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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0985
Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels, Heather Hamje, Jon Andersson
The market share of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles has been increasing, promoted by its positive contribution to the overall fleet fuel economy improvement. It has however been reported that this type of engine is emitting more ultrafine particles than the Euro 6c Particle Number (PN) limit of 6e11/km that will be introduced in Europe as of September 2017 in parallel with the Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure. The emissions performance of a state-of-the-art GDI passenger car was measured, first in the original configuration without a Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) and then as a demonstrator with a coated GPF in the underfloor position. Regulated emissions were measured on the European regulatory test cycles NEDC and WLTC and in real-world conditions with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) according to the published European RDE procedure (Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 and 2016/646).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0973
Naoko Uchiumi, Hiroshi Hirabayashi, Shinya Sato, Takafumi Yamauchi
Urea-SCR system is widely used as a technology of NOx reduction from diesel engine exhaust gases. To get higher NOx reduction performance, it is important to understand the detailed chemical reaction mechanisms of the Urea-SCR catalyst. In this study, we focused on elucidation of the reaction mechanisms of Fe- and Cu-type catalyst by numerical simulation approach. The both catalyst reaction models can predict the difference of the catalytic reaction performance. In addition, the rate-determing reaction step of the Cu-catalyst was successfully identified by the numerical simulation results. To analyze the catalytic reaction on the honeycomb, inside of one cell of the honeycomb was modeled for calculation using catalytic reaction field. The configuration of simulation model was used in this study. That is well known that the Cu-catalyst not only has good NOx reduction at wide temperature range, but also has high performance at low temperature range which is NO only condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1007
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Increasingly stringent legislation aims to reduce exhaust gas particulate levels - and not only for vehicle with Diesel engines. Various authorities have set limits for the mass of particulate (PM) emitted over a legislative driving cycle and the EU has added particle number (PN) limits. Additionally, there is considerable interest in particulate emissions from engine types traditionally assumed to have zero particulate emissions - port fuel injected vehicles running on gasoline, LPG and CNG. Regional specifics such as drive cycles mean that the legislative particulate emissions result varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even where the same vehicle is used for testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1001
Seyoung Kim, Kenji Kondo, Yoshinori Otsuki, Kazuhiko Haruta
An on-board PN analyzer (OBS-ONE-PN) has been developed to measure the engine exhaust solid particle in real-driving condition. The OBS-ONE-PN is designed based on the recommendation in the PN-PEMS draft proposal. The OBS-ONE-PN consists of heated sampling line, heated 1st dilution system, evaporation tube (catalytic stripper, CS), 2nd dilution system and particle detector. The volatile particulate matter emitted from automobile engine is removed by CS, and then the solid particles is counted in number concentration (particles/cm3) by a condensation particle count (CPC) method. The detailed specifications relating the OBS-ONE PN performance such as dilution factor accuracy, volatile particle removal efficiency, overall detection efficiency and durability test results are described in the manuscript. The OBS-ONE-PN is used to characterize PN emission from a gasoline and a diesel vehicle equipped a diesel particulate filter (DPF) device.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor, Allen Aradi
Reducing engine-out particulates is one of the main issues of direct injection gasoline engines and further efforts are still needed to comply with near-future emission regulations. However, engine-out particulate emission characteristics strongly depend on fuel properties associated with the combustion design and/or calibration, due to the complicated mechanisms of particulate formation, including both physical and chemical processes. For these reasons, the purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0998
Kurtis James Irwin, Jonathan Stewart, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods, Richard O’Shaughnessy, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker
Accelerated aging of automotive catalysts has become a routine process for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of vehicle emissions. In the standard approach, catalyst samples are subjected to very high temperatures of over 800°C on a pre-defined test cycle and aged for precise timescales representative of certain vehicle mileage. The high temperature feed gas is usually provided by a large gasoline engine but, increasingly, alternative bench-aging techniques are being applied as these offer more precise control and considerable cost savings, Offering more development possibilities. In the past few years, emissions control of diesel-engine vehicles has become prominent as more-stringent emissions legislation require complex after-treatment systems. Aging of the catalysts in these systems are not well understood as they are at subjected to a lower temperature environment than in a gasoline engine but at much higher oxygen levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1009
Yajun Wang, Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Xiuxiu Sun, Hanzhengnan Yu, Xikai Liu
In this paper, the influence of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions, fractal dimension of aggregates and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 70 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0916
