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Viewing 121 to 150 of 22543
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2762
Pradip Lingfa, Pranab Das, Lalit Das, Satya Naik
Abstract In the present experimental investigations the influence of injector opening pressures and injection timings on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated single cylinder diesel engine has been investigated. The test were conducted with four different fuels, namely diesel and Tung biodiesel blends (TB10, TB15, TB20 and TB50) at three different injector opening pressures (150 bar, 200 bar and 250 bar) respectively. Fuel injection opening pressures were varied by changing the spring tension of the needle valve of injector nozzle. The three different injection timings (Standard timing at 23° BTDC, Retarded Timing of 21° BTDC and Advanced Timing of 25° BTDC) were used. The injection timings were varied by changing the thickness of the shim. The entire tests were conducted at the constant engine speed of 1500 rpm under various load conditions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2766
Gian Marques, Lian Izquierdo, Camila Coutinho
Abstract Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. More sustainable and cost effective new biofuels are being designed and produced using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. These new microbial fuels have great potential to become viable alternatives and supplements for petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. MAN Latin America has worked in cooperation with REG Life Sciences, a North American industrial biotechnological company, to help in the development of high quality fuels for automotive purposes. The aim of this paper is to present the test engine results of a novel microbially produced fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), under the banner of UltraClean™ Diesel, in a Proconve P7 (Euro V) MAN D0834, diesel engine. Described are a comprehensive performance and emissions evaluation as well as an interpretation of the primary fuel properties.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2763
Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Peerawat Saisirirat, Komkrit Sivara, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
Abstract Formerly, the Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blended fuels has been studied by running the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and found that the higher HVO blended fuel can suppress NOX, lowering the particulate matter (PM) while improving the vehicle fuel economy. The result also shown that the 20% HVO + 5%FAME blended with diesel fuel has been proven to compatible with the advance diesel engine technology via the severe engine durability tests and fuel injection system tests. Therefore, the effects of two paraffinic diesel fuels, which are Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) and Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO), on a common-rail DI diesel engine have been mainly focused in this work. The main objective of this work was to study the relationships between fuel properties and theirs combustion characteristics by analyzing cylinder pressure data and exhaust emissions intensively.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2770
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Abstract Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method which is shown in many papers. The ideal diesel alternative fuel obtained considering Jatropha as materials is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with Jatropha crude (JC) oil. It is the purpose of this research to examine a possibility of using advantageous JC oil direct use as diesel engine fuel, in consideration of the sustainable production of the Jatropha biofuel in Mozambique. The adaptability to the diesel engine of diesel oil and the mixed fuel of JC was examined. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PEs) which is a promoter of cancer. Measurement of the concentration of PEs in an exhaust gas was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2769
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
Abstract A study was performed to quantify the impact of blending Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) with Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) diesel fuel on engine exhaust emissions. Fuels that were considered in the study included blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 volume % of Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester (SME and RME). Part of the study focused on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 3 passenger car engine and a Euro V heavy-duty engine. A limited study was performed using a heavy-duty engine meeting the US 2004 emission standards, in which case comparisons between the GTL diesel and FAME blends were made with US 2D and California Air Resources Board (CARB) reference fuels. The results showed particulate mass (PM) reductions to varying degrees with all of the GTL/FAME blends.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2768
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann
Abstract The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2773
Vasu Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Vishvendra Tomar, Gagneet Kalsi
Abstract The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity, better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2774
Juhani K. Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Paivi Aakko-Saksa, Sari Mannonen, Ville Vauhkonen, Piritta Roslund
Abstract The Finnish pulp and paper company, UPM, will start a biorefinery in Finland in 2014 to produce advanced renewable diesel in commercial scale. The fuel production is based on using crude tall oil (CTO), a wood-based residue of pulping process, as a raw material. The end product, CTO based renewable diesel called UPM BioVerno, is a novel high quality drop-in diesel fuel resembling fossil diesel. It reduces greenhouse gas emissions by up to 80 % when compared to fossil fuels. In this study, the CTO renewable diesel was studied as a blending component in regular mineral-oil based fossil diesel fuel in field testing. The functionality and performance of four (4) passenger cars was evaluated by comparing e.g. fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of CTO renewable diesel blend (R20UPM) with fossil reference fuel. The field test included 20.000 km on-road driving with each car by experienced drivers from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2724
