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Magazine
2014-05-08
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives write about some of the challenges and trends facing the industry over the next 20 years, and the innovation that will be required to stay competitive and sustainable. Annual product guide A product roundup showcasing the newest and most innovative supplier technologies in a variety of areas such as Powertrain & Energy, Electronics, Hydraulics, Materials, Testing & Simulation, Body and Chassis, and Interiors.
Technical Paper
2014-05-05
Lindsay J. Miller, Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin Tam
Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant to heat and noise. Applications of PU foams are increasing to include non-traditional purposes targeting consumer comfort. An example of this is the use of PU foam between the engine and engine cover of a vehicle for the purpose of noise abatement. This addition will provide a quieter ride for the consumer, however will have associated environmental impacts. The additional weight will cause an increase in fuel consumption and related emissions. More significant impacts may be realized at the end-of-life stage. Recycling PU foams presents several challenges; a lack of market for the recyclate, contamination of the foams, and lack of accessibility for removal of the material. PU foam pieces are likely to end up being landfilled after the vehicle is shredded, negating the benefit of choosing this material for its recyclability over another non-recyclable material.
Article
2014-05-04
A new electrolyte developed the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) serves not only as an ion conductor, but also as a cathode supplement in batteries. Potential uses of the technology include remote keyless entry systems, cardiac pacemakers, sensors, and other applications "where replacing or recharging a battery is not possible or desirable."
Article
2014-05-04
Pennzoil Platinum and Pennzoil Ultra Platinum with PurePlus Technology are full synthetic motor oils formulated from natural gas.
Article
2014-05-01
The forklift is one of the few applications where less battery weight is not necessarily a good thing.
Article
2014-05-01
Conti's new 48-V hybrid system is a package-efficient module aimed at delivering much of the functionality of a 200- to 400-V hybrid system for a fraction of the cost. It will enter production in 2016 at two OEMs.
Standard
2014-05-01
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287.
Article
2014-04-28
3-D catalytic activity of new open-frame nanoparticles is twenty times that of existing formulations.
Article
2014-04-27
Average MY2012 vehicle CO2 emissions fell by 22 g/mi from MY2011, with a corresponding improvement in fuel economy, according to a new report by the U.S. EPA. The figures of 376 g/mi and 23.6 mpg figures are both records, the agency said.
Article
2014-04-21
Vehicle has 18 mi/30 km all-electric range from lithium-ion battery pack. Uses 2.0-l twin-scroll turbo engine with combination peak output of 270 hp/201 kW and 300 lb ft/407 N-m. Offers "predictive navigation" for high fuel efficiency, and can save battery capacity for areas that may require electric vehicle-only operation. European drive cycle ratings are 3.8 l/100 km (62 mpg) and just 89 grams CO₂/100 km.
Article
2014-04-16
Acoustic panels are installed almost everywhere including in front of the engine and on the rear hatch.
Article
2014-04-15
Written for those who have an interest in or need to understand automotive fuels, SAE International offers the third edition of its best-selling Automotive Fuels Reference Book.
Technical Paper
2014-04-15
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected. This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper. The collected particulate matter (PM) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals (marker of toxicity) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES).
Article
2014-04-14
The passenger-vehicle and commercial-vehicle industries are working to meet government regulations for emissions and fuel economy while ironing out potential unintended issues.
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
Article
2014-04-09
Misfire detection is most difficult, SAE Congress panel tells attendees, and overall emissions diagnosis is harder than with passenger cars and light-duty trucks.
Article
2014-04-09
A lively panel discussion at the SAE 2014 World Congress explored the role of battery-equipped vehicles in a smart, vehicle-to-grid network.
Article
2014-04-01
Engineering boss Pierpaolo Antonini noted several technology developments that will help maintain the diesel's viability in the face of increasingly stringent global emission regulations.
Article
2014-04-01
The flywheel energy-storage technology that was used in, among other things, the Le Mans-winning Audi R18 e-tron quattro is being sold by Williams to GKN Land Systems for use mainly in mass-transit vehicles.
