Display:

Results

Viewing 121 to 150 of 24398
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0773
Dan DelVescovo, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf Reitz
Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40oC and 60oC. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing, and injection pressure. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140o and -35o, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0915
Haomiao Zhang, Yuanzhou Xi, Changsheng Su, Z. Gerald Liu
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0932
Nehemiah S I Alozie, David Peirce PhD, George Fern PhD, Lionel Ganippa
ABSTRACT The use of diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become a standard after treatment technology in modern diesel engine however; pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates. This requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity in operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is central to design and manufacture of efficient filter traps suitable for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, ran with 20% and 40% blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected on a Pall Tissuquartz filter during constant engine load and oxidised non-isothermally in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Then results obtained are compared with PM oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1006
Fadzli Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Shahrir Abdullah, Fadzli Ibrahim
The undisputable advantages in terms of time and cost saving for soot emission study have made the computational analyses becomes more preferable. Current development of computer program with higher precision mathematical model making simulation works becomes closer to the real engine combustion environment. This investigation for in-cylinder soot concentration has been carried out using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software, CONVERGE CFD. In conjunction to explore its full capability, study on soot has been performed using different level of complexity soot model, from simple two-steps of Hiroyasu-NSC soot model to the detailed-kinetic soot model. Both detailed soot model which based on methods of moment and sectional method are applied in this study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1009
Yajun Wang, Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Xiuxiu Sun, Hanzhengnan Yu, Xikai Liu
In this paper, the influence of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions, fractal dimension of aggregates and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 70 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0999
Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu
Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0128
Benjamin C. Mukkala, Margaret Horng
ABSTRACT - Engine cooling system hardware typically needs to be designed to be robust to worst case load conditions. Worst case load conditions include gross combined vehicle weight (GCVW) on a steep uphill grade with high ambient temperature conditions. An example of such conditions is the Davis Dam grade near Lake Havasu Arizona in August. Under these conditions the engine will be near the maximum power it can produce for an extended period of time with high ambient temperature. In some cases, the engine cooling capability could be compromised. For example, the test conditions to prove robustness could be exceeded in real world operation. And as the cooling system ages, the capability diminishes. In these cases, engine temperatures could increase to a level that results in engine failure. So it would be beneficial to have additional protection for cooling systems to avoid failure. In this paper a control will be developed to maintain engine temperatures below a predetermined limit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0591
Andreas Thomasson, Xavier Llamas, Lars Eriksson
In modern turbocharged engines the power output is strongly connected to the turbocharger speed, through the flow characteristics of the turbocharger. Turbo speed is therefore an important state for the engine operation, but it is usually not measured or controlled directly. Still the control system must ensure that the turbo speed does not exceed its maximum allowed value to prevent damaging the turbocharger. Having access to a turbo speed signal, preferably by a cheap and reliable estimation instead of a sensor, could open up new possibilities for control. This paper proposes a turbo speed estimator that only utilizes the conditions around the compressor and a model for the compressor map. These conditions are measured or can be more easily estimated from available sensors than the conditions on the turbine side. Another approach would be to estimate the turbo speed from the torque balance on the turbo shaft, but this requires estimating the torque provided by the turbine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0540
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Gerardo Valentino
In this work, a promising technique to overcome overfueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized turbocharged engines is investigated, consisting in a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports. In a first stage, the engine is experimentally characterized at a fixed speed, medium-high loads, and variable spark timings, ranging from knock-safe operations up to knocking ones. For each tested point, a water-to-fuel ratio sweep is realized, aiming to prove the water capability in increasing the engine knock resistance. In a second stage, the engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The 1D model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, makes use of user defined sub-models for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. The latter models are validated against the experimental data for all the considered operating points, both in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles and burn rate profiles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0978
Andrew Auld, Andrew Ward, Kenan Mustafa, Benjamin Hansen
Ricardo, as part of the Horizon 2020 European part-funded REWARD (REal World Advanced technologies foR Diesel engines) project, have continued to focus on the development of advance aftertreatment technologies through model based system simulation using vehicle simulation framework (V-SIM). This paper presents the results of the evaluation of aftertreatment systems and management strategies for a range of diesel passenger cars suitable for Real Driving Emissions (RDE) legislation and targeting emissions levels beyond Euro 6d. Owing to the wide variation in feed gas properties expected over an RDE cycle the results seen for current production system architecture such as Lean NOX traps (LNT) or actively dosed Selective Catalytic Reduction (aSCR) systems highlight the challenge to adhere emissions limitations for RDE legislation whilst fulfilling stringent CO2 targets.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1018
Gianluca Padula, Philipp Schiffmann, Matthieu Lecompte, Olivier Laget
