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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0995
Aditya Palsule
A proposal of developing split Catcon-Muffler was made to be used in front engine low floor bus from perspective of cost saving, modularity and reduction in complexity. This system is developed as an alternate to an existing solution of integrated Catcon and muffler. The paper describes the development of a split Catcon and muffler exhaust system for a low floor front engine bus, so as to meet cost and time considerations. The development had to achieve a feasible muffler + catalytic converter solution, which could be installed within the packaging volume of the existing configuration, while meeting the regulatory requirements for Pass by noise, and at the same time conforming to backpressure limits set for optimum engine performance. Multiple design – prototypes – test iterations were carried out to meet the Pass by noise and back pressure target of engine. The final solution was developed which achieved both the requirements within the specified space constraints.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1075
Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
In-cylinder soot particle size and its distribution are of interest to engine designers and researchers as they influence the soot emitted from exhaust tailpipes as well as the soot in oil.  The focus of this present study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories.  The prediction of a soot particle pathline, size and how it is transported in the cylinder of a direct injection diesel engine was performed using post-processed in-cylinder combustion data from Kiva-3v CFD simulations with a series of Matlab routines.  Soot particles were assumed massless and only soot surface growth and oxidation processes were considered in calculating the sizes.  3500 locations at 8° Crank Angle (CA) ATDC were selected inside the engine cylinder at the beginning of the pathline and size calculation.  
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1053
Jonathan E. Etheridge, Timothy C. Watling, Andrew J. Izzard, Michael A. J. Paterson
The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is an important technology for the removal of CO and hydrocarbons from the exhaust of diesel engines, as well as for generating exotherms for active regeneration and for producing NO2 used by downstream components. Generally, DOCs are bimetallic Pt-Pd based catalysts. This paper presents a two-part study on the effect of Pt:Pd ratio (at constant total Pt+Pd loading by weight) on the catalytic performance of a DOC, covering ratios across the full range from 100% Pd to 100% Pt. The first part of this paper presents a reactor study on the effect of Pt:Pd ratio on the catalytic activity of key reactions occurring individually over the DOC, viz. the oxidation of CO, C3H6, n-C10H22, CH4 and NO.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1069
Philipp Baumann, Matthias Schroeder, Harald Kurz, Thomas Maier, Wolfgang Thiel, Udo Strehl
The continuous trend towards more resource efficient and less pollutant emitting individual traffic is reflected in a wide range of modern propulsion concepts including Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). This variety of increasingly complex powertrains is associated with a number of challenges to measure exhaust gas emissions. Although the conventional constant volume sampler (CVS) and exhaust gas measurement systems being a high precision emission measurement concept there are still questions to be answered: • Which measurement uncertainties have to be considered, such as mass transport of exhaust emissions from the transfer tube into the dilution tunnel during engine-off phases? • Is the tested PHEV influenced by the measurement system, e.g. catalyst cooling? • Can different types of PHEV be adequately tested with the existing exhaust emission measurement system and test procedure regarding the European emission legislation?
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1299
Rod Emery
There is increasing pressure for manufacturers to go “green.” Automotive OEMs are improving their own sustainability practices and demanding environmental accountability from their vendors. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as the creation of manufactured products using processes that: 1. Minimize negative environmental impacts 2. Conserve energy and natural resources 3. Are safe for employees, communities and consumers 4. Are economically sound Installing low-energy lighting and adding recycling bins have had a positive effect, but manufacturers must take a comprehensive view of sustainability to have a continuing impact. This white paper will address some “out of the box” methods to improve sustainability of automotive assembly. Case study data will be included with examples of applications in each area. 1. Minimize Negative Environmental Impacts 1.1.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1635
Zhen ZHANG, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Richard Fuerhapter, Luigi del Re
A real-time virtual soot sensor or model can provide a feedback for advanced control approaches. As a first principle model can be very hard to derive, data based approaches using In-cylinder pressure have been proposed, especially for NOx. In the case of soot, this is not the case, as the pressure does not significantly change according to the total soot produced. Also the turbulence of the mixture, which is critical for soot production and even more oxidation, is not visible in the combustion data. However, as we show in this paper, a suitable segmentation of the pressure signal allows obtaining the necessary information also on the turbulence. An in-cylinder pressure trace acquired with a high resolution of one cylinder is divided into 6 pieces according to critical events (e.g. opening of valves, begin of injection and similar) in each revolution and principal component analysis is applied to extract the combustion information from each piece of pressure trace.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Last mile transportation is an important supply chain & transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in the area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers & small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications and single cylinder water cooled 510 cc & 611 cc BSIII diesel engines for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. Also CNG network is well established in most of these cities. Hence to serve this market, the CNG engine variant development of the 611 cc diesel BSIII engine was initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1672
