Display:

Results

Viewing 121 to 150 of 22715
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0983
Mohd Abas, Ricardo Martinez-Botas
Cylinder deactivation has been utilized by vehicle manufacturers since the 80s to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by cutting off fuel supply and ignition in some of the engine cylinders, while their inlet and outlet valves are fully closed. The vehicle demand during cylinder deactivation is sustained by only the firing cylinders, hence increasing their indicated power. Conventionally, half the numbers of cylinders are shut at certain driving conditions, which normally at the lower demand regime. Optimal strategy ensures cylinder deactivation significantly contributes to fuel consumption without compromising the vehicle drivability. Fuel consumption with cylinder deactivation has been documented to generally improve between 6 to 25 %, depending on the type-approval test drive cycles. However, type-approval test has been reported to differ from the “real-world” fuel consumption values.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1007
Steve Golden, zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois
The synthesis and use of newly developed Mixed Metal Oxides for use as stand-alone Three-Way Catalysts and in conjunction with low PGM loadings will be discussed. Performance described will include conversion of pollutants and Oxygen Storage Capacity as a function of Space Velocity and Temperature and linked to material properties and reaction mechanisms. Implications for Tier3/Lev-3 compliance will be discussed in the light of trends of gasoline engine development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1019
Man Bai, Chang-pu Zhao, Fang Shang, Gang Yu
Diesel particulate filters have contributed to decreasing particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas of diesel cars and they have become standard diesel exhaust gas after-treatment devices. As the pressure drop through DPF increases with the increasing soot loading, DPF needs periodically regeneration to eliminate PM after certain miles. However, a part of the PM emissions of the engine contains non-combustible contributions (ashes) which mostly come from lubricating oil and fuel additives. These materials accumulate in the filter over lifetime, usually resulting in an increase in pressure drop as well as a reduction of the filter volume available for soot loading. The impact of ash can be mitigated by optimization of filter design parameter (asymmetric cell technology, ACT) or by periodic ash cleaning. The ACT DPF has larger inlet and smaller outlet and therefore a higher volume available for ash storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1023
Diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, which include the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for reduction of NOx are necessary to fulfil the latest legal requirements and are extensively used in the heavy duty (HD) sector. The present paper informs about some results obtained with SCR and with SDPF (a DPF with SCR-coating) on a medium duty research engine Iveco F1C. Beside the limited gaseous emission components NH3, NO2 and N2O were measured. The analysis of nanoparticle emissions was performed with SMPS and CPC. The integration of functions of filtration and NOx-reduction in one element of exhaust aftertreatment system offers several advantages and is widely investigated and considered as a market solution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1017
Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
With Euro 6 coming into force in September 2014 diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and additionally real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values will be enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020 diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient than ever. It is an ideal case that both NOx and CO2 can be reduced simultaneously, however there is a trade-off between NOx and CO2 and naturally engine developers choose to go for lower CO2, because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1020
Joel Michelin, Philippe Nappez, Frederic Guilbaud, Christof Hinterberger, Eric Ottaviani, Catherine gauthier, Philippe Maire, Thierry Couturier
Future Diesel emission standards for passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles, require the combination of a more efficient NOx reduction performance along with the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the package requirements to facilitate it. Recent activities on catalytic product allows for the SCR active compounds to move from the ceramic substrate located in the underbody to the DPF substrate already located in close coupled position to achieve the benefit of the highest temperature. This newly developed SCR coated DPF has massively improved the potential of NOX reduction. As published in the SAE-2014-0132 advanced compact mixer BlueBox it’s crucial to inject Adblue®/DEF with very high mixing performance level. The benefit of using the SCR coated DPF in combination with a high performance compact mixer has been demonstrated, however new vehicle platform development increase the challenge for exhaust system packaging constraints.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 70 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output, and theoretical Otto cycle engine efficiency. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio, performance, and efficiency have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0981
Patrick Phlips
A first order analytical vehicle fuel consumption model is developed, based on an input/output description of engine fuel consumption and transmission efficiency. The model for the engine sub-system has been described previously for naturally aspirated spark ignition engines. Here it is shown that the model also applies for boosted engines in the lower half of the load range and for Diesel engines at all loads. The fuel consumption is expressed in units of Mean Effective Pressure (MEP), which normalizes for engine size and speed. At typical operating conditions, the Fuel MEP is nearly independent of engine speed and increases approximately linearly with engine load (Willans line). The slope reflects the indicated efficiency and the pumping trend, and the offset reflects engine combustion, friction, and pumping losses at zero load. The magnitude of the slope and offset are shown to follow from established engine properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1056
