Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 24644
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2396
Fushui Liu, Yang Hua, Han Wu, Xu He, Ning Kang
Abstract Soot emission, known as PM (particulate matter), is becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being increasingly stricter. It is found that ethanol, as an oxygenated bio-fuel, can reduce the soot emission when added to gasoline. In order to fully understand the effect of ethanol on soot reducing, the soot characteristics of ethanol/gasoline blends were studied on laminar diffusion flames. In this experiment, the blending ratio of ethanol/gasoline was set as E0/20/40/60/80. Considering the carbon content decreasing due to ethanol addition, carbon mass flow rate was remained constant. The two-dimensional distributions of soot volume fraction were measured quantitatively by using two-color laser induced incandescence technique. The results showed that ethanol is able to decrease the soot significantly, but the effect of ethanol on soot reduction is weakened with the increasing ethanol ratio.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
Abstract The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2402
Yoshinori Otsuki, Shigemi Tochino, Kenji Kondo, Kazuhiko Haruta
Abstract Fine particle emissions from engine exhaust have attracted attention because of concern of their higher deposition fraction in alveoli. Since it was observed that sizes of solid particles in exhaust of conventional internal combustion engine technologies are mainly distributed above 30 nm and the mainly irreproducible sensitivity to volatile particles can be reduced, the current solid particle number (PN) measurement methodology was targeted to PN emissions particles larger than 23 nm. The necessity of the measurement of particles smaller than 23 nm is now under discussion. It is also surmised that there is difference between emissions under regulatory defined test cycles and real driving conditions. Currently, implementation of further real driving emission regulations utilizing portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) is in place for the EU and being actively discussed in other regions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2399
Jianyu Duan, Kai Sun, Lei Li
Abstract Particulate matter emissions have become a concern for the development of DISI engines. EGR has been extensively demonstrated as a beneficial technology to migrate knock performance, improve fuel economy and reduce NOX emissions. Recently, the effect of EGR on particulate matter emissions is attracting increased attention. This work investigates the effects of EGR on PN emissions with the variations of engine operating parameters and aims to understand the role of EGR in PN emissions for DISI engines. A 1.8liter turbocharged engine with cooled EGR is used for this study. The engine is operated at steady-state conditions with EGR under various operating parameters including injection timing, excess air ratio, and spark timing to characterize the particle number emissions. The results indicates that there is a high sensitivity of PN emissions to EGR with the variations of those parameters.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2403
Yanzhao An, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
Abstract In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2404
Douglas Ball, David Lewis, David Moser, Sanket Nipunage
Abstract Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were measured on a 2009 4 cylinder 2.4L Malibu PZEV vehicle with 10 and 30ppm sulfur fuel while varying the PGM (Platinum Group Metals) of the close-coupled and underfloor converters. Base CARB PH-III certification fuel was used. Three consecutive FTPs were used to measure the impact of fuel sulfur and catalyst PGM loading combinations. In general, reducing fuel sulfur and increasing catalyst PGM loadings, decrease FTP emissions. Increasing Pd concentrations can mitigate the impact of higher fuel sulfur concentrations. The results also suggest that a 50% reduction in PGM can be achieved with a reduction in fuel sulfur from 30 to 10 ppm. On average, NMHC, CO and NOx emissions were reduced by 12, 49 and 64%, respectively with the 10 ppm sulfur fuel. In addition, HC and NOx vehicle emission variability were reduced by 74 and 57% with the 10 ppm sulfur fuel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2410
Ji Gao, Tie Wang, Dandan Sun, Jing Qiao, Yizhuo Feng
Abstract As the explosion proof diesel engine (EPD) of underground trackless tyred vehicle dynamic mechanical device, due to its good dynamic and economic performance, the diesel has been widely applied. The flame arrester can prevent the exhaust system from tempering, but the increased resistance will seriously affect the performance of diesel. Through the comparison of the CFD-FLUENT fluid simulation on flow and pressure field, the results show that the corrugated flame arrester performs better on reducing the exhaust back pressure than flat flame arrester and ensures the explosion-proof effect. The bench test of explosion proof diesel engine on intake and exhaust system is conducted, analysing the effect of the exhaust resistance under different speeds of diesel engine on the power, economy and emission of TY4100QFB type diesel engines with equivalent flow area , different specifications of flat versus corrugated flame-arrester in the course of external characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2454
