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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0994
Chetankumar Patel, Nikhil Sharma, Nachiketa Tiwari, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Biodiesel made from vegetable oils such as Karanja and Jatropha oil, by transesterification process reduces their viscosity hence these feedstocks can be used in the engines. It is important to investigate the fuel spray characteristics of biodiesel because emissions from the engines are largely dependent on fuel atomization and resulting fuel-air mixing. This study focuses on the spray investigations using Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) for the measurement of various microscopic spray parameters such as arithmetic mean diameter (AMD), Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and spray droplet velocity distribution. Fuel injection pressure during the spray experiments was 200 bar, similar to small horse power engines, and the fuel injection quantity was varied. The spray experiments were conducted in ambient condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1275
Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan govindan PhD, Shanmugam P PhD
Producing biodiesel from the industrial waste is becoming a primary candidate to overcome the problems associated with energy crisis and environmental pollution. Although the leather industry is the prominent one in the world leather trade, it has also a negative environmental impact. The leather industry is highly environment polluting sectors by generating organic and inorganic pollutants and that pose a major challenge to the environment and the ecosystem. The leather fleshing wastes has considerable fatty acid composition when compared to the other vegetable oil fatty acid composition. One way to recover the leather industry wastes is using them as a feedstock in biodiesel production due to their rich fat content. Consequently, the pollution coming from the leather industry wastes can be reduced dramatically and more value added products can be obtained by converting them to biodiesel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Gasoline has become a major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuel has led to increase in harmful emissions, this resulted in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions better techniques has to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen, due to its low activation energy and high calorific value the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. There are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts are the major of them.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0803
Konstantinos Michos, Georgios Bikas, Ioannis Vlaskos
A new innovative global NOx emissions formation model, formulated by a single analytically derived algebraic equation, is developed with relevance to the post-flame gases of both premixed and diffusion flames. The model originates from subsets of detailed kinetic schemes for thermal and N2O pathway NOx formation, includes well-validated reaction constants and no need for calibration, being at the same time quick to implement and run. Due to its simplicity, the model can be readily used in both 1D and 3D-CFD simulation codes, as well as for direct post-processing of engine test data. Characteristic timescales that describe the kinetic nature of the involved NOx formation routes, when they evolve in the post-flame gases independently the one from another, are introduced, incorporating kinetic information from all relevant elementary reactions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1340
Vikram Dang, Subhash chander PhD
This paper presents a CFD simulation methodology for solving complex physics of methane/air swirling turbulent flame impinging on a flat surface. Turbulent burner is simulated using Re-Normalized Group k-ε model while Stress-omega Reynolds Stress Model was used for flame structure. Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction is accounted for using Eddy – Dissipation Model. The effect of varying burner exit nozzle to plate distance is also investigated and comparisons of simulated results with experiments are discussed. Dip observed in heat flux distribution is due to the axial velocity profile close to the impingement surface, which further depends on the presence of central weak flow region created at and around the central axis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1004
Somendra Pratap Singh, Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Singhal, Naveen Kumar
The energy crisis coupled with depleting fuel reserves and rising emission levels has encouraged research in the fields of performance and emission enhancement technologies and engineering designs. The present paper aims primarily to offset the problem of high emissions and low efficiency in low cost CI engines used as temporary power solutions on a large scale. The investigation relates to the low cost optimization of an intake runner having the ability to vary the swirl ratio within the runner. The test runs conducted for the intake revealed an increase in efficiency at the cost of increased NOx and CO2 (for some configurations) and at the same time, the UHC and CO emissions were considerably decreased. However, in a relative analysis, no configuration was able to simultaneously reduce all emission parameters and thus, there exists a necessity to find an optimized configuration as a negotiation between the improved and deteriorated parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1292
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Noise pollution is a major concern for global automotive industries which propels engineers to evolve new methods to meet passenger comfort and regulatory requirements. The main purpose of an exhaust system in an automotive vehicle is to allow the passage of non-hazardous gases to the atmosphere and reduce the noise generated due to the engine pulsations. The objective of this paper is to propose a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach followed to optimize the muffler for better acoustic performance without compromising on back pressure.Conventionally, muffler design has been an iterative process. It involves repetitive testing to arrive at an optimum design. Muffler has to be designed for better acoustics performance and reduced back pressure which complicates the design process even more.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1289
