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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard K. Stobart, John Rutledge, Edward Winward
Abstract A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved Singh, A K Sehgal, B Basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil Kumar, G Gopal
Abstract In this paper, experimental evaluation was carried out on a 6.0 L heavy duty CNG engine which has been optimized for 18 percent hydrogen blended CNG (HCNG). Optimization test results shows that use of HCNG results in reduced CO, THC & CH4 emissions by 39, 25 & 25 percent respectively and increase in NOx by 32 percent vis-a-vis CNG. After optimization the engine was subjected to endurance test of 600 hours as per 15 mode engine simulated city driving cycle with HCNG. The performance & emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per European Transient Cycle (ETC). Test results indicate that there were no significant changes observed in engine power output over the complete endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) measurements were consistent at all the 15 modes of engine simulated city driving cycle. It was observed from the test results that over the period of endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG, all the major exhaust emissions species such as CO, THC, CH4 & NOx emissions were found to be much lower than the Euro IV emission norms for the heavy duty engines and there were no significant changes in the CO2 values.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Abstract Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI (effective as of 2014) exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines have been brought close to zero level. This means that the advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation in which electric transit buses are also entering the market. The motivation to use natural gas could still be diesel fuel substitution and to some extent, also reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, looking at the full fuel cycle and also taking into account methane leakages in various part of the fuel cycle, natural gas is, at its best, comparable to diesel regarding greenhouse gas emissions, not better.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost. The development involves testing and characterization of the materials, making of prototypes and validations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Paul Salama, Adam Lubinsky, Bryan Roy, Ziga Ivanic, Paul Lipson, Luis Torres, Joseph Tario, Robert Ancar
Abstract The emergence of electric vehicle (EV) delivery trucks is resulting in health and environmental benefits, less noise, reduction of foreign energy dependency, and economic development opportunities. Green Loading Zones (GLZs) are dedicated curbside spaces for commercial delivery EVs meant to incentivize and accelerate market adoption. This study examined the impact and potential benefits of this strategy for New York City. Discussions with fleets revealed that while they are realizing operational savings and other benefits from the use of EVs, their incremental costs over diesel vehicles can take a very long time to recover, even with existing subsidy programs. Complementary incentives like GLZs can provide further justification for the investment in cleaner technology. Most fleets interviewed would place a high monetary value on guaranteed delivery locations and reduced parking violation expenses. Inclusion of GLZ electrical infrastructure to charge the EV battery could extend the range and operational capacity or permit the fleet to purchase vehicles with smaller battery packs, both of which would increase the cost effectiveness of this technology.
Article
2014-09-29
Volkswagen spreads its Audi A3 e-tron PHEV powertrain to the new Golf GTE. Powertrain control from ICE to electric drive is silky indeed, and EV range is worthy of a good city car. But system cost is significant in a VW-badged vehicle.
Article
2014-09-26
Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) fuel tanks traditionally have been blow molded in high-density polyethylene (HDPE), but HDPE on its own does not meet the new stringent permeation regulations. Of all commercially available solutions to reach the EPA requirements, monomaterial PA6 technology scores the highest when it comes to the combination of permeability, process stability, mechanical properties, and costs, according to DSM.
Article
2014-09-23
At the recent Battery Show in Novi, MI, Enerdel showcased two applications for its battery technologies--one for high energy, one for high power.
Book
2014-09-22
Mehrdad Zangeneh
Legislative requirements to reduce CO2 emissions by 2020 have resulted in significant efforts by car manufacturers to explore various methods of pollution abatement. One of the most effective ways found so far is by shortening the cylinder stroke and downsizing the engine. This new engine then needs to be boosted, or turbocharged, to create the full and original load torque. Turbocharging has been and will continue to be a key component to the new technologies that will make a positive difference in the next-generation engines of years to come. Concepts in Turbocharging for Improved Efficiency and Emissions Reduction explores the many ways that turbocharging will deliver concrete results in meeting the new realities of sustainable, green transportation. This collection of very focused technical papers, selected by Mehrdad Zangeneh, PhD., a professor of thermo-fluids at University College in London, provides an assessment of several novel designs intended to improve fuel consumption and cap emissions, while maintaining torque at all speeds.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined. The decision making process along the value chain and the policy framework including codes, regulations and standards are addressed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida, Nikita Kudinov, Elena Portnova
Abstract Airship dimensions define the application of the computer modeling methods under their development and investigation. Herein, the need to simulate the flight environment state - the atmospheric conditions of their traffic route - arises. The atmospheric parameters have both regular and random components, which is due to the nonstationarity of the atmospheric phenomena. Hence, it is essential to define the actual ranges, and the representative values of the atmospheric effects. Weather data are used for the analysis and the airflow performance computation in the operational area. Through their statistical processing, we need to obtain the most informative characteristics of the weather conditions in whole, and of their trends. The investigation has shown that the weather data gathering system is nonperfect. The sampling frequency is irregular and not high, test values in the specific parameters are obtained asynchronously. At this, altitude is the most critical parameter under measuring, and all the observable parameters are to be referenced to the altitude in the problem on the flight environment parameter simulation.
Article
2014-09-09
The University of California-Davis, and CATARC (China Automotive Technology and Research Center) will cooperate to speed commercialization of plug-in and fuel-cell electric cars in China and the U.S. under an agreement signed Sept. 6 in Tianjin, China.
Article
2014-09-05
Days before Tesla on Sept. 4 announced it has selected Nevada as the state in which it will build a large "Gigafactory' battery plant, Lux Research opined that the savings in lithium-ion battery costs owing to high-volume efficiencies will not be as much as the automaker expects it to be.
