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Viewing 121 to 150 of 22857
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1075
Muhammad Ahmar Zuber, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Zambri Harun, Zulkhairi Zainol Abidin, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler, Fabrizio Bonatesta
Abstract The focus of this study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along the predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories obtained from Kiva-3v CFD simulation with a series of Matlab routines. 3500 locations representing soot particles were selected inside the cylinder at 8° CA ATDC as soot was formed in high concentration at this CA. The dominant soot particle size was recorded within the size range of 20-50 nm at earlier CA and shifted to 10-20 nm after 20° CA ATDC. Soot particle quantities reduce sharply until 20° CA ATDC after which they remain steady at around 1500 particles. Soot particles inside the bowl region tend to stick to the bowl walls and those remaining in the bowl experience an increase in size. Soot particles that move to the upper bowl and squish regions were observed to experience a decrease in size.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1076
Tak W. Chan
Abstract This study reported black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle on splash blended E10 and iB16 fuels over the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles at standard and cold ambient temperatures. For the FTP-75 drive cycle, the GDI vehicle had lower solid particle number and BC mass emissions from E10 (5.1×1012 particles/mile; 4.2 mg/mile) and iB16 (5.2×1012 particles/mile; 3.9 mg/mile) compared to E0 (7.2×1012 particles/mile; 7.0 mg/mi). Most of the reductions were attributed to the statistically significant reductions during the phases 1 and 2 of the FTP-75 drive cycle. iB16 was also observed to have statistically significant reduction on BC emissions when compared to E0 at cold ambient temperature but E10 did not show such BC reduction. For the PFI vehicle, most of the solid particle number and BC mass emissions were emitted primarily during phase 1 of the FTP-75 drive cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1079
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Adrian Wichser, Andreas Mayer, Jacques Lemaire
Abstract The invisible nanoparticles (NP)*) from combustion processes penetrate easily into the human body through the respiratory and olfactory pathways and carry numerous harmful health effects potentials. NP count concentrations are limited in EU for Diesel passenger cars since 2013 and for gasoline cars with direct injection (GDI) since 2014. The limit for GDI was temporary extended to 6 × 1012 #/km, (regulation No. 459/2012/EU). Nuclei of metals as well as organics are suspected to significantly contribute especially to the ultrafine particle size fractions, and thus to the particle number concentration. In the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates) metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars are investigated for different engine technologies. In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four gasoline cars - an older one with MPI and three newer with DI - are represented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1080
Eduardo J. Barrientos, Matti M. Maricq, Andre L. Boehman, James E. Anderson
Abstract A study and analysis of the relation of biodiesel chemical structures to the resulting soot characteristics and soot oxidative reactivity is presented. Soot samples generated from combustion of various methyl esters, alkanes, biodiesel and diesel fuels in laminar co-flow diffusion flames are analyzed to evaluate the impact of fuel-bound oxygen in fatty acid esters on soot oxidation behavior. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of soot samples collected from diffusion flames show that chemical variations in biodiesel ester compounds have an impact on soot oxidative reactivity and soot characteristics in contrast to findings reported previously in the literature. Soot derived from methyl esters with shorter alkyl chains, such as methyl butyrate and methyl hexanoate, exhibit higher reactivity than those with longer carbon chain lengths, such as methyl oleate, which are more representative of biodiesel fuels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
Abstract As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1062
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll, Stefan Simescu
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds that may form during combustion and/or are present in the unburned portion of the fuel and lubricating oil which ultimately become part of the exhaust. Many of these compounds are considered toxic or carcinogenic. Since these compounds are present in very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining representative and repeatable results. Engine testing is typically performed using a dilution tunnel. With a dilution tunnel, the collection of a representative sample is important. Experiments were performed with a modified EPA Method TO-9A to determine the equilibration time and other sampling parameters required for the measurement of SVOC in dilute exhaust. The results show that representative results can be obtained with this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1060
Yangdongfang Yang, Gyubaek Cho, Christopher Rutland
Abstract The SCR Filter simultaneously reduces NOx and Particle Matter (PM) in the exhaust and is considered an effective way to meet emission regulations. By combining the function of a Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), the SCR Filter reduces the complexity and cost of aftertreatment systems in diesel vehicles. Moreover, it provides an effective reaction surface and potentially reduces backpressure by combining two devices into one. However, unlike traditional flow through type SCR, the deNOx reactions in the SCR Filter can be affected by the particulate filtration and regeneration process. Additionally, soot oxidation can be affected by the deNOx process. A 1-D kinetic model for integrated DPF and NH3-SCR system over Cu-zeolite catalysts was developed and validated with experimental data in previous work[1].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1066
Frank Adam, Jan Schoenhaber, Armin Wagner