The growth of ground vehicle traffic has a detrimental effect on health and environment. NOx are at the origin of respiratory diseases. Consequently, the emission of NOx, among other pollutants, are more and more limited by stringent emission standards. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one consolidated after-treatment technique to reduce the emissions of NOx. The system currently used consists in the injection of an urea water solution (UWS) upstream a catalytic converter. The use of such liquid ammonia precursors presents different problems, pointed out in several studies. Indeed, The temperature required to release NH3 is high, causing problems especially during cold operations, with a consequent undesired wall-film formation, due to the lack of evaporation. The cycles of heating and cooling cause a solid deposit formation, that affects the performance and the durability of the system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0987
Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu, Niklas Schmidt
Nitrous oxide (N2O), with a global warming potential (GWP) of approximately 300 and an average atmospheric residence time of over 100 years, is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). In recognition of this, N2O emissions from on-highway medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines were recently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) GHG Emission Standards. Unlike NO and NO2, collectively referred to as NOx, N2O is not a major byproduct of diesel combustion. However, N2O can be formed as a result of unselective catalytic reactions in diesel aftertreatment systems, and the mitigation of this unintended N2O formation is a topic of active research. In this study, a nonroad Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engine was equipped with a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. Experiments were conducted over nonroad steady and both cold and hot transient cycles (NRSC and NRTC, respectively).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0967
Xin Liu, Jeong Kim, Timothy Chanko, Christine Lambert, James Pakko
With an emerging need for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) to lower particle emissions, studies are being conducted to optimize GPF designs in order to balance filtration efficiency, backpressure penalty, filter size, cost and other factors. Metallic filters with a fibrous structure could offer additional designs to the current GPF portfolio, which is currently dominated by ceramic wall-flow filters. However, knowledge on their performance as GPFs is still limited. In this study, modeling on backpressure and filtration efficiency of fibrous media was carried out to determine the design criteria (filtration area, filter thickness and size) for different target efficiencies and backpressures at given gas flow conditions. Filter media with different fiber sizes (8 - 17 μm) and porosities (80% and 90%) were evaluated using modeling to determine the influence of fiber size and porosity. A comparison of fibrous filters with their ceramic counterparts is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0973
Naoko Uchiumi, Hiroshi Hirabayashi, Shinya Sato, Takafumi Yamauchi
Urea-SCR system is widely used as a technology of NOx reduction from diesel engine exhaust gases. To get higher NOx reduction performance, it is important to understand the detailed chemical reaction mechanisms of the Urea-SCR catalyst. In this study, we focused on elucidation of the reaction mechanisms of Fe- and Cu-type catalyst by numerical simulation approach. The both catalyst reaction models can predict the difference of the catalytic reaction performance. In addition, the rate-determing reaction step of the Cu-catalyst was successfully identified by the numerical simulation results. To analyze the catalytic reaction on the honeycomb, inside of one cell of the honeycomb was modeled for calculation using catalytic reaction field. The configuration of simulation model was used in this study. That is well known that the Cu-catalyst not only has good NOx reduction at wide temperature range, but also has high performance at low temperature range which is NO only condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0994
Tim Nevius, Dario Rauker, Masanobu Akita, Yoshinori Otsuki, Scott Porter, Michael Akard
Direct measurement of dilution air volume in a Constant Volume emission sampling system may be used to calculate tailpipe exhaust volume, and the total dilution ratio in the CVS. A Remote Mixing Tee (RMT) often includes a subsonic venturi (SSV) flowmeter in series with the dilution air duct. The venturi meter results in a flow restriction and significant pressure drop in the dilution air pipe. An ultrasonic flow meter for a similar dilution air volume offers little flow restriction and negligible pressure drop in the air duct. In this investigation, an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM) replaces the subsonic venturi in a Remote Mixing Tee. The measurement uncertainty and accuracy of the UFM is determined by comparing the real time flow rates and integrated total dilution air volume from the UFM and the dilution air SSV in the RMT. Vehicle tests include FTP, HWFE, and NEDC test cycles with a 3.8L V6 LDV.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1319
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which we carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0524
Lei Liang, Huaqi Ge, Haiwen Ge, Peng Zhao
The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is a upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate H2 and CO. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.2 < ϕ <2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane and methane, which are the representative components for gasoline and natural gas, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Although low diesel fuel prices have reduced the appeal of natural gas (NG) engines recently, the CO2 advantage and low NOX and PM potential of NG makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and potential lower NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, traditional NG fueling strategies and/or poor air/fuel ratio control can result in significant levels of tailpipe methane (CH4) emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to the high global warming potential of CH4. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was shown to improve the brake thermal and combustion efficiencies over equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes in a previous publication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0916
Mohammad Hijawi, Shirin Badiei, Nicole M. Waters
OBD system development matures throughout the phases of vehicle program. Ensuring a robust implementation of OBD system is critical to meeting the regulatory requirements and avoiding customer dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is crucial to demand comprehensive testing of the system that captures all potential events. In this paper, we outline a methodology for evaluating the maturity of the OBD system throughout the development process. Determining critical monitors and establishing solid targets for performance of each monitor is the initial stage of the process. Measuring the maturity of the system by utilizing reliability growth models is demonstrated in this paper. The results of this assessment are used for evaluating the readiness of the system prior to launch.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0920
Jean P. Roy, Ahmed Ghoniem, Robert Panora, Joseph Gehret, Bruce Falls, David Wallace, Daniel Ott
