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Viewing 121 to 150 of 22469
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2841
Jing Qin, Xiang Li, Yiqiang Pei
Abstract The aim of this research is to experimentally investigate the effects of combustion parameters [ignition timings, injection timings, excess air ratio (λ)] and lubricating oil on particulate matter (PM) emissions from a 2.0 L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (T-GDI) engine fueled with gasoline (octane number = 97), methanol/gasoline blends and pure methanol. The results of this paper show that the PM number concentration mostly presents a typical bimodal distribution in figures. The particle number concentration mainly concentrates in the nucleation mode. With the increase of methanol volume fraction in the blended fuel, the PM emissions decrease significantly. Furthermore, there are few particles when the engine fueled with pure methanol. As advancing ignition timing, the total PM number rises by over about 200%. Under the pre-ignition condition, the higher in-cylinder temperature may also accelerate the formation of the nucleation mode particles. As advancing injection timing, PM emissions decrease first, and then increase.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2795
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions and reducing operating cost by improving the engine's fuel economy. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that heavy duty diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim. The only way to create a lubricant that carries both an API C and S claim for mixed fleet or municipality application, is to formulate at less than 0.08% phosphorus, a limit that was adopted in API S specifications because there are indications that phosphorus may foul three-way catalysts used with gasoline engines to control tailpipe emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2552
Tao Yin, Tie Li, Longhua Chen, Bin Zheng, Fei Zhao
Abstract This paper studies the effect of cooled EGR on fuel consumption and anti-knock performance of a boosted port fuel injection (PFI) SI engine. Experimental results show that the cooled EGR increases the thermal efficiency by 2%∼18% depending on the operation conditions. Compared to low load operations, more improvements of the thermal efficiency are obtained at higher loads, primarily owing to the enhanced anti-knock performance, advanced combustion phasing, elimination of fuel-rich operations as well as reduced heat transfer loss with cooled EGR. The anti-knock performance of cooled EGR provides further potential to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the compression ratio. To this end, a 1-D thermodynamic model of the engine is built and calibrated using the GT-Power code. A knock prediction correlation considering EGR is developed and validated with the experimental data. The geometric compression ratio of the engine with EGR is optimized by a strategy combining artificial neural networks (ANNs) with genetic algorithm (GA) with the 1-D engine cycle simulations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2844
Matthias Stark, Richard Mittler
Abstract Understanding tribodynamic effects is crucial when aiming to reduce lube oil consumption and related exhaust gas emissions. This report briefly describes the lubrication concept of large two stroke marine diesel engines and different contributors to the lube oil balance of such an engine. Addressing possible measures to influence the contribution of lubrication system parameters on exhaust gas emissions requires a detailed analysis of possible actions to achieve the expected improvement. Activities to enhance lubrication system performance concentrate on: Modifications of relevant engine components The application of experimentally gained data to support computational simulation models The application of suitable validation approaches This report in particular highlights piston ring pack optimizations on basis of computational simulation. One major step in developing a new piston ring pack dynamic simulation tool was achieved by implementing two stroke engine specific measurement results of general engine performance data, as well as complex information of tribo- and gas-dynamic effects on piston ring motion and lube oil film.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2605
Cyrille Frottier, Marc Sens, Michael Rieß, Malte Wigger, Andreas Benz, Noriyuki Maekawa, Koji Onishi, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Kenichi Machida
Abstract In the near future, emissions legislation will become more and more restrictive for direct injection SI engines by adopting a stringent limitation of particulate number emissions in late 2017. In order to cope with the combustion system related challenges coming along with the introduction of this new standard, Hitachi Automotive Systems Ltd., Hitachi Europe GmbH and IAV GmbH work collaboratively on demonstrating technology that allows to satisfy EU6c emissions limitations by application of Hitachi components dedicated to high pressure injection (1). This paper sets out to describe both the capabilities of a new high pressure fuel system improving droplet atomization and consequently mixture homogeneity as well as the process of utilizing the technology during the development of a demonstrator vehicle called DemoCar. The Hitachi system consists of a fuel pump and injectors operating under a fuel pressure of 30 MPa. Revised spray patterns have been developed following an IAV process using optical spray vessel investigations as well as CFD simulation for a specific engine (boosted engine with 1.4L engine displacement and direct injection).
