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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0919
Takeru Yoshida, Hiromasa Suzuki, Yuki Aoki, Naohiro Hayashi, Kenichi Ito
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it is now required to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact of the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Heretofore, the interest in prevention of global warming is high in the automobile industry. And the development of the green cars (HV, EV etc.) advances rapidly to reduce CO2 (carbon dioxide) discharge when running. In the announcement of "Toyota environmental challenge 2050", we were committed to continuing toward the year 2050 with steady initiatives in order to realize sustainable development together with society. As it is declared here, our responsibilities aren’t only to reduce CO2 discharge when running but to reduce life cycle CO2 discharge and use resources effectively by refusing, reducing, reusing and recycling (4R). Although the green cars decrease CO2 discharge when running, most of those increase CO2 discharge when manufacturing and increase resources risks (price fluctuations, deflection of the resource production, depletion etc.). For example, the driving motor uses the magnet including rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1285
Tarun Mehra
Exploring and enhancement of biodiesel production from feedstock like non-edible vegetable oil is one of the powerful method to resolve inadequate amount of conventional raw materials and their high prices. The main aim of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters of a biodiesel obtained from non-edible feedstocks, namely Neem (Azadirachta Indica) oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil, with response surface methodology using Doehlert’s experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the mixture A50S50 oil mixture at 51.0450 C over a period of 45 minutes are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 8.45, and catalyst concentration: 1.933 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters give the highest yield for the A50S50 biodiesel with a value of 95.24%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0511
Tianhao Yang
In this paper, a control-oriented soot model was developed for the use of soot real-time prediction and combustion condition optimization. As a promising combustion concept, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) achieves high engine efficiency, and reduces soot and NOx simultaneously. However, soot emission was found to be significantly increased with high load, high EGR and split injection. In order to investigate factors that influence soot emissions on a multi-cylinder heavy duty gasoline PPC engine, sensitivity analysis upon EGR rate, injection profile, intake pressure and intake temperature were mainly studied. An empirical model was modified based on the original Hiroyasu model according to the sensitivity results. By introducing pilot ratio as a compensation factor, This model can be used to predict soot emission under double injection. 7 model parameters were identified using experiment data under a few representative operating points.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0997
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Luis Sousa, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte
The gap between regulated emissions from vehicle certification procedures and real-world operation has become increasingly wider, particularly for nitrogen oxides (NOx). Even though stricter emission regulations have been implemented, NOx emissions are dependent on specific, short-duration driving events which are difficult to control, therefore high concentrations of these pollutants are still being measured in European cities. Under certification procedures, vehicle emissions compliance is evaluated through standards, recurring to driving cycles performed on chassis dynamometer in controlled laboratory conditions. Different countries use different standard cycles, with the US basing their certification cycle on FTP-75 and Europe using NEDC (Euro 5/6c)/WLTP (Euro 6d).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1004
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Norbert Heeb, Andreas Mayer, Volker Hensel
The nanoparticles (NP) *) count concentrations are limited in EU for Diesel passenger cars since 2013 and for gasoline cars with direct injection (GDI) since 2014. The limit for GDI was temporary extended to 6 x 1012 #/km (regulation No. 459/2012/EU). Nuclei of metals as well as organics are suspected to significantly contribute especially to the ultrafine particle size fractions, and thus to the particle number concentration. The invisible nanoparticles (NP) from combustion processes penetrate easily into the human body through the respiratory and olfactory pathways and carry numerous harmful health effects potentials. In the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates) metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars are investigated for different engine technologies. In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from five Di gasoline cars are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehardun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle comply with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0912
Joel Op de Beeck, Scott Mccleary, Joshua Butler, Issam DJEMILI, Mihai Baja
Automotive SCR systems for diesel NOx reduction are dimensioned to reduce NOx efficiently in all driving conditions. In this regard the DEF storage and delivery system is developed to operate in a full range of temperatures, voltages, pressures, etc. To allow a control for optimal performance, sensors are added in the system (temperature, level, pressure sensor). Recently, a DEF quality sensor has been added to assure the correct concentration of urea in water in the onboard DEF tank. Now the question is raised how to assure that the DEF quality sensor is operating correctly and is giving an accurate indication of the liquid in the tank. The objective of this study is to define an independent method (PQD) to verify liquid quality, and challenge the signal generated by the DEF quality sensor. This study describes a possible method, and the progress on it’s validation in various automotive driving conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0927