All vehicles sold today are required to meet emissions standards based on specific driving cycles. A dual stage catalyst system, with exhaust temperature control, can provide a robust solution to meet challenging modes of operation such as rapid acceleration and other heavy duty transients. The Ultera technology, developed and successfully implemented on stationary natural gas CHP engines, introduces a second stage oxidation catalyst downstream of a three-way catalyst. Air is injected between the two catalyst stages to provide oxygen required for the second stage reaction that removes additional CO and NMOG. Critical to the process is to avoid the reformation of NOx, a common consequence with similar air injection concepts that have been tried in the past. This is achieved by cooling the exhaust gas prior to the second stage to a temperature range in which CO and NMOG oxidation is extremely effective while no new NOx is created.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0747
John Storey, Samuel Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Raynella Connatser, Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey, Mark Sellnau
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited primarily by the fuel properties. High reactivity gasoline fuels have been reported to help achieve partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) at light-to-medium load conditions. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON91 E10) and a high reactivity gasoline (RON80), were compared on a Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEP) to a medium load condition (1500 rpm/6 bar IMEP and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEP). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet located in-between.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
New two-A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the two-A/F systems, two A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the two-A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the two-A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1217
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed in the paper. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtains the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25oC to 18oC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0594
Baitao Xiao, Erik Hellstrom, Yan Wang, Julia Buckland, Mario Santillo
Downsizing and turbocharging yield considerable improvements in part-load fuel economy for gasoline engines while maintaining or exceeding the power output of conventional naturally-aspirated engines. Turbocharger compressors are, however, susceptible to surge – the instability phenomena that impose limitations on the operation of turbocharged engines because of undesired noise, engine torque capability constraints, and hardware strain. Turbocharged engines are typically equipped with a binary compressor recirculation valve (CRV) whose primary function is to prevent compressor surge. Calibration of the associated control strategy requires in-vehicle tests and usually employs subjective criteria. This work aims to reduce the calibration effort for the strategy by developing a test procedure and data processing algorithms. This work develops an automated calibration for CRV control that will generate a baseline calibration that avoids surge events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Motor vehicle industry is expected to reduce CO2 emission more and more for protecting the environment. Alternator, which supplies electric energy to battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. That’s because actual one is greatly affected by electrical loads, and improving alternator efficiecy is effective to enhance actual one. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with MOSFET instead of rectifier diode because on voltage of MOSFET is much lower than diode drop, which results in improving alternator efficiency. Control circuit is required to drive MOSFET because it is an active element. It is important to turn MOSFET ON and OFF during rectification period “synchronous control”. It is turned ON while a rectifier current flows through MOSFET as alternator output, and turned OFF while the current doesn’t flow to avoid drawing in a reverse current from battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0599
Yichao Guo
Misfire is generally defined as be no or partial combustion during the power stroke of internal combustion engine. Because a misfired engine will dramatically increase the exhaust emission and potentially cause permanent damage to the catalytic converters, California Air Resources Board (CARB), as well as most of other countries’ on-board diagnostic regulations mandates the detection of misfire. Currently almost all the OEMs utilize crankshaft position sensors as the main input to their misfire detection algorithm. The detailed detection approaches vary among different manufacturers. For example, some chooses the crankshaft angular velocity calculated from the raw output of the crankshaft position sensor as the measurement to distinguish misfires from normal firing events, while others use crankshaft angular acceleration or the associated torque index derived from the crankshaft position sensor readings as the measurement of misfire detection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0899
Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0127
Norimitsu Matsudaira, Mitsuru Iwasaki, Tatsuya arai, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Naohiro hasegawa, Junichiro Hara, Tomohiko furuhata
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although an EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition phenomenon to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a new visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide , temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1221
Shingo Soma, Haruhiko shimizu, Eiji Shirado, Satoshi Fujishiro
There have been calls for the automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in consideration of the impact on the global environment, and increasing efforts are being made to develop electric vehicles. Heavy rare earth - iron - boron magnets (neodymium magnets) have the largest maximum energy product (BH)max among current magnets, and are used in the driving motors of hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. However, these operating environments have high temperatures and strong diamagnetic fields, so magnets need high heat resistance, or high coercive force (Hcj). To support this need, heavy rare earth elements (Dy, Tb) with high anisotropic magnetic fields are added to increase Hcj. However, deposits of these elements are unevenly distributed around the world and the ratio of heavy rare earth elements in ores is one tenth or less that of light rare earth elements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0388
Haeyoon Jung, MiYeon SONG, Sanghak kim
This paper proposes the Off-cycle credit alternative test methodology for Semi-transparent solar panel integrated on Automobile roof glass to achieve the CO2 credits from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) & the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Manufactures offer the option to put solar cells on the roof of a vehicle for reducing cabin ambient temperature. However, Hyundai Motors develops the semi-transparent solar roof with a controller to provide electric energy for vehicles. This electrical energy cannot be accounted for on the current EPA cycles either the two cycle test or the five-cycle test. Therefore, the manufacture has to establish the methodology based on solar system for vehicles. In order to improve the efficiency of our solar system and to calculate reduced CO2 emission, we studied useable solar energy in driving condition other than peak power in standard test condition(@ 25℃, 1Sun).
Viewing 121 to 150 of 24398

Filter