Yiqi Jia, Gangfeng Tan, Cenyi Liu, Shengguang Xiong, Zehao Yang, Xingmang Zheng
Abstract In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2458
Mohamed Awadallah, Peter Tawadros, Paul Walker, Nong Zhang
Abstract Driven by stricter mandatory regulations on fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, market penetration of electrified vehicles will increase in the next ten years. Within this growth, mild hybrid vehicles will become a leading sector. The high cost of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has somewhat limited their widespread adoption, especially in developing countries. Conversely, it is these countries that would benefit most from the environmental benefits of HEV technology. Compared to a full hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or electric vehicle, a mild hybrid system stands out due to its maximum benefit/cost ratio. As part of our ongoing project to develop a mild hybrid system for developing markets, we have previously investigated improvements in drive performance and efficiency using optimal gearshift strategies, as well as the incorporation of high power density supercapacitors.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2288
Tianyuan Zhou, Changsheng Yao, Fuyuan Yang, Sun Jinwei
Abstract Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2379
Qian Feng, Shu Shen, Mengliang Li, Zhijun Li, Kongjian Qin, Diming Lou, Jiguang Wang, Xiyu Fang
Abstract Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
Abstract In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2295
Ahmad Omari, Stefan Pischinger, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2296
Andreas Glawar, Fabian Volkmer, Yanyun Wu, Adrian Groves
Abstract Driven by increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 and fuel economy regulations, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are enjoying rapidly increasing market penetration. Already more than 50% of newly produced vehicles in the US and western Europe employ direct-injection technology and many markets in Asia are also seeing an increasingly rapid uptake. However, with the adoption of GDI engine technology, which is able to push the boundaries of engine efficiency, new challenges are starting to arise such as injector nozzle deposits, which can adversely affect performance. Multi-hole solenoid actuated fuel injectors are particularly vulnerable to deposits formed when operated on some market fuels. In order to address this challenge, the development of a reliable industry test platform for injector cleanliness in GDI engines is currently underway in both the US and Europe.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2370
Matthieu Lecompte, Jerome Obiols, Jerome Cherel, Stephane Raux
Abstract Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) like Adblue® is a urea/water solution injected upstream from the SCR catalyst. Urea decomposes into ammonia (NH3) which acts as reducing agent in the de-NOx reaction process. However, incomplete decomposition of urea can lead to unwanted deposits formation, thereby resulting into backpressure increase, loss of NOx reduction efficiency, and durability issues. The phenomenon is aggravated at low temperatures and can lead to restriction or stop of DEF injection below certain exhaust temperatures. This paper focuses on the influence of the additivation of DEF on deposits formation in a passenger car close-coupled SCR on filter Diesel exhaust line installed in a laboratory flow bench test. The behavior of two different additivated DEF was compared to Adblue® in terms of deposits formation on the mixer and SCRF canning at different temperatures comprised between 240°C and 165°C, and different air flows.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2386
Naoki Ohya, Kohei Hiyama, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno, Atsuko Tomita, Takeshi Miki, Yutaka Tai
Abstract Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and are useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst-coated DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has lower volume and cost compared to the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: combustion of PM and reduction of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2375
Akihiro Niwa, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura, Takaaki Kitamura
Abstract In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2400
Yanlong Wu, Jason Ferns, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Abstract Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2345
Ashutosh Gupta, Rachel Seeley, Huifang Shao, Joe Remias, Joseph Roos, Zhi Wang, Yunliang Qi
