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Viewing 91 to 120 of 23232
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1009
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Chuanzhen Zhang, Jia Liu, Zihang Peng, Huiming Gong
Abstract Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1010
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Gonçalo Duarte, Tiago Farias
Abstract Internal combustion engine (ICE) cold-start is an issue that occurs either in conventional and hybrid powertrains before the ICE reaches its normal operation temperature, affecting both fuel consumption due to higher heat losses, and pollutant emissions due to low catalytic converter temperatures. The study of cold start emissions on conventional powertrains has been extensively addressed, although typically under laboratorial conditions, however studies addressing the impact of this phenomenon on hybrid powertrains is still reduced. Hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles usually incorporate technologies to manage the battery and ICE power supply leading to ICE on/off operation under regular driving, which can result in a decrease on catalytic converter efficiency (due to cooling).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1008
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Abstract Concern over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air quality has made exhaust emissions from passenger cars a topic interest at an international level. This situation has led to the re-evaluation of testing procedures in order to produce more “representative” results. Laboratory procedures for testing exhaust emissions are built around a driving cycle. Cycles may be developed in one context but later used in another: for example, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was not developed to measure fuel consumption, but has ended up being used to that end. The new Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test cycle (the WLTC) will sooner or later be used for measuring regulated exhaust emissions. Legal limits for emissions of regulated pollutants are inherently linked to the test conditions (and therefore to the driving cycle); inter-cycle correlations for regulated pollutants are an important research direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0996
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Shon Van Hulzen, Robert L. Furey
Abstract In 2008-2009, EPA and DOE tested fifteen 2008 model year Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended to specific fuel parameter targets. The fuel parameter targets were pre-selected to represent the range of fuel properties from fuel survey data from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers for 2006. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics, ethanol, and T90 increase particulate matter (PM) emissions. EPA focused their analysis only on the targeted fuel properties and their impacts on emissions, namely RVP, T50, T90, aromatics, and ethanol. However, in the process of fuel blending, at least one non-targeted fuel property, the T70 distillation parameter, significantly exceeded 2006 Alliance survey parameters for two of the E10 test fuels. These two test fuels had very high PM emissions. In this study, we examine the impacts of adding T70 as an explanatory variable to the analysis of fuel effects on PM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0994
Chetankumar Patel, Nikhil Sharma, Nachiketa Tiwari, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Biodiesel made from Jatropha oil by transesterification process has viscosity and other important physical properties comparable to mineral diesel hence it can be used as an alternate fuel in conventional diesel engines. It is important to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel because emissions from the engines are dependent on fuel atomization process and resulting fuel-air mixing. This study focuses on the Jatropha biodiesel spray investigations using Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) for measurement of various microscopic spray parameters such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and spray droplet size and velocity distributions. The spray and engine experiments were carried out for Jatropha biodiesel (JB100) and their 20% blends (JB20) with mineral diesel as baseline. Fuel injection pressure during the spray experiments was maintained at 200 bars for all tests, quite similar to small horse power agricultural engines, and the fuel injection quantity was varied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The on-board PM analyzer is a combination of a partial flow dilution system (PFDS) particulate sampler and a diffusion charger sensor (DCS) for real-time PM signals. The measuring technology and basic performance of the analyzer will be explained. Acceleration of the vehicle can cause uncertainty of flow measurement in the PM sampler.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0999
Yuesen Wang, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, lihui Dong, Hanzhengnan Yu, Yajun Wang, Zhijun Li
Abstract In this paper, the influence of sulfur and ash fraction of lubricating oil on particle emissions was investigated via experimental works. Especially, we focus on the characterizations like size distribution, morphology and element composition in diesel particles. All of the research was done on a two-cylinder diesel engine under different load conditions. Five kinds of lubricating oils with different levels of sulfur and ash fraction were used in this study, among which a kind of 5W-30 (ACEA, C1) oil was used as baseline oil. Diesel primary particles were collected by thermophoretic system, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum technique, respectively. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the sulfur and ash change the primary particle emissions directly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1002
Benjamin Kaal, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0998
Shuli Wang, Xinda Zhu, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0997
