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Viewing 61 to 90 of 23343
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract The Global Fuel Economy Initiative in 21st session of COP21 to the UNFCCC aims to develop 50 percent more efficient automobiles by the year 2050.This initiative has enhanced interest in fuel economy improvements and emission reduction using novel engine-related technologies and fuel efficient engine oil. Low viscosity grade engine oils have demonstrated the potential to improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lowering the greenhouse gases. In this context of developing fuel efficient engine oils, this study focuses on establishing the validity of an in-house short duration test protocol to differentiate engine oils from a fuel economy aspect and also attempts to relate reduced exhaust emissions. In the present study, low viscosity grade oils - SAE 0W-20, SAE 5W-30 and SAE 20W-40 as the baseline oil, were selected for assessing engine oil effects on fuel economy of diesel engines.
2016-09-27
Article
The SAE AMS3144-qualified Aerocron primer is chrome-free and water-based, and it reduces emissions as well as waste-treatment requirement, according to PPG.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2144
Galina M. Susova, Rostislav Sirotkin
FMEA methodology is widely used today for solution of practical analysis problems, quality (reliability, risks) evaluation and assurance etc., owing to a clear and simple algorithm and the absence of restrictions on a subject of analysis (i.e., systems, processes, products). However, the efficiency of applying FMEA methodology for problems solution is determined by the choice of elements of analysis, completeness of identification of potential non-conformities, their causes, frequencies and effects. Quality of manufacture is determined by deviations from requirements of design and manufacturing documentation including drawings. In this article a task of ensuring a steady reduction of deviations from these requirements during manufacture through implementation of preventive actions combined with control of time and costs for correction of non-conformances is considered.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2143
Yury Zhuk
The EU REACH regulations set September 2017 as a “sunset date” for the use of toxic Hexavalent Chromium salts, and as this date is approaching the aerospace manufacturers are looking for alternative coatings to replace Hard Chrome plating (HCP). HCP is widely used in the aircraft industry to protect steel components against wear, corrosion and galling. Hardide-A CVD Tungsten/Tungsten Carbide coating has met the technical performance requirements as a potential alternative to HCP on some specific Airbus aircraft components. This newly-developed CVD coating is crystallized from the gas phase atom-by-atom, forming a uniform layer on both internal and external surfaces and complex shaped parts, which are impossible to coat by thermal spray coatings, considered to be the best available alternative to HCP. Hardide coating consists of Tungsten Carbide nano-particles dispersed in metal Tungsten matrix, combining hardness with toughness and crack-resistance.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8014
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Abstract This report provides an overview of recent technical solution adoption rates by fleets from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will also be discussed. OEM vehicle integration and product line offerings (standard, optional, and post-production upfits) are shared. All of this background will set the stage for a review of the proposed Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 regulations, the technologies expected to be utilized to meet the targets, and the hurdles the industry must successfully clear for profitable fleet use in commercial vehicle freight transportation. Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of fuel efficient technologies have emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse Gas regulations exist to further encourage development, integration and adoption of such technologies.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8017
Eric Wood, Adam Duran, Kenneth Kelly
Abstract In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom’s commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8076
Lukas Moeltner, Michael Hohensinner, Verena Schallhart
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is the most promising technique to meet prospective emission regulations of diesel-driven commercial vehicles. Due to the installation of SCR- systems downstream of both the oxidation catalyst and the particulate filter, the relatively long light-off phase after engine startup limits the overall efficiency of reducing emissions. Another challenge is the fact that, once the light-off temperature is achieved it must be maintained. In particular, the operation of urban busses with highly transient load profiles involves many phases of idling with low exhaust gas temperatures (e.g., during bus stops and/or at traffic lights). In contrast to previous studies, these investigations combine properties of catalysts determined in the course of experiments with the simulation of real operational profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8084
Yousef Jeihouni, Katharina Eichler, Michael Franke
Abstract In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8090
Sauhard Singh, Sumit Mishra, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh
Abstract One of the most promising solutions to address the twin problems of transport related pollution and energy security is to use alternative fuels. Compressed Natural gas (CNG) has been widely used in India to address the menace of pollution from commercial vehicles in cities like Delhi. Hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (HCNG) as a fuel has potential for further reducing harmful emissions and greenhouse gases. Enriching hydrogen in CNG improves combustion characteristic of CNG and reduces carbonyl emissions. Due to growing concerns over un-regulated emissions and their effect on human health, it is imperative to estimate un-regulated emissions from such alternatives for assessing overall impact of such fuels. Presently world over, emission legislations mainly addresses pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, CH4, NH3, PM etc. Relatively higher quantity in exhaust qualifies these pollutants to be monitored and controlled.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on the life of the product and the cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how the life of the product can be increased while lowering the cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint and improve energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How can both of these necessities be achieved? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compared to new part production and is reasonably inexpensive to end customer. The energy required for remanufacturing is less compared to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original content. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8124
Xinyu Ge, Hua Gu, Ying Wang
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
2016-09-22
Article
Iveco debuted its world premiere Z Truck concept at IAA Commercial Vehicles in Hanover, Germany, revealing an array of technologies including a next-gen LNG engine, waste heat recovery, automated driving and enhanced aerodynamics.
2016-09-22
Article
Engineers at Valeo have developed a high torque, low stiffness (HTLS) clutch disc for heavy trucks and buses that increases damping performance by 40% and allows a reduction of engine speed by up to 200 rpm.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
In this paper we discuss about the design and development of an “Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)” that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated multi-copter with tilt rotor capability to facilitate easy landing, navigation and maneuver on water. A 3D CAD model has been designed and analyzed. A specific propulsion system has been devised and lab tested. A proof of concept model has been made and tested in the field with its instruments to ascertain its technical/ operational feasibility. This system can also be tailored to collect and store the water samples from the polluted sites for further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is the novel solution to the polluted environment through a complete integrated system. This will be an effective alternative for the conventional water sampling techniques.
2016-09-19
Article
SAE has teams of engineers working on standards specific to next-gen battery chemistries to be ready when the technologies hit the market.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1949
John David Fieldhouse, Joe Gelb
Abstract The design of a braking system involves a delicate balance between the friction pair, the disc and pad, where the pad is a complex blend of constituents to provide predictable characteristics, typically, a known and consistent friction level. In its base form the brake has to absorb the vehicle kinetic energy by converting it into heat. This heat absorption by the friction pair can result in chemical and physical interactions with the release of debris about which we know little. Other than environmental concerns, brake dust causes unnecessary problems with wear, thermal gradients (hot banding) and NVH. This paper is concerned with the removal and collection of brake debris from the friction interface - the debris being regarded as solids and airborne particles, the latter less than 10μm in size. The test procedure consisted of a Burnish program followed by 8 different drive cycles. The overall effects of debris removal is then reported for each test.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1959
Laura Sguotti, Davide Olivieri, Domenico Bosco
Abstract Bearing friction is a direct contribution to vehicle CO2 emissions. The friction is defined as the total resistance to rotation, resulting from the combination of rolling and sliding friction in the contact areas. First, friction reduction was approached from a theoretical standpoint by employing modeling and simulation techniques. Improvements identified in simulation were then used to: create a new set of design rules for the internal geometry of the bearing, introduce a new grease, develop new seals, also with the integration of labyrinth functions and an optimization of the preload range variation. In order to provide a reliable confirmation of the expected achievements, a new friction measurement methodology was also introduced.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1914
Pavlina Peikertova, Miroslava Kuricova, Alena Kazimirova, Jana Tulinska, Magdalena Barancokova, Aurelia Liskova, Marta Staruchova, Mira Horvathova, Silvia Ilavska, Eva Jahnova, Michaela Szabova, Miroslav Vaculik, Jana Kukutschova, Karla Kucova, Maria Dusinska, Peter Filip
Abstract Particulate air pollution from road traffic currently represents significant environmental and health issue. Attention is also paid to the “non-exhaust pollution sources,” which includes brake wear debris. During each brake application, the airborne and nonairborne particles are emitted into the environment due to wear. High temperatures and pressures on the friction surfaces initiate chemical and morphological changes of the initial components of brake pads and rotating counterparts. Understanding of impact of matter released from brakes on health is vital. Numerous studies clearly demonstrated that particulate matter caused potential adverse effects related to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, stimulation of proinflammatory factors, and mutagenicity on the cellular level. This paper compiles our main results in the field of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity of airborne brake wear particles.
