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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0044
Sung Yul Chu, Sung Eun Jo, Kyoungbok Lee, Kwang Chul Oh, Jong Rim Lee
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicles require various sensors to detect system malfunctions. The Particulate Matter (PM) sensor is one of OBD devices which gather information which could be critical in determining a crack in the diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The PM sensor detects PM which penetrates cracked DPFs and converts the amount of PM into electrical values. The PM sensor control unit (SCU) receives those analog signals and converts them to digital values through hardware and software solutions. A capacitive sensing method would be a stable solution because it detects not raw analog signals but electrical charges or a time constant going through the capacitive load. Therefore, amount of PM would be converted reasonable value of capacitance even though there is a little amount of PM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
Field tests were conducted on a late full sized sedan with the HVAC unit operating in both Recirculation and OSA modes to monitor build-up of the CO2 concentration inside the cabin and its influence on occupant’s fatigue and alertness. These tests were conducted during 2015 summer on interstate highways with test durations ranging from 4 to 7 hours. During the above tests, fatigue or tiredness of the occupants (including CO2 levels) was monitored and recorded at 30 min intervals. Based on this investigation it is determined that the measured cabin concentration levels reaches ASHRAE (Standard 62-1999) specified magnitudes (greater than 700 ppm over ambient levels) with three occupants in the vehicle. Further, the occupants did show fatigue when the HVAC unit was operated in recirculation mode in excess of 5 hours. Further details have been presented in the paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash Chander
Abstract This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent Flow in burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model is used for flame structure. Methane/air combustion is simulated using global combustion reaction mechanism. To account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction of methane/air combustion, Eddy - Dissipation Model is used. The effect of varying plate distance to burner exit nozzle diameter is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Change in flame structure is observed with variation of plate distance from burner exit. A dip in the heat flux distribution is observed for all cases. This is due to the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis due to swirl.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0799
George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Maryam Hajbabaei, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
Abstract We assessed gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a current technology stoichiometric natural gas waste hauler equipped with a 2011 model year 8.9L Cummins Westport ISL-G engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalyst (TWC). Testing was performed on five fuels with varying Wobbe and methane numbers over the William H. Martin Refuse Truck Cycle. The results showed lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions for the low methane fuels (i.e., natural gas fuels with a relatively low methane content) for the transport and curbside cycles. Total hydrocarbon (THC) and methane (CH4) emissions did not show any consistent fuel trends. Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions showed a trend of higher emissions for the fuels containing higher levels of NMHCs. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions showed a trend of higher emissions for the low methane fuels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0803
Konstantinos Michos, Georgios Bikas, Ioannis Vlaskos
Abstract A new global NOx emissions formation model, formulated by a single analytically derived algebraic equation, is developed with relevance to post-flame gases. The model originates from subsets of detailed kinetic schemes for thermal and N2O pathway NO formation, needs no calibration and is quick to implement and run. Due to its simplicity, the model can be readily used in both 1D and 3D-CFD simulation codes, as well as for direct post-processing of engine test data. Characteristic timescales that describe the kinetic nature of the involved NO formation routes, when they evolve in the post-flame gases independently the one from another, are introduced incorporating kinetic information from all relevant elementary reactions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0787
Valentin Soloiu, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp, Tyler Naes, Remi Gaubert
Abstract In this study, Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) was investigated with alternative fuels, S8 and n-butanol. The S8 fuel is a Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) produced from natural gas. PCCI was achieved with a dual-fuel combustion incorporating 65% (by mass) port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol and 35% (by mass) direct injection (DI) of S8 with 35% exhaust gas recirculation. The experiments were conducted at 1500 rpm and varied loads of 1-5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The PCCI tests were compared to an ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) baseline in order to determine how the alternative fuels effects combustion, emissions, and efficiencies. At 3 and 5 bar BMEP, the heat release in the PCCI mode exhibited two regions of high temperature heat release, one occurring near top dead center (TDC) and corresponds to the ignition of S8 (CN 62), and a second stage occurring ATDC from n-butanol combustion (CN 28).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0788