Pramod S. Mehta, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan
Abstract Biodiesel is an emerging alternative to fossil diesel for use in compression ignition engines. From environmental standpoint, an increase in nitric oxide (NO) emission from biodiesel fueled engine has been a major concern. Several investigations suggest the role of unsaturated methyl ester as a contributor to biodiesel-NO penalty. The chemical simplicity of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel makes their composition effects amenable to a systematic analysis. In this study, the effects of saturated palm and unsaturated karanja (Pongamia pinnata) biodiesels and their blends (Bio-mix) on compression ignition engine performance, combustion and NO emission are investigated. The combustion and emission characteristics of these fuels are compared with fossil diesel that the neat biodiesel fuels result in improved exhaust emissions except NO with a penalty in fuel economy.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2728
Romaeo Dallanegra, Rinaldo Caprotti
Abstract Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDIDs) have been known for some time. With the latest powertrains becoming ever more sophisticated and reliant on efficient fuel delivery, the necessity for a continued focus on limiting their formation remains. Initial studies probed both carbonaceous based/ashless polymeric and sodium salt based IDIDs. The reported occurrence of the latter variety of IDID has declined in recent years as a result of the removal of certain additives from the diesel distribution system. Conversely, ashless polymeric based deposits remain problematic and a regular occurrence in the field.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2727
Hu Li, Laura Campbell, Seyed Hadavi, Job Gava
Abstract Direct use of straight vegetable oil based biofuels in diesel engines without trans-esterification can deliver more carbon reductions compared to its counterpart biodiesel. However, the use of high blends of straight vegetable oils especially used cooking oil based fuels in diesel engines needs to ensure compatible fuel economy with PD (Petroleum Diesel) and satisfactory operational performance. There are two ways to use high blends of SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines: fixed blending ratio feeding to the engine and variable blending ratio feeding to the engine. This paper employed the latter using an on-board blending system-Bioltec system, which is capable of heating the vegetable oils and feeding the engine with neat PD or different blends of vegetable oils depending on engine load and temperature.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2730
Lei Zhu, Wugao zhang, Zhen Huang, Junhua Fang
Abstract Because of its cleanness and renewability, biodiesel has a great potential as the alternative of diesel fuel to confront with the increasing energy crisis and environment pollution. In this study, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was used to reduce the typical regulated emission and particulate emission. The combined method of fuel design concept with diesel oxidation catalyst was applied in this study. DOC with Pt catalyst was equipped in the engine test bench in this study. The effects of DOC on diesel engine particulate emission fueled with Euro V diesel fuel, biodiesel and ethanol-biodiesel blends were investigated in this study. It was found that DOC seemed have no effects on NOx emission, while it could improve the oxidation reaction from NO to NO2. In the section of particulate emission, DOC could reduce the particulate mass and number concentration, especially in the range of smaller diameter particles. The SOF could be reduced effectively with DOC.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2729
Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Headen, Stephen Bennington
Abstract Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2830
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Ashish Karnwal, Dhruv Gupta, Vipul Vibhanshu, Abhishek Sharma, Jitesh Singh Patel
Abstract The interest of using alternative fuels in diesel engines has been accelerated exponentially due to a foreseen scarcity in world petroleum reserves, increase in the prices of the conventional fossil fuels and restrictions on exhaust emissions such as greenhouse gases from internal combustion (IC) engines initiated by environmental concerns. The constant trade-off between efficiency and emissions should be in proper balance with the conventional fuels in a fuel design process for future combustors. Unlike gasoline and diesel, alcohols act as oxygenated fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust properly due to the presence of oxygen, which enhances premixed combustion phase, improves the diffusive combustion phase which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The higher activation energy of alcohols leads to better resistance to engine knocking that allows higher compression ratios and greater engine thermal efficiencies.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2827
Kristin Götz, Anja Singer, Olaf Schröder, Christoph Pabst, Axel Munack, Jürgen Bünger, Jürgen Krahl
Abstract One political and economic aim in Europe is to increase the use of renewable energy resources. In the transport sector, up to 10 % of fossil diesel fuel should be replaced by biogenic fuels by 2020. This also means a reduction in crude oil dependency. In the area of diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl esters are introduced since over 20 years as biodiesel. However, biodiesel can lead to an increase of engine oil dilution in passenger cars with diesel particulate filters. During the regeneration of the particulate filters, there is an entry of fuel components in the engine oil. While most of the diesel fuel (DF) evaporates from the engine oil, biodiesel remains in the oil and can cause sludge formation in the engine. A promising approach to reduce this problem is the use of a new type of biogenic fuel, called hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). This is also produced from vegetable oil or animal fat. Like biodiesel, HVO is free of sulfur and any aromatics.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2824
