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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0669
Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Bansal, Shubham Jaggi, Naveen Kumar
The Automobile industry is under great stress due to greenhouse gas emissions and health impacts of pollutants. The rapid decrease of fossil fuels has promoted the development of engine designs having higher fuel economy. At the same time, these designs keep the stringent emission standards in check without sacrificing power. Variable compression ratio is one such engine design. This work reviews the technological advancements in the design of a variable compression ratio engine. Variable compression ratio can minimize possible risks of irregular combustion while optimizing Brake specific fuel consumption value towards higher power and torque as the compression ratio is varied depending on the speed and load on the engine. It is also able to increase the fuel economy in spark ignited engine while enabling better downsizing. In addition to this, emissions of carbon dioxide decreases due to effective utilization of fuel at high loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Aerogels are nanoporous structures with a unique combination of physical characteristics that make them very promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems. Their highly porous nature gives aerogels very low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and their extremely high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) is a very favorable characteristic for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (~0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand very high temperatures. Beyond this, aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. Aerogels can be manufactured using several techniques; however, rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) offers significant advantages by reducing the processing time and solvent waste associated with more conventional techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0990
Robert Zummer, Tim Nevius, Scott Porter
The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0918
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, John Storey, James Parks
Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0924
Shun Nakagawa, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato, Koichi Machida
Promoting reduced fuel consumption in diesel engines and increasing the amount of exhaust energy recovery lowers exhaust gas temperatures. Under such conditions, conventional exhaust gas after-treatment system cannot perform sufficient NOx removal. Therefore, there is a need for a high performance after-treatment system even at low exhaust gas temperatures. Improving the NOx reduction performance using the urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst requires setting a 1:1 ratio of NO and NO2 for NOx emission and the acceleration of Fast SCR reaction with an ammonia amount equivalent to the NOx amount. However, in engines running at low exhaust gas temperatures, NO cannot be oxidized to NO2 because the activation of the oxidation catalyst upstream of the SCR catalyst is weak. Therefore, an ozone generator highly effective at oxidizing NO to NO2 in a low temperature range (exhaust gas temperature of 200 C or less) was studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Abraham Carrera
The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. In consequence, thermal load for EGR components, specially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage than the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0698
Zheng Xu, Zhou Zhou, Tao WU, Tong Li, Chuanhui Cheng, Haiting Yin
Downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines with high combustion efficiency are leading the way to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining the high specific power and torque output. Because of this, TGDI technology was widely used in passenger car vehicles even though many technological difficulties to investigate or reliably eliminate them. With TGDI, fuel impingement was affected seriously by the engine combustion chamber configure and control parameters, especially injection strategy. Early fuel injection would induce severe piston wetting and result in high levels of particulate, reversely, retarded injection too far would due to the fuel spray impinge the liner which will result in fuel dilution and increase particulates again. There is a short time for evaporation and mixing of the fuel based on the constrained injection timing window, particularly in the higher load operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0973
Takafumi Yamauchi, Yoshiki Takatori, Koichiro FUKUDA, MASATOSHI MARUYAMA
Urea-SCR systems are getting a lot of attention as the most promising NOx reduction technology for heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. In order to promote an effective development for an optimal Urea-SCR after-treatment system, it is important to clarify the decomposition behavior of the injected urea and a detailed reaction chemistry of the reactants on the catalyst surface in exhaust gases. In this paper we discuss experimental and numerical studies for the development of a numerical simulation model for the Urea-SCR catalyst converter. As a first step, in order to clarify the behavior of reductants in a urea-SCR converter, two types of diagnostic techniques were developed; one is for measuring the amount of NH3, and the other is for measuring the amount of total reductants including unreacted urea and isocyanic acid. These techniques were applied to examine the behavior of reductants at the inlet and inside the SCR catalyst.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting engine design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, EGR has demonstrated to be a necessary solution to reduce NOx emissions, becoming a widely used technique in production diesel engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, as well as air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out, while keeping combustion phasing and conditions at intake valve closing (IVC) fixed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0676
Mohamed Shaaban Khalef, Alec Soba, John Korsgren
An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on a 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light duty diesel engine. The objective of the study was to find the best emission/fuel consumption trade-off for a certain performance level. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with different EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after optimization of the engine calibration. During low-load engine operation where throttling may be required for achieving the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. Finally, the influence of uncooled and cooled high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