Xiangyu Meng, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Yuqiang Li, Wuqiang Long, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0792
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Yeo, Patrick Kirchen
Abstract Diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of natural gas (NG) is a promising strategy to progress the application of NG as a commercially viable compression ignition engine fuel. Port injection of gaseous NG applied in tandem with direct injection of liquid diesel fuel as an ignition source permits a high level of control over cylinder charge preparation, and therefore combustion. Across the broad spectrum of possible combustion conditions in DIDF operation, different fundamental mechanisms are expected to dominate the fuel conversion process. Previous investigations have advanced the understanding of which combustion mechanisms are likely present under certain sets of conditions, permitting the successful modeling of DIDF combustion for particular operating modes. A broader understanding of the transitions between different combustion modes across the spectrum of DIDF warrants further effort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0747
Vicente Bermudez, Raul Payri, J. Javier Lopez, Daniel Campos, Gilles Coma, Frederic Justet
Abstract Nowadays the main part of investigations in controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines are centered on performance or some engine processes simulation, leaving aside particle number (PN) emission. The present work is focused on this last topic: PN emission analysis using two different injectors in a 2-stroke CAI engine, and a global comparison of PN emission of this engine with its homonymous 4-stroke engines at two operating conditions. The study was performed in a single-cylinder gasoline engine with 0.3 l displacement, equipped with an air-assisted direct-injection (DI) fuel injection system. Concerning the injectors evaluated, significant differences in PN emission have been found. When the I160X injector (narrow spray angle) was used, PN emissions were reduced. The spray cone angle during the injection event appears to be a key factor for PN emission reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0749
Kelvin Xie, Tadanori Yanai, Zhenyi Yang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0752
Pranab Das, Mayur Selokar, P.M.V. Subbarao, J.P. Subrahmanyam
Abstract A single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine is modified to run in HCCI-DI mode using a novel in-cylinder dual injection strategy. In this present investigation effect of 2nd injection timing, premixed equivalence ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emission behavior is studied. Based on the characteristics of combustion, performance and emission behavior, 2nd injection timing is optimized at a constant split ratio (80%) and engine speed (1500 rev/min). Premixed equivalence ratio was varied (up to 0.38) at the optimized 2nd injection timing condition. It is identified that 2nd injection timing and premixed equivalence ratio play an important role in controlling the occurrences of all combustion parameters of HCCI-DI combustion. EGR was introduced in the cylinder to understand its effect on various combustion parameters and emission behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0751
Robert Szolak, Eric Alexander Morales Wiemer, Ivica Kraljevic, Alexander Susdorf, Hüseyin Karadeniz, Boris Epple, Florian Rümmele, Achim Schaadt
Abstract The following study describes an on-board fuel tailoring process based on a novel and compact catalytic fuel evaporator, capable of optimizing Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Evaporation tests with conventional diesel were performed revealing a significant amount of long-chain alkane cracking. As a consequence of these cracking reactions, the presented experiments demonstrate that the produced fuel vapor has altered combustion properties as compared to the feeding diesel stream. Further tests using a constant volume chamber at 30 bar, over the temperature range 500 to 1120 K, indicated that ignition delay time and auto ignition temperature of this fuel vapor can be shifted from diesel to gasoline. Thus, by performing dynamic on-board adjustment of the fuel properties, it is possible therefore to increase HCCI combustion to high loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0737
Yilu Lin, Timothy Lee, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% diesel), ABE20 and diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10∼CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0767
Changle Li, Lianhao Yin, Sam Shamun, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Rickard Solsjo, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of charge stratification on the combustion phasing in a single cylinder, heavy duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engine. To do this the start of injection (SOI) was changed from -180° after top dead centre (ATDC) to near top dead centre (TDC) during which CA50 (the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel energy is released) was kept constant by changing the intake temperature. At each SOI, the response of CA50 to a slight increase or decrease of either intake temperature or SOI were also investigated. Afterwards, the experiment was repeated with a different intake oxygen concentration. The results show that, for the whole SOI period, the required intake temperature to keep constant CA50 has a “spoon” shape with the handle on the -180° side.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0756