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract Ethanol has a long history as an automotive fuel and is currently used in various blends and formats as a fuel for spark ignition engines in many areas of the world. The addition of ethanol to petrol has been shown to reduce certain types of emissions, but increase others. This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental program carried out under standard laboratory conditions to determine the influence of different quantities of petrol-ethanol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. The ethanol-petrol blends were laboratory tested in two European passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle, using a constant volume sampler and analyzers for quantification of both regulated and unregulated emissions.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2826
Jon Andersson, John May, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels, Simon de Vries, Matthew Heaney, Matthew Keenan, Jonathon Mansell
Abstract The exhaust emissions of two Euro 6 diesel cars with different emissions control systems have been evaluated both on the road and over various chassis dynamometer test cycles. European emissions limits are currently set using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), but the European Commission is preparing additional test procedures to ensure that emissions are well controlled both in real-world use and over the legislative test cycle. The main focus of this work on ‘Real Driving Emissions’ (RDE) is on measurements using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) in truly representative, on-road, driving. A key focus of the test programme, undertaken as a collaboration between AECC (the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst) and Ricardo UK, was therefore the use of PEMS systems to measure on-road emissions of both gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. This included measurement of particle number emissions with a new candidate system for this type of measurement.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2823
Norifumi Mizushima, Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yutaka Takada, Susumu Sato
Abstract Widespread use of biofuels for automobiles would greatly reduce CO2 emissions and increase resource recycling, contributing to global environmental conservation. In fact, activities for expanding the production and utilization of biofuels are already proceeding throughout the world. For diesel vehicles, generally, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) made from vegetable oils is used as a biodiesel. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also become increasingly popular. In addition, biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel, which can be made from any kinds of biomass by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process, is expected to be commercialized in the future. On the other hand, emission regulations in each country have been tightened year by year. In accordance with this, diesel engines have complied with the regulations with advanced technologies such as common-rail fuel injection system, high pressure turbocharger, EGR and aftertreatment system.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2822
Achinta Varna, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Alexander Spiteri, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Yuri M. Wright
Simulations for a pressure-assisted multi-stream injector designed for urea-dosing in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas system have been carried out and compared to measurements taken in an optically accessible high-fidelity flow test rig. The experimental data comprises four different combinations of mass flow rate and temperature for the gas stream with unchanged injection parameters for the spray. First, a parametric study is carried out to determine the importance of various spray sub-models, including atomization, spray-wall interaction, buoyancy as well as droplet coalescence. Optimal parameters are determined using experimental data for one reference operating condition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2821
Jonathan Stewart, Roy Douglas, Alexandre Goguet, Cristina Elena Stere, Luke Blades
Abstract One of the most critical aspects in the development of a kinetic model for automotive applications is the method used to control the switch between limiting factors over the period of the chemical reaction, namely mass transfer and reaction kinetics. This balance becomes increasingly more critical with the automotive application with the gas composition and gas flow varying throughout the automotive cycles resulting in a large number of competing reactions, with a constantly changing space velocity. A methodology is presented that successfully switches the limitation between mass transfer and reaction kinetics. This method originally developed for the global kinetics model using the Langmuir Hinshelwood approach for kinetics is presented. The methodology presented is further expanded to the much more complex micro-kinetics approach taking into account various kinetic steps such as adsorption/desorption and surface reactions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2820
Rong Ma, Chao He, Jiaqiang Li
A simulation model of catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) is established based on the CFD software FIRE and has been validated through a series of experimental comparison. This model simulates the CDPF continuous regeneration process, and the factors that influence the exhaust NO2 concentration from CDPF including oxygen concentration, exhaust temperature, space velocity, proportion of NO2/NOX and soot mass fraction are studied. The results show that the higher oxygen concentration causes an increase in NO2/NOX. The NO2/NOX is significantly increased when the exhaust temperature is about 350 °C based on the simulation conditions when the inlet oxygen concentration is at 5.79% and the space velocity is 7s−1. The space velocity in a certain degree leads to higher NO2/NOX. For the soot mass, there is no significant influence of increasing proportion of the NO2/NOX.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2818
Mohammad Reza Hamedi, Athanasios Tsolakis, Jose Martin Herreros
