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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are a key component in many on- and off-road aftertreatment systems to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions limits. Efficient thermal management and regeneration control is critical for reliable and cost-effective operation of the combined engine and aftertreatment system. Conventional control DPF control systems predominantly rely on a combination of filter pressure drop measurements and predictive models to indirectly estimate the soot loading state of the filter. Over time, the build-up of incombustible ash, primarily derived from metal-continuing lubricant additives, accumulates in the filter to levels far exceeding the DPF’s soot storage capacity. The combined effects of soot and ash build-up dynamically impact the filter’s pressure drop response, service life, and fuel consumption, and must be accurately accounted for to optimize engine and aftertreatment system performance. This work applied a radio frequency (RF) sensor to directly monitor diesel particulate filter soot and ash levels, thereby enabling direct feedback control of the filter based on its actual loading state.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Guanyu Zheng
In order to satisfy China IV emissions regulations, an unique design was proposed with injector closely coupled with SCR outer body. The benefit of this design is that the system mixing pipe can be shortened, resulting in smaller packaging space and lower cost of decomposition pipe. However, the shorter urea mixing distance generates concerns on lower urea mixing efficiency and higher risks of urea deposits. Aftertreatment systems need to be properly engineered to resolve these technical challenges. Systematic enhancements of the design have been performed to enable multiple designs to meet a set of performance targets, including emission reduction efficiency via improved reagent mixing, evaporation, distribution, back pressure, and removing of urea deposits. The optimized system improved NOx reduction uniformity, eliminated urea deposits, improved NOx conversion efficiency while satisfy existing installation packing space. This study demonstrates that good system performance can be achieved despite the challenges of meeting strict and often-conflicting performance targets.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
L. Joseph Bachman, Anthony Erb, Jeffry Sellers
Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were estimated using the SAE J1321 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 per cent relative to the baseline. The return factor for the new tires was 3.1:1, that is a 3.1 per cent decrease in rolling resistance yielded a fuel consumption decrease of 1 per cent.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Zhiming Gao, Charles Finney, Charles Daw, Tim J. LaClair, David Smith
Two hybrid powertrain configurations, including parallel and series hybrids, were simulated for fuel economy, component energy loss, and emissions control in Class 8 trucks over both city and highway driving conditions. A comprehensive set of component models describing engine fuel consumption, emissions control, battery energy, and accessory power demand interactions was developed and integrated with the simulated hybrid trucks to identify heavy-duty (HD) hybrid technology barriers. The results show that series hybrid is absolutely negative for fuel-economy improvement of long-haul trucks due to an efficiency penalty associated with the dual-step conversions of energy (i.e. mechanical to electric to mechanical). The current parallel hybrid technology combined with 50% auxiliary load reduction could improve fuel economy by 5-7% in long-haul trucks, but a profound improvement of long-haul truck fuel economy requires innovative technologies for reducing aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Bryan Roy, Paul Windover, Terry Levinson, Joseph Tario, Eric VanOoyen
A State Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining a safe, efficient, balanced, and sustainable transportation system. It has many types of on-road vehicles and off-road equipment, which are operated by various personnel. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is also governed by Executive Orders to improve overall fleet efficiency, reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gases. While the NYSDOT Region 4 is actively addressing this issue by using more efficient LED hazard warning signs and encouraging personnel to turn off vehicles when not in use, it wanted to do more. Thus, with the support of NYSDOT and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energetics Incorporated is evaluating the operational, economical, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reducing idling in the fleet without compromising functionality. NYSDOT Region 4 has a fleet of 328 on-road vehicles to serve the more than one million customers in seven western New York counties.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved singh, A K Sehgal, B basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil kumar, G Gopal
Air Pollution is a serious global problem. Increase in population the growing demands further aggravates it. This has resulted in exploring alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines. Some of the promising alternative fuels are Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Hydrogen, LPG, Ethanol etc. CNG is gaining popularity as fuel in transport sector due to lower carbon to hydrogen ratio, cost & infrastructure. Hydrogen (H2) for IC engines is considered as a future fuel due to carbonless structure. But several obstacles need to be overcome before commercialization of H2 as an IC engine fuel for transport sector. Presently, lack of hydrogen infrastructure and refuelling stations prevent widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles. One of the solutions is to blend hydrogen to CNG. Such types of blends acquire benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Also these blends can use the existing natural gas infrastructure and existing CNG engine without any major hardware modification.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. VTT Technical Research Centre has monitored the performance of both diesel and natural gas buses for more than a decade, and has a very comprehensive data base on bus performance. VTT also has carried out work on buses for the Energy Technology Network of the International Energy Agency. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines, have, in a historical perspective, been brought close to zero level. This means that the competitive advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation where electric city buses are also entering the market.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Abhishake goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Manoj K. Sampath, Figen Lacin