Abstract The introduction of vehicle emission and fuel economy standards (CO2) accelerates the introduction of new platform and powertrain combinations into the market place. All of these combinations will require unique exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that comply with the current emission legislation. The optimization of each unique aftertreatment solution requires the proper application of catalyst technologies at the lowest PGM concentrations. The optimization process needs to be fast, reliable, realistic and cost attractive. It is arguable that performing the aftertreatment optimization on a chassis dynamometer is variable, time consuming and expensive. This work demonstrates how a synthetic gas bench (SGB) can be used to simulate stoichiometric engine emissions and aftertreatment performance. The SGB procedure duplicates the vehicle NEDC engine-out emissions and catalyst heat-up profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1064
Ahmad Khalfan, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Abstract The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR for speciated gaseous emission measurements, a differential GPS for travel profiles, thermocouples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable cold start to occur into congested traffic, typical of the situation of people living alongside congested roads into a large city. The cold start was monitored through temperature measurements of the TWC front and rear face temperatures and lubricating oil temperatures. The emissions are presented to the end of the cold start, defined when the downstream TWC face temperature is hotter than the front face which occurred at ∼350-400oC. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic flow impacts on the cold start.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0597
Christian Schulz, Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Thorsten Brands, Thomas Huelser, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract Maintaining low NOx emissions over the operating range of diesel engines continues to be a major issue. However, optical measurements of nitric oxide (NO) are lacking particularly in the core of diesel jets, i.e. in the region of premixed combustion close to the spray axis. This is basically caused by severe attenuation of both the laser light and fluorescent emission in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applications. Light extinction is reduced by keeping absorption path lengths relatively short in this work, by investigating diesel jets in a combustion vessel instead of an engine. Furthermore, the NO-detection threshold is improved by conducting 1-d line measurements instead of 2-d imaging. The NO-LIF data are corrected for light attenuation by combined LIF and spontaneous Raman scattering. The quantified maximum light attenuation is significantly lower than in comparable previous works, and its wavelength dependence is surprisingly weak.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1626
Qingning Zhang, Andrew Pennycott, Richard Burke, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace
Abstract Nitrogen oxides emissions are an important aspect of engine design and calibration due to increasingly strict legislation. As a consequence, accurate modeling of nitrogen oxides emissions from Diesel engines could play a crucial role during the design and development phases of vehicle powertrain systems. A key step in future engine calibration will be the need to capture the nonlinear behavior of the engine with respect to nitrogen oxides emissions within a rapid-calculating mathematical model. These models will then be used in optimization routines or on-board control features. In this paper, an artificial neural network structure incorporating a number of engine variables as inputs including torque, speed, oil temperature and variables related to fuel injection is developed as a method of predicting the production of nitrogen oxides based on measured test data. A multi-layer perceptron model is identified and validated using data from dynamometry tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1616
Lindita Bushi, Timothy Skszek, David Wagner
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The Regulation requirements such as the 2020 CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standard, growing public demand, and increased fuel prices are pushing auto manufacturers worldwide to increase fuel economy through incorporation of lightweight materials in newly-designed vehicle structures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0503
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Haobo Xu, Xin Li, Zhaohua Wang, Can Wang
Abstract Plenty of dust particles which are generated when a sweeping vehicle is dumping harm to workers' health. In the study, the designed vacuum dust control system could effectively capture easily raised dust particles in the air in the premise of not impacting the dumping process so as to improve the unloading work environment. Firstly, longitudinal motion trajectory model of dust particles in the dumping process is established. Based on the side collision probability model of dust particles, lateral velocity distribution of dust particles is obtained. What's more, the scope of lateral dust particles is determined. Taking into account coupling of the dust control system and the working state of the vehicle, the suction mouth is arranged at the edge on the outside of hatch cover. Centrifugal horizontal dust removal system designed in the research is fixed in the middle of the filter cover part and discharging hatch cover area.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0734
Yasuhiko Saijo, Mitsuhiko Ueki, Hirokazu Watanabe, Yoichiro Tejima
Abstract Honda developed a technology to quantify automotive steel corrosion from the rust reduction current detected by a proprietary developed sensor. The values calculated based on Faraday's law did not match the actual measured values for the mass loss of iron due to the added resistance of rust formed between electrodes on the sensor. It was determined that the resistance of rust depends on the environment, and this issue was resolved by setting the correction values for that influence. As a result of this research it was found that the values calculated from the sensor measurements matched those from the mass loss of test specimen on a vehicle. Honda is utilizing this newly developed technology for corrosion research and field data collection.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1264