Clemens Biet, Roland Baar
Acoustic measurements, especially interesting for new bearing concepts such as ball bearings, are an important part of the evaluation of turbochargers. Typically, acoustic benchmarking is done at standard conditions, neglecting possible negative effects of very low temperatures, as they might be encountered in real-world applications. For realistic turbocharger measurements at cold environment conditions down to -10°C, special adjustments to the turbocharger test bench have been made. This article introduces a soundproofed climate chamber built in the turbocharger test bench which is able to achieve low component and oil supply temperatures while still providing adequate conditions for acoustic measurements. In addition to that, with the shown concept all of the regular turbocharger test bench measurement points stay untouched as well.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0978
Lori Lemazurier, Neeraj Shidore, Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau, Phillip Bonkoski, Jeremy Delhom
Near term advances in SI engine technology (VVL, GDI, cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of significant fuel savings in the vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher gear numbers (8 speed, 9 speed), higher spans and a focus on down-speeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual clutch transmissions exhibit higher efficiency than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development with low investment and immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (idle engine stop) technology in vehicles today. This paper evaluates the impact of each of these technologies (engines, transmissions, start stop) on the fuel economy and performance of a compact car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1072
Aron D. Butler, Rafal A. Sobotowski, George J. Hoffman, Paul Machiele
The EPAct/V2/E-89 fuel effects program collected emissions data for 27 test fuels using a fleet of 15 high-sales cars and light trucks from the 2008 model year (all with port fuel injection). The fuel matrix design covered a range of T50, T90, ethanol, vapor pressure, and total aromatics based on market gasoline survey data. Emission measurements were made over the LA92 cycle at 75°F. The resulting emissions database of 956 tests includes particulate matter (PM) mass for each test in addition to regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants. PM Index was calculated for the test fuels using the method described by Aikawa, et al, in SAE paper number 2010-01-2115. Good correlation of PM mass emissions with PM Index was found for most vehicles in the EPAct/V2/E-89 database. When test fuels were grouped by ethanol level (E0, E10, E15, E20), a reinforcing interaction of ethanol on PM Index was observed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1085
Marc C. Besch, Joshua Israel, Hemanth Kappanna, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Daniel Carder
Natural gas (NG) has immerged as a promising energy source to power the transportation sector over the next decades due to its abundant availability and comparably less production intensive process from well-to-tank than associated with conventional liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Furthermore, natural gas’s clean-burning properties and reduced carbon footprint make it a fuel of choice to comply with upcoming stricter emissions and greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations and aid in attaining national ambient air quality standards. Especially Diesel/NG dual-fuel operation has gained increased interest as it allows to combine both improved combustion efficiencies, inherent to the diesel-cycle, with the low carbon properties of NG.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1079
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Adrian Wichser, Andreas Mayer, Jacques Lemaire
The invisible nanoparticles (NP)*) from combustion processes penetrate easily into the human body through the respiratory and olfactory ways and cary numerous harmful health effects potentials. NP count concentrations are limited in EU for Diesel passenger cars since 2013 and for gasoline cars with direct injection (GDI) since 2014. The limit for GDI was temporary extended to 6 x 1012 #/km. Nuclei of metals as well as organics are suspected to significantly contribute especially to the ultrafine particle size fractions, and thus to the particle number concentration. In the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates) metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars are investigated for different engine technologies. In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four gasoline cars - an older one with MPI and three never with DI - are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1016
Hidemasa Iwata
As it is well known, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have practically become the essential components for reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions for the past dozen years or so. In the process of DPF development, performance validation at engine test cells with respect to both the Pressure drop during PM loading and subsequent PM regeneration performance are quite indispensable from the quality assurance point of view. A breakthrough idea for the layout of DPF channel plugging pattern, namely the Asymmetric Plugging Layout was developed and reported at the 2014 SAE World Congress, leading especially to the reduction of the pressure drop during PM loading. The basic idea of asymmetric plugging layout is that the pressure drop can be reduced because of the increase of the flow pass area of inlet channels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1048
Per Nicolin, Dominik Rose, Florian Kunath, Thorsten Boger
