution (UWS) injection upstream of the catalytic converter. A recent development of SCR, using gaseous ammonia injection, reduces wall deposit formation and improves the cold-start efficiency. The mixing of gaseous ammonia with the exhaust gases is one of the key challenges that need to be overcome, as the effectiveness of the system is strongly dependent on the mixture uniformity at the inlet of the SCR catalyst.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1017
Michael Rößler, Amin Velji, Corina Janzer, Thomas Koch, Matthias Olzmann
Abstract The proportion of nitrogen dioxide in the engine-out emissions of a Diesel engine is of great importance for the conversion of the total oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in SCR catalysts. Particularly at lower engine loads and lower exhaust temperatures an increase of the already low NO2/NOX fraction will enhance the SCR operation significantly. For this purpose, the understanding of the NO2 formation during the Diesel combustion and expansion stroke is as substantial as being aware of the different thermodynamic impacts and engine operating parameters that affect the formation process. To determine the influences on the NO2 emission level several variation series were performed on a single-cylinder research engine. Especially the charge dilution parameters like the air-fuel ratio and the EGR rate as well as the injection parameters could be identified to be decisive for the NO2 formation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1013
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract The standard emission protocol including driving cycle is performed for the legislative fuel economy and emission testing of the vehicles in a laboratory. The driving cycles are expected to represent actual driving pattern and energy requirements. However, recent studies showed that the gap between real world driving conditions and the standard driving cycle is widening, as the traffic pattern and vehicle population is varying dynamically and the change in the emission procedures is not synchronized with the same pace. More so, as the process of harmonization of emission legislations is in progress to narrow down the country specific variation of emission regulation, as this will help in the smooth globalization of the automotive business process. The new regulation for in-service conformity is being considered to reduce the emissions in real-world driving.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1045
Ioannis Papadopoulos, Simon Becker, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kunzel, Armin Frommer
Abstract The oil emission of a combustion engine has a direct influence on CO2 and particulate emissions. The focus on reducing oil emission is thus particularly growing in the context of stricter emissions limits for the automotive industry. To reach this goal requires a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the genesis of oil emission in a combustion engine. In order to determine oil emission caused specifically by the piston group, part of the exhaust gas flow is taken and analyzed using a mass spectrometer directly downstream of the exhaust valve in the exhaust manifold. In the process, the mass spectrometer is operated in high-pass filter mode to detect long-chain hydrocarbons associated with the lubricating oil. In order to make differentiated and detailed statements about oil emission mechanisms, oil emission and blow-by in steady-state and transient engine operation are determined for specific design parameters of the piston group.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
Abstract High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0773
Dan DelVescovo, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf Reitz
Abstract Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Abstract The CO2 advantage coupled with the low NOX and PM potential of natural gas (NG) makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, because NG is mostly methane, reduced combustion efficiency associated with traditional NG fueling strategies can result in significant levels of methane emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to reduced efficiency and the high global warming potential of methane. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was found to improve thermal and combustion efficiencies over fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Abstract Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system. The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0123
Saiful Bari
Abstract In general, diesel engines have an efficiency of about 35% and hence, a considerable amount of energy is expelled to the ambient air. In water-cooled engines, about 25%, 33% and 7% of the input energy are wasted in the coolant, exhaust gas, and friction, respectively. The heat from the exhaust gas of diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power and improve overall engine efficiency. Studies related to the application of recoverable heat to produce additional power in medium capacity diesel engines (< 100 kW) using separate Rankine cycle are scarce. To recover heat from the exhaust of the engine, an efficient heat exchanger is necessary. For this type of application, the heat exchangers are needed to be designed in such a way that it can handle the heat load with reasonable size, weight and pressure drop. This paper describes the study of a diesel generator-set attached with an exhaust heat recovery system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0135
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an effective technique for reducing NOx emissions in order to achieve the ever more stringent emissions standards. This system is widely used in commercial vehicle engines in which thermal loads and durability are a critical issue. In addition, the development deadlines of the new engine generations are being considerably reduced, especially for validation test phase in which customers usually require robust parts for engine validation in the first stages of the project. Some of the most critical issues in this initial phases of program development are heavy boiling and thermal fatigue. Consequently it has been necessary to develop a procedure for designing EGR coolers that are sufficiently robust against heavy boiling and thermal fatigue in a short period of time, even when the engine calibration is not finished and the working conditions of the EGR system are not completely defined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0141