Huzeifa Badshah, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract To ensure reliable starting under cold weather conditions (< 0 oC ambient), gasoline engines use fuel enrichment, leading to higher soot formation and greater tailpipe particle number (PN) emissions. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, PN emissions are higher due to liquid fuel impingement on cold surfaces of the combustion chamber and piston. This study characterizes solid (mostly elemental carbon) and semi-volatile (organic) particle number, mass, and size distributions during cold-cold engine start-up from light duty vehicles. Particle emissions were sampled from vehicles upon engine start-up after an overnight soak, with an average ambient temperature of -8 ± 7 oC. The average PN emitted during 180 seconds by GDI and PFI vehicles were 3.09E+13 and 2.12E+13 particles respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0987
Mike M. Lambert, Belachew Tesfa
Abstract Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0985
Christian Gruenzweig, David Mannes, Florian Schmid, Rob Rule
Abstract Neutron imaging (NI) is an alternative non-destructive inspection technique compared to the well-known X-ray method. Although neutron imaging data look at a first glance similar to X-ray images it must be underlined that the interaction mechanism of the sample material with neutrons differs fundamentally. X-ray interaction with matter occurs with the electrons in the atomic shells whereas neutrons interact only with the atomic nuclei. Hence, both methods have a different and to great extent complementary contrast origin. Neutron imaging allows for a higher penetration through heavier elements (e.g. metals) whereas a high contrast is given for light elements (e.g. hydrogen). By the use of neutrons instead of X-rays exhaust after-treatment systems can be successfully examined non-destructively for their soot, ash, urea and coating distributions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper proposes a method to recover species concentrations at the tail pipe exit of heavy-duty vehicles during chassis dynamometer tests, and investigates its effect in the calculation of emissions from their raw exhaust streams. It was found that the method shown in this paper recovered the sharp peaks of the gas species. The effect on calculations was significant, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transport of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and deformed due to mixing and diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in g/mile.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0992
Justin Koczak, Andre Boehman, Matthew Brusstar
Abstract With increasingly stringent light duty particulate emissions regulations, it is of great interest to better understand particulate matter formation. Helping to build the knowledge base for a thorough understanding of particulate matter formation will be an essential step in developing effective control strategies. It is especially important to do this in such a way as to emulate real driving behaviors, including cold starts and transients. To this end, this study examined particulate emissions during transient operation in a recent model year vehicle equipped with a GDI engine. Three of the major federal test cycles were selected as evaluation schemes: the FTP, the HWFET, and the US06. These cycles capture much of the driving behaviors likely to be observed in typical driving scenarios. Measurements included particle size distributions from a TSI EEPS fast-response particle spectrometer, as well as real-time soot emissions from an AVL MSS soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0990
Robert Zummer, Tim Nevius, Scott Porter
Abstract The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0989
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Alice Yau, John Gomez, Cary Henry
Abstract Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction includes the formation of isocyanic acid as an intermediate product. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide [1,2,3,4]. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions, can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon [5, 6] that are difficult to remove from exhaust systems. Deposits can affect the efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1152
Alan Brown, Marc Nalbach, Sebastian Kahnt, André Korner
Abstract Global CO2 reduction by 2021, according to some projections, will be comprised of multiple vehicle technologies with 7% represented by hybrid and electric vehicles (2% in 2014) [1]. Other low cost hybrid methods are necessary in order to achieve widespread CO2 reduction. One such method is engine-off coasting and regenerative braking (or recuperation) using a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE). This paper will show that a 48V power system, compared to a 12V system with energy storage module for vehicle segments B, D and E during WLTP and NEDC, is much more efficient at reducing CO2. Passive engine-off coasting using 12V energy storage shows a CO2 benefit for practical real world driving, but, during NEDC, multiple sources of friction slow the vehicle down to the extent that the maximum benefit is not achieved.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash Chander
Abstract This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent Flow in burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model is used for flame structure. Methane/air combustion is simulated using global combustion reaction mechanism. To account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction of methane/air combustion, Eddy - Dissipation Model is used. The effect of varying plate distance to burner exit nozzle diameter is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Change in flame structure is observed with variation of plate distance from burner exit. A dip in the heat flux distribution is observed for all cases. This is due to the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis due to swirl.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1346
Tomoyuki Hosaka, Taisuke Sugii, Eiji Ishii, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Yoshihiro Sukegawa
Abstract We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1268
Yanjun Ren, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Xin Gao, Shichen Lu, Mengzuo Han, Ruobing Zhan, Haobo Xu