Francis Assadian, Kevin R. Mallon, Bo Fu
Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the high-capacity batteries needed to power these vehicles are both cost and weight prohibitive. One possible method of supplementing battery power is to mount flexible solar panel modules to the roof of these vehicles, thereby allowing for a smaller battery (reducing battery cost and weight) or extended vehicle range. We identify electric buses as the type of vehicle that would derive the most benefit from roof-mounted solar panels due to their low operating speed (including frequent idling) and large available surface area. In this paper, we simulate the performance of an electric bus with combined battery and photovoltaic power sources on the Orange County Bus Cycle for average weather in Davis, CA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1346
Tomoyuki Hosaka, Taisuke Sugii, Eiji Ishii, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Yoshihiro Sukegawa
For the internal combustion engine, the improved fuel economy and low pollutant emissions are unequivocally demanded. The motivation of the study is to develop the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technologies to investigate the internal combustion engine (ICE). In this study, the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is aimed to be studied. GDI system is considered to have an ability of the high fuel efficiency, but the further investigations are required to reduce the particulate matter (PM) or the particle number (PN). From the view of the industrial use, CFD is a useful tool to determine the spray specification which is important in GDI systems. In the current study the open-source software OpenFOAM® is adopted to a practical use of study on the in-cylinder process. The study presents the ability of OpenFOAM® as a numerical simulation tool for ICE, and its application to a 4-stroke engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0606
Chaitanya Wadkar, Bassem H. Ramadan
A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0912
MohanKumar Subramaniam, Senthilkumar Pachamuthu, Jayanth Arulanandan, Jenoris Muthiya
Exhaust after treatment devices in diesel engines plays a crucial role in control of harmful emissions. This emission released from diesel engines causes variety of problems to both human beings and the environment. The currently used devices are implemented with new catalyst technologies like DOC, SCR and Catalytic converter are all designed to meet stringent emission regulations. Although these devices have considerable conversion efficiency and they also have several drawbacks. The catalysts used in these devices are rarely available and are also very expensive. Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is the device currently employed to collect Particulate Matter. It also has drawbacks like high back pressure, thermal durability restrictions, regeneration issues and poor collection of smaller size particles. In case of biodiesel this fine size particles emitted in larger quantity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1286
Takuya Hara, Takahiro Shiga, Kazutaka Kimura, Akinori Sato
Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are considered as one of the promising technologies, however, its effectiveness totally depends on the carbon intensity of grid electricity. PEVs using coal based electricity could end up accelerating global warming. Solar hybrid vehicle (SHV), that is equipped with photovoltaic cells on the body but no charging function, can be an alternative electric vehicle that uses off-grid, zero emission electricity. SHV has advantage also in usability because it does not need any changing, which is frequently required for PEVs and could detract the usability to hinder their penetration. This study aims at evaluating economic, environmental and usability benefits of SHV by comparing other types of vehicle, such as internal combustion engine vehicle, hybrid vehicle, plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) and battery electric vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0931
Akifumi Kawakami, Yuki Fukumi, Masaaki Ito, Shingo Sokawa, Satoshi Sakashita, Mychal Taylor, Mitsuhiro Ito, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kurachi
Honeycomb substrate is widely used to reduce harmful emission from gasoline engine and is exposed to numerous thermal shocks during its lifetime. Thermal shock resistance is one of key features to design honeycomb substrate. More stringent emission regulation requires honeycomb substrate to be lighter to improve light off performance and to have even higher thermal shock resistance than conventional honeycomb substrate. Thermal Shock resistance is generally evaluated by durability against thermal strain which is caused by temperature difference inside substrate. Heated substrate is cooled locally to generate temperature difference and temperature inside honeycomb substrate is monitored by multiple thermocouples. Recent light substrate has locally equal or lower thermal capacity than installed thermocouple. The measurement would show milder temperature change than actual substrate and it would misrepresent thermal shock resistance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1264
Tarun Mehra, Naveen Kumar, Salman Javed, Ashish Jaiswal, Farhan javed
Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has a very high FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pre-treatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalysed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed in proper fraction and this mixture is Trans esterified without pre-treatment process at molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were closed to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1268