2016-09-16
Article
A new piston and pin concept and a high-temperature-resistant, low-friction coating result in reduced friction and lower fuel consumption for commercial vehicle engines.
CURRENT
2016-09-16
Standard
J1752/2_201609
This SAE Recommended Practice defines a method for evaluating the near field electric or magnetic component of the electromagnetic field at the surface of an integrated circuit (IC). This technique is capable of providing a detailed pattern of the RF sources internal to the IC. The resolution of the pattern is determined by the characteristics of the probes used and the precision of the mechanical probe positioner. The method is usable over the 10 MHz to 3 GHz frequency range with existing probe technology. The probe is mechanically scanned according to a programmed pattern in a plane parallel or perpendicular to the IC surface and the data is computer processed to provide a color-enhanced representation of field strength at the scan frequency. This procedure is applicable to measurements from an IC mounted on any circuit board that is accessible to the scan probe. For comparisons, the standardized test board shall be used.
2016-09-12
Article
A veteran Volkswagen AG engineer pleaded guilty in federal court to a criminal charge for his involvement in the German automaker’s ongoing diesel-emissions scandal, marking the first criminal charge to date in the year-long investigation into the company’s efforts to circumvent diesel-engine emissions regulations in the United States and Europe.
2016-09-12
Article
The practice of building compatibility checks into your development process ensures that designs are compatible with all system requirements right from the start. Just look at Toyota.
2016-09-01
Article
UQM Technologies, Eaton and Pi Innovo are developing a full electric drivetrain system to include motor, 2-speed transmission and inverter with transmission control unit for the medium- and heavy-duty EV markets.
2016-09-01
Magazine
Solving the Greenhouse Gas puzzle While automakers and policymakers debate the TAR, engineers and product planners prepare for the steep climb to meet GHG and CAFE rules beyond 2022. Revving up thermal characterization in the component lab The latest generation of high-speed infrared cameras can capture airbag deployments and other fast-moving actions quickly and accurately. C3 consortium aims for soot solution A newly formed group of companies led by CFD specialists Convergent Science targets exhaust particulate reduction in the combustion chamber. Inside the autonomous vehicle With less focus on driver needs, comfort, safety, and occupant productivity will become key. Editorial: Bad gas?
2016-08-26
Article
FEV researchers conducted a study to understand the challenges of downsizing a diesel engine from a six-cylinder 7.5-L to a four-cylinder 5.0-L while maintaining performance. They pursued four technology paths.
2016-08-26
Article
CNH Industrial and AVL researchers used simulation, test bench, and road testing of a demonstrator vehicle with a WHR system to show significantly reduced fuel consumption.
CURRENT
2016-08-23
Standard
J2914_201608
This document provides an overview on how and why EGR coolers are utilized, defines commonly used nomenclature, discusses design issues and trade-offs, and identifies common failure modes. The reintroduction of exhaust gas into the combustion chamber is just one component of the emission control strategy for internal combustion (IC) engines, both diesel and gasoline, and is useful in reducing exhaust port emission of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Other means of reducing NOx exhaust port emissions are briefly mentioned, but beyond the scope of this document.
2016-08-20
Article
It’s a first for a U.S. Navy ship: running on 100% renewable fuel, that is.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 23343

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