Abstract With the help of organic working medium absorbing the solar energy for steam electric power generation, green energy can be provided to automotive accessories so as to improve the vehicle energy efficiency. In the hot summer, the exhausted heat resulting from cars’ directly exposing to the sun can be used to cool and ventilate the passenger compartment. Considering the space occupied by the system in the combination of both practical features for solar heat source--low power and poor stability-- a compact evaporation structure was designed to enhance the solar utilization efficiency. In the research, the heat source of power and temperature variation range was determined by the available solar roof with photo-thermal conversion model. Then started from the ratio of exhausted heat utilization corresponding to evaporator’s characteristic parameter, the performance analysis was made in the different working conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1269
Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The present study was carried to explore the potential suitability of biodiesel as an extender of Kerosene in an off road dual fuel (gasoline start, kerosene run) generator set and results were compared with kerosene base line data. The biodiesel was blended with kerosene in two different proportions; 2.5% and 5% by volume. Physico-chemical properties of blends were also found to be comparable with kerosene. Engine tests were performed on three test fuels namely K100 (Kerosene 100%), KB 2.5 (Kerosene 97.5% + Biodiesel 2.5%) and KB5 (Kerosene 95% + Biodiesel 5%). It was found that brake thermal efficiency [BTE] increases up to 3.9% while brake specific energy consumption [BSEC] decreases up to 2.2% with increasing 5% volume fraction of biodiesel in kerosene. The exhaust temperature for blends was lower than kerosene. The test engine emitted reduced Carbon monoxide [CO] emission was 7.4 % less than using neat kerosene as compared to kerosene-biodiesel blends.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1273
Lakshmikanth Meda, Martin Romzek, Yanliang Zhang, Martin Cleary
Abstract Although the technology of combustion engines is reasonably well developed, the degree of efficiency is considerably low. Considerable amount of the energy of around 35 % is lost as exhaust waste heat, and up to 30 % is dissipated in the cooling circuits. Due to this, thermal recuperation has a great potential for raising the efficiency of combustion engines. In order to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for higher fuel economy, and to conform to more stringent governmental regulations, auto manufacturers have increasingly looked at thermoelectric materials as a potential method to recover some of that waste heat and improve the overall efficiency of their vehicle fleets. Seeking new possibilities to make vehicles greener and more efficient, the industry wants to use the waste heat which passes through the exhaust system almost completely unused in the past.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1275
Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan Govindan, P. Shanmugam
Biodiesel obtained by transesterification process from the fatty leather waste (tannery waste water) was blended with Diesel in various proportions and it was tested in a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection (DI) Diesel engine of rated power 4.4 kW at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. Experiments were conducted with B10, B20, B30, B40 and B50 blends and their combustion, performance and emission characteristics were studied in comparison with conventional Diesel fuel. The experimental results show an increase in brake thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends compared to neat Diesel operation. Reduced ignition delay and combustion duration is observed for B30 blend compared to Diesel. The oxides of nitrogen emissions are significantly lower for B10 and B20 blends compared to Diesel operation, whereas with remaining blends the NOx emissions are increased compared to Diesel fuel.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1270
Xiangshan Fan, Xibin Wang, Kangkang Yang, Yaoting Li, Chuanzhou Wu, Ziqing Li
Abstract The ignition delay times of 2, 5-Dihydrofuran (25DHF) were measured behind reflected shock waves at the pressures of 4, 10atm, temperatures of 1110-1650 K, for the lean (φ= 0.5) and stoichiometric (φ= 1.0) mixtures with fixed fuel concentration of 0.5%. The correlations of ignition delay times to initial parameters were fitted in an Arrhenius-like form for the two fuels by multiregression analysis. Simulations based on Liu model, Somers model and Tran model were presented and compared to experiment data. Subsequently, reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis were performed in low and high temperature to obtain insight into the ignition kinetic by using Liu model. Reaction path analysis shows that there are two main ways in the consumption of 25DHF and the main intermediates are C3H5Y, sC3H5 and propylene etc. Some reactions which involved the main intermediate products presented important effect on the whole ignition of 25DHF.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1271
Shubhangi S. Nigade, S. Mutalikdesai
Abstract The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1278
Shubhangi S. Nigade
Abstract This paper’s analysis approach combines the orthogonal array design of experiments with grey relational analysis for optimization CI engine performance using blend of Madhuca Indica biodiesel as a fuel. Grey relational theory is adopted to determine the best input parameters that give lower emission and higher performance of CI engine. Five design parameters namely; compression ratio, injection pressure, injection nozzle geometry (no. of holes on nozzle of injector), additive (AA-93 TM) and fuel fraction were selected, and four levels for each factor. To reduce an experimental effort the experiments have been performed by employing Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array for various engine performance and emission related responses. Injection nozzle geometry was found to most influencing factors. The optimal combination so obtained was further confirmed through experimentation was suitable for optimizing the performance and emission parameters of diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
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