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Viewing 91 to 120 of 24143
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2287
Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
Abstract Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2322
Michael Lance, Andrew Wereszczak, Todd J. Toops, Richard Ancimer, Hongmei An, Junhui Li, Leigh Rogoski, Petr Sindler, Aaron Williams, Adam Ragatz, Robert L. McCormick
Abstract For renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1001 h using 20% biodiesel blended into ultra-low sulfur diesel (B20) doped with 14 ppm Na. This Na level is equivalent to exposure to Na at the uppermost expected B100 value in a B20 blend for the system full-useful life. During the study, NOx emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement.
CURRENT
2016-10-13
Standard
AS29512C
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-10-10
Article
Engineers are ironing out the kinks in 48-V hybrids poised to handle greater in-vehicle power demands.
2016-10-07
Article
United Parcel Service has begun converting 50 gasoline delivery trucks with hydraulic hybrid propulsion systems for use in the Chicago area.
2016-10-07
Magazine
The Best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles, improved fuel efficiency and thermal management are among the pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Autonomous solutions in agriculture Pneumatically shifted air suspension loading on 6x2 trucks Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Fan-shroud optimization for enhanced thermal performance Touch takes hold, switches lend a hand Touch screens are becoming the norm, but knobs and switches are often used to improve operator comfort. U.S. Army marches toward driverless future TARDEC targets vehicle autonomy with new V2V / V2X test bed in Michigan.
2016-10-06
Article
Mercedes' EV blitz includes new dedicated vehicle architectures and more than $1.5 B invested in global battery production.
2016-10-04
Article
At the recent Paris Motor Show, Volkswagen unveiled its all-electric I.D. concept, a signal of VW's heightened effort to shift from diesel-engine scandal to electric-car competitiveness.
2016-10-03
Article
At the Paris Motor Show, the Infiniti brand unveiled the VC-Turbo 2.0-L variable compression ratio engine aimed at replacing Nissan's 3.5-L V6. It is being readied for series production in early 2018.
2016-10-03
Magazine
All about the engine The University of Wisconsin-Madison team increases engine displacement and implements exhaust gas recirculation to maintain winning ways in SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Fluid mechanics of diesel injection studied at Penn State Special photography method helps student researchers get a better look at spray patterns. Under new management A senior-heavy squad from Minnesota State University, Mankato, takes a different approach to team dynamics and jumps 34 spots to 17th overall at the 2016 Formula SAE Michigan competition.
2016-09-27
Article
The SAE AMS3144-qualified Aerocron primer is chrome-free and water-based, and it reduces emissions as well as waste-treatment requirement, according to PPG.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8076
Lukas Moeltner, Michael Hohensinner, Verena Schallhart
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is the most promising technique to meet prospective emission regulations of diesel-driven commercial vehicles. Due to the installation of SCR- systems downstream of both the oxidation catalyst and the particulate filter, the relatively long light-off phase after engine startup limits the overall efficiency of reducing emissions. Another challenge is the fact that, once the light-off temperature is achieved it must be maintained. In particular, the operation of urban busses with highly transient load profiles involves many phases of idling with low exhaust gas temperatures (e.g., during bus stops and/or at traffic lights). In contrast to previous studies, these investigations combine properties of catalysts determined in the course of experiments with the simulation of real operational profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on the life of the product and the cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how the life of the product can be increased while lowering the cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint and improve energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How can both of these necessities be achieved? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compared to new part production and is reasonably inexpensive to end customer. The energy required for remanufacturing is less compared to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original content. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8124
Xinyu Ge, Hua Gu, Ying Wang
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8084
Yousef Jeihouni, Katharina Eichler, Michael Franke
Abstract In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8155
Devaraj Dasarathan, Jonathan Jilesen, David Croteau, Ray Ayala
Abstract Side window clarity and its effect on side mirror visibility plays a major role in driver comfort. Driving in inclement weather conditions such as rain can be stressful, and having optimal visibility under these conditions is ideal. However, extreme conditions can overwhelm exterior water management devices, resulting in rivulets of water flowing over the a-pillar and onto the vehicle’s side glass. Once on the side glass, these rivulets and the pooling of water they feed, can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the side mirror and to see outwardly when in situations such as changing lanes. Designing exterior water management features of a vehicle is a challenging exercise, as traditionally, physical testing methods first require a full-scale vehicle for evaluations to be possible. Additionally, common water management devices such as grooves and channels often have undesirable aesthetic, drag, and wind noise implications.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8024
Saurabh Gupta, Gopichand Vunnava
