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Viewing 61 to 90 of 22386
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
L. Joseph Bachman, Anthony Erb, Jeffry Sellers
Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were estimated using the SAE J1321 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 per cent relative to the baseline. The return factor for the new tires was 3.1:1, that is a 3.1 per cent decrease in rolling resistance yielded a fuel consumption decrease of 1 per cent.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Bryan Roy, Paul Windover, Terry Levinson, Joseph Tario, Eric VanOoyen
A State Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining a safe, efficient, balanced, and sustainable transportation system. It has many types of on-road vehicles and off-road equipment, which are operated by various personnel. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is also governed by Executive Orders to improve overall fleet efficiency, reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gases. While the NYSDOT Region 4 is actively addressing this issue by using more efficient LED hazard warning signs and encouraging personnel to turn off vehicles when not in use, it wanted to do more. Thus, with the support of NYSDOT and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energetics Incorporated is evaluating the operational, economical, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reducing idling in the fleet without compromising functionality. NYSDOT Region 4 has a fleet of 328 on-road vehicles to serve the more than one million customers in seven western New York counties.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan Ozturk
Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market. Therefore, a total of nine combinations (i.e., three quality index and three collecting strategies) are benchmarked in terms of total profit from new and remanufactured HDV clutches, number of customers won, and amount of saved raw material for environmental considerations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved singh, A K Sehgal, B basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil kumar, G Gopal
Air Pollution is a serious global problem. Increase in population the growing demands further aggravates it. This has resulted in exploring alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines. Some of the promising alternative fuels are Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Hydrogen, LPG, Ethanol etc. CNG is gaining popularity as fuel in transport sector due to lower carbon to hydrogen ratio, cost & infrastructure. Hydrogen (H2) for IC engines is considered as a future fuel due to carbonless structure. But several obstacles need to be overcome before commercialization of H2 as an IC engine fuel for transport sector. Presently, lack of hydrogen infrastructure and refuelling stations prevent widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles. One of the solutions is to blend hydrogen to CNG. Such types of blends acquire benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Also these blends can use the existing natural gas infrastructure and existing CNG engine without any major hardware modification.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. VTT Technical Research Centre has monitored the performance of both diesel and natural gas buses for more than a decade, and has a very comprehensive data base on bus performance. VTT also has carried out work on buses for the Energy Technology Network of the International Energy Agency. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines, have, in a historical perspective, been brought close to zero level. This means that the competitive advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation where electric city buses are also entering the market.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Abhishake goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined. The decision making process along the value chain and the policy framework including codes, regulations and standards are addressed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida, Nikita Kudinov, Elena Portnova
Abstract Airship dimensions define the application of the computer modeling methods under their development and investigation. Herein, the need to simulate the flight environment state - the atmospheric conditions of their traffic route - arises. The atmospheric parameters have both regular and random components, which is due to the nonstationarity of the atmospheric phenomena. Hence, it is essential to define the actual ranges, and the representative values of the atmospheric effects. Weather data are used for the analysis and the airflow performance computation in the operational area. Through their statistical processing, we need to obtain the most informative characteristics of the weather conditions in whole, and of their trends. The investigation has shown that the weather data gathering system is nonperfect. The sampling frequency is irregular and not high, test values in the specific parameters are obtained asynchronously. At this, altitude is the most critical parameter under measuring, and all the observable parameters are to be referenced to the altitude in the problem on the flight environment parameter simulation.
Article
2014-08-27
As part of the U.S. DOE SuperTruck program that was awarded to Cummins and Peterbilt Motors, a series of investigations was conducted on the aerodynamic ramifications of traffic. One such investigation, carried out by experts from Peterbilt and design software provider Exa Corp., focuses on the impact of traffic conditions on aerodynamic drag for typical tractor-trailer separation distances at typical highway speeds.
Article
2014-08-26
Tesla Motors is learning that making trouble-free autos is no easy task. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the American electric car maker and recent reports of problems with its Model S luxury sedan.SAE Eye on Engineering can be viewed at http://youtu.be/kgbdTHxuegw.
Article
2014-08-20
Boeing, South African Airways (SAA), and SkyNRG are collaborating to make sustainable aviation biofuel from a new type of tobacco plant. This initiative broadens cooperation between Boeing and SAA to develop renewable jet fuel in ways that support South Africa's goals for public health as well as economic and rural development.
Article
2014-08-18
Volvo Bus and Swiss technology group ABB are collaborating to develop and commercialize hybrid- and full-electric buses that employ “open standards-based” dc fast-charging systems. Buses will be charged quickly through an automatic roof-top connection system at bus stops, or through cabled charging systems overnight.