Sumit Basu, Neal Currier
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [3]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1009
Cameron W. Tanner, Kenneth Twiggs, Tinghong Tao, David Bronfenbrenner, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama
The EPA Tier 3 standard set in 2014 calls for a 65% reduction in combined NOx and NMOG pollutants from 86 to 30 mg/mile between 2017 and 2025 to improve air quality. In 2012, the EPA set a target to double fleet average fuel economy by 2025 as compared to 2010. The European Union has enacted and is in the process of phasing in regulations with similar objectives. For gasoline-powered cars and trucks, approximately 75% of emissions over a standard regulatory test like FTP-75 are released in the first 40 s after cold-start. Reductions in cold-start emissions will be part of the strategy to meet these challenging new regulations. The techniques that are proven to speed catalyst light-off to lower cold-start emissions are to move the converter upstream (close-coupling), to reduce the heat capacity of the converter, and to utilize catalysts that are active at low temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1026
Padmanabha Reddy Ettireddy, AdamJ Kotrba, Thirupathi Boningari, Panagiotis Smirniotis
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst as an active, durable and selective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start conditions. A series of various metal oxide- incorporated zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques, the resulting catalysts were characterized and tested in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz reactor using ammonia as the reductant. Once the catalysts with the best performance were identified, experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type. Initial catalyst formulations have been achieved optimum NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 ºC – 350 ºC (at a GHSV of 80,000 h-1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Future motor vehicle emission regulations, e.g. California’s LEVIII, lead to on-going tightening of emission limitations of Diesel vehicles. The increasing chal-lenge of these limitations will be met by improving the combustion process, i.e. reduced raw emissions on the one hand and on the other hand by additionally improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. The requirements towards OBD systems are increased together with the in-creased complexity of the aftertreatment system. Under these conditions, present monitoring strategies cannot guarantee reliable detection of partly failed systems anymore. New regulations also require OBD strategies that treat and consider the aftertreatment system as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness while striving for using existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0908
Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Chia-Fon Lee, Shengming Liao
Butanol has proved to be a very promising alternative fuel compared to other bio-fuels in recent years. The production of bio-butanol, typically done using the ABE fermentation process is very expensive and consumes a lot of energy. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e, water-containing ABE as a potential fuel. Water-containing ABE can be used to simulate the products of biomass fermentation prior to dehydration processing. The combustion and emissions performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by a serious of water-containing ABE and gasoline blends are investigated and compared under different engine loads (BMEP= 3and 5 bar) and equivalence ratios (lambda=0.8-1.2). The effect of ABE, both with and without water, blended with gasoline (ABE29.5W0.5, ABE29W1, ABE30 (% vol) ) on the combustion process is studied. These effects are compared to those of pure gasoline (baseline).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1025
Gordon J. Bartley
The drive to more fuel efficient vehicles is underway, with passenger car targets of 54.5 mpg fleet average by 2025. Improving engine efficiency means reducing losses such as the heat lost in the exhaust gases. But, reducing exhaust temperature makes it harder for emissions control catalysts to function because they require elevated temperatures to be active. Addressing this conundrum was the focus of the work performed. The primary objective of this work was to identify low temperature limiters for a variety of catalyst aftertreatment types. The ultimate goal is to reduce catalyst light-off temperatures, and the knowledge needed is an understanding of what prevents a catalyst from lighting off, why, and how it may be mitigated. Collectively these are referred to here as low temperature limiters to catalyst activity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1033
Raymond Conway, Mojghan Naseri, Ceren Aydin, Sougato Chatterjee
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2013 Heavy Duty Diesel emission control systems include a DOC upstream of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) which is followed by urea injection and the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, which would enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CDPF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCRF® technology) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1057
Scott Drennan, Gaurav Kumar, Shaoping Quan, Mingjie Wang