Junseok Chang, Yoann Viollet, Abdullah Alzubail, Amir Faizal Naidu Abdul-Manan, Abdullah Al Arfaj
Abstract This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize the octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. It is assumed that a vehicle was equipped with two fuel tanks and two injection systems; one port fuel injection and one direct injection line separately. Each tank carried low octane and high octane fuel so that real-time octane blending was occurred in the combustion chamber when needed (Octane On-Demand: OOD). A refinery naphtha was selected for low octane fuel (RON=61), because of its similarity to gasoline properties but a less processed, easier to produce without changing a refinery configuration. Three oxygenates were used for high octane knock-resistant fuels in a direct injection line: methanol, MTBE, and ETBE.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
Abstract This paper describes the suitability of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) material for canopy strip in a commercial vehicle. The material described in this paper is a PET compound recycled from used PET bottles and reinforced with glass fibers so as to meet the product's functional requirements. The application described in this paper is a Canopy strip which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy strip acts as a structural frame to hold the Vinyl canopy in both sides of the vehicle. Functionally, the part demands a material with adequate mechanical and thermal properties. Generally, PET bottles are thrown after use thereby creating land pollution. PET being inert takes an extremely long time to degrade thereby occupying huge amount of space in landfills and directly affecting rain water percolation. This work focused on recycling the PET bottles and compounding them suitably so as convert them into useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
Abstract The depletion of resources, increased cost of fossil fuel and increased environmental awareness reaching the critical condition. Development of viable alternative fuels from renewable resources is gaining the international attention and acceptance. The vegetable oils have the potential of alternative fuel for compression ignition engines by converting it into biodiesel. The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1299
Rod Emery
Abstract - Sustainable Manufacturing: Beyond Turning the Lights Off There is increasing pressure for manufacturers to go “green.” Automotive OEMs are improving their own sustainability practices and demanding environmental accountability from their vendors. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as the creation of manufactured products using processes that: 1 Minimize negative environmental impacts2 Conserve energy and natural resources3 Are safe for employees, communities and consumers4 Are economically sound Installing low-energy lighting and adding recycling bins have had a positive effect, but manufacturers must take a comprehensive view of sustainability to have a continuing impact. This white paper will address some “out of the box” methods to improve sustainability of automotive assembly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1251
Fabien Redon, Arunandan Sharma, John Headley
Abstract In a recent paper, Opposed-Piston 2-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Engine Dynamometer Demonstration [1] published at the SAE SIAT in India in January 2015, Achates Power presented work related to the first ever opposed piston multi-cylinder engine fuel economy demonstration while meeting US 2010 emissions. The results showed that the research 4.9L three cylinder engine was able to achieve 43% brake thermal efficiency at the best point and almost 42% on average over the 12 modes of the SET cycle. The results from this test confirmed the modelling predictions and carved a very robust path to a 48% best BTE and 46.6% average over the cycle for a production design of this engine. With the steady state performance and emissions results achieved, it was time to explore other attributes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0999
Jan Schoenhaber, Joerg Michael Richter, Joel Despres, Marcus Schmidt, Stephanie Spiess, Martin Roesch
Abstract The new emission regulations in Europe, EU 6 will promulgate more realistic driving conditions with more stringent HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This legislation will also include the WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure) cycle for CO2 measurements and a new requirement called “Real-Driving-Emissions” (RDE) as well. The RDE requirement is to ensure modern vehicles comply with the legislation under all conditions of normal driving. More robust aftertreatment solutions are needed to meet these new requirements. This work introduces an improved three-way catalyst (TWC) for gasoline engines for these new regulations. It is tested under static and dynamic conditions and on several engines and vehicles with various drive cycles. It offers better thermal stability combined with lower backpressure than former TWC generations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
Abstract This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed at future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimization has to be considered. Examples of this include: catalyst development, optimized thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimized SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough system screening using a range of advanced SCR technologies, where the pros and cons from a system perspective will be discussed. Further optimization of selected systems will also be reviewed. The results suggest that current legislation requirements can be met for all SCR catalysts under investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0990
Brett M. Bailey