Article
2014-04-01
IMSA Tudor United SportsCar Championship promotes a variety of green technologies to link racing to the road.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Donghui Qi, Chia-Fon Lee, Yilu Lin
Abstract Biodiesel is considered one of the most promising alternative fuels to petrol fuels. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate and compare the effect of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio on the particle size distributions and exhaust emissions of the diesel and biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) used in a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine. The engine tests were conducted at two injection pressures (800 and 1600 bar), two injection timings (25 and 5 deg before top dead center (bTDC) and three EGR ratios (10%, 20% 30%) at a constant fuel injection energy per stroke and engine speed (1200 r/min). The results indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of biodiesel were slightly lower, but nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were slightly higher, than those of diesel fuel under most operating conditions. Biodiesel engine emitted lower soot particle concentration than diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gabriele Di Blasio, Mauro Viscardi, Michela Alfè, Valentina Gargiulo, Anna Ciajolo, Carlo Beatrice
Abstract Nowadays, alcohol fuels are of increasing interest as alternative transportation biofuels even in compression ignition engines because they are oxygenated and producible in a sustainable way. In this paper, the experimental research activity was conducted on a single cylinder research engine provided with a modern architecture and properly modified in a dual-fuel (DF) configuration. Looking at ethanol the as one of the future environmental friendly biofuels experimental campaign was aimed to evaluate in detail the effect of the use of the ethanol as port injected fuel in diesel engine on the size, morphology, reactivity and chemical features of the exhaust emitted soot particles. The engine tests were chosen properly in order to represent actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits on in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, fuel efficiency and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Benjamin Reuter, Daniel Gleyzes, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract In this analysis we assess the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of four types of vehicles which might play a role in achieving future emission reductions: vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), mild hybrid CNG vehicles and range extended BEVs. Our analysis covers the manufacturing processes of these vehicles and their use as a city taxi in Singapore. We also consider upstream emissions from fuel and electricity production. All necessary parameters are derived from an intensive literature review and the model for calculating the life cycle emissions is presented. The influence of data uncertainties is analyzed by parameter variations within different scenarios. The calculation results are found to be quite robust: The BEV and the mild hybrid CNG vehicle similarly show very low GHG emissions within all scenarios whereas the pure CNG vehicle always ranks the worst. In an additional scenario we also assessed the influence of an improved electricity generation with lower emissions in the future.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yang Li, Jian Xue, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Mark Villela, Liem Pham, Seyedehsan Hosseini, Zhongqing Zheng, Daniel Short, George Karavalakis, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Xiaoliang Wang, David Quiros, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala
Abstract This study provides one of the first evaluations of the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method in comparison with the current gravimetric method for measuring particulate matter (PM) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The IPSD method combines particle size distributions with size dependent particle effective density to determine mass concentrations of suspended particles. The method allows for simultaneous determination of particle mass, particle surface area, and particle number concentrations. It will provide a greater understanding of PM mass emissions at low levels, and therefore has the potential to complement the current gravimetric method at low PM emission levels. Six vehicles, including three gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicles, two port fuel injected (PFI) vehicles, and one diesel vehicle, were tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a light-duty chassis dynamometer. PM mass emissions were determined by the gravimetric (MGravimetric) and IPSD (MIPSD) methods.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Justin E. Ketterer, James S. Wallace, Greg J. Evans
Abstract Biodiesel and other renewable fuels are of interest due to their impact on energy supplies as well as their potential for carbon emissions reductions. Waste animal fats from meat processing facilities, which would otherwise be sent to landfill, have been proposed as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Emissions from biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils have undergone intense study, but there remains a lack of data describing the emissions implications of using animal fats as a biodiesel feedstock. In this study, emissions of NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter from a compression ignition engine were examined. The particulate matter emissions were characterized using gravimetric analysis, elemental carbon analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The emissions from an animal fat derived B20 blend were compared to those from petroleum diesel and a soy derived B20 blend. No statistically significant differences were observed between the fuels in the gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dimitrios Savvidis, Konstantinos Bounos, Christos Loakimidis
Abstract Real world engine emissions measurements were carried out from the University of Antwerp in Belgium and more than 600 passenger cars were measured when entering and leaving two different University campuses. All measurements were done according to the European Commission Directive 2010/48/EU on roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers. A database, including a wide variety of vehicles with completely different engine specifications and technological characteristics (engine size, emissions standards exhaust after-treatment devices etc.) has been created and various parameters influencing emissions will be examined. The influence of various parameters on NOx emissions was considered and discussed in this paper. Important conclusions have been made for diesel vehicles and presented in this work. Cold and hot start engine emissions were taken and analyzed in order to determine the percentage that NOx emission increased over the years. A comparison of different generation of cars is also included in the research.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Ennio Rossi
Abstract The adoption of composed (hybrid) lead acid battery-supercapacitor (SC) storage systems is able to improve performances (availability, durability, range) of an electric microcar. As a matter of fact, the supercapacitors extend the operation time not only by improving the energy efficiency (thanks to a higher contribution of regenerative braking), but also by reducing the power down caused by voltage drop at higher discharge rates. The integration of battery with supercapacitors requires careful analysis and calculation of the relationship between battery peak power and size of the SC bank, needed to have a balanced composition of the hybrid storage system. For this purpose, the optimization process, summarized here, is based on the combination of a conventional lead-acid battery and a commercial SC, with the vehicle running the ECE15 driving cycle. A Matlab/Simulink model has been developed in order to characterize the benefits of the adoption of such hybrid storage system and experimental tests have been used to calibrate it.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gangfeng Tan, Ming Chen, Haobo Xu, Bing Luo, Jiameng Wang
Abstract Vacuum cleaning vehicle is the necessary equipment for the Municipal Sanitation Department to keep the road surface clean and the dust subsidence system is the heart unit for the proper function of the cleaning vehicle. The reasonable design of this system could increase the load capacity of the vehicle and be convenient for the garbage collecting and dumping. Meanwhile, the engine power could be relatively reduced and the influence on the environment duo to the dusty air in the outlet could be also effectively improved. In the study, the gravity dedusting principle is used firstly for structure design to reduce the flow rate of dust particles inside the lower part of the dust subsidence system. The ruleless collision loss among dust particles is reduced and thereby the fan power is saved. By means of a reasonable separated chamber design and the use of inertia baffle, the sort management for dust particles is developed and the work stress of the export filter is released observably.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hassan Ali Khairallah, Umit Koylu
Abstract During the past decade, considerable efforts have been made to introduce alternative fuels for use in conventional diesel and gasoline engines. There is significant interest in adding hydrogen to a diesel engine to reduce emissions and improve efficiency. With the rapid increase in computational capabilities, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes have become essential tools for the design, control, and optimization of dual fuel engines. In the present study, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism, consisting of 52 reactions and 29 chemical species for n-heptane fuel combustion, was incorporated with detailed chemical kinetics consisting of 29 reactions for hydrogen including additional nitrogen oxidation. This reaction mechanism was coupled with a 3D CFD model based on AVL FIRE software to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with low amounts of hydrogen addition. The model was validated by the experimental results and then employed to examine important parameters that have significant effects on the engine performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
Abstract The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution.
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