The share of gasoline engines based on direct injection (DI) technology is rapidly growing, to a large extend driven by their improved efficiency and potential to lower CO2 emissions. One downside of these advanced engines are their significantly higher particulate emissions compared to engines based on port fuel injection technologies. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are one potential technology path to address the EU6 particulate number regulation for vehicles powered by gasoline DI engines. For the robust design and operation of GPFs it is essential to understand the mechanisms of soot accumulation and oxidation under typical operating conditions. In this paper we will first discuss the use of detailed numerical simulation to describe the soot oxidation in particulate filters under typical gasoline engine operating conditions. Laboratory experiments are used to establish a robust set of soot oxidation kinetics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0953
Amar Deep
In the last couple of decades, world petroleum situation due to the fossil fuels over-exploitation and environmental degradation have resulted in resurgence of interest in alternative fuel. Researchers around the world are experimenting on different options to substitute petroleum derived fuels. Amongst the variety of alternative fuels, non-edible vegetable oils are very promising as these are renewable and do not compete with food. Orange peel oil, which is derived from unexploited orange peel, is very propitious in Indian context as India is fourth largest producer of oranges globally as of 2011. In the present study, three blends of orange peel oil (OPO) with diesel (OPO5, OPO10, OPO15) were prepared and exhaustive engine trial was conducted on an unmodified diesel engine. Brake thermal efficiency was found to increase for all the OPO diesel blends due to inbuilt oxygen and high cetane number. BSEC was lower for OPO diesel blends than neat diesel operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations on lean-burn gasoline applications. After accounting for cold-start emissions, stoichiometric emissions, and engineering tolerances, target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. 30 s lean/10 s rich tests were performed on a reduced-OSC Pd/Rh TWC operating at 550oC and different volumes of a Cu/zeolite SCR catalyst operating at 330 C, where the NO concentration was held at 220 ppm during the lean periods and varied from 500 to 2000 ppm during the rich periods. The NOx slip target was satisfied with the equivalent of 3.3L of SCR volume and 1500 ppm NO rich. Reducing the OSC in the TWC would increase its NH3 yield, but some OSC is needed for stoichiometric NOx lightoff, warmed-up 3-way activity, steam reforming of the HC during the rich purge periods, and diagnostic capabilities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1005
Masahide Miura, Yuki Aoki, Nobusuke Kabashima, Takahiko Fujiwara, Toshitaka Tanabe, Akira Morikawa, Hirotaka Ori, Hiroki Nihashi, Suguru Matsui
In response to the growing awareness for environmental protection, automobile emissions regulations are gradually becoming more stringent all over the world. Moreover, the amount of precious metals used for automobile catalysts is required to decrease in order to lower the consumption of natural resources. As a consequence, further improvements to catalysts which contribute to a decrease in the amount of precious metals used while satisfying emission regulations are greatly needed. In this report, with the application of nanoparticle rhodium (Rh) clusters with controlled optimized particle sizes along with a high thermal stabilized pyrochlore-ceria/zirconia (CZ) catalyst which efficiently controls O2 storage and release, a robust, high performance three-way catalyst enhanced NOx purifying activity has been developed. Moreover, a zone coat strategy has been developed which improves cold start catalytic performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0982
Brandon D. Biller, Philip Wetzel, Pavan Chandras, Sean Keidel
Several diesel passenger car boosting systems were studied to assess their impact on vehicle performance and fuel economy. A baseline 1.5L diesel engine model with a single VGT turbocharger was obtained through Gamma Technologies’ fast running model library. This model was modified to explore multiple two stage boosting systems to represent the anticipated architecture of future engines. A series sequential turbocharged configuration and a series turbocharger-supercharger configuration were evaluated. The torque curves were increased from that of the original engine model to take advantage of the increased performance offered by two stage boosting. The peak cylinder pressure for all models was limited to 180 bar. Drive cycle analysis over the WLTP was performed using these engine architectures, while assessing the sensitivity to various system parameters. These parameters include: vehicle weight and aerodynamic drag, EGR target maps, level of downspeeding, and turbocharger inertia.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the legislation limits, should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO’s Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these types of variation, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining optimal fuel consumption. This model-based control strategy minimizes fluid (fuel and AdBlue) cost within the emission constraints. Based on the actual state of engine and aftertreatment, optimal air management set points are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1067
Kenneth S. Price, Lin Wang
Investigations of on-road emissions performance of vehicles have been made using various methods and instrumentation, some of which are very complex and costly. For the case of NOx emissions on Diesel road vehicles equipped with SCR, many of these vehicles are equipped with NOx sensor(s) for the purpose of OBD, and the ECM makes this data available via the diagnostic connector under the J1979 protocol for light duty vehicles. Data for mass air flow and fuel flow are also available, so the ongoing NOx mass flow can be calculated when the NOx sensors are active with no additional instrumentation. Heavy duty pickup trucks with SCR from 3 major US manufacturers, each certified to the optional chassis certification of 0.2 g/mi NOx on the FTP75, were obtained to be evaluated for SCR system behavior under normal driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1029
Michael Smith, Homayoun Ahari, Michael Zammit, Jasonv Jacques, Thomas Pauly