This paper details the development of Cool Particulate Regeneration™, CPR™, an ultra-efficient non-thermal active particulate filter regeneration technology for gasoline and diesel particulate filters. In the technologies simplest form, mechanical two-way regeneration valves are sequentially and in rapid succession pneumatically actuated to induce a reverse flow filter cleaning. Their operation generates exhaust pressure by sealing off the exhaust system preventing filtered engine exhaust from exiting the tailpipe. The filtered and pressurized gases are then released to a separate low pressure particulate matter (PM) reservoir upstream of the filter. The reverse flow of high pressure filtered exhaust gases pass back though the filter physically dislodging the particulate and transporting it to the low pressure storage chamber. Innovative utilization of the particulate matter is discussed. CPR has undergone bench testing and two generations of research and development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0789
Jongyoon Lee, Sangyul Lee, Jungho Kim, Duksang Kim
Abstract This paper shows development challenges for 6 liter heavy duty off-road diesel engines to meet the Tier4 final emission regulations with a base diesel engine compliant with Tier4 interim emission regulations. Even if an after-treatment system helps to reduce emissions, quite amount of particulate matters (PM) reduction is still necessary since a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is supposed to be excluded in Tier4 final diesel engine. The objective of this research is to see if the base engine has a feasibility to meet Tier4 final emission regulations by a change of piston bowl geometry without DPF. Quite amount of PM can be reduced by piston bowl geometry because piston bowl geometry is a very important part that enhances air and fuel mixing process that help the combustion process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0800
Yann Gallo, Johan Simonsson, Ted Lind, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Henrik Bladh, Oivind Andersson
Abstract Two competing in-cylinder processes, soot formation and soot oxidation, govern soot emissions from diesel engines. Previous studies have shown a lack of correlation between the soot formation rate and soot emissions. The current experiment focuses on the correlation between soot oxidation rates and soot emissions. Laser extinction is measured using a red (690nm) laser beam, which is sent vertically through the cylinder. This wavelength is long enough to minimize absorption interference from poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, while still in the visible regime. It is modulated at 72 kHz in order to produce 10 pulses per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The intake oxygen concentration is varied between 9% and 21%. The time resolved extinction measurements are used to estimate soot oxidation rates during expansion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0854
Jeongwoo Lee, Sanghyun Chu, Jaehyuk Cha, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1036
Lei Liu, Zhijun Li, Boxi Shen
Abstract Ensuring lower emissions and better economy (fuel economy and after-treatment economy) simultaneously is the pursuit of future engines. An EGR-LNT synergetic control system was applied to a modified lean-burn CA3GA2 gasoline engine. Results showed that the synergetic control system can achieve a better NOx reduction than sole EGR and sole LNT within a proper range of upstream EGR rate and without the penalty in fuel consumption. It also has the potential to save costly noble metals in LNT, but excessive or deficient upstream EGR would make the synergetic control system inefficiency. In order to guarantee the objectivity of the effect of EGR-LNT synergetic control system on NOx reduction, another modified lean-burn CA4GA5 gasoline engine was additionally tested.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1038
Jinbiao Ning, Fengjun Yan
Abstract Using urea-based Selected Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems is an effective way in diesel engine after-treatment systems to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations. The amount of urea injection is critical to achieve high NOx reduction efficiency and low ammonia slip and overdosing or under-dosing of urea injection need to be avoided. One of the difficulties in urea injection amount control lies in the accurate measurement/estimation of the urea injection mass. To effectively address this issue, this paper defined a correction factor for under-dosing or overdosing detection and correction and proposed two methods to identify the correction factor. The first method is based on urea pump model and line pressure. Through frequency analysis, the relation between the urea pump speed and power spectrum characteristics of the line pressure by using FFT method was revealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
Abstract This paper focuses on the potentials of a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG) in the context of an ultra-light vehicle prototype with a target curb weight of only 600 kg. Therefore, two hybrid approaches with a voltage level below 60 V are described and their potentials regarding electrical driving and CO2 reduction are analysed in detail. Introducing the ‘Cars Ultra-Light Technology’ (CULT) project, the holistic lightweight approach is described as a main requirement for the further hybrid investigations. In addition, a P2-hybrid structure with a 12 V BSG on the transmission input shaft enabled unique features despite the low voltage level and limited electrical power resources. The CO2 reduction for this powertrain combination is described and compared to a conventional stop start configuration. The validation process on a dynamic test rig is presented as well.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1221
Jamie Knapp, Adam Chapman, Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0343
Carlo N. Grimaldi, Claudio Poggiani, Alessandro Cimarello, Matteo De Cesare, Giovanni Osbat
Abstract The emissions limits of CO2 for vehicles are becoming more stringent with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is adopted to measure emissions for all new internal combustion engines in the European Union, and it is performed on cold vehicle, starting at a temperature of 22°C ± 2°C. Consequently, the cold-start efficiency of internal combustion engine is becoming of predominant interest. Since at cold start the lubricant oil viscosity is higher than at the target operating temperature, the consequently higher energy losses due to increased frictions can substantially affect the emission cycle results in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A suitable thermal management system, such as an exhaust-to-oil heat exchanger, could help to raise the oil temperature more quickly.
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