Yanjun Ren, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Xin Gao, Shichen Lu, Mengzuo Han, Ruobing Zhan, Haobo Xu
With the help of organic working medium absorbing the solar energy for steam electric power generation, green energy can be provided to automotive accessories so as to improve the vehicle energy efficiency. In the hot summer, exhausted heat resulting from cars’ directly exposing to the sun can be used to cool and ventilate the passenger compartment.Considering the space occupied by the system in the combination of both practical features for solar heat source--low power and poor stability-- a compact evaporation structure was designed to enhance the solar utilization efficiency.In the research, the heat source of power and temperature variation range was determined by the available solar roof with photo-thermal conversion model. Then started from the radio of exhausted heat utilization corresponding to evaporator’s characteristic parameter, the performance analysis was made in the different working conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1281
Jatin Agarwal, Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of green house gases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1283
Akshay Kumar, Ashraya Gupta, Ketan Kamra
Worldwide, research is going on numerous types of engines that practice green and alternative energy such as natural gas engines, hydrogen engines, and electric engines. One of the possible alternatives is the air powered car. Air is abundantly available and can be effortlessly compressed to higher pressure at a very low cost. After the successful development of Compressed Air Engines, engineers shifted their focus in making this technology cost effective and feasible. This led to advancement in the field of pneumatic that is advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit (used for conversion of a small-two stroke SI engine to Compressed Air Engine) where its frugality and compatibility is kept at high priority. Compressed Air Engine Kit demonstrated significant imperative results in performance testing which fueled the need for optimizing various parameters such as injection angle, injection pressure and injector nozzle area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0946
Jonas Jansson, Soran Shwan, Magnus Skoglundh
Emissions of NOx from heavy duty diesel engines are subject to more stringent environmental legislation. SCR with metal ion exchanged zeolites is a well known method to reduce NOx from heavy duty diesel engines. Understanding durability of these SCR systems is crucial for correct design of the SCR system. In the present paper, thermal and chemical ageing of Fe-BEA as NH3-SCR catalyst is studied. Experimental results of hydrothermal ageing and chemical ageing due to phosphorus and potassium exposure are presented. The catalyst has been characterized by flow reactor experiments, DRIFTS, and XPS. Based on the experimental results a model is proposed to explain the activity and deactivation seen over Fe-BEA. A multi-site kinetic model is developed to predict the deactivation. The kinetic model can predict deactivation well by decreasing the number of active sites in the model representing loss of active iron sites due to migration or chemical blockage of sites.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0926
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff, Auli Savimäki
The regulations for mobile and stationary applications are becoming stricter in Euro 6/Stage 4 and beyond emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods (deNOx and DPF). Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is usually catalyzed with oxidation or SCR catalyst coating to make the aftertreatment systems more compact. The latest active regeneration systems are utilizing the passive regeneration by NO2 promotion in use condition but as well the DPF is actively regenerated after reaching defined soot loading. Temperature is increased over 600°C to initiate soot oxidation by A/F control and additional fuel injection. These exhaust conditions result also in different selectivity and durability requirements for diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effect of DOC composition (Pt, Pt/Pd, loading) on catalyst activity and durability in active regeneration conditions was investigated with simulated diesel exhaust gases in laboratory reactors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0949
Ryuji Kai, Tsuyoshi Asako, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a key emission control component utilized in diesel engine applications for NOx reduction. There are several types of SCR catalyst currently in the market: Cu-Zeolite, Fe-Zeolite and Vanadia. Diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers down select their production SCR catalyst primarily based on vehicle exhaust gas temperature operation, ammonia dosing strategy, fuel quality and cost. For Vanadia SCR, the operating temperature is normally controlled below 550oC to avoid vanadium sublimation. In emerging markets, it’s typically installed alone or downstream of a DOC with low exhaust gas temperature exposure. Vanadia SCR are also utilized in some European applications with passive DPF soot regeneration. However, further improvement of Vanadia SCR NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required to meet future emission regulations (i.e.: HDD Phase 2 GHG).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD vehicle GHG emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its ALPHA model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson combustion cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0691
Gurneesh S. Jatana, Brian C. Kaul, Robert Wagner