Controlling NOx emissions from vehicles is a key aspect of meeting new regulations for cars and trucks across the world. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a NOx reduction option that many engine manufacturers are adopting. The performance of urea injection and mixing upstream of an SCR catalyst is critical in obtaining reliable NOx reduction. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of urea injection systems have become an important development and diagnostic tool for designers. Designers are interested in applying more accurate spray and kinetic models to their CFD simulations and in reducing mesh generation time. This paper presents the application of an automatically generated Cartesian meshing approach to a urea liquid injection system. Investigations of the impact of injection and operating conditions are presented for a model urea-water injection case.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1054
Henrik Smith, Markus Zochbauer, Thomas Lauer
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are a common measure to reduce nitric oxide emissions to comply with future legislation. A fast preparation of the liquid urea-water-solution (UWS) is necessary to ensure high conversion rates in the SCR-catalyst. Droplet wall interaction is among the complex physical effects that are of major importance during this process, in particular droplet breakup and the Leidenfrost effect. Therefore a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and influence factors is a basic requirement to calibrate CFD models in order to improve prediction accuracy. In the presented work, the Leidenfrost temperature and the spray quality before and after droplet impingement were investigated on typical mixing element geometries at various operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1075
Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
In-cylinder soot particle size and its distribution are of interest to engine designers and researchers as they influence the soot emitted from exhaust tailpipes as well as the soot in oil.  The focus of this present study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories.  The prediction of a soot particle pathline, size and how it is transported in the cylinder of a direct injection diesel engine was performed using post-processed in-cylinder combustion data from Kiva-3v CFD simulations with a series of Matlab routines.  Soot particles were assumed massless and only soot surface growth and oxidation processes were considered in calculating the sizes.  3500 locations at 8° Crank Angle (CA) ATDC were selected inside the engine cylinder at the beginning of the pathline and size calculation.  
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1078
Zhigang Chai, Fujun Zhang, Bolan Liu, Ying Huang, Xiaowei Ai
It was found that biodiesel has a great potential to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot simultaneously in low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode. The objective of this study was to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics of 20% biodiesel blend diesel fuel (B20) under several EGR for LTC application. An experimental investigation of B20 was conducted on a four-stroke direct injection diesel engine at 2000rpm and 25% load condition. The EGR rate was adjusted from 10% to 65%, and the injection pressure was tuned from 100MPa to 140MPa. The result showed that soot increased with the promotion of EGR rate under 50%, while between 50% and 65% EGR rate region the soot decreased dramatically and NOx emission performed at almost zero level, meanwhile the ignition delay was prolonged by more than 40%. Compare to the conventional diesel, the soot emission of B20 emerged decrease tendency at the same EGR rate condition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1080
Eduardo J. Barrientos, Matti M. Maricq, Andre L. Boehman, James E. Anderson
Biodiesel has been proven to have a strong impact on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. The fatty acid methyl esters, of which biodiesel is comprised, exhibit a more complex ignition chemistry than normal alkanes of equivalent carbon number. Studies have shown a clear dependence of soot reactivity on fuel oxygenate molecular structure, suggesting that the unique oxidation behavior of esters may be a governing factor of the enhanced soot oxidation behavior presented by biodiesel. A study and analysis of the relation of biodiesel chemical structures to the resulting soot characteristics and soot oxidative reactivity was conducted. Soot samples generated from the combustion of various methyl esters, alkanes, biodiesel and diesel fuels in laminar co-flow diffusion flames were analyzed to evaluate the impact of fuel-bound oxygen in fatty acid esters on soot oxidation behavior.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1074
Michael A. Robinson, Chris Cremeens, Z. Gerald Liu
Diesel engines have been identified as contributing to more than half of the transport sectors black carbon (BC) emissions in the US. This large contribution to atmospheric BC concentrations has raised concern about source specific emission rates. The European Union has recently implemented more stringent particulate regulations in the form of particle number via the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) methodology. The PMP method counts the non-volatile fraction of particulate matter (PM) above 23 nm and below 2.5 µm via a condensation particle counter. This study evaluates a surrogate black carbon method which uses the PMP particle count method with a correlation factor of 2x1012 #/mg. The transient capable Magee Scientific Aethalometer (AE-33) 880 nm wavelength channel was used to determine the BC fraction. PMP particle count displayed linear correlation with the cycle averaged AE-33 BC measurement (R2 = 0.96), agreeing with previously published BC-PN correlation factors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1253