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III/Tier III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel passenger vehicles (LDD). As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible after treatment options to find the best balance between performance, robustness and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) provided as urea, optimum operating temperatures, and optimum Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is most influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts upstream of the SCR catalyst. Different versions of zeolite based SCR technologies are available on the market today and these vary in their active metal type (iron, copper, etc), and/or zeolite type.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1045
Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl
The focus in the development of modern exhaust after treatment systems, like the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), is to increase the reduction rates of Carbon monoxide (CO), Particulate Matter (PM) and the NOx emissions to fulfill the more and more restricting requirements of the exhaust emission legislation. A commonly used approach to achieve these demanding goals is to improve the reduction rate by the use of new materials, new structures and in general also completely new approaches. Due to these consequent improvements prototype SCR system already achieves reduction rates of 90%. Nevertheless these very high reduction rates are only accessible if appropriate ammonia dosing control scheme is applied to the SCR system, since the reduction of NOx to non harmful water and nitrogen takes place only sufficiently if the correct amount of this additional reactant is added.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1021
Brad Adelman, Navtej Singh, Paul Charintranond, Greg Griffin, Shyam Santhanam, Ed Derybowski, Adam Lack
Current legislative trends regarding diesel emissions are striving to achieve two seemingly competing goals: simultaneously lowering NOx and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. These two goals are considered at odds since lower GHG emissions (e.g. CO2) is achieved via high combustion efficiency resulting in higher engine out NOx emissions and lower exhaust gas temperatures. Conversely, NOx reduction technologies such as SCR require temperatures above 200°C for dosing the reductant (DEF). Dosing DEF requires injection pressures around 5 bar. This is required to ensure proper penetration into the exhaust stream as well as generate the appropriate spray pattern and droplet sizes. Dosing DEF generally requires long mixing and/or high turbulence (high restriction) areas so that the aqueous urea solution can be converted into NH3 without deposit formation. One alternative to dosing DEF, an aqueous solution of 32.5% wt urea, is to inject gaseous NH3.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
This paper describes about recycled polyethylene terephthalate(R-PET) material for canopy strip part in automotive application. This recycled PET is a compounded material which is made out of used PET bottles and it is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Canopy strip is a structural exterior part which requires better mechanical and thermal properties. The major function of this part is to act like a structural frame to hold the canopy sheet which is present at the both sides of the vehicle. Generally, PET bottles are use and throw product. PET is inert and takes an extremely long time to degrade so the empty bottles would also take an enormous amount of space in landfills which will directly affect rain water percolation. This compounded material is one of the sustainable solution for the environment where the waste bottles get converted to useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well once achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 oC) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at low exhaust temperature encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature afforded by the higher fuel efficiency of advanced diesel engines further challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept with high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 oC at relevant space velocities (70k h-1), using high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1056
Sumit Basu, Neal Currier
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [3]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1071
Qi Jiao, Rolf Reitz
Due to the upcoming regulations for particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling study to predict soot emissions (both mass and solid particle number) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines was undertaken to provide insights on how and why soot emissions are formed from GDI engines. In this way, better methods may be developed to control or reduce PM emissions from GDI engines. In this paper, the influence of engine operating parameters was examined for a side-mounted fuel injector configuration in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The present models are able to reasonably predict the influences of the variables of interest compared to available experimental data or literature. For a late injection strategy, effects of the fuel composition, and spray cone angle were investigated with a single-hole injector.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1077
Huzeifa Badshah, Imad A. Khalek
As a part of an undergraduate honor thesis project, we measured real time solid particle number and size distributions emitted from various vehicle technologies during engine start-up. Also, for a limited number of vehicles, we measured real time metallic ash particle number. A total of 85 vehicles were tested ranging from modern diesel with diesel particulate filters (DPF) to modern gasoline port fuel injected (PFI) and gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines. The testing was done at the University of Texas in San Antonio (UTSA) and at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) parking lots. The participants were UTSA students and faculty volunteers and SwRI volunteers. For post 2007 vehicles, the work showed that diesel engines equipped with filters have significantly less particles in engine exhaust compared to gasoline PFI and especially GDI during engine start-up.
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