2014-10-07
Magazine
Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2434
Paul Salama, Adam Lubinsky, Bryan Roy, Ziga Ivanic, Paul Lipson, Luis Torres, Joseph Tario, Robert Ancar
Abstract The emergence of electric vehicle (EV) delivery trucks is resulting in health and environmental benefits, less noise, reduction of foreign energy dependency, and economic development opportunities. Green Loading Zones (GLZs) are dedicated curbside spaces for commercial delivery EVs meant to incentivize and accelerate market adoption. This study examined the impact and potential benefits of this strategy for New York City. Discussions with fleets revealed that while they are realizing operational savings and other benefits from the use of EVs, their incremental costs over diesel vehicles can take a very long time to recover, even with existing subsidy programs. Complementary incentives like GLZs can provide further justification for the investment in cleaner technology. Most fleets interviewed would place a high monetary value on guaranteed delivery locations and reduced parking violation expenses. Inclusion of GLZ electrical infrastructure to charge the EV battery could extend the range and operational capacity or permit the fleet to purchase vehicles with smaller battery packs, both of which would increase the cost effectiveness of this technology.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2431
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved Singh, A K Sehgal, B Basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil Kumar, G Gopal
Abstract In this paper, experimental evaluation was carried out on a 6.0 L heavy duty CNG engine which has been optimized for 18 percent hydrogen blended CNG (HCNG). Optimization test results shows that use of HCNG results in reduced CO, THC & CH4 emissions by 39, 25 & 25 percent respectively and increase in NOx by 32 percent vis-a-vis CNG. After optimization the engine was subjected to endurance test of 600 hours as per 15 mode engine simulated city driving cycle with HCNG. The performance & emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per European Transient Cycle (ETC). Test results indicate that there were no significant changes observed in engine power output over the complete endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) measurements were consistent at all the 15 modes of engine simulated city driving cycle. It was observed from the test results that over the period of endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG, all the major exhaust emissions species such as CO, THC, CH4 & NOx emissions were found to be much lower than the Euro IV emission norms for the heavy duty engines and there were no significant changes in the CO2 values.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2429
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost. The development involves testing and characterization of the materials, making of prototypes and validations.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2367
Xinyu Ge, Yongli Qi, Kai Zhang
Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation. Some empirical models use testing data as input to locate relationships between controlled inputs and engine response.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2372
Ilya A. Kulikov, Elena E. Baulina, Andrey I. Filonov
Abstract The paper gives a short description of the University's developments in the field of hybrid electric powertrains and vehicles as well as a survey of theoretical instruments utilized in these works for elaboration of powertrains control strategies. At the present, two units fitted with hybrid powertrains are in operation. These are the four-wheel-drive SUV and the powertrain test rig. Both allow to test different powertrain configurations. Prior to implementing a certain configuration in the rig, a theoretical research of powertrain is conducted to reveal its properties and find a way to control it optimally. The basic tool adopted for that purpose is R.Bellman's dynamic programming (DP). The paper gives an example of applying DP to explore a potential of decreasing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of a light commercial vehicle by converting its powertrain into hybrid one. During this study, a contradiction has emerged between minimizing fuel consumption and emissions of NOx.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2391
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard K. Stobart, John Rutledge, Edward Winward
Abstract A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2350
Zhiguo Zhao, Guanyu Zheng, Fengshuang Wang, Suying Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
In order to satisfy China IV emissions regulations, a unique design concept was proposed with injector closely coupled with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system outer body. The benefit of this design is significant in cost reduction and installation convenience. One paper was published to describe the vertical inlet layout [1]; this work is the second part describing applications of this concept to horizontal inlet configurations. For horizontal inlet pipe, two mixing pipe designs were proposed to avoid urea deposit and meet EU IV emission regulations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to evaluate two design concepts; experiments were performed to validate both designs. CFD computations and experiments give the same direction on ranking of the two decomposition tubes. With the straight decomposition pipe design and unique perforated baffle design, no urea deposits were found; in addition, the emission level satisfied EU IV regulations. Modeling of acoustic insertion loss with GT-Power was implemented and correlated with the tests, the resulting system insertion loss is higher than 20 dB under the rated engine load condition, meeting the acoustic performance targets.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2353
Harry Dwyer, Seungju Yoon, David Quiros, Mark Burnitzki, Roelof Riemersma, Donald Chernich, John Collins, Jorn Herner