Abstract Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), also referred to as superknock or mega-knock is an undesirable turbocharged engine combustion phenomenon limiting fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance. Numerous researchers have previously reported that the frequency of Superknock is sensitive to engine oil and fuel composition as well as engine conditions in controlled laboratory and engine-based studies. Recent studies by Toyota and Tsinghua University have demonstrated that controlled induction of particles into the combustion chamber can induce pre-ignition and superknock. Afton and Tsinghua recently developed a multi-physics approach which was able to realistically model all of the elementary processes known to be involved in deposit induced pre-ignition. The approach was able to successfully simulate deposit induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2366
Wenzheng Xia, Yi Zheng, Xiaokun He, Dongxia Yang, Huifang Shao, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos, Yinhui Wang
Abstract Because of the increased use of gasoline direct engine (GDI) in the automobile industry, there is a significant need to control particulates from GDI engines based on emission regulations. One potential technical approach is the utilization of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The successful adoption of this emission control technology needs to take many aspects into consideration and requires a system approach for optimization. This study conducted research to investigate the impact of vehicle driving cycles, fuel properties and catalyst coating on the performance of GPF. It was found that driving cycle has significant impact on particulate emission. Fuel quality still plays a role in particulate emissions, and can affect the GPF performance. Catalyzed GPF is preferred for soot regeneration, especially for the case that the vehicle operation is dominated by congested city driving condition, i.e. low operating temperatures.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2299
Susumu Nagano, Nozomi Yokoo, Koji Kitano, Koichi Nakata
Abstract The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2378
Takayuki Ogata, Mikio Makino, Takashi Aoki, Takehide Shimoda, Kyohei Kato, Takahiko Nakatani, Koji Nagata, Claus Dieter Vogt, Yoshitaka Ito, Dominic Thier
Abstract In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2230
Nizar F.O. Al-Muhsen, Guang Hong
Abstract Ethanol as a renewable fuel has been used widely in vehicles. Dual fuel injection is one of the new techniques in development for increasing the engine’s thermal efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions. This study reports experimental investigation to the dual ethanol fuel injection with a focus on the effect of spark timing on the engine performance at different volumetric ratios of ethanol directly injected to ethanol port injected. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder 250cc spark ignition engine at two engine loads and 3500 RPM. The spark timing was varied from 15 to 42 CAD bTDC at the light load and from 15 to 32 CAD bTDC at the medium load, while the volumetric ratio of direct injection (DI%) was varied from 0% to 100%.
2017-09-28
Magazine
Using Thermal Simulation to Model the Effects of Wind on the Mars Curiosity Rover Quality and Validation of Digital Designs for Aerospace and Defense Scaling LiDAR Optical Payloads from Drones to Miniature UAVs Using Sintered Fiber Metal Composites for Aircraft Acoustic Attenuation GaN Breaks Barriers RF Power Amplifiers Go Wide and High Test System Ensures Flawless Performance of Military RF Devices The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography Remote physiological measurement technique leverages digital cameras to recover the blood volume pulse from the human body. Sensitivity Simulation of Compressed Sensing Based Electronic Warfare Receiver Using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit Algorithm Calculate the sensitivity of a CS based EW receiver using two modulation schemes.
2017-09-27
Article
Regional power grids all over the world are incapable of supporting rapid EV growth.
2017-09-26
WIP Standard
AS4792B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers water conditioning agents used to facilitate aqueous wet-method magnetic particle inspection. Such conditioning agents, in powder or liquid form, provide suitable corrosion protection, wetting, and particle dispensability properties when mixed in water for application of magnetic particles on the surface of an object for magnetic particle inspection as described in AMS3042, AMS3044, ASTM E1444, and others. Water conditioning agents can consist of varying combinations of such components as dispersants, surfactants, corrosion inhibitors, and anti-foaming agents. Individual components may be added to the bath of a system to develop specific properties. The user is referred to the manufacturer of the conditioning agent to develop the most suitable combination of ingredients for the user’s requirements.
2017-09-25
Article
The 2018 CT6 PHEV is an engaging and efficient luxury sedan aimed primarily at China’s burgeoning New Energy Vehicle market.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 24644

Filter