Carl Justin Kamp, Shawn Zhang, Greg Monahan, Sujay Bagi, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang
Diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment components, especially the diesel particulate filter (DPF), are subject to various modes of degradation over their lifetimes. One form of DPF degradation is the significant rise in pressure drop due to the accumulation of engine lubricant-derived ash which coats the inlet channel walls effectively decreasing the permeability of the wall. The decreased permeability due to ash in the DPF can result in increased filter pressure drop and decreased fuel economy. A unique two-step approach, consisting of experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations using ultra-high resolution 3D imaging data, has been utilized in this study to better understand the effects of ash accumulation on engine aftertreatment component functionality. In this study, ash permeability was directly measured on the surface of ceramic (cordierite) wafers as a function of ash type (field ash, lab-generated and with chemical/morphological variations) and packing density.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gesnets are used as power source due to scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging fron 0.5 kW to 5 kw are very popular in the residential, small restaurants and shopping complexes. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG and kerosene for small spark ignited and compression ignition engines and significant source of air pollution as these are running close to populated areas. Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms set by statutory bodies like central pollution control board of India. The gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are regulated and emission testing is performed as per three mode cycle as per standard test proecdure. The production gesnets are normally undergo a break in running to stabilize engine performance parameters mainly engine power output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1013
Sunil Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
The standard emission protocol including driving cycle is performed for the legislative fuel economy and emission testing of the vehicles in a laboratory. The driving cycles are expected to represent actual driving pattern and energy requirements, however, recent studies showed that the gap between real world driving conditions and the standard driving cycle is widening, as the traffic pattern and vehicle population is varying dynamically and the change in the emission procedures is not synchronized with the same pace. More so, as Emission legislations are being harmonized to narrow down the country specific variation of emission regulation and smooth globalization of the automotive business process.. The new regulation for in-service conformity is being considered to reduce the emissions in real world driving. It is important that the new procedure should represent the on-road driving and energy requirements in a better way than the current procedures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0648
Dennis Robertson, Christopher Chadwell, Terrence Alger, Jacob Zuehl, Raphael Gukelberger, Bradley Denton, Ian Smith
Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is a novel EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders can be run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance, and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit, and just outside the LEV-III limit (30 mg/mile).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0969
Alois Danninger, Ismar Mustedanagic, Martin Herbst, Christoph Kreuzberger, Peter Lichtenberger, Armin Wabnig, Josef Zehetner, Georg Macher, Eric Armengaud
Reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission is a challenge for our society as both targets shall be reached without drawback on mobility or freight transport. A promising approach to achieve this challenging target is the improvement of exhaust after-treatment control strategy – tightly coordinated with the respective engine. In this paper, a smart environment for the efficient validation of innovative exhaust after-treatment control strategies is proposed. The motivation is to provide a hybrid environment (mixing simulation and physical components) to reduce validation efforts and costs without impacting the representativeness of the test vectors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0863
Bader Almansour, Sami Alawadhi, Subith Vasu
One of the most promising platforms for cellulosic biofuel generation is to harness the metabolic processes of endophytic fungi that directly convert lignocellulosic material into a variety of volatile organic compounds. The biofuel co-development framework was initiated at Sandia National Labs. Here, the synthetic biologists develop and engineer a new platform for drop-in fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, using several endophytic fungi including Hypoxylon CI-4A, CO27-A, and Daldinia EC-12. Hence this process has the potential advantage that expensive pretreatment and fuel refining stages can be optimized thereby allowing scalability and cost reduction-two major considerations for widespread biofuel utilization. Large concentrations of ketones along with other volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) were produced by Hypoxylon CO27-A grown over swtichgrass media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0975
