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Viewing 91 to 120 of 24399
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0524
Lei Liang, Huaqi Ge, Haiwen Ge, Peng Zhao
The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is a upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate H2 and CO. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.2 < ϕ <2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane and methane, which are the representative components for gasoline and natural gas, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Although low diesel fuel prices have reduced the appeal of natural gas (NG) engines recently, the CO2 advantage and low NOX and PM potential of NG makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and potential lower NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, traditional NG fueling strategies and/or poor air/fuel ratio control can result in significant levels of tailpipe methane (CH4) emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to the high global warming potential of CH4. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was shown to improve the brake thermal and combustion efficiencies over equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes in a previous publication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0920
Jean P. Roy, Ahmed Ghoniem, Robert Panora, Joseph Gehret, Bruce Falls, David Wallace, Daniel Ott
All vehicles sold today are required to meet emissions standards based on specific driving cycles. A dual stage catalyst system, with exhaust temperature control, can provide a robust solution to meet challenging modes of operation such as rapid acceleration and other heavy duty transients. The Ultera technology, developed and successfully implemented on stationary natural gas CHP engines, introduces a second stage oxidation catalyst downstream of a three-way catalyst. Air is injected between the two catalyst stages to provide oxygen required for the second stage reaction that removes additional CO and NMOG. Critical to the process is to avoid the reformation of NOx, a common consequence with similar air injection concepts that have been tried in the past. This is achieved by cooling the exhaust gas prior to the second stage to a temperature range in which CO and NMOG oxidation is extremely effective while no new NOx is created.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
New two-A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the two-A/F systems, two A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the two-A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the two-A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0594
Baitao Xiao, Erik Hellstrom, Yan Wang, Julia Buckland, Mario Santillo
Downsizing and turbocharging yield considerable improvements in part-load fuel economy for gasoline engines while maintaining or exceeding the power output of conventional naturally-aspirated engines. Turbocharger compressors are, however, susceptible to surge – the instability phenomena that impose limitations on the operation of turbocharged engines because of undesired noise, engine torque capability constraints, and hardware strain. Turbocharged engines are typically equipped with a binary compressor recirculation valve (CRV) whose primary function is to prevent compressor surge. Calibration of the associated control strategy requires in-vehicle tests and usually employs subjective criteria. This work aims to reduce the calibration effort for the strategy by developing a test procedure and data processing algorithms. This work develops an automated calibration for CRV control that will generate a baseline calibration that avoids surge events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Motor vehicle industry is expected to reduce CO2 emission more and more for protecting the environment. Alternator, which supplies electric energy to battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. That’s because actual one is greatly affected by electrical loads, and improving alternator efficiecy is effective to enhance actual one. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with MOSFET instead of rectifier diode because on voltage of MOSFET is much lower than diode drop, which results in improving alternator efficiency. Control circuit is required to drive MOSFET because it is an active element. It is important to turn MOSFET ON and OFF during rectification period “synchronous control”. It is turned ON while a rectifier current flows through MOSFET as alternator output, and turned OFF while the current doesn’t flow to avoid drawing in a reverse current from battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0599
Yichao Guo
Misfire is generally defined as be no or partial combustion during the power stroke of internal combustion engine. Because a misfired engine will dramatically increase the exhaust emission and potentially cause permanent damage to the catalytic converters, California Air Resources Board (CARB), as well as most of other countries’ on-board diagnostic regulations mandates the detection of misfire. Currently almost all the OEMs utilize crankshaft position sensors as the main input to their misfire detection algorithm. The detailed detection approaches vary among different manufacturers. For example, some chooses the crankshaft angular velocity calculated from the raw output of the crankshaft position sensor as the measurement to distinguish misfires from normal firing events, while others use crankshaft angular acceleration or the associated torque index derived from the crankshaft position sensor readings as the measurement of misfire detection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0899
Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0127