Ray Host, Peter Moilanen, Marcus Fried, Bhageerath Bogi
Abstract Future vehicle North American emissions standards (e.g., North American Tier 3 Bin 30 or LEVIII SULEV 30) require the exhaust catalyst to be greater than 80% efficient by 20 seconds after the engine has been started in the Federal Test Procedure. Turbocharged engines are especially challenged to deliver fast catalyst light-off since the presence of the turbocharger in the exhaust flow path significantly increases exhaust system heat losses. A solution to delivering cost effective SULEV 30 emissions in turbocharged engines is to achieve fast catalyst light-off by reducing exhaust system heat losses in cold start, without increasing catalyst thermal degradation during high load operation. A CAE methodology to assess the thermal performance of exhaust system hardware options, from the exhaust port to the catalyst brick face is described, which enables compliance with future emissions regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0154
Sudhi Uppuluri, Hemant R Khalane, Ajay Naiknaware
Abstract With the upcoming regulations for fuel economy and emissions, there is a significant interest among vehicle OEMs and fleet managers in developing computational methodologies to help understand the influence and interactions of various key parameters on Fuel Economy and carbon dioxide emissions. The analysis of the vehicle as a complete system enables designers to understand the local and global effects of various technologies that can be employed for fuel economy and emission improvement. In addition, there is a particular interest in not only quantifying the benefit over standard duty-cycles but also for real world driving conditions. The present study investigates impact of exhaust heat recovery system (EHRS) on a typical 1.2L naturally aspirated gasoline engine passenger car representative of the India market.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0160
Longjie Xiao, Tianming He, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Huang, Xianyao Ping
Abstract While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0593
Ivan Arsie, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract The development of more affordable sensors together with the enhancement of computation features in current Engine Management Systems (EMS), makes the in-cylinder pressure sensing a suitable methodology for the on-board engine control and diagnosis. Since the 1960’s the in-cylinder pressure signal was employed to investigate the combustion process of the internal combustion engines for research purposes. Currently, the sensors cost reduction in addition to the need to comply with the strict emissions legislation has promoted a large-scale diffusion on production engines equipment. The in-cylinder pressure signal offers the opportunity to estimate with high dynamic response almost all the variables of interest for an effective engine combustion control even in case of non-conventional combustion processes (e.g. PCCI, HCCI, LTC).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0591
Andreas Thomasson, Xavier Llamas, Lars Eriksson
1 In modern turbocharged engines the power output is strongly connected to the turbocharger speed, through the flow characteristics of the turbocharger. Turbo speed is therefore an important state for the engine operation, but it is usually not measured or controlled directly. Still the control system must ensure that the turbo speed does not exceed its maximum allowed value to prevent damaging the turbocharger. Having access to a turbo speed signal, preferably by a cheap and reliable estimation instead of a sensor, could be beneficial for over speed protection and supervision of the turbocharger. This paper proposes a turbo speed observer that only utilizes the conditions around the compressor and a model for the compressor map. These conditions are either measured or can be more easily estimated from available sensors compared the conditions on the turbine side.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0608
Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
This paper proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicate Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actions. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset. The complete control system demonstrated strong disturbance rejection and close loop stability.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0918
Joseph R. Theis, Andrew Getsoian, Christine Lambert
In anticipation that stoichiometric gasoline engines of the future will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with significantly improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the thermal durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between the Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is being funded by the US Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150oC.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0925
Tatsuro Sugino, Eriko Tanaka, Huong Tran, Norihiko Aono
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been an essential aftertreatment component for reducing particulate matter (PM) emission for diesel engine vehicles thereby meeting stringent emission regulations. Installation of DPF can achieve high filtration efficiency; however PM filtration causes high pressure drop due to deep bed filtration. Although periodic PM regeneration is needed for keeping low pressure drop, it causes significant deterioration in fuel efficiency. Improving the efficiency of PM regeneration and low pressure drop are major challenges for DPF to meet future CO2 emission regulations. In this paper, a novel morphological catalyst layer for DPF was presented. This catalyst layer located in wall surface of inlet DPF channels and formed highly porous and 3 dimension meshwork shape. These features enhanced not only preventing deep bed filtration for low pressure drop, but also soot-catalyst contact for fast PM regeneration rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0875
Valentin Soloiu, Jose Moncada, Martin Muinos, Aliyah Knowles, Remi Gaubert, Thomas Beyerl, Gustavo Molina