Spark-ignition (SI) engines can derive substantial efficiency gains from operation at high dilution levels. Additionally, the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for charge dilution also maintains compatibility with three-way catalysts by allowing stoichiometric operation. However, running high dilution levels increases the occurrence of misfires and partial burns, which induce higher levels of cyclic-variability in engine operation. This variability has been shown to have both stochastic and deterministic components. Factors such as in-cylinder turbulence and mixing variations can be classified as stochastic, while the impact of internal residual and externally recirculated exhaust gases on charge composition is the major source of the deterministic component, through its non-linear effect on ignition and flame propagation characteristics. The nature of these deterministic features has been previously characterized, for both lean and high-EGR operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0935
Gerben Doornbos, Stina Hemdal, Daniel Dahl, Ingemar Denbratt
A passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system can be one of the aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. This system is based on the interaction between the engine an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC) and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. In this study a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst were compared under engine conditions for their ammonia production and response time. Furthermore the relation between the engine operation and ammonia formation over the TWC was studied; regarding engine load point and engine settings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0985
Christian Gruenzweig, David Mannes PhD, Florian Schmid, Rob Rule
Neutron imaging is an alternative non-destructive inspection technique compared to the well-known X-ray method. Although neutron imaging data look at a first glance similar to X-ray images it must be underlined that the interaction mechanism of the sample material with neutrons differs fundamentally. X-ray interaction with matter occurs with the electrons in the atomic shells whereas neutrons interact only with the atomic nuclei. Hence, both methods have a different and therefore complementary contrast origin. Neutron imaging allows for a higher penetration through heavier elements (e.g. metals) whereas a high contrast is given for light elements (e.g. hydrogen). By the use of neutrons instead of X-rays exhaust after-treatment systems can be successfully examined non-destructively for their soot, ash, urea and coating distributions. The big advantage of neutron imaging is that detailed, high-contrast images can be obtained even in canned substrates (silicon carbide or cordierite).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0669
Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Bansal, Shubham Jaggi, Naveen Kumar
The Automobile industry is under great stress due to greenhouse gas emissions and health impacts of pollutants. The rapid decrease of fossil fuels has promoted the development of engine designs having higher fuel economy. At the same time, these designs keep the stringent emission standards in check without sacrificing power. Variable compression ratio is one such engine design. This work reviews the technological advancements in the design of a variable compression ratio engine. Variable compression ratio can minimize possible risks of irregular combustion while optimizing Brake specific fuel consumption value towards higher power and torque as the compression ratio is varied depending on the speed and load on the engine. It is also able to increase the fuel economy in spark ignited engine while enabling better downsizing. In addition to this, emissions of carbon dioxide decreases due to effective utilization of fuel at high loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Aerogels are nanoporous structures with a unique combination of physical characteristics that make them very promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems. Their highly porous nature gives aerogels very low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and their extremely high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) is a very favorable characteristic for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (~0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand very high temperatures. Beyond this, aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. Aerogels can be manufactured using several techniques; however, rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) offers significant advantages by reducing the processing time and solvent waste associated with more conventional techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0990
Robert Zummer, Tim Nevius, Scott Porter
The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0924
Shun Nakagawa, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato, Koichi Machida
Promoting reduced fuel consumption in diesel engines and increasing the amount of exhaust energy recovery lowers exhaust gas temperatures. Under such conditions, conventional exhaust gas after-treatment system cannot perform sufficient NOx removal. Therefore, there is a need for a high performance after-treatment system even at low exhaust gas temperatures. Improving the NOx reduction performance using the urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst requires setting a 1:1 ratio of NO and NO2 for NOx emission and the acceleration of Fast SCR reaction with an ammonia amount equivalent to the NOx amount. However, in engines running at low exhaust gas temperatures, NO cannot be oxidized to NO2 because the activation of the oxidation catalyst upstream of the SCR catalyst is weak. Therefore, an ozone generator highly effective at oxidizing NO to NO2 in a low temperature range (exhaust gas temperature of 200 C or less) was studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Abraham Carrera
The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. In consequence, thermal load for EGR components, specially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage than the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
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