Norimitsu Matsudaira, Mitsuru Iwasaki, Tatsuya arai, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Naohiro hasegawa, Junichiro Hara, Tomohiko furuhata
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although an EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition phenomenon to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a new visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide , temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1221
Shingo Soma, Haruhiko shimizu, Eiji Shirado, Satoshi Fujishiro
There have been calls for the automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in consideration of the impact on the global environment, and increasing efforts are being made to develop electric vehicles. Heavy rare earth - iron - boron magnets (neodymium magnets) have the largest maximum energy product (BH)max among current magnets, and are used in the driving motors of hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. However, these operating environments have high temperatures and strong diamagnetic fields, so magnets need high heat resistance, or high coercive force (Hcj). To support this need, heavy rare earth elements (Dy, Tb) with high anisotropic magnetic fields are added to increase Hcj. However, deposits of these elements are unevenly distributed around the world and the ratio of heavy rare earth elements in ores is one tenth or less that of light rare earth elements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0586
Hayato Shirai, Hayato Nakada, Akio Matsunaga, Hiroyuki Tominaga
In real-world automotive control, there are a lot of constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extendedly apply it to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine, which suffers from interference between boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits and control performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0704
Noriyuki Takada, Takeshi Hashizume, Terutoshi Tomoda, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Kiyomi Kawamura
Generally, soot emission is increased in smaller bore-size diesel engine than larger one because spray-impingement on cavity wall is more significant, while keeping at constant specific output power. The objective of study is to clarify what constraints are necessary for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. In the first report, ‘Geometrical similarity’ was applied to the two different bore-size engines, which have similarity shape of piston cavity. Then, smoke of smaller engine is larger. This is because air entrainment decreases due to shrinking of spray angle. A new spray design method has been proposed to suppress soot emission called as ‘Spray characteristics similarity’.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0983
Masaaki Ito, Frank Katsube, Yasuhiko Hamada, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Asako
Alternative Particle Number Emission Test Method Establishment Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles in 2011. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) are mandatory for the above-mentioned PN regulations. These filter technologies are to be continued to evolve for the near future tighter PN regulation. However, PN emission test for filter technology development is currently and mainly carried out with chassis dynamometer, which is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN emission test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0995
Olle Berg, Lars-Gunnar Simonson
The Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) is often used to dilute automotive exhaust with ambient air for measurement of emissions from vehicles. If the CVS is equipped with a Smooth Approach Orifice (SAO) to measure dilution air flow, the exhaust flow of the vehicle can then be calculated as the difference between dilution and total flow. Calibration of the CVS and SAO is routinely done using ambient air, but recently it has been shown that water vapor has a significant influence on this calibration and thus has this requirement been added to current emission legislation. However, if this is done then the effect of CO2 in exhaust has not been considered. Further on, when using the CVS to measure exhaust flow, only the Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) will be affected by the diluted exhaust gas composition. The measurement of dilution air will still be unaffected and thus will the resulting exhaust flow be influenced by the unbalanced conditions of the CFV compared to the SAO.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
The goal of this paper is to present guidelines for interpreting soot natural luminosity images that are taken from within the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder research engine, which is fitted with a window in the piston-crown. In the experiments, fuel is injected near top-dead-center and luminosity from soot that forms as a result of the combustion process is imaged. Then, CFD simulations are run, from which soot luminosity and in-cylinder soot distributions are predicted. A luminosity to soot-distribution transfer function is developed from the CFD results and the transfer function is subsequently applied to the experimentally-obtained luminosity images in order to approximate soot distributions in the physical engine with improved accuracy. This method is applied to multiple operating conditions in order to develop the guidelines presented herein. Although this work builds on previous efforts, this is the authors’ first published work on this particular topic.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0922
Akito Takayama, Takahiro Kurokawa, Hiroki Nakayama, Takuya Katoh, Makoto Nagata
