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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Paul Ragaller, Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0918
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, John Storey, James Parks
Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0892
Oliver P. Taylor, Richard Pearson, Richard Stone
Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. Whilst alternative combustion concepts that promise step-out efficiency improvements continue to be of interest, there is now increased focus on approaches that give smaller, but significant incremental benefits, such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. The reduction in tail pipe CO2 emission through the reduction of engine friction using lubricant formulation-controlled viscometric profiles has been reported by many authors. There also exist opportunities to reduce the lubricant viscosity during engine warm-up by thermal management of the lubricating oil as it performs its role in protecting the engine.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0781
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Premixed Pilot-Assisted Combustion (PPAC) employs a small quantity (near TDC injection) of a highly reactive fuel (typically diesel) to ignite the bulk, low-reactivity fuel (main contributor to power production), achieving ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. Recent research has focused on gasoline and renewable, oxygenated fuels (ethanol/butanol) for the low-reactivity fuels. Ethanol fuel has garnered particular interest because of its high volatility that allows it to be injected into the intake port to form a highly premixed cylinder charge and significant lowering of compression-end temperature and pressure (charge cooling effect due to its heat of vaporization). In this work, empirical investigations of the diesel-ethanol PPAC are carried out on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0952
Gordon J. Bartley, Zachary Tonzetich, Ryan Hartley
A recent collaborative research project between Southwest Research Institute and the University of Texas at San Antonio has demonstrated that a ruthenium catalyst is capable of converting NOx emissions to N2 with high activity and selectivity. The catalyst can be used in the EGR leg of a D-EGR engine, where it uses CO and H2 present in the rich gas environment to reduce NOx to N2 with 100% efficiency close to 100% selectivity to N2. The NOx-free EGR gases can then be fed into the intake air without concerns that the NOx will lead to pre-ignition under high engine efficiency operating conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0713
Terrence Alger, Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich
A series of tests were performed on a gasoline powered engine with a Dedicated EGR system. The results showed that changes in engine performance, including improvements in burn rates and stability, reductions in unburned hydrocarbons and increases in the oxides of nitrogen could not be adequately accounted for solely due to the presence of reformate in the EGR stream. In an effort to adequately characterize the engine's behavior, a new parameter was calculated, the Total Inert Dilution Ratio (TIDR), that accounts for the changes in the EGR quality as inert gases are replaced by reactive species such as CO and H2.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1278
Shubhangi S. Nigade
This paper presents a new effective approach involve an application of Taguchi method and grey relational analysis used to determine the optimum factor and the level of experimental results. To obtain optimum multiple performance characteristics of diesel engine run with madhuca indica biodiesel, diesel and its blend. The approach combines the orthogonal array design of experiments with grey relational analysis. Grey relational theory is adopted to determine the best input parameters that give lower emission and higher performance of engine. Six design parameters namely; compression ratio, injection pressure, injection nozzle geometry, additive and fuel fraction were selected, and five levels for each factor. To reduce an experimental effort the experiments have been performed by employing Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array for various engine performance and emission related responses. Injection nozzle geometry and compression was found to most influencing factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1006
Cary Henry, Svitlana Kroll, Vinay Premnath, Ian smith, Peter Morgan, Imad Khalek
Recent legislation has been enacted requiring unprecedented reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus improved fuel efficiency, from internal combustion engines. For light duty automotive applications, this mandated reduction in greenhouse gas emissions directly coincides with a required 80% reduction in gaseous criteria pollutant emissions, and a 90% reduction in particulate emissions. The dedicated EGR combustion strategy, developed by Southwest Research Institute, has been shown to provide reductions in fuel economy of up to 15% when compared with conventional non-EGR type strategies [1,2]. In addition to these observed improvements in fuel consumption, the use of cooled EGR has been shown to reduce certain criteria pollutants, including PM and PN emissions [2,3]. In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a D-EGR light duty vehicle were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0662
Mark Stuhldreher
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from tests on recent engines and vehicles. The data are used as inputs to an EPA vehicle simulation model created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. Under these new light-duty fuel economy standards vehicle power trains must become significantly more efficient. Cylinder deactivation engine technology, studied by EPA, is capable of deactivating one or more of its combustion cylinders when not needed to meet power demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0911
Makoto Nagata, Takashi Yamada, Ryuji Ando, Insu Kim, toshihisa tomie
The surface electric conductivity of catalyst material is supposed to be a key parameter for some catalyst reaction however the sufficient investigation has not been performed. In this study, the surface electric conductivity of catalyst powder, such as Rh/Ce1-xZrxO2, Rh/ZrO2 and Rh/Al2O3, were measured by EUPS (EUV excited Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and those conductivity was compared with water gas shift performance. As a result, good correlation was seen between the surface conductivity and the hydrogen production activity by water gas shift reaction, and the contribution of the surface conductivity over some catalytic reaction was confirmed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1273
Lakshmikanth Meda, Martin Romzek, Yanliang Zhang, Martin Cleary
Although the technology of combustion engines is quite fully developed, the degree of efficiency is considerably low. A large amount of the energy, around 30 %, is lost as exhaust waste heat, and up to 30 % is dissipated in the cooling circuits. This is a reason why thermal recuperation has a great potential for raising the efficiency of combustion engines. In order to meet ever-increasing consumer demand for higher fuel economy, and to conform to more stringent governmental regulations, auto manufacturers have increasingly looked at thermoelectric materials as a potential method to recover some of that waste heat and improve the overall efficiency of their vehicle fleets. Seeking new possibilities to make vehicles greener and more efficient, the industry wants to use the waste heat which passes through the exhaust system almost completely unused in the past.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0913