Mohammad Hijawi, Shirin Badiei, Nicole M. Waters
OBD system development matures throughout the phases of vehicle program. Ensuring a robust implementation of OBD system is critical to meeting the regulatory requirements and avoiding customer dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is crucial to demand comprehensive testing of the system that captures all potential events. In this paper, we outline a methodology for evaluating the maturity of the OBD system throughout the development process. Determining critical monitors and establishing solid targets for performance of each monitor is the initial stage of the process. Measuring the maturity of the system by utilizing reliability growth models is demonstrated in this paper. The results of this assessment are used for evaluating the readiness of the system prior to launch.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0580
Zainal Abidin, Kevin Hoag, Nicholas Badain
The promising D-EGR engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds. Based on application projections studied in the study, an engine having a 107mm bore and 124mm stroke, operating at 2000 rpm at 17 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) was selected as representative.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran Zhang
Diesel automotive engines after-treatment systems face greater challenges with every iteration of emission norm legislation. Major improvements in tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple selective reduction catalysts (SCR) with an ammonia oxidizer (CUC) are proposed to cover operation over wide temperature range, however, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to many unmeasurable states. Usage of sophisticated model based predictive controls (MPC) makes the control task straight forward and less error prone compared to classic PID control. This paper shows the application of MPC to a SCR multi-brick system. Storage levels for SCR are calculated by optimization based on NOx conversion efficiency keeping tailpipe NH3 slip under emission limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0972
Jiri Figura, Jaroslav Pekar, Pavel Krejza, David Mracek, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran Zhang
Many control approaches for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems require knowledge of ammonia storage (NH3 storage) to dose urea accurately. Currently there are no technologies to directly measure internal NH3 storage in a vehicle, so it can only be inferred from hardware sensors located upstream, downstream, or in the catalyst. This paper describes an application of extended Kalman filter (EKF) state estimator used as a virtual sensor for urea injection control of a multi-brick aftertreatment system. The proposed estimator combines mean-value physics-based models of combined SCR and diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF), SCR and clean-up catalyst (CUC). It uses hardware sensors at the inlet and outlet of the aftertreatment system, and includes no sensors between the catalysts. Performance of the proposed estimator was validated in simulations against a high-fidelity model of the aftertreatment system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Motor vehicle industry is expected to reduce CO2 emission more and more for protecting the environment. Alternator, which supplies electric energy to battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. That’s because actual one is greatly affected by electrical loads, and improving alternator efficiecy is effective to enhance actual one. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with MOSFET instead of rectifier diode because on voltage of MOSFET is much lower than diode drop, which results in improving alternator efficiency. Control circuit is required to drive MOSFET because it is an active element. It is important to turn MOSFET ON and OFF during rectification period “synchronous control”. It is turned ON while a rectifier current flows through MOSFET as alternator output, and turned OFF while the current doesn’t flow to avoid drawing in a reverse current from battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0609
Pan Song, Shugang Xie, Yuan Zhong, Bolin Gao
This paper presents a unified creep-speed controller specifically designed for the automated parking system of an automated manual transmission vehicle, whereby the engine management system, transmission control unit, and electronic stability control system can work cooperatively and harmoniously within the same control framework. First, a novel reference speed generator is designed and employs sinusoidal functions to produce the speed profile based on the maneuver-dependent distances computed by a path planner, such that the lag in vehicle response during start-up can be effectively reduced. Second, a well-tuned PID controller is adopted to determine the resultant longitudinal force in attempt to follow the reference speed and eliminate the distance error during the parking maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0611
Viktor Leek, Kristoffer Ekberg, Lars Eriksson
Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0588
Adithya P Reddy Ranga, Gopichandra Surnilla, Joseph Thomas, Ethan Sanborn, Mark Linenberg
Dual fuel injection systems, like PFI+DI (port fuel injection + direct injection system) are being increasingly used in gasoline engine applications to increase the engine performance, fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. At a given engine operating condition, the air/fuel error is a function of the fraction of fuel injected by each of the fuel systems. If the fraction of fuel from each of the fuel system is changed at a given operating condition, the fuel system error will change as well making it challenging to learn the fuel system errors. This paper aims at describing the adaptive fueling control algorithm to estimate the fuel error contribution from each individual fuel system. Considering the fuel injection system slope errors to be the significant cause for air-fuel errors, a model structure was developed to calculate the fuel system adaptive correction factor as a function of changing fraction of fueling between the fuel systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0594