In southern states (e.g., Arizona) typically people drive their vehicles in summer by running vehicle’s air conditioning systems in recirculation modes only. Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation in recirculation mode. The concentration of carbon dioxide starts increasing in the cabin. The CO2 that is inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard 62 specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over the ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Current global average ambient concentration level of CO2 as of March 2015 is approximately 401 ppm. Hence, if the CO2 concentration exceeds approximately 1100 ppm inside of a home or a vehicle cabin, then we must introduce outside air into the home or vehicle cabin to reduce the CO2 concentration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0923
Martin Schneider, Bernd Danckert
Since the new IMO Marpol Annex IV Tier III "Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships" became effective new technologies in marine are needed to fulfill the exhaust-gas limit values. The reduction rate of the permissible emissions in the emission controlled areas (ECA) is about 75% from Tier II to Tier III. To meet these limits it is necessary to take additional measures like installing a SCR-system. Especially the harbors are in focus regarding the air quality. Therefore the first TugBoats were equipped with a hybrid propulsion system (Diesel-electric) and Exhaust Aftertreatment (EAT) to reduce the emissions and the lifecycle costs by reducing the fuel consumption. The compact EAT consists of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Particulate Matters (PM) removal and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst in a one box design. It was especially designed to fit into the available narrow space and to meet the maximum allowed backpressure for this engine family.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0660
Thomas Reinhart, Marc Megel
This paper describes the potential for for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1003
Fabian Fricke, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Terrence Scofield, Elmar Grußmann, Marco Kollmeier
The improvements in the internal combustion engines’ efficiency has led to a reduction of exhaust temperatures. The simultaneous tightening of exhaust emission limits requires ever more complex emission control methods, whose efficiency is crucially dependent upon the exhaust gas temperature. In the last five years the exhaust gas temperature upstream the oxidation catalyst has been reduced by an average of almost 20 °C; thus making emission reduction increasingly difficult. The application of a 2-layer fabricated sheet metal integrated manifold - turbine housing module offers a significant potential of emission reduction and fuel economy improvement in modern EU 6 diesel engines. Double-walled exhaust manifold and turbine housing modules made from sheet metal have been used in gasoline engines since 2009. They offer the potential in modern diesel engines to reduce both emission of pollutants and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0751
Robert Szolak, Eric Alexander Morales Wiemer, Ivica Kraljevic, Alexander Susdorf, Hüseyin Karadeniz, Boris Epple, Florian Rümmele, Achim Schaadt
In this study, a new type of catalytic fuel evaporator is developed to optimize HCCI combustion by adjusting fuel properties on-board. With this device, it is possible to evaporate diesel, heating oil and bio-oils without creating solid residues. The evaporation process does not rely on an external heating source because it uses heat generated by oxidation of parts of the fuel. Evaporation tests with conventional diesel have shown that a significant amount of the long-chain alkanes are cracked. Thus, the fuel vapor contains mostly long and short-chain alkanes and alkenes as well as reforming products H2 and CO. For the engine tests, the evaporator is mounted directly to the intake manifold of a one cylinder diesel research-engine and acts as a port injection. The engine is able to operate in HCCI as well as in conventional DI mode. The engine is modeled in GT-POWER software to simulate the gas exchange and combustion processes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
The EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) rate is a critical parameter of diesel engines which determines the optimal trade-off between NOx and PM (particulate matter) emissions. The EGR flow control strategy is often based on either direct Venturi flow sensor, on hot film anemometer flow sensors, or virtual sensors. The virtual sensors calculate the flow based on valve position, EGR valve inlet temperature and pressure drop. Usually both MAP (manifold absolute pressure) and backpressure sensors are required as inputs to the virtual sensor as well as EGR position sensor. Alternatively, the MAF (mass air flow) and the speed/density approach are used. The paper discusses the approach of using the complete air path mean value dynamic model for the purpose of EGR flow soft sensing as opposed to just EGR valve and cooler models, or the Venturi tube model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0952
Gordon J. Bartley, Zachary Tonzetich, Ryan Hartley
A recent collaborative research project between Southwest Research Institute and the University of Texas at San Antonio has demonstrated that a ruthenium catalyst is capable of converting NOx emissions to N2 with high activity and selectivity. The catalyst can be used in the EGR leg of a D-EGR engine, where it uses CO and H2 present in the rich gas environment to reduce NOx to N2 with 100% efficiency close to 100% selectivity to N2. The NOx-free EGR gases can then be fed into the intake air without concerns that the NOx will lead to pre-ignition under high engine efficiency operating conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0906
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. A fully integrated GT-Power engine model with physics based sub-models was developed to capture any positive or negative synergies between the technologies. The two zone multi-cylinder engine model included typical thermodynamic subroutines, with predictive combustion, flame quench and knock models, along with map-based turbocharger models to capture key combustion and efficiency behaviors. The engine model was calibrated to data from a boosted GDI engine and exercised through a series of current and production viable technologies for 2025 regulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0683
Kai Morganti, Abdullah Alzubail, Marwan Abdullah, Yoann Viollet, Robert Head, Junseok Chang, Gautam Kalghatgi