Diesel engine combustion process results in harmful exhaust emissions mainly composed of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Several technologies utilizing catalyst has been developed in the past decades to control these diesel emissions. Reduction of PM by advanced combustion research often results in increase of NOx due to more complete combustion and hence reducing NOx becomes even more challenging. One of the promising and well matured technology of reducing NOx is to implement Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia (NH3) as the reducing agent. The generation of NH3, in this case, is from the evaporation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) or liquid urea through thermolysis and hydrolysis process. For an effective SCR system, the mal-distribution of ammonia across the SCR Inlet has to be evenly distributed. There are several commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools available to predict the SCR flow distribution including ammonia formation from the urea decomposition.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Guanyu Zheng, Hongyu Wang
Urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technology to reduce NOx emissions for on-road vehicles and off-road vehicles. In category II marine applications, urea SCR is being considered as an enabling technology to reduce NOx. A typical urea SCR system includes a urea injector, injector housing, mixer, and appropriate pipe configurations. In applications of the SCR technology, urea mixing and deposit mitigation have become severe challenges. Urea deposit issues were encountered in SCR systems designed for large marine engines. To resolve urea deposits, CFD method and tests were applied to investigate urea spray transport, evaporation and droplet-wall phenomena. In system design, multiple design factors are reviewed: (1) overall geometrical layouts; (2) substrate and catalyst selections; (3) urea injector and nozzle selections; (4) miscellaneous issues such as ash cleaning, fuel switching, and etc.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan Ozturk
Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market. Therefore, a total of nine combinations (i.e., three quality index and three collecting strategies) are benchmarked in terms of total profit from new and remanufactured HDV clutches, number of customers won, and amount of saved raw material for environmental considerations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Britney J. McCoy, Arman Tanman
In-use testing of verified diesel emission control technologies is an integral component of EPA’s verification program. Device manufacturers are required to complete in-use testing once 500 units have been sold. Additionally, EPA conducts test programs on randomly selected retrofit devices from installations used within the National Clean Diesel Campaign grant programs. In this test program, EPA identified and recovered a variety of retrofit devices installed on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (on-highway and off-road) including diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). All of the devices were tested at Southwest Research Institute. The goal was to evaluate the emissions performance and durability of retrofit technologies aged in real-world applications. In assessing the emissions reducing performance of these after-treatment technologies, a variety of different test methods were used to characterize the overall performance of the retrofit devices on an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in a certain conditions. The valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of a value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined. The decision making process along the value chain and the policy framework including codes, regulations and standards are addressed.
Article
2014-07-25
Ford pickup customers have already embraced turbo V6 power in the current steel F-150. The all-new, smaller 2.7-L V6, packing 325 hp and 375 lb-ft, in a truck that is more than 700-lb lighter than the incumbent model, should find an equally willing audience.
Article
2014-07-24
SAE International recently published J2601 “Fueling Protocols for Light Duty Gaseous Hydrogen Surface Vehicles,” the light-duty hydrogen-fueling protocol that will serve as the baseline for fueling the first generation of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEVs).
WIP Standard
2014-07-22
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
Standard
2014-07-22
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
Article
2014-07-15
Electric propulsion has been limited so far to small movements of the satellites once it is in its geostationary orbit. The Boeing 702SP innovation is its use of electric propulsion to raise the satellite from its launch-vehicle drop-off point to geostationary orbit.
Article
2014-07-09
The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the potential environmental impacts of new fuel-efficiency standards for commercial medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicles and work trucks, potentially covering engines, chassis, vehicles, and/or trailers manufactured after model year 2018.
Article
2014-07-08
A simpler spin on hybrids relies on mechanical flywheels and push-belts rather than batteries and motors
WIP Standard
2014-07-08
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a method for assessing particle losses that occur in a sampling system of specified geometry based on the nvPM mass and number measured at the end of the sampling system. Both size dependent diffusion loss and size independent thermophoretic loss mechanisms are included in the method. The penetration function of that system must be determined by measurement and/or by computation using an analytical method as described within this report. The outcome of this line loss assessment provides estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentration with associated uncertainties based upon nvPM measurement uncertainties and method assumptions. These correction factors give an estimation of nvPM mass and number values at the inlet to the sampling system.