Abstract A novel ambient dilution tunnel has been designed, tested and employed to measure the emissions from active parked regenerations of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The 2007 certified engine had greater regulated emissions than the 2010 certified engine. For a fully loaded 2007 DPF there was an initial period of very large mass emissions, which was then followed by very large number of small particle emissions. The Particle Size Distribution, PSD, was distributed over a large range from 10 nm to 10 μm. The parked regenerations of the 2010 DPF had a much lower initial emission pattern, but the second phase of large numbers of small particles was very similar to the 2007 DPF. The emission results during regeneration have been compared to total emissions from recent engine dynamometer testing of 2007 and 2010 DPFs, and they are much larger. Due to the very wide spectrum in the PSD a wide variety of instrumentation was used, which included the following: (1) Engine On-board diagnostics; (2) Exhaust flow PEMS; (3) Tunnel temperature, CO2, mixture dilution ratio, and relative humidity; (4) Real-time PM instrumentation: EEPS, SMPS, DustTrak, and Dekati Mass Monitor; and (5) Gravimetric filter media.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2357
Philipp Scherer, Marcus Geimer
Abstract As a result of the Kyoto Protocol [1], the European Union's legislation demands higher saving rates for the total energy consumption of technical equipment. Heavy Equipment, such as construction- and agricultural machines, contributes over 80% of the total off-road diesel fuel consumption in Germany per annum. It is therefore necessary to provide helpful solutions in order to reach this ambitious aim. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research cooperates with machine manufacturers, component suppliers and research institutes in the area of heavy equipment. Under the project name TEAM [2] a three year project has been started, which is focused on the development and integration of new propulsion and steering systems for heavy equipment. One task within the project is finding an appropriate way of evaluating the energy efficiency of the enhanced machines, after the powertrain modifications have been applied to it. The wide range of applicability, as well as the existence of one or more work functions, require a special approach for evaluating the energy efficiency of this category of vehicles.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2432
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Abstract Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI (effective as of 2014) exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines have been brought close to zero level. This means that the advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation in which electric transit buses are also entering the market. The motivation to use natural gas could still be diesel fuel substitution and to some extent, also reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, looking at the full fuel cycle and also taking into account methane leakages in various part of the fuel cycle, natural gas is, at its best, comparable to diesel regarding greenhouse gas emissions, not better.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2346
Manoj K. Sampath, Figen Lacin
Abstract The Diesel engine combustion process results in harmful exhaust emissions, mainly composed of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Several technologies have been developed in the past decades to control these diesel emissions. One of the promising and well matured technology of reducing NOx is to implement Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia (NH3) as the reducing agent. For an effective SCR system, the aqueous urea solutions should be fully decomposed into ammonia and it should be well distributed across the SCR. In the catalyst, all the ammonia is utilized for NOx reduction process. In the design stage, it is more viable to implement Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for design iterations to determine an optimized SCR system based on SCR flow distribution. And in later stage, experimental test is required to predict the after-treatment system performance based on NOx reduction. The SCR model predicts the NH3 formation from urea decomposition and it is quantified at the SCR inlet, whereas experimental data involves the NOx reduction process.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2349
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are a key component in many on- and off-road aftertreatment systems to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions limits. Efficient thermal management and regeneration control is critical for reliable and cost-effective operation of the combined engine and aftertreatment system. Conventional DPF control systems predominantly rely on a combination of filter pressure drop measurements and predictive models to indirectly estimate the soot loading state of the filter. Over time, the build-up of incombustible ash, primarily derived from metal-containing lubricant additives, accumulates in the filter to levels far exceeding the DPF's soot storage limit. The combined effects of soot and ash build-up dynamically impact the filter's pressure drop response, service life, and fuel consumption, and must be accurately accounted for in order to optimize engine and aftertreatment system performance. This work applied a radio frequency (RF) sensor to directly monitor diesel particulate filter soot and ash levels, thereby enabling direct feedback control of the filter based on its actual loading state.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2351
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows. For a low-pressure (less than 6 bar) injector application, the characteristic Reynolds number based on the diameter and mass flow rate of the inlet, return flow outlet, and nozzle exit of the injector might range from 2000 to 20000, therefore, employing a flow-physics based viscous model for building up a virtual test methodology is critical to properly capture the fluid dynamics of injector internal nozzle flow.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2325
Michael Franke, Shirish Bhide, Jack Liang, Michael Neitz, Thomas Hamm
Abstract Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine. This paper describes options and potentials to improve the base engine for future commercial and industrial engines.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2347
Britney J. McCoy, Arman Tanman
