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Viewing 61 to 90 of 22839
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9016
Jean-Baptiste Gallo, Christopher Weaver
Abstract In-service emissions measurements were conducted on two package delivery trucks: one model year 2008 FCCC MT-55 conventional diesel and one model year 2012 FCCC MT-55 hydraulic hybrid (HHV). Mass emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, PM, and THC from the HHV and the conventional diesel test vehicle were each measured under conditions closely simulating normal package delivery operation. The HHV demonstrated a 29.4% improvement in fuel economy and a 17.4% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the conventional diesel vehicle. The HHV showed its best potential in operating areas characterized by low driving speeds and high number of stops (“pick-up and delivery”) with a 40.5% improvement in fuel economy and a 21.2% reduction in CO2 emissions.
2015-04-30
Article
New AWD systems from BorgWarner and Honda deliver significant improvements in efficiency, as well as vehicle dynamic performance.
2015-04-28
Article
FCEV advocates point to new stack platforms with greater power density, and manufacturing strategies aimed at building production scale.
2015-04-24
Article
There’s been a push to wean vehicles from petroleum, but fossil fuels will contain to power the transportation field for the next few decades, according to the Exxon Mobil researcher who advises the company’s corporate executives. He spoke at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
2015-04-23
Standard
J2992_201504
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as "EPA Part 1065") on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J1115
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-16
Article
The Tube Fittings Division of Parker Hannifin Corp. has expanded its Seal-Lok O-ring face seal tube fitting line to provide alternative-fuel application compatibility.
2015-04-15
Standard
J2974_201504
This SAE Technical Information Report provides information on Automotive Battery Recycling. This document provides a compilation of current recycling definitions, technologies and flow sheets and their application to different battery chemistries.
2015-04-14
Article
Megacity growth and energy demand are driving a diverse future mix of autonomous vehicles, car sharing, and cycling, among other more sustainable future-transportation solutions.
2015-04-14
Collection
Papers cover exhaust aftertreatment system models, as well as their validation and application. Technologies encompassed include DOC, HC Trap, DPF, GPF, LNT, TWC, SCR, SCRF, ammonia oxidation catalysts, hybrid or combined catalysts, urea-water solution spray dynamics, and mixture non-uniformity. Modeling aspects range from fundamental, 3D models of individual components to system level simulation, optimization, variation, degradation, and control.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection covers the systems engineering experience required to achieve ultra-low emission levels on light-duty vehicles. Emission system component topics include the development of advanced three-way catalysts, the development of NOX control strategies for gasoline lean burn engines, the application of high cell density substrates to advanced emission systems, and the integration of these components into full vehicle emission systems.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection will focus on ‘Advances in NOx Reduction Technology’. The topics covered will include: new materials for lean NOx traps (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR); system integration and durability; advances in NOx catalyst substrates, novel reductants and mixing designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1728
Sampoornananda Basrur, Pradeep Subramanian Srinivasan, Rahul Sharma, C Subramoniam
Abstract In cold weather conditions, starting and maintaining low speed stability (engine idle RPM) has been difficult for smaller volume (50cc to 200cc) single cylinder engines. In order to improve the cold start ability without causing any inconvenience to user, automatic choke systems (auto-choke) have been employed. These auto-choke systems enrich the fuel-air mixture depending on predefined operating conditions. For Euro III and Bharat Stage IV (India) emission legislations, cold start emissions are very critical. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of auto-choke systems on CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions in addition to studying temperature and light-off characteristics of catalytic converter of a 4-stroke scooter engine. The vehicle was tested on chassis dynamometer to investigate emissions on WMTC and ECE R40 test driving cycles, with and without the auto-choke system. Three durations of auto-choke operations were studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
Abstract The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0389
Zhichao Zhao, Zhengxin Xu, Jingping Liu, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee, Wayne Chang, Jie Hou
Abstract A multi-step acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) phenomenological soot model was proposed and implemented into KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Experiments were conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber to investigate the combustion and soot emission characteristics under the conditions of 1000 K initial temperature with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 11%). Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in conjunction under the same operation conditions. The predicted soot mass traces showed good agreement with experimental data. As ambient oxygen decreased from 21% to 11%, ignition delay retarded and the distribution of temperature became more homogenous. Compared to 21% ambient oxygen, the peak value of total soot mass at 16% oxygen concentration was higher due to the suppressed soot oxidation mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Jai Gopal Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0896
Antoine Lacarriere, Thierry Seguelong, Virginie Harle, Clara Fabre
Abstract Since Euro 5 standard, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology has been widely introduced in Europe and Fuel Borne Catalysts (FBC) provide a powerful solution to achieve regeneration in all driving conditions. Ongoing new emission regulation constraints of Euro 6.b (2014) and forthcoming Euro 6.c standard in 2017, that will reduce the gap between emissions during homologation and in real driving conditions, will demand the support of optimized FBC formulated with Deposit Control Additive (DCA). This paper presents the impact on DPF regeneration performance of advanced FBC with a sharp particle size distribution of reduced nanoparticle size diameter. Small particle size FBC gives enhanced DPF regeneration, allowing regeneration at lower temperature (i.e. improving fuel economy) but also lower dosing rates in fuel. Thus, this implies reduced filter ash content and an extended maintenance interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0895
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Venkatesan Kuppusamy, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan
Abstract This paper aims at studying the effect of oxygen enriched combustion on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil (WCO) derived from palm oil as fuel. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine was used. The intake system of the engine was modified to accommodate excess oxygen in the incoming air. Base data was generated using diesel as fuel. Subsequently experiments were repeated with WCO for different oxygen concentrations such as 21% (WCO+21%O2), 23% (WCO+23%O2), 24% (WCO+24%O2) and 25% (WCO+25%O2) by volume. Engine performance, emission and combustion parameters were obtained at different power outputs and analyzed. Results showed reduced brake thermal efficiency, higher smoke, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions with WCO+21%O2 as compared to diesel at all power outputs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0909
Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Li Yuqiang, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, especially n-butanol, have received a lot of attention as potential fuels and have shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. ABE, the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is being studied as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0914
Ehsan Tootoonchi, Gerald Micklow
Abstract Understanding the physics and chemistry involved in diesel combustion, with its transient effects and the inhomogeneity of spray combustion is quite challenging. Great insight into the physics of the problem can be obtained when an in-cylinder computational analysis is used in conjunction with either an experimental program or through published experimental data. The main area to be investigated to obtain good combustion begins with the fuel injection process and the mean diameter of the fuel particle, injection pressure, drag coefficient, rate shaping etc. must be defined correctly. The increased NOx production and reduced power output found in engines running biodiesel in comparison to petrodiesel is believed to be related to the different fuel characteristics in comparison to petroleum based diesel. The fuel spray for biodiesel penetrates farther into the cylinder with a smaller cone angle. Also the fuel properties between biodiesel and petrodiesel are markedly different.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0898
Leonardo Pellegrini, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio
Abstract Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable high quality paraffinic diesel that can be obtained by the hydrotreating of a wide range of biomass feedstocks, including vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils, greases and algal oils. HVO can be used as a drop-in fuel with beneficial effects for the engine and the environment. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of HVO as a candidate bio blendstock for new experimental formulations of diesel fuel to be used in advanced combustion systems at different compression ratios and at high EGR rates in order to conform to the Euro 6 NOx emission standard. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder research engine at three steady-state operating conditions and at three compression ratios (CR) by changing the piston.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1020
Joel Michelin, Philippe Nappez, Frederic Guilbaud, Christof Hinterberger, Eric Ottaviani, Catherine Gauthier, Philippe Maire, Thierry Couturier
Abstract Future Diesel emission standards for passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles, require the combination of a more efficient NOx reduction performance, a significant reduction of fuel consumption along with the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the package requirements to facilitate it. Recent activities on catalytic products allows for the SCR active compounds to move from the ceramic substrate located in the underbody to the DPF substrate already located in a close coupled position to achieve the benefit of the highest temperature. This newly developed SCR-coated DPF has massively improved the potential of NOX reduction. As published in the SAE-2014-0132 “advanced compact mixer: BlueBox” [1] it is crucial to inject Adblue®/DEF with a very high mixing performance level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1019
Changpu Zhao, Man Bai, Junwei Yang, Fang Shang, Gang Yu
Abstract The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop characteristics of ACT (asymmetric cell technology) design filter with various inlet mass flow rates, soot loads and ash loads by utilizing 1-D computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The model was established by AVL Boost code. Different ratios of inlet to outlet channel width inside the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) were investigated to determine the optimal structure in practical applications, as well as the effect of soot and ash interaction on pressure loss. The results proved that pressure drop sensitivity of different inlet/outlet channel width ratios increases with the increased inlet mass flow rate and soot load. The pressure drop increases with the increased channel width ratio at the same mass flow rate. When there is little soot deposits inside DPF, the pressure drop increases with the bigger inlet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1033
Raymond Conway, Sougato Chatterjee, Mojghan Naseri, Ceren Aydin
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2013 Heavy Duty Diesel emission control systems include a DOC upstream of a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) which is followed by urea injection and the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, which would enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCRF® technology, hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1031
Nic van Vuuren, Gabriele Brizi, Giacomo Buitoni, Lucio Postrioti, Carmine Ungaro
Abstract The recent implementation of new rounds of stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reduction legislation in Europe and North America is driving the expanded use of exhaust aftertreatment systems, including those that treat NOx under the high-oxygen conditions typical of lean-burn engines. One of the favored aftertreatment solutions is referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is customary with these systems to generate the NH3 by injecting a liquid aqueous urea solution, typically at a 32% concentration of urea (CO(NH2)2). The solution is referred to as AUS-32, and is also known under its commercial name of AdBlue® in Europe, and DEF - Diesel Exhaust Fluid - in the USA. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1024
Hisao Haga, Hiroyuki Kojima, Naoko Fukushi, Naoki Ohya, Takuya Mito
Abstract A diesel engine is possible solution for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from automobiles. However, it is necessary for a diesel engine vehicle to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. Therefore, this research focused on a Urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) system as an after-treatment system to convert NOx and proposes the control method of the urea-SCR system based on the output of an ammonia (NH3) sensor. By maximizing NH3 storage rate of the SCR, conversion performance is maximized. To maximize the NH3 storage rate, an NH3 sensor is installed downstream of the SCR. The amount of urea-solution is controlled to keep NH3 slip detected by the sensor. Thus, the NH3 storage amount in the SCR or the SCRF (SCR on filter) can be maximized. The estimation and the control of NH3 storage amount is also used to cause NH3 slip immediately. NH3 storage capacity changes with catalyst temperature. In a transient state, temperature distribution occurs in the SCR catalyst.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1003
Tomohito Kakema, Yukio Suehiro, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Takeshi Narishige, Masanori Hashimoto
Abstract This research is aimed at development of the catalyst for gasoline automobiles which uses only palladium (Pd) among platinum group metals (PGMs). And the conformity emission category aimed at LEV III-SULEV30. For evaluation, the improvement effect was verified for 2013 model year (MY) ACCORD (LEV II-SULEV) as the reference. As compared with Pd-rhodium (Rh) catalyst, a Pd-only catalyst had the low purification performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and there was a problem in the drop in dispersion of Pd by sintering, and phosphorus (P) poisoning.
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