This paper investigates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with Bu25, 75% ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) blended with 25% n-butanol by mass. N-butanol, derivable from biomass feedstock, was used given its availability as an alternative fuel that can supplement the existing limited fossil fuel supply. Combustion and emissions were investigated at 2000 rpm across loads of 4.3-7.2 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Cylinder pressure was collected using Kistler piezoelectric transducers in the precombustion (PC) and main combustion (MC) chambers. Ignition delays ranged from 0.74 - 1.02 ms for both operated fuels. Even though n-butanol has a lower cetane number, the high swirl in the separate combustion chamber would help advance its premixed combustion. The heat release rate of Bu25 became initially 3 J/crank-angle-degree (CAD) higher than that of ULSD#2 as load increased to 7.2 bar IMEP.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0535
Chih-Kuang Kuan, Daniel Styles, Mitchell Bieniek, John Hoard
Abstract Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0540
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance. In a second stage, the considered engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, includes user defined procedures for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. Computed results are compared with collected data for all the considered operating conditions, in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles, burn rate profiles, and knock propensity, as well.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0586
Hayato Shirai, Hayato Nakada, Akio Matsunaga, Hiroyuki Tominaga
Abstract In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0584
Haksu Kim, Jaewook Shin, Myoungho Sunwoo
Abstract With fuel efficiency becoming an increasingly critical aspect of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, the necessity for research on efficient generation of electric energy has been growing. An energy management (EM) system controls the generation of electric energy using an alternator. This paper presents a strategy for the EM using a control mode switch (CMS) of the alternator for the (ICE) vehicles. This EM recovers the vehicle’s residual kinetic energy to improve the fuel efficiency. The residual kinetic energy occurs when a driver manipulates a vehicle to decelerate. The residual energy is commonly wasted as heat energy of the brake. In such circumstances, the wasted energy can be converted to electric energy by operating an alternator. This conversion can reduce additional fuel consumption. For extended application of the energy conversion, the future duration time of the residual power is exploited.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0583
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Phil Mortimer, Justin Seabrook
Abstract With the introduction in Europe of drive cycles such as RDE and WLTC, transient emissions prediction is more challenging than before for passenger car applications. Transient predictions are used in the calibration optimization process to determine the cumulative cycle emissions for the purpose of meeting objectives and constraints. Predicting emissions such as soot accurately is the most difficult area, because soot emissions rise very steeply during certain transients. The method described in this paper is an evolution of prediction using a steady state global model. A dynamic model can provide the instantaneous prediction of boost and EGR that a static model cannot. Meanwhile, a static model is more accurate for steady state engine emissions. Combining these two model types allows more accurate prediction of emissions against time. A global dynamic model combines a dynamic model of the engine air path with a static DoE (Design of Experiment) emission model.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0605
Anthony D'Amato, Yan Wang, Dimitar Filev, Enrique Remes
Abstract Government regulations for fuel economy and emission standards have driven the development of technologies that improve engine performance and efficiency. These technologies are enabled by an increased number of actuators and increasingly sophisticated control algorithms. As a consequence, engine control calibration time, which entails sweeping all actuators at each speed-load point to determine the actuator combination that meets constraints and delivers ideal performance, has increased significantly. In this work we present two adaptive optimization methods, both based on an indirect adaptive control framework, which improve calibration efficiency by searching for the optimal process inputs without visiting all input combinations explicitly. The difference between the methods is implementation of the algorithm in steady-state vs dynamic operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0603
Vicente Cuapio Espino, Akshay Bichkar, Joycer D. Osorio
Abstract Software development for automotive application requires several iterations in order to tune parameters and strategy logic to operate accordantly with optimal performance. Thus, in this paper we present an optimizer method and tool used to tune calibration parameters related to torque estimation for a hybrid automatic transmission application. This optimizer aims to minimize the time invested during the software calibration and software development phases that could take significant time in order to cover the different driving conditions under which a hybrid automatic transmission can operate. For this reason, an optimization function based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm using Matlab software helps to find optimized calibration values based on a cost function (square sum error minimization).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0602
Vladimir Vasilije Kokotovic, Colby Buckman
Abstract With the trending electrification of vehicle accessory drives brings new control concepts useful in many cases to optimize energy management within the powertrain system. Considering that direct engine drives do not have as much flexibility as independent electric drives, it is apparent that several advantages are to be expected from electric drives. New developed high efficient electric drives can be implemented when considering many vehicle sub-systems. Combinations of continuous varying and discrete flow control devices offer thermal management opportunities across several vehicle attributes including fuel economy, drivability, performance, and cabin comfort. Often new technologies are integrated with legacy systems to deliver maximum value. Leveraging both electrical and mechanical actuators in some cases presents control challenges in optimizing energy management while delivering robust system operation.
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