Abstract In-use testing of diesel emission control technologies is an integral component of EPA's verification program. Device manufacturers are required to complete in-use testing once 500 units have been sold. Additionally, EPA conducts test programs on randomly selected retrofit devices from installations completed with grants by the National Clean Diesel Campaign. In this test program, EPA identified and recovered a variety of retrofit devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), installed on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (on-highway and nonroad). All of the devices were tested at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. This study's goal was to evaluate the durability, defined here as emissions performance as a function of time, of retrofit technologies aged in real-world applications. A variety of operating and emissions criteria were measured to characterize the overall performance of the retrofit devices on an engine dynamometer.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2368
Xiangang Wang, Zhangsong ZHAN, Tiegang Hu, Zuohua Huang
Abstract Experiments were conducted in a turbocharged, high-pressure common rail diesel engine to investigate particulate emissions from the engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel blends. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to measure the particle size distribution and number concentration. Heated dilution was used to suppress nuclei mode particles and focus on accumulation mode particles. The experiment was carried out at five engine loads and two engine speeds. Biodiesel fractions of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% in volume were tested. The study shows that most of the particles are distributed with their diameters between 0.02 and 0.2 μm, and the number concentration becomes quite small for the particles with the diameters larger than 0.2 μm. With the increase of biodiesel fraction, engine speed and/or engine load, particle number concentration decreases significantly, while the particle size distribution varies little. The analysis on heat release rate, excess air ratio and exhaust gas temperature were provided to help interpret the particulate emissions.
2014-09-29
Article
Volkswagen spreads its Audi A3 e-tron PHEV powertrain to the new Golf GTE. Powertrain control from ICE to electric drive is silky indeed, and EV range is worthy of a good city car. But system cost is significant in a VW-badged vehicle.
2014-09-26
Article
Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) fuel tanks traditionally have been blow molded in high-density polyethylene (HDPE), but HDPE on its own does not meet the new stringent permeation regulations. Of all commercially available solutions to reach the EPA requirements, monomaterial PA6 technology scores the highest when it comes to the combination of permeability, process stability, mechanical properties, and costs, according to DSM.
2014-09-23
Article
At the recent Battery Show in Novi, MI, Enerdel showcased two applications for its battery technologies--one for high energy, one for high power.
2014-09-22
Book
Mehrdad Zangeneh
Legislative requirements to reduce CO2 emissions by 2020 have resulted in significant efforts by car manufacturers to explore various methods of pollution abatement. One of the most effective ways found so far is by shortening the cylinder stroke and downsizing the engine. This new engine then needs to be boosted, or turbocharged, to create the full and original load torque. Turbocharging has been and will continue to be a key component to the new technologies that will make a positive difference in the next-generation engines of years to come. Concepts in Turbocharging for Improved Efficiency and Emissions Reduction explores the many ways that turbocharging will deliver concrete results in meeting the new realities of sustainable, green transportation. This collection of very focused technical papers, selected by Mehrdad Zangeneh, PhD., a professor of thermo-fluids at University College in London, provides an assessment of several novel designs intended to improve fuel consumption and cap emissions, while maintaining torque at all speeds.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2147
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida, Nikita Kudinov, Elena Portnova
Abstract Airship dimensions define the application of the computer modeling methods under their development and investigation. Herein, the need to simulate the flight environment state - the atmospheric conditions of their traffic route - arises. The atmospheric parameters have both regular and random components, which is due to the nonstationarity of the atmospheric phenomena. Hence, it is essential to define the actual ranges, and the representative values of the atmospheric effects. Weather data are used for the analysis and the airflow performance computation in the operational area. Through their statistical processing, we need to obtain the most informative characteristics of the weather conditions in whole, and of their trends. The investigation has shown that the weather data gathering system is nonperfect. The sampling frequency is irregular and not high, test values in the specific parameters are obtained asynchronously. At this, altitude is the most critical parameter under measuring, and all the observable parameters are to be referenced to the altitude in the problem on the flight environment parameter simulation.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2232
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined. The decision making process along the value chain and the policy framework including codes, regulations and standards are addressed.
2014-09-09
Article
The University of California-Davis, and CATARC (China Automotive Technology and Research Center) will cooperate to speed commercialization of plug-in and fuel-cell electric cars in China and the U.S. under an agreement signed Sept. 6 in Tianjin, China.
2014-09-05
Article
Days before Tesla on Sept. 4 announced it has selected Nevada as the state in which it will build a large "Gigafactory' battery plant, Lux Research opined that the savings in lithium-ion battery costs owing to high-volume efficiencies will not be as much as the automaker expects it to be.
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