Article
2014-08-13
Rick Phillips, Senior Director, Commercial and OTR Sales, for Yokohama Tire Corp., provides his thoughts on the company's first U.S. commercial tire plant, scheduled to open in October 2015, as well as what the market can expect in the coming years.
Article
2014-08-13
As alternatives to silicon (Si), use of wide-bandgap materials (WBGs) such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) for power electronics in electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can have a major impact on systems and overall vehicle costs, according to a Lux Research report.
Standard
2014-08-13
Various SAE vehicle sound level measurement procedures require use of a sound level meter which meets the Type 1 or Type 2 requirements of ANSI S1.4-1983 (see 2.1.1.1), or an alternative system which can be proved to provide equivalent test data. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a procedure for determining if a sound data acquisition system (SDAS) has electro-acoustical performance equivalent to such a meter. By assuring equivalent performance of the test instrumentation, the equivalence of test data is assured. Two general configurations of sound data acquisition systems will be encompassed (see Figure 1). The first configuration consists of instrument sections which perform as a sound level meter. The second configuration is a system which records data for later processing. The intent of this document is to establish guidelines which permit the test engineer to insure equivalence of sound data acquisition systems to a sound level meter. It requires that the test engineer have a working knowledge of the characteristics of the sound data being measured.
Article
2014-08-12
AC17 test reporting begins in 2015. Initially it "gifts" applicable CAFE A/C efficiency credits, but leads to mandatory use. Industry also looks to reduce A/C-induced EV range loss from solar loading using films, glass, pre-ventilation.
Standard
2014-08-11
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
Book
2014-08-06
Daniel Vallero
This thoroughly revised fifth edition of Fundamentals of Air Pollution has been updated throughout and remains the most complete text available, offering a stronger systems perspective and more coverage of international issues relating to air pollution. Sections on pollution control have been reorganized and updated to demonstrate the move from regulation and control approaches to green and sustainable engineering approaches. This edition maintains a strong interdisciplinary approach to the study of air pollution, covering such topics as chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, toxicology, policy, and regulation. New material includes near-road air pollution, new risk assessment approaches, indoor air quality, the impact of biofuels and fuel additives, mercury emissions, forecasting techniques, and the most recent results from the National Air Toxics Assessment. Main topics covered are: • Systems approach, emphasizing the impact of air pollution on ecosystems and human health • Risks, measures, models, and control of air pollution • International issues, including coverage of European initiatives and discussions of the impact of emerging economies like India and China • Updated references, standards, and methods
Article
2014-08-05
Airbus, British Airways (BA), Heathrow Airport (LHR), and NATS (the main air navigation service provider in the U.K.) have established a partnership to study and develop operational procedures to reduce the number of people affected by noise around London’s Heathrow.
Standard
2014-08-05
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
Article
2014-07-31
Panasonic will handle the cell-making activity at Tesla's coming battery manufacturing facility dubbed the Gigafactory, the two companies announced July 31. Panasonic already supplies cylindrical (18650 type) battery cells for the Tesla Model S from its factories in Japan.
Article
2014-07-30
The Electric Power Research Institute has announced a collaboration with 8 automakers and 15 utilities to develop and demonstrate an open grid integration platform for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
Article
2014-07-25
Ford pickup customers have already embraced turbo V6 power in the current steel F-150. The all-new, smaller 2.7-L V6, packing 325 hp and 375 lb-ft, in a truck that is more than 700-lb lighter than the incumbent model, should find an equally willing audience.
Article
2014-07-24
SAE International recently published J2601 “Fueling Protocols for Light Duty Gaseous Hydrogen Surface Vehicles,” the light-duty hydrogen-fueling protocol that will serve as the baseline for fueling the first generation of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEVs).
WIP Standard
2014-07-22
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
Standard
2014-07-22
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
Article
2014-07-15
Electric propulsion has been limited so far to small movements of the satellites once it is in its geostationary orbit. The Boeing 702SP innovation is its use of electric propulsion to raise the satellite from its launch-vehicle drop-off point to geostationary orbit.
Article
2014-07-09
The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the potential environmental impacts of new fuel-efficiency standards for commercial medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicles and work trucks, potentially covering engines, chassis, vehicles, and/or trailers manufactured after model year 2018.
Article
2014-07-08
A simpler spin on hybrids relies on mechanical flywheels and push-belts rather than batteries and motors
WIP Standard
2014-07-08
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a method for assessing particle losses that occur in a sampling system of specified geometry based on the nvPM mass and number measured at the end of the sampling system. Both size dependent diffusion loss and size independent thermophoretic loss mechanisms are included in the method. The penetration function of that system must be determined by measurement and/or by computation using an analytical method as described within this report. The outcome of this line loss assessment provides estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentration with associated uncertainties based upon nvPM measurement uncertainties and method assumptions. These correction factors give an estimation of nvPM mass and number values at the inlet to the sampling system.
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