Nathan Ottinger, Rebecca Veele, Yuanzhou Xi, Z. Gerald Liu
The oxidation of short-chain alkanes, such as methane, ethane, and propane, from the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas and lean-burn dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines poses a unique challenge to the exhaust aftertreatment community. Emissions of these species are currently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as either methane (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards) or non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). However, the complete catalytic oxidation of short-chain alkanes is challenging due to their thermodynamic stability. The present study focuses on the oxidation of short-chain alkanes by vanadium-based and Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, generally utilized to control NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. Results reveal that both of these catalysts are active for alkane oxidation, albeit, at conversions lower than those generally reported in the literature for Pd-based catalysts.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0934
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, James E. Parks, Josh A. Pihl, Todd J. Toops
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOx emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOx from lean diesel engine trucks, the urea storage and delivery components add significant size and cost at the passenger car scale. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0914
Yaritza M. Lopez-De Jesus, Timothy C. Watling, Arulraj Kaneshalingam, Peter Chigada, Penelope Markatou, Anna Thoren, Neil Greenham
Future heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines are designed to have higher engine out NOx, for improved fuel economy, while reduction of the emission control technology footprint is also desired. Consequently, higher NOx reduction across compact emission control systems is required. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coating combined with a wall flow particulate filter (SCRF® ) is a technology that enables abatement of NOx emissions in addition to oxidation of soot from diesel engine exhausts. Vanadia based-SCR is well known for NOx reduction and is active for hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) oxidation. This dual functionality (oxidation and reduction reactions) of the V.SCR catalysts plus the filtration achieved by the filter substrate can help certain diesel engine applications achieve the legislative limits with a reduced packaging volume.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0942
Nicholas Custer, Carl Justin Kamp, Alexander Sappok, James Pakko, Christine Lambert, Christoph Boerensen, Victor Wong
The increasing use of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines coupled with the implementation of new particulate matter (PM) emissions regulations requires new emissions control strategies. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) present one approach to reduce PM emissions. Although primarily composed of combustible material which may be removed through oxidation, PM also contains incombustible components or ash. Over the service life of the filter the accumulation of ash causes an increase in exhaust backpressure, and limits the useful life of the GPF. In an accelerated aging system, elevated ash levels were created by injecting lubricant oil into a gasoline burner system. GPFs were aged to a series of levels representing filter life up to 150,000 miles. The impact of ash on pressure drop and on its sensitivity to soot accumulation was investigated at specific ash levels.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0941
Christine K. Lambert, Mira Bumbaroska, Douglas Dobson, Jon Hangas, James Pakko, Paul Tennison
In the future, gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading characteristics of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) at high mileages. Soot levels for GTDI engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. In this study, a post mortem was completed of two GPFs, one at 130,000 mi and the other at 150,000 mi, from two production 3.5L GTDI vehicles. The vehicles used 5W30 oil, with a maintenance interval of 10,000 mi. The GPFs were ceramic wall-flow filters containing three-way catalytic washcoat and located downstream of conventional three-way catalysts. The oil consumption was measured to be 22,000 - 30,000 miles per quart.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0956
Amin Reihani, Benjamin Corson, John W. Hoard, Galen B. Fisher, Evgeny Smirnov, Dirk Roemer, Joseph Theis, Christine Lambert
Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) are one type of lean NOx reduction technology typically used in smaller diesel passenger cars where urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems may be difficult to package . However, the performance of lean NOx traps (LNT) at temperatures above 400 C needs to be improved. The use of Rapidly Pulsed Reductants (RPR) is a process in which hydrocarbons are injected in rapid pulses ahead of a LNT in order to expand its operating window to higher temperatures and space velocities. This approach has also been called Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) by Toyota. There is a vast parameter space which could be explored to maximize RPR performance and reduce the fuel penalty associated with injecting hydrocarbons. In this study, the mixing uniformity of the injected pulses, the type of reductant, and the concentration of pulsed reductant and oxygen in the main flow were investigated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, advancements in emission legislation and engine control both enable and require further improvements and application of new techniques. To address upcoming real world emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to address this issue is applying virtual sensors which utilize already available sensor information in an ECU to provide estimates of not measured emissions. For real world application it is important that the virtual sensor works in varying environmental and operating conditions and here the choice of input variables can have a strong impact. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of DOE and iterative identification of polynomial models is extended to address varying conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0961
Satish Narayanan Ramachandran, Gillis Hommen, Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Frank Willems, Frank Kupper
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission-legislation limits. Simultaneously, low fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
The future emission regulation (B.S-V) in India has created new challenges to meet the particulate matters (PM) limit for diesel cars. When comparing BS-IV with expected BS-V emission norms, the limits for PM and NOx has been reduced by 80% & 28% respectively. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technology to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detail on road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (<350 PPM Sulfur) & BS IV fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0964