This paper is the second of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This second study focuses on drive cycle simulations and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for vehicles equipped with Octane-on-Demand combustion. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. The experimental engine calibration maps developed in the previous study are first provided as inputs to a drive cycle simulation tool. This is used to quantify the total fuel consumption, octane requirement and tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions for a light-duty vehicle equipped with two alternative powertrain configurations. The properties of the lower octane fuel are shown to affect the vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions significantly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0948
Davion O. Clark, Thomas Pauly
Control of N2O emissions is a significant challenge for manufacturers of HDD On Road engines and vehicles due to requirements for NOx control and Green House Gas (GHG) Phases 1&2 requirements. OEMs continually strive to improve BSFE which often results in increased engine out NOx (EO NOx) emissions. NOx control required to meet the stringent tail pipe NOx targets at these higher EO NOx levels forces OEM implementation of aggressive UREA/NH3 dosing algorithms resulting in increased N2O emissions over traditional SCR and SCR+ASC catalysts systems. This study explores methods to improve NOx conversion while reducing the SCR contribution of N2O across the exhaust after treatment systems. For example, combinations of two traditional SCR catalysts, one Fe based and another Cu based, can be utilized at various proportions by volume to optimize their SCR efficiency while minimizing the N2O emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0939
Fabian Sonntag, Peter Eilts
There are numerous methods for rapid ashing of particulate traps known from literature. However, it is largely unknown how the results of rapid ashing processes are compared with each other and which one generates the most realistic ash. Since the influencing variables on the ash formation are not yet fully understood, the ashing processes are carried out under carefully controlled laboratory conditions on an engine test bench. The first ashing takes place with Low SAPS oil without any methods to increase the quantity of produced ash. The obtained ash is used as a reference and is compared hereinafter with the process examined. Four methods to increase the ash production ratio are investigated. The first one is an increase of the ash content on the lubricant oil through an increase of the additives in the oil. The second one is the additional generation of ash with a burner system where oil is injected in the flame.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a 32.5% urea water solution (UWS) based state of the art SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of UWS dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to UWS dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of UWS dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, UWS droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF UWS based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the effects that inappropriate tire pressure has on tread wear and tire and wheel damage. Previous research, such as NHTSA’s Tire Pressure Special Study in 2001, sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) included on all Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s unique on-board data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0937
James E. Parks, John M. E. Storey, Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Melanie M. Debusk, Samuel A. Lewis
New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
In this study, a model EGR cooler was attached to a 2L GDI engine to study the temporal and spatial development of carbonaceous deposits formed during exhaust flow through the heat exchanger. The engine was not normally equipped with EGR capability, but a high pressure exhaust stream from a tap upstream of the turbocharger was directed to the model EGR cooler to generate deposits. The test section includes the capability to consider surface treatments and various geometries of heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper, we explore the spatial and temporal development of the deposit layer, and relate the deposit formation to operating parameters for the engine (fuel injection timing, engine speed, engine load) and operating parameters for the EGR cooler (exhaust flow rate, coolant temperature, heat exchanger geometry). Deposit mass accumulation is tracked during the experiment, and deposit morphology is explored via scanning electron microscopy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0792
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Yeo, Patrick Kirchen
Diesel-ignited natural gas (NG) dual-fuel (DF) combustion is a promising strategy to progress the application of NG as a commercially viable compression ignition engine fuel. Port injection (PI) of gaseous NG applied in tandem with direct injection (DI) of liquid diesel fuel permits a high level of control over cylinder charge preparation, and therefore combustion. Traditionally, such diesel-ignited DF operating modes have been considered as either conventional DF operation or pilot-ignited DF operation [2011-26-0001]. In conventional DF combustion, PI of NG is used to supplement a reduced mass of injected diesel. In contrast, pilot-ignited DF operation employs the NG as the primary fuel, while the purpose of the diesel pilot is only to initiate flame propagation. In this investigation, a 2-litre single-cylinder research engine was operated in conventional and pilot-ignited dual-fuel modes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Low pressure EGR system (LP EGR system) enables to expand operating area of EGR than previous high pressure lonely EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions could be improved. For meeting EU 5 emissions regulation, we applied exhaust throttle LP EGR system. With these system, our EU5 vehicles got merit than competitor's. But because exhaust throttle LP EGR valve has installed adjacent after-treatment system, material of LP EGR valve itself had no choice but stainless steel (SUS) for enduring against thermal stress. Consequently, it occurred cost increasing. To achieve cost rationalization for EU 6 vehicles, we have developed to apply intake throttle LP EGR system instead of exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In case of applying intake throttle LP EGR system, EGR valve could be installed in front of turbo charger compressor. Under this installation circumstance, we can have wider range of material selection (e.g. Al).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has recently been refined and revalidated using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
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