Baitao Xiao, Erik Hellstrom, Yan Wang, Julia Buckland, Mario Santillo
Downsizing and turbocharging yield considerable improvements in part-load fuel economy for gasoline engines while maintaining or exceeding the power output of conventional naturally-aspirated engines. Turbocharger compressors are, however, susceptible to surge – the instability phenomena that impose limitations on the operation of turbocharged engines because of undesired noise, engine torque capability constraints, and hardware strain. Turbocharged engines are typically equipped with a binary compressor recirculation valve (CRV) whose primary function is to prevent compressor surge. Calibration of the associated control strategy requires in-vehicle tests and usually employs subjective criteria. This work aims to reduce the calibration effort for the strategy by developing a test procedure and data processing algorithms. This work develops an automated calibration for CRV control that will generate a baseline calibration that avoids surge events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0592
Robin Holmbom, Bohan Liang, Lars Eriksson
Turbocharging plays an important role in the downsizing of engines. Model-based approaches for boost control are going to increasing the necessity for controlling the wastegate flow more accurately. In today’s cars, the wastegate is usually only controlled with a duty cycle and without position feedback. Due to nonlinearities and varying disturbances a duty cycle does not correspond to a certain position. Currently the most frequently used feedback controller strategy is to use the boost pressure as the controller reference. This means that there is a large time constant from actuation command to effect in boost pressure, which can impair dynamic performance. In this paper, the performance of an electrically controlled vacuum-actuated wastegate, subsequently referred to as vacuum wastegate, is compared to an electrical servo-controlled wastegate, also referred to as electric wastegate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0775
Robert Draper, Brendan Lenski, Franz-Joseph Foltz, Roderick Beazley, William Tenny
With environmental policies becoming ever more stringent, there is heightened interest in natural gas (NG) as a viable fuel for medium to heavy duty engines. Typically, the industry has seen minor changes to the base engine when converting to run on NG, which, in turn historically provides degraded performance. In utilizing the positive properties of NG, Westport Fuel Systems has developed the Enhanced Spark Ignition (ESI) combustion technology that has been shown to significantly improve performance. The ESI technology leverages a proven combustion system that is capable of generating a knock resistant charge motion while cooling the flame face. In conjunction with high boost for driving high pressure EGR, this technology demonstrates the possibility for downsizing strategies while maintaining performance. Throughout ESI development, industry standard design, analysis, manufacturing, and testing processes have been applied on both medium and heavy duty engine architectures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0382
Oscar Hernandez Cervantes, Antonio Espiritu Santo Rincon
The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI). The control system was developed with a low cost open source platform for further function expansion, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop automated tests for engine calibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0943
Cory S. Hendrickson, Devesh Upadhyay, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction and control of NH3 slip, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 exposure is a serious health risk for people if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. The severity of the risk depends on the concentration of CO2 and the length of the exposure. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration is detrimental to the customer but hard to detect. For applications where CO2 is used as the refrigerant for the air-conditioning system, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In this paper, CFD is used to simulate the concentration of CO2 in the event of a leak. The methodology along with the advantages and limitations will be discussed. The simulations are being carried out in a C-segment car with five occupants in panel recirculation mode, as shown in the picture below.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0913
Evangelos Georgiadis, Toru Kudo, Olaf Herrmann, Ken Uchiyama, Juergen Hagen
In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For SCR system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, DENSO has developed a novel exhaust reverse flow concept, combined with a blade mixer, increasing mixing length and total mixing performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0923
Ed Szczepanski, Akinori Koda, Daniel Sweeney, Nick Polcyn, Mitsunori Ota
Tightening global emissions standards are driving automotive OEM’s to utilize TWC aftertreatment systems which can perform with greater efficiency and show a greater measured control of PGM (Precious Group Metals) usage while at the same time minimizing exhaust system pressure drops. This study is targeted to quantify the influence of catalyst substrate cell geometry on emissions and PGM usage. Additionally a study of light-off and back pressure comparisons will be made. The two substrate configurations used are Hex/750cpsi and Square/750cpsi. It will be shown that the Hex design can (1) reduce emissions and/or PGM by high active GSA (Geometric Surface Area) with faster light off, and (2) reduce back pressure by increased OFA (Open Frontal Area) of the hex geometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0634
Schoeffmann Wolfgang, Helfried Sorger, Siegfried Loesch, Wolfgang Unzeitig, Thomas Huettner, Alois Fuerhapter