Abstract In search of higher productivity, farmers are taking more than two crops in a year. In this farming pattern they don’t have much time for field preparation due to which rear mounted plough have become longer and heavier, necessitating the use of additional front-end weights and assister rams on the hydraulic lift. As plough length increases, the evenness of working depth over the full length of the implement deteriorates. To complete the farm work in one or two passes by utilizing maximum tractor power in order to save the fuel as well as time. The usage of front hitch and front PTO system on tractor forms a gateway for farmers to control the traffic on farm fields which is responsible for the soil compaction and emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by reducing the number of passes in agricultural field operations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8014
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Abstract This report provides an overview of recent technical solution adoption rates by fleets from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will also be discussed. OEM vehicle integration and product line offerings (standard, optional, and post-production upfits) are shared. All of this background will set the stage for a review of the proposed Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 regulations, the technologies expected to be utilized to meet the targets, and the hurdles the industry must successfully clear for profitable fleet use in commercial vehicle freight transportation. Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of fuel efficient technologies have emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse Gas regulations exist to further encourage development, integration and adoption of such technologies.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8090
Sauhard Singh, Sumit Mishra, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh
Abstract One of the most promising solutions to address the twin problems of transport related pollution and energy security is to use alternative fuels. Compressed Natural gas (CNG) has been widely used in India to address the menace of pollution from commercial vehicles in cities like Delhi. Hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (HCNG) as a fuel has potential for further reducing harmful emissions and greenhouse gases. Enriching hydrogen in CNG improves combustion characteristic of CNG and reduces carbonyl emissions. Due to growing concerns over un-regulated emissions and their effect on human health, it is imperative to estimate un-regulated emissions from such alternatives for assessing overall impact of such fuels. Presently world over, emission legislations mainly addresses pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, CH4, NH3, PM etc. Relatively higher quantity in exhaust qualifies these pollutants to be monitored and controlled.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8017
Eric Wood, Adam Duran, Kenneth Kelly
Abstract In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom’s commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8029
Chrysostomos-Alexandros Bekakos, George Papazafeiropoulos, Dan J. O'Boy, Jan Prins, George Mavros
Abstract A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8152
Brian R. McAuliffe, David Chuang
Abstract In an effort to support Phase 2 of Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, a track-based test program was jointly supported by Transport Canada (TC), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Research Council Canada (NRC) to assess aerodynamic evaluation methodologies proposed by the EPA and to provide a site-verification exercise against a previous test campaign with the same vehicle. Coast-down tests were conducted with a modern aerodynamic tractor matched to a conventional 16.2 m (53 ft) dry-van trailer, and outfitted with two drag reduction technologies. Enhanced wind-measurement instrumentation was introduced, consisting of a vehicle-mounted fast-response pressure probe and track-side sonic anemometers that, when used in combination, provided improved reliability for the measurements of wind conditions experienced by the vehicle.
2016-09-22
Article
Iveco debuted its world premiere Z Truck concept at IAA Commercial Vehicles in Hanover, Germany, revealing an array of technologies including a next-gen LNG engine, waste heat recovery, automated driving and enhanced aerodynamics.
2016-09-22
Article
Engineers at Valeo have developed a high torque, low stiffness (HTLS) clutch disc for heavy trucks and buses that increases damping performance by 40% and allows a reduction of engine speed by up to 200 rpm.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
In this paper we discuss about the design and development of an “Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)” that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated multi-copter with tilt rotor capability to facilitate easy landing, navigation and maneuver on water. A 3D CAD model has been designed and analyzed. A specific propulsion system has been devised and lab tested. A proof of concept model has been made and tested in the field with its instruments to ascertain its technical/ operational feasibility. This system can also be tailored to collect and store the water samples from the polluted sites for further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is the novel solution to the polluted environment through a complete integrated system. This will be an effective alternative for the conventional water sampling techniques.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2022
Ajay Rao, Vivek Karan, Pradeep Kumar
Abstract Turbulence is by far the number one concern of anxious passengers and a cause for airline injuries. Apart from causing discomfort to passengers, it also results in unplanned downtime of aircrafts. Currently the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the meteorological weather charts aid the pilot in devising flight paths that avoid turbulent regions. Even with such tailored flight paths, pilots report constant encounters with turbulence. The probability of turbulence avoidance can be increased by the use of predictive models on historical and transactional data. This paper proposes the use of predictive analytics on meteorological data over the geographical area where the aircraft is intended to fly. The weather predictions are then relayed to the cloud server which can be accessed by the aircraft planned to fly in the same region. Predictive algorithms that use Time series forecasting models are discussed and their comparative performance is documented.
2016-09-19
Article
SAE has teams of engineers working on standards specific to next-gen battery chemistries to be ready when the technologies hit the market.
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