Article
2014-07-07
The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) to the research community and relevant stakeholders, according to a release. The DOE is seeking feedback about fuel-cell technology validation, commercial acceleration, and potential deployment strategies for continuous fuel-cell rechargers (range-extenders) on board light-duty battery-electric vehicle fleets. 
Article
2014-07-01
A new version of Elektrobit's (EB's) Assist Electronic Horizon Solution features new functions that offer more flexibility for implementing predictive driver assistance systems.
Technical Paper
2014-07-01
Praveen Chavannavar
Abstract Various engine platforms employ Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to reduce the tail pipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engines as part of an overall strategy to comply with the emission regulations in place in various countries. High levels of NOx conversion (greater than 98%) in SCR aftertreatment may provide operating margin to increase overall fuel efficiency. However, to realize the potential fuel efficiency gains, the SCR technology employed should achieve high NOx conversion with limited reductant slip over transient application cycles in addition to steady state operation. A new approach to SCR controls was developed and implemented. This approach does not rely on any maps to determine the amount of urea solution to be dosed, thus significantly reducing calibration and development time and effort when implementing the SCR technology on multiple engine platforms and applications. In addition, the controls technique is completely model based and was able to achieve high NOx conversion efficiencies through the SCR system, while ensuring limited ammonia slip due to sharp transient events in the application cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-07-01
Jingyi Zhang, Fuyuan Yang
Abstract This paper was targeted on achieving in-cycle real-time prediction of NOx emission of diesel engines in both steady-state and transient processes based on cylinder pressure. Specifically, input parameters of the NOx emission model were determined, an offline empirical model of NOx emission was built based on steady-state test data, and in-cycle real-time prediction of NOx emission was achieved in the in-cylinder combustion analysis tool. Based on the mechanism of NOx formation, combustion state parameters in strong correlation with NOx emission were extracted from cylinder pressure, rate of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, accumulated heat release and burned zone temperature. Quantitative correlations between combustion state parameters and NOx emission were calculated based on steady-state test data and the inputs of the empirical model of NOx emission were determined. The quadratic polynomial model from combustion state parameters to NOx emission was built based on steady-state test data.
Technical Paper
2014-07-01
Björn Lundberg, Jonas Sjoblom, Åsa Johansson, Björn Westerberg, Derek Creaser
Parameter tuning was performed against data from a full scale engine rig with a Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC). Several different catalyst configurations were used with varying Pt loading, washcoat thickness and volume. To illustrate the interplay between kinetics and mass transport, engine operating points were chosen with a wide variation in variables (inlet conditions) and both transient and stationary operation was used. A catalyst model was developed where the catalyst washcoat was discretized as tanks in series both radially and axially. Three different model configurations were used for parameter tuning, evaluating three different approaches to modeling of internal transport resistance. It was concluded that for a catalyst model with internal transport resistance the best fit could be achieved if some parameters affecting the internal mass transport were tuned in addition to the kinetic parameters. However it was also shown that a model with negligible internal transport resistance still could obtain a good fit since kinetic parameters could compensate for transport limitations.
Magazine
2014-07-01
Global Viewpoints The latest strategies are investigated for vehicle development by automakers and major suppliers. Sports cars embrace array of green technology IMSA Tudor United SportsCar Championship promotes a variety of green technologies to link racing to the road. More gears, more challenges Many strategies, as well as key software and hardware aspects related to controllers, networks, sensors, and actuators, must be considered to keep automatic transmissions shifting smoothly as more gears are added to improve fuel economy. Advancing structural composites Industry experts address the opportunities and challenges involved with moving toward composite-intensive vehicles, including Nissan's effort to produce a high-volume, fully recyclable composite liftgate with low metal content.
Article
2014-06-30
Harley-Davidson has for a number of years dispatched an engineer to SAE's annual Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Symposium for the purpose of gathering intel and making contacts in the EV field. One tangible result of Harley's SAE participation is Project LiveWire, the company’s first electric motorcycle concept.
Article
2014-06-30
On a global scale, racecars burn an irrelevant amount of fuel, so racing series’ interest in fuel-saving technology has nothing to do with saving the planet from racecars’ environmental impact. Transporting teams to the tracks burns far more fossil fuels than any fuel actually consumed at the track.
Article
2014-06-26
The Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has launched its new Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, which aims to accelerate discovery, design, and deployment of new materials, according to a release from the laboratory.
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