In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, the utilization of the full potential of the internal combustion engine will be essential. In addition to further optimization steps on the combustion processes, reduction of mechanical losses and thermal- and energetic system consideration the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the single measure with the highest potential. VCR systems are expected to gain a considerable share in next generation turbocharged SI engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system explained in the paper is a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus the compression ratio.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0961
Ray Host, Paul Ranspach, Bruce Anderson, Michael Collareno, George Tapos, Cornelius Henderson
In recent years, the EPA has implemented a requirement for monitoring the air fuel ratio balance in multi-cylinder engines such that an imbalance may not be so great as to cause the tailpipe emissions level to exceed 1.5 times the nominal emissions standard. Such imbalances may be the result of production fuel injector variation, contamination, leaks, or other malfunctions which cause the air or fuel rate to vary across the cylinders controlled by a single oxygen sensor. For many diagnostic systems that rely on the signal from the oxygen sensor, to achieve compliance to the new diagnostic standard, the sensor must see the signal from each cylinder equally. The aftertreatment system must also be robust to individual cylinder air fuel ratio variation. This paper introduces the concept of catalyst zone flow, a condition in which different cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine use different portions of the catalyst brick.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji Yabuzaki
PN regulation including Euro6 will be scheduled / tightened worldwide for gasoline engine especially GDI(Gasoline Direct Injection) engine. To meet PN regulation with GDI engine, particle filter which is also utilized for a diesel engine is needed. There are two types of particle filters for gasoline engine (Gasoline Particulate Filter ; GPF). One is bare GPF (additional type) , the other is coated GPF (replaced type). "Replaced" GPF (coated GPF) has advantages of cost / space / pressure drop compare to “Additional" GPF (bare GPF). There are three key performances for coated GPF. Firstly, three way performance is equivalent or more than three way catalyst. Secondly, a low pressure drop which is not to affect engine power and fuel consumption. Finally, a high PN filtration efficiency to meet the PN regulations. ZONE coating technology which is utilized for three way catalyst is also effective for GPF to improve three way performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1019
Bentolhoda Torkashvand, Andreas Gremminger, Simone Valchera, Maria Casapu, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Olaf Deutschmann
Abstract The required gas temperature for complete oxidation of methane to water and CO2 over conventional exhaust catalysts is above 450°C which is higher than the exhaust gas temperature. For lean-burn turbocharged engines, a solution to this problem is positioning the catalyst upstream of the turbine to take advantage of higher temperatures closer to the engine resulting in faster kinetics over the catalyst. Pre-turbine placement of the catalyst will also result in higher pressures depending on engine design and operation point. An increase in pressure leads to a longer residence time of the exhaust gas stream inside the catalyst. Consequently, a pre-turbine catalyst placement can lead to higher conversion levels if the catalytic reaction is in the kinetically controlled regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima, Hideki Tanaka, Takeo Fukuda, Yoshimi Nakasato, Wataru Noguchi, Yoshikazu Katsumasa, Tomohisa Aruga
Reducing the amount of CO2 emissions to zero while driving is considered an important goal for the mobility sector in order to achieve a zero CO2 society. A key point in achieving this is the further evolution of electrified vehicles that are driven only by motors and are not equipped with a generator that uses fossil fuels, that is to say electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV). Major issues facing EV include range, charging (hassle, time, construction of infrastructure), and reduced driving performance due to increased vehicle weight. Technology enabling to both supply power and perform charging while driving (dynamic charging) is being researched and developed as a means of addressing issues such as those above.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0863
Bader Almansour, Sami Alawadhi, Subith Vasu
One of the most promising platforms for cellulosic biofuel generation is to harness the metabolic processes of endophytic fungi that directly convert lignocellulosic material into a variety of volatile organic compounds. The biofuel co-development framework was initiated at Sandia National Labs. Here, the synthetic biologists develop and engineer a new platform for drop-in fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, using several endophytic fungi including Hypoxylon CI-4A, CO27-A, and Daldinia EC-12. Hence this process has the potential advantage that expensive pretreatment and fuel refining stages can be optimized thereby allowing scalability and cost reduction-two major considerations for widespread biofuel utilization. Large concentrations of ketones along with other volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) were produced by Hypoxylon CO27-A grown over swtichgrass media.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0918
Joseph R. Theis, Andrew Getsoian, Christine Lambert
In anticipation that stoichiometric gasoline engines of the future will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with significantly improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the thermal durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between the Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is being funded by the US Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150oC.
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