New Pd-Rh type CC-TWC (three way catalysts in CC (close-coupled) position) has been developed to improve low-temperature gas activity. In this study Pd top and Rh bottom layered TWC was used, and Ba and La were tested as an additive to Pd, respectively. Alumina was used for Pd support and La or Ba was co-supported to Pd. The catalysts were aged at 950C for 200hrs and CO, HC and NOx performance were evaluated. As a result, Pd-La catalyst showed higher gas performance than Pd-Ba catalyst. The reason and mechanism of this phenomenon were investigated by three points. First one is Pd activation by the additives, second one is Pd particle size by increasing thermal durability of alumina support, and third one is specific NOx adsorption and desorption by the additives. Pd activity seemed to be increased by La addition but details of activation energy analysis and characterization of Pd by XPS, etc. are under investigation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji yabuzaki
PN regulation including Euro6 will be scheduled / tightened worldwide for gasoline engine especially GDI(Gasoline Direct Injection) engine. To meet PN regulation with GDI engine, particle filter which is also utilized for a diesel engine is needed. There are two types of particle filters for gasoline engine (Gasoline Particulate Filter ; GPF). One is bare GPF (additional type) , the other is coated GPF (replaced type). "Replaced" GPF (coated GPF) has advantages of cost / space / pressure drop compare to “Additional" GPF (bare GPF). There are three key performances for coated GPF. Firstly, three way performance is equivalent or more than three way catalyst. Secondly, a low pressure drop which is not to affect engine power and fuel consumption. Finally, a high PN filtration efficiency to meet the PN regulations. ZONE coating technology which is utilized for three way catalyst is also effective for GPF to improve three way performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1005
Yizhou Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, David Rothamer
Measurements of the particle size distribution (PSD) provide important insight into the nature of particulate matter (PM) and its sources as stricter PM emission regulations (both mass & number based) are being implemented. A previous study by the authors suggested a link between the change in PSD shape and changing amounts of direct-injected fuel. In this study, the effect of direct-injected fuel on the PSDs from dual-fuel combustion strategies is investigated in greater depth. The PSD data were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and acquired in a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine operated using conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two diesel/natural gas dual-fuel combustion strategies. Three different direct-injection (DI) fuels (diesel, 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane (farnesane), and a primary research fuel (PRF) blend) and two different injector nozzles were used in this study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters into the engine room and sometimes reaches to the position of air inlet duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion routes. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to be narrower and the undercover tends to be larger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine room becomes higher and causes to increase the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is giving a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of water level prediction method while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multi body and fluid dynamics analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1007
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Increasingly stringent legislation aims to reduce exhaust gas particulate levels - and not only for vehicle with Diesel engines. Various authorities have set limits for the mass of particulate (PM) emitted over a legislative driving cycle and the EU has added particle number (PN) limits. Additionally, there is considerable interest in particulate emissions from engine types traditionally assumed to have zero particulate emissions - port fuel injected vehicles running on gasoline, LPG and CNG. Regional specifics such as drive cycles mean that the legislative particulate emissions result varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even where the same vehicle is used for testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran ZHANG
Diesel automotive engines after-treatment systems face greater challenges with every iteration of emission norm legislation. Major improvements in tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple selective reduction catalysts (SCR) with an ammonia oxidizer (CUC) are proposed to cover operation over wide temperature range, however, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to many unmeasurable states. Usage of sophisticated model based predictive controls (MPC) makes the control task straight forward and less error prone compared to classic PID control. This paper shows the application of MPC to a SCR multi-brick system. Storage levels for SCR are calculated by optimization based on NOx conversion efficiency keeping tailpipe NH3 slip under emission limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA’s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1017
Michael Rößler, Amin Velji, Corina Janzer, Thomas Koch, Matthias Olzmann
The proportion of nitrogen dioxide in the engine-out emissions of a Diesel engine is of great importance for the conversion of the total oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in SCR catalysts. Particularly at lower engine loads and lower exhaust temperatures an increase of the already low NO2/NOX fraction will enhance the SCR operation significantly. For this purpose the understanding of the NO2 formation during the Diesel combustion and expansion stroke is as substantial as being aware of the different thermodynamic impacts and engine operating parameters that affect the formation process. To determine the influences on the NO2 emission level several variation series were performed on a single cylinder research engine. Especially the charge dilution parameters like the air-fuel ratio and the EGR rate as well as the injection parameters could be identified to be decisive for the NO2 formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0913