Dong Han, Peng Zhao, Zhen Huang
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been proven an effective strategy for the ignition and combustion control in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a major constituent in EGR, was found to pose a coupled effect on engine combustion: reduced intake oxygen concentration (dilution effect), increased gas heat capacity (thermal effect) and participation of CO2 in chemical reactions (chemical effect). In this paper, a numerical study using a detailed chemical kinetic model was conducted, aiming to isolate the dilution, thermal and chemical effects of CO2 on the two-stage auto-ignition process of n-heptane at engine-like pressure conditions. Four different initial temperatures were selected in this study, representing the low-temperature dominant region, the boundary between the low-temperature region and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region, the NTC region and the high temperature region, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0758
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Yan Long, Shouzhi Xiang, Jianxin Wang
Abstract Particle Number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and Maximum Brake Torque timing (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0871
Sanjoy Biswas, Manish Bakshi, G Shankar, Achintya Mukhopadhyay
Abstract An emissions, combustion noise and performance study were conducted to explore the effects of two different multiple injections strategies on emissions, combustion noise and performances without altering EGR %. The experiments were done on a six cylinder inline CRDI diesel production engine. The aim of this study is to improve performances (brake specific fuel consumption [BSFC], torque) and combustion noise (reduction) using multiple injection strategies without violating emission regulations. The other objective of this carried-out analysis is to examine the influence of different operating parameters (Speed and Load) and main injection timing combined, on same multiple injection strategies (Pilot- main – after {PMA}and Early - pilot- main –after {EPMA}) by means of analyzing emissions/soot, combustion noise and performances data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0845
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using wellcharacterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0928
Sujay Bagi, Nishant Singh, Rob Andrew
Abstract Ash accumulation in the DPF over life results in reduced soot storage capacity, lower catalytic activity and may even alter substrate properties and lead to higher back-pressure; hence ash-cleaning of the DPF is required periodically to extend the life of the DPF and restore its catalytic performance. Several ash cleaning technologies are available which utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and wet-chemical cleaning techniques or their combinations. A batch of DPFs with various ash accumulation levels were recovered from customer field units. X-ray CT imaging was performed to understand the ash distribution in the DPF channels. Field returned DPFs were tested on Engine Dynamometer to determine the impact on overall system performance loss from fresh state. The DPFs were then cleaned using various cleaning techniques; X-ray imaging and dynamometer testing was repeated to evaluate the performance recovery.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0927
David Culbertson, Magdi Khair, James Pradun, Henning Gero Petry, Anne Ungermann
Abstract Modifications have been made to the calibration and control of Diesel engines to increase the temperature of the exhaust especially in cold weather and part load operation. The main purpose for this advanced calibration is to enable the reduction of emissions by improving catalytic activity. An alternative method for increasing exhaust temperature is providing electric heat. Test results show the feasibility of applying various amounts of electric heat and the related increases in exhaust temperature as well as speed of heating. Simulation modeling extends the application of electric heat to a complete engine map and explores the potential impact on engine performance and emission reduction benefits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0930
Yasunari Hanaki, Misaki Fujimoto, Junji Itou
Abstract This paper describes a new catalyst powder has been developed that provides cleaner exhaust emissions and reduces the consumption of precious metals. In recent years, precious metal usage has been increasing due to the tightening of emission regulations and the increase in automobile production worldwide. Minimizing the use of precious metals in exhaust catalysts is crucial not only for reducing the cost of vehicles but also for effective utilization of scarce resources. Iron is one of the alternative material candidates for precious metals. It was found that the Iron catalyst was activated by iron becoming the low oxidation state while iron oxide and cerium oxide synchronized in a nanostructure interface. A catalyst with improved iron support technology that enables better contact between highly dispersed particles of iron and ceria was found to exhibit higher exhaust gas cleansing performance than precious metal catalysts even after aging.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0929