Article
2014-09-02
We huddled in a tight circle by the finish line, frantically waiting for radio updates on the progress of our team’s rider, Rob “Bullet” Barber, who was miles in the distance and closing fast. Our 11-person team of student engineers and support crew from The Ohio State University could hardly breathe as we got the report: Barber was battling for third place—a podium finish—in the TT Zero class for electric racing motorcycles at the 2014 Isle of Man TT.
Article
2014-09-02
The WSU team found an edge over the competing designs by employing liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage to maximize station capacity and reduce capital and operating costs. Delivering hydrogen in liquid form reduces the energy used for distribution, and 80-90% of small-merchant hydrogen is delivered via cryogenic liquid tanker truck.
Magazine
2014-09-01
Teams make unique statements at FSAE Michigan Some statements produced better results than others, but all teams walked away from the 2014 FSAE Michigan event with invaluable hands-on engineering experience. Teams get 'super' results at SAE Supermileage University students from around the world gathered in Marshall, MI, to determine which team could achieve the highest fuel economy at the 353th anniversary of the competition. Competition winners react to attaining coveted F1 engineering roles Two of the winners have Formula SAE experience on their side.
Article
2014-08-27
As part of the U.S. DOE SuperTruck program that was awarded to Cummins and Peterbilt Motors, a series of investigations was conducted on the aerodynamic ramifications of traffic. One such investigation, carried out by experts from Peterbilt and design software provider Exa Corp., focuses on the impact of traffic conditions on aerodynamic drag for typical tractor-trailer separation distances at typical highway speeds.
Article
2014-08-26
Tesla Motors is learning that making trouble-free autos is no easy task. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the American electric car maker and recent reports of problems with its Model S luxury sedan.SAE Eye on Engineering can be viewed at http://youtu.be/kgbdTHxuegw.
Article
2014-08-20
Boeing, South African Airways (SAA), and SkyNRG are collaborating to make sustainable aviation biofuel from a new type of tobacco plant. This initiative broadens cooperation between Boeing and SAA to develop renewable jet fuel in ways that support South Africa's goals for public health as well as economic and rural development.
Article
2014-08-18
Volvo Bus and Swiss technology group ABB are collaborating to develop and commercialize hybrid- and full-electric buses that employ “open standards-based” dc fast-charging systems. Buses will be charged quickly through an automatic roof-top connection system at bus stops, or through cabled charging systems overnight.
Article
2014-08-13
Rick Phillips, Senior Director, Commercial and OTR Sales, for Yokohama Tire Corp., provides his thoughts on the company's first U.S. commercial tire plant, scheduled to open in October 2015, as well as what the market can expect in the coming years.
Article
2014-08-13
As alternatives to silicon (Si), use of wide-bandgap materials (WBGs) such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) for power electronics in electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can have a major impact on systems and overall vehicle costs, according to a Lux Research report.
Standard
2014-08-13
Various SAE vehicle sound level measurement procedures require use of a sound level meter which meets the Type 1 or Type 2 requirements of ANSI S1.4-1983 (see 2.1.1.1), or an alternative system which can be proved to provide equivalent test data. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a procedure for determining if a sound data acquisition system (SDAS) has electro-acoustical performance equivalent to such a meter. By assuring equivalent performance of the test instrumentation, the equivalence of test data is assured. Two general configurations of sound data acquisition systems will be encompassed (see Figure 1). The first configuration consists of instrument sections which perform as a sound level meter. The second configuration is a system which records data for later processing. The intent of this document is to establish guidelines which permit the test engineer to insure equivalence of sound data acquisition systems to a sound level meter. It requires that the test engineer have a working knowledge of the characteristics of the sound data being measured.
Article
2014-08-12
AC17 test reporting begins in 2015. Initially it "gifts" applicable CAFE A/C efficiency credits, but leads to mandatory use. Industry also looks to reduce A/C-induced EV range loss from solar loading using films, glass, pre-ventilation.
Standard
2014-08-11
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
Book
2014-08-06
Daniel Vallero
This thoroughly revised fifth edition of Fundamentals of Air Pollution has been updated throughout and remains the most complete text available, offering a stronger systems perspective and more coverage of international issues relating to air pollution. Sections on pollution control have been reorganized and updated to demonstrate the move from regulation and control approaches to green and sustainable engineering approaches. This edition maintains a strong interdisciplinary approach to the study of air pollution, covering such topics as chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, toxicology, policy, and regulation. New material includes near-road air pollution, new risk assessment approaches, indoor air quality, the impact of biofuels and fuel additives, mercury emissions, forecasting techniques, and the most recent results from the National Air Toxics Assessment. Main topics covered are: • Systems approach, emphasizing the impact of air pollution on ecosystems and human health • Risks, measures, models, and control of air pollution • International issues, including coverage of European initiatives and discussions of the impact of emerging economies like India and China • Updated references, standards, and methods
Article
2014-08-05
Airbus, British Airways (BA), Heathrow Airport (LHR), and NATS (the main air navigation service provider in the U.K.) have established a partnership to study and develop operational procedures to reduce the number of people affected by noise around London’s Heathrow.
Standard
2014-08-05
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
Article
2014-07-31
Panasonic will handle the cell-making activity at Tesla's coming battery manufacturing facility dubbed the Gigafactory, the two companies announced July 31. Panasonic already supplies cylindrical (18650 type) battery cells for the Tesla Model S from its factories in Japan.
Article
2014-07-30
The Electric Power Research Institute has announced a collaboration with 8 automakers and 15 utilities to develop and demonstrate an open grid integration platform for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
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