Evangelos Georgiadis, Toru Kudo, Dr Olaf Herrmann, Ken Uchiyama, Juergen Hagen PhD
In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For SCR system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, DENSO has developed a novel exhaust reverse flow concept, combined with a blade mixer, increasing mixing length and total mixing performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1019
Bentolhoda Torkashvand, Andreas Gremminger, Simone Valchera, Maria Casapu, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Olaf Deutschmann
Abstract The required gas temperature for complete oxidation of methane to water and CO2 over conventional exhaust catalysts is above 450°C which is higher than the exhaust gas temperature. For lean-burn turbocharged engines, a solution to this problem is positioning the catalyst upstream of the turbine to take advantage of higher temperatures closer to the engine resulting in faster kinetics over the catalyst. Pre-turbine placement of the catalyst will also result in higher pressures depending on engine design and operation point. An increase in pressure leads to a longer residence time of the exhaust gas stream inside the catalyst. Consequently, a pre-turbine catalyst placement can lead to higher conversion levels if the catalytic reaction is in the kinetically controlled regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1166
Gareth Milton, Paul Bloore, Khizer Tufail, Barnaby Paul Coates, Ian Newbigging, Allan Cooper, Paul Shayler
In order to achieve fleet average CO2 targets, mass-market adoption of low CO2 technologies is required. Application of low cost technologies across a large number of vehicles is more cost-effective in reducing fleet CO2 than deploying high-impact, costly technology to a few. Therefore, to meet the CO2 reduction challenge, commercially viable, low cost technologies are of significant interest. This paper presents results from the ‘ADEPT’ collaborative research program which focuses on CO2 reduction through the application of intelligent 48V electrification to diesel engines for passenger car applications. Results were demonstrated on a C-segment vehicle with a class-leading 4-cylinder 1.5 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. Electrification was applied through a high power, high efficiency, switched reluctance belt-integrated starter generator (B-ISG) capable of both generation and motoring, and an Advanced Lead Carbon Battery for energy storage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0603
Vicente Cuapio Espino, Akshay Bichkar, Joycer D. Osorio
Software development for automotive application requires several iterations in order to tune parameters and strategy logic to operate accordantly with optimal performance. Thus, in this paper is presented an optimizer method and tool used to tune calibration parameters related to torque estimation for a hybrid automatic transmission application. This optimizer aims to minimize the time invested during the software calibration and software development phases that could take significant time in order to cover the different driving conditions under which a hybrid automatic transmission can operate. For this reason, an optimization function based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm using Matlab software helps to find optimized calibration values based on a cost function (square sum error minimization).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0951
Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Daniel Escobar Valdivieso
To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world operation. In such concept, the on-line availability of engine-out NOx emission is crucial. Here, the use of a Virtual NOx sensor is of great added value. Virtual sensing enables more direct and robust emission control allowing for example engine-out NOx determination during conditions in which the hardware sensor is not available. Furthermore, with use of the sensor, the engine control strategy can be directly based on NOx emission data, resulting in reduced response time and improved transient emission control. This paper presents the development and on-line implementation of a Virtual NOx sensor, using in-cylinder pressure as main input.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1045
Ioannis Papadopoulos, Simon Becker, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kunzel PhD, Armin Frommer PhD
The oil emission of an internal combustion engine has a direct impact on CO2 and particle emission. Thereby reducing the oil emission, especially in the context of stricter emission requirements in the automotive industry, is becoming a center of attention. To achieve this goal, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the formation of the oil emission in the internal combustion engine is necessary. In order to determine the oil emission caused by the piston group, the exhaust is sampled and analyzed via a mass spectrometer in the exhaust manifold directly after the exhaust valve. For the detection of the lubricating oil, which contains long-chain hydrocarbons, the mass spectrometer is operated in the high-pass filter mode. The oil emission is evaluated in stationary and transient operation of the engine for assessing specifically selected design parameters of the piston group, in order to make differentiated and detailed statements about the oil emission mechanisms.
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