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emission regulations require extension of engine displacement downsizing limits in order to maximize the efficiency benefits. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) proves to be one of the most promising solutions that will enable higher penetration of heavily downsized turbocharged gasoline engines into the market. More specifically, Low Pressure EGR is gaining support in the automotive industry over the High Pressure configuration since it interferes less with turbocharger efficiency. In this paper, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains and provide the optimized actuator maps for part-load operation of the engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1672
Clemens Biet, Roland Baar
Acoustic measurements, especially interesting for new bearing concepts such as ball bearings, are an important part of the evaluation of turbochargers. Typically, acoustic benchmarking is done at standard conditions, neglecting possible negative effects of very low temperatures, as they might be encountered in real-world applications. For realistic turbocharger measurements at cold environment conditions down to -10°C, special adjustments to the turbocharger test bench have been made. This article introduces a soundproofed climate chamber built in the turbocharger test bench which is able to achieve low component and oil supply temperatures while still providing adequate conditions for acoustic measurements. In addition to that, with the shown concept all of the regular turbocharger test bench measurement points stay untouched as well.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1233
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
In response to the challenges of the General Motors and US Department of Energy EcoCAR 3 Challenge, Colorado State University has performed a series of vehicle modeling and simulation investigations. A conventional gasoline vehicle, conventional diesel (B20) vehicle, battery electric vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle were designed, simulated, and analyzed by Colorado State University for EcoCAR 3. Combining a small E85-fueled engine with a large battery pack, a plug-in hybrid architecture is able to provide similar benefits as the battery electric vehicle, but with less mass addition (300kg) and lower incremental costs ($10537). In order for any vehicle architecture to meet the EcoCAR 3 design criteria, the results show it must utilize an electrified drivetrain which can displace the fuel consumption and emissions production of conventional engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1064
Ahmad Khalfan
The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable cold start to occur into congested traffic, typical of the situation of people living alongside congested roads into a large city. The cold start was monitored through temperature measurements of the TWC front and rear face temperatures and lubricating oil temperatures. The emissions are presented to the end of the cold start, defined when the downstream TWC face temperature is hotter than the front face and above 400oC. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic flow impacts on the cold start.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1045
Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
The focus in the development of modern exhaust after treatment systems, like the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), is to increase the reduction rates of Carbon monoxide (CO), Particulate Matter (PM) and the NOx emissions to fulfill the more and more restricting requirements of the exhaust emission legislation. A commonly used approach to achieve these demanding goals is to improve the reduction rate by the use of new materials, new structures and in general also completely new approaches. Due to these consequent improvements prototype SCR system already achieves reduction rates of 90%. Nevertheless these very high reduction rates are only accessible if appropriate ammonia dosing control scheme is applied to the SCR system, since the reduction of NOx to non harmful water and nitrogen takes place only sufficiently if the correct amount of this additional reactant is added.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0953
Amar Deep
In the last couple of decades, world petroleum situation due to the fossil fuels over-exploitation and environmental degradation have resulted in resurgence of interest in alternative fuel. Researchers around the world are experimenting on different options to substitute petroleum derived fuels. Amongst the variety of alternative fuels, non-edible vegetable oils are very promising as these are renewable and do not compete with food. Orange peel oil, which is derived from unexploited orange peel, is very propitious in Indian context as India is fourth largest producer of oranges globally as of 2011. In the present study, three blends of orange peel oil (OPO) with diesel (OPO5, OPO10, OPO15) were prepared and exhaustive engine trial was conducted on an unmodified diesel engine. Brake thermal efficiency was found to increase for all the OPO diesel blends due to inbuilt oxygen and high cetane number. BSEC was lower for OPO diesel blends than neat diesel operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1034
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Kenneth Price, Jasonv Jacques, Thomas Pauly, Lin Wang
Upcoming LEV III/Tier III emissions standards will continue to require significant reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions for Light and Heavy Duty Diesel vehicles (LDD, HDD). The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. In addition to these stringent pollutant regulations, CARB and EPA/NHTSZ are requiring Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to observe limits for both Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Fuel Economy (FE). Henceforth, OEMs will further tailor their Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) to limit the formation of N2O, a critical GHG. N2O is produced as a side-effect of urea based SCR system through decomposition of surface nitrates or more critically, as the result of the direct and competing oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to N2O. Emission of N2O from any aftertreatment system is influenced by various factors.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 22715

Filter