Klaus Hadl, Reinhard Ratzberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Martin Schuessler, Waldemar Linares, Hannes Pucher
This paper describes the development of a 0-D sulfur poisoning model based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx slip after the NOx Storage Catalyst (NSC), but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with the sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NSC kinetic model, the combination of the two models results in a “EAS Model” able to predict the deteriorating on NOx storage/conversion in a NSC with the increase of sulfur absorbed under lean operating conditions, exhibiting higher NOx emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned. Additionally, the so called “deterioration factors” used to reflect the lower NOx conversion and higher NO2/NO ratio with increasing sulfation in the NSC model were determined for different sulfur levels.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0967
Rohil Daya, John Hoard, Sreedhar Chanda, Maneet Singh
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its lightoff temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal or salt phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0968
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Chrysoula Pagkoura, Souzana Lorentzou, Georgia Kastrinaki
Catalysts that have been extensively investigated for applications in direct soot oxidation on Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are very often based on mixed oxides of ceria with zirconia, materials known to assist soot oxidation by enhancing the supply of oxygen from the catalyst to soot. Besides the catalyst composition that significantly affects soot oxidation, other parameters such as morphological characteristics of the catalyst imposed by the synthesis technique followed, as well as the reagents used in the synthesis may also contribute to the performance of the catalyst. In the present work, two ceria-zirconia catalyst samples with different zirconia doping were subjected to different milling protocols with the aim to shift the catalyst particle size distribution curve to lower values. The produced catalysts were further evaluated with respect to their soot oxidation activity following established protocols from previous work at this laboratory.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0969
Johann C. Wurzenberger, Sophie Bardubitzki, Susanne Kutschi, Robert Fairbrother, Christoph Poetsch
The steadily decreasing emission limits and the continuous quest to improve fuel economy are key driving forces to optimize internal combustion engines. To meet emission targets, the application of advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems became an indispensable part of modern engine concepts. With the goal to abate gaseous engine emissions and also to reduce particulate matter, modern exhaust aftertreatment systems typically combine different types of honeycomb catalysts, wall flow particulate filters, dosing systems and control. Boundary conditions like packaging limitations, costs, overall pressure drop and cold-start duration intuitively lead to the attempt to combine the abatement functionality of different aftertreatment devices in a single device. Catalyzed wall flow filters apply coatings featuring oxidation catalyst, LNT, SCR or also combined functionalities. A higher level of functional integration raises the complexity in the design and layout.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0970
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Viktor Schimik, Klaus Gabel
In the presented work the findings from a previous study of the authors on the mechanisms and influence factors of deposit formation in urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) [1] are extended to a broader range of operating conditions and studied in detail. In order to quantify the boundary conditions of deposition, a representative set of deposits was studied during the entire process of formation and decomposition. A box of heat resisting glass was used to observe spray impingement, wall film and deposit formation on a typical mixing element. Leidenfrost and wall wetting as well as transition regimes were observed and correlated with deposition. Temperature measurements were conducted to precisely identify the boundary conditions of deposit solidification. Video technology was used to identify the solidification timescales and deposit growth rates.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of factory style methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements, and pressure on test facility capacity. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats. In addition the process provides objective direction when an engineering target is unspecified or deemed unachievable.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the effects that inappropriate tire pressure has on tread wear and tire and wheel damage. Previous research, such as NHTSA’s Tire Pressure Special Study in 2001, sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) included on all Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s unique on-board data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0737
Yilu Lin, Timothy Lee, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee
The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fuelled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% pure diesel), ABE20 and pure diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10~CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of pure diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash Chander
This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model was used for flame structure. Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction is accounted for using Eddy – Dissipation Model. The effect of varying burner exit nozzle to plate distance is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Dip observed in heat flux distribution is due to the axial velocity profile close to the impingement surface, which further depends on the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0687
Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Kevin Hallstrom, Ansgar Wille
Nowadays the Chinese legislative development and the implementation of advanced technologies to curb HDD emissions in China have been a subject of worldwide attention. Currently China is warping its efforts to deploy and enforce the launch of nation-wide Stage IV and also preparing for the implementation of future regulations standards. Focus discussion here is on the aftertreatment pathways to meet China current and future emissions standards, based on market uniqueness. This paper is sought to provide retrospectives of the adoption of V-SCR on China stage IV HDD vehicles, through presenting findings from two separate analyses of field returned catalyst parts and also the comparative study with local catalyst products. A few common in-use failure models were identified. The paper will also discuss the challenges and possible solutions for meeting the WHTC requirement for Stage IV and V city vehicles.
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