Devin Aryan, Kenneth Price, Thomas Pauly
Abstract There is growing interest in application of SCR on DPF (SDPF) for light and heavy duty applications, particularly to provide improvements in cold start emissions, as well as improvements in system cost and packaging [1, 2, 3]. The first of systems containing SDPF are just coming to market, with additional introductions expected, particularly for light duty and non-road applications [4]. To provide real world testing for a new SDPF product design prior to availability of OEM SDPF applications, an SDPF and one SCR catalyst were substituted in place of the original two SCR catalysts and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) on a Ford F250 HD pickup. To ensure that the on-road emissions would be comparable to the production system replaced, and to make sure that the control system would be able to operate without detecting some difference in behavior and seeing this as a fault, initial chassis dynamometer work was done before putting the vehicle on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0932
Masanori Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Nakanishi, Hiroshi Koyama, Syouji Inose, Hiroki Takeori, Takayuki Watanabe, Takeshi Narishige, Tatsuya Okayama, Yukio Suehiro
Abstract Engine technologies using efficient combustion and down-sizing turbo have become important in order to reduce automotive CO2 emissions. However, the exhaust gas temperature also becomes lower by these technologies. As a result, the catalyst performance becomes lower. Therefore it is necessary to develop low temperature active catalysts to reduce emissions. This research was focused on Pd/CeO2, and it’s able to oxidize CO at low temperatures. In order to increase the catalyst activity, the addition of some elements to the CeO2 was studied. Zn addition was found to have an advantage to reduce the CO light off temperature by 60 °C. Then, we tried to clarify the cause of improvement. As a result, it made clear that the Zn addition promotes the active oxygen release from the CeO2 surface. However, repeated engine exhaust gas tests indicated a decline in purification performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0931
Akifumi Kawakami, Yuki Fukumi, Masaaki Ito, Shingo Sokawa, Satoshi Sakashita, Mychal Taylor, Mitsuhiro Ito, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kurachi
Abstract Honeycomb substrates are widely used to reduce harmful emissions from gasoline engines and are exposed to numerous thermal shocks during their lifetime making thermal shock resistance one of the key factors in designing honeycomb substrates. More stringent emission regulations will require the honeycomb substrates to be lighter in weight to improve light-off performance and to have better thermal shock resistance than conventional honeycomb substrates to handle higher expected temperature gradients. Thermal shock resistance is generally evaluated on a substrate by evaluating the thermal strain caused by temperature gradients inside the substrate during durability testing [1,2]. During the test, a heated substrate is cooled at a surface face to generate temperature gradients while the temperature inside the honeycomb substrate is monitored by multiple thermocouples.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles; in the meantime a rapid period of evolving engine developments, the constrained tailpipe regulations and the material supply issues present a unique challenge to the catalyst developers. A key approach here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on the ultra-low PGM levels. In this regard, we mainly focus on the materials design and have developed the advanced spinel oxides for zero precious metals (ZPGM) and synergized precious metals (SPGM) TWCs. These advanced spinel materials showed improved thermal stability compared to that of PGM based standard materials. Fundamental studies on the microstructure of spinel oxide with newly developed composition confirm the aging stability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0935
Gerben Doornbos, Stina Hemdal, Daniel Dahl, Ingemar Denbratt
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0939
Fabian Sonntag, Peter Eilts
Abstract There are numerous methods for accelerated ash loading of particulate traps known from literature. However, it is largely unknown if a combination of these methods is possible and which one generates the most similar ash compared to ash from real particulate filters. Since the influencing variables on the ash formation are not yet fully understood, ashing processes are carried out under carefully controlled laboratory conditions on an engine test bench. The first ashing takes place with low sulfated ash phosphorus and sulfur oil without any methods to increase the quantity of produced ash. The obtained ash is used as a reference and is compared hereinafter with the process examined. Four methods to increase the ash production ratio are investigated. The first one is an increase of the ash content of the lubrication oil through an increase of the additives in the oil. The second one is the additional generation of ash with a burner system where oil is injected into the flame.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0937
James E. Parks, John M. E. Storey, Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Melanie M. Debusk, Samuel A. Lewis
Abstract New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
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