Abstract Recent developments in diesel engines lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas temperature. Therefore more energy efficient aftertreatment systems are required to comply with tight emission regulations. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics package was used to investigate the thermal behaviour of a diesel aftertreatment system. A parametric study was carried out to identify the most influential pipework material and insulation characteristics in terms of thermal performance. In the case of the aftertreatment pipework and canning material effect, an array of different potential materials was selected and their effects on the emission conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) were numerically investigated over a driving cycle. Results indicate that although the pipework material's volumetric heat capacity was decreased by a factor of four, the total emission reduction was only considerable during the cold start.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2817
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2815
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst with ammonia as reducing agent plays a central role in today's exhaust after-treatment systems for heavy-duty vehicles and there is a wide selection of possible catalytic materials to use. In order to facilitate the design of future catalysts, several aspects of the materials must be evaluated both in steady-state and transient operation. To this end, this paper presents a methodology for comparing the dynamic properties of different catalysts using full-size engine testing. The studied characteristics include the ammonia storage capacity, the effect of starting with an empty catalyst, the transient response to temperature gradients and changes in the urea dosing level. The temperature response is of particular importance in transient operation, where temperature increases may lead to substantial ammonia slip.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2814
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Abstract Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2812
Ahmad Khalfan, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Abstract The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with on-board measurement systems such as a FTIR system for gaseous emission, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Various nitrogen species emissions (NO, NO2, NOx, NH3, HCN and N2O) were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed and employed using two real world driving cycles/routes representing a typical urban road network located in a densely populated area and main crowded road. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic conditions impacts such as traffic and pedestrian lights, road congestion, grade and turning on emissions, engine thermal efficiency and fuel consumption. The time aligned vehicle moving parameters with Nitrogen pollutant emission data and fuel consumption enabled the micro-analysis of correlations between these parameters.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2811
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Martin Pechout, Michael Fenkl
Abstract The paper focuses on portable “on-board” instrumentation and methods for evaluation of exhaust emissions from scooters and various small machinery under real-world driving conditions. Two approaches are investigated here. In one, a miniature on-board system mounted on the equipment itself performs online measurements of the concentrations of the pollutants of interest (HC, CO, CO2, NOx, some property of particulate matter), and measurement or computation of the intake air flow. This approach has been used on a 50 cm3 scooter fitted with a 14-kg on-board system and driven on local routes. Measured concentrations of gaseous compounds, particle mass and total particle length were multiplied with the corresponding intake air flow computed from measured engine rpm, intake air manifold pressure and temperature. In the second approach, a full-flow dilution tunnel, gas analyzers and particle measurement or sampling devices are mounted on an accompanying hand cart or vehicle.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2848
Matthew McAllister, Stephen Smith, Paul Kapus, Khai Vidmar, Alexander Hochnetz
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2846
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bernhard Lüers, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Koerfer, Stefan Pischinger, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The present work is a continuation of the earlier published results by authors on the investigation of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. Paper No. 2013-01-1677 and JSAE Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot microstructure and its consequences on oxidation behavior, the test program was extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, and physical properties such as size, concentration etc. on the oxidation behavior. The experiments were performed with pure HVO as well as with petroleum based diesel and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as baseline fuels. The soot samples for the different analyses were collected under constant engine operating conditions at indicated raw NOx emissions of Euro 6 level using closed loop combustion control methodology.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2847
Arjun Prakash, Edward Nelson, Aaron Jones, James Macias, Matthew Hinojosa, Eugene Jimenez
Abstract Particulate mass (PM) emissions from DISI engines can be reduced via fuels additive technology that facilitates injector deposit clean-up. A significant drawback of DISI engines is that they can have higher particulate matter emissions than PFI gasoline engines. Soot formation in general is dependent on the air-fuel ratio, combustion chamber temperature and the chemical structure and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this regard, PM emissions and DISI injector deposit clean-up were studied in three identical high sales-volume vehicles. The tests compared the effects of a fuel (Fuel A) containing a market generic additive at lowest additive concentration (LAC) against a fuel formulated with a novel additive technology (Fuel B). The fuels compared had an anti-knock index value of 87 containing up to 10% ethanol. The vehicles were run on Fuel A for 20,000 miles followed by 5,000 miles on Fuel B using a chassis dynamometer.
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