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is used for emissions control in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and here we extend this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tire to simulate the creation of spray from this tire.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Circular economy principles are becoming increasingly important to ensure sustainable growth of Electric Vehicle (EV) uptake predicated to be up to 15% of new vehicle sales by 2025 in the EU alone. In order to extend retention of key resources within the supply chain and extract maximum value from them, the battery’s End-of-Life (EoL) performance evaluation requires careful consideration. International standards and best-practice guides exist, which address the performance evaluation of both EV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle battery systems. However, a common theme is that the test duration can be excessively time consuming. The aim of this paper is to present a novel accelerated test strategy by increasing the charge/discharge rates and reducing wait times between charge/discharge events for energy capacity and impedance measurement of Li-ion traction battery modules currently available on the market.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0598
Mohammad Reza Amini, Meysam Razmara, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Electronic throttle control is an integral part of an engine control unit (ECU) that directly affects vehicle fuel economy, drivability, and engine-out emissions by managing engine torque and air-fuel ratio through adjusting intake charge flow to the engine. The highly nonlinear dynamics of the throttle body call for nonlinear control techniques that can be implemented in real-time and are also robust to controller implementation imprecision. Discrete sliding mode control (DSMC) is a computationally efficient controller design technique which can handle systems with high degree of nonlinearity. In this paper, a robust DSMC is designed and experimentally verified for the throttle position tracking problem. A novel method is used to predict and incorporate the sampling and quantization imprecisions into the DSMC structure. In this paper, a nonlinear physical model for an electromechanical throttle body is derived.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0982
Dhruvang Rathod, Mark A. Hoffman, Simona Onori
The Three Way Catalytic Converter (TWCC) has been widely used in current production vehicles for pollutant conversion to satisfy always stricter emissions regulations. The TWCC's conversion efficiency, on the other hand, decreases over time because of mechanical, chemical and/or thermal facts. This phenomenon is called 'Catalyst Aging' and it impacts the Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) and the duration for which it maintains proper functionality during lambda excursions. Experimental data are collected from a vehicle instrumented with Lambda sensors (in Pre and Post TWCC location) to measure the lambda across converters. O2 sensor frequency fluctuations are observed to increase with age. As such, the time differential between upstream and downstream lambda fluctuations holds potential for real time TWC age detection. The lambda measurements are utilized to create an age-dependent time parameter (referred to as τ), which is a characteristic of catalyst age.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1327
Prashant Khapane, Vivek Chavan, Uday Ganeshwade
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge the capability of a vehicle to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water; wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for the assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. An extended simulation methodology, making use of the passive scalar model has been established to understand water impingement and splashing in a greater detail, which are the two critical performance parameters during vehicle wading. A passive scalar acts as a pseudo catalyst in the target fluid phase of the multiphase CFD simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0141
Ray Host, Peter Moilanen, Marcus Fried, Bhageerath Bogi
Future vehicle North American emissions standards (e.g., North American SULEV 30) require the exhaust catalyst to be >80% efficient by 20 seconds after the engine has been started in the Federal Test Procedure. Turbocharged engines are especially challenged to deliver fast catalyst lightoff since the presence of the turbocharger in the exhaust flow path significantly increases exhaust system heat losses. A solution to delivering cost effective SULEV30 emissions in turbocharged engines is to achieve fast catalyst light-off by reducing exhaust system heat losses in cold start, without increasing catalyst thermal degradation during high load operation. A CAE methodology to assess the thermal performance of exhaust system hardware options, from the exhaust port to the catalyst brick face is described, which assures compliance with future emissions regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0961
Ray Host, Paul Ranspach, Bruce Anderson, Michael Collareno, George Tapos, Cornelius Henderson
In recent years, the EPA has implemented a requirement for monitoring the air fuel ratio balance in multi-cylinder engines such that an imbalance may not be so great as to cause the tailpipe emissions level to exceed 1.5 times the nominal emissions standard. Such imbalances may be the result of production fuel injector variation, contamination, leaks, or other malfunctions which cause the air or fuel rate to vary across the cylinders controlled by a single oxygen sensor. For many diagnostic systems that rely on the signal from the oxygen sensor, to achieve compliance to the new diagnostic standard, the sensor must see the signal from each cylinder equally. The aftertreatment system must also be robust to individual cylinder air fuel ratio variation. This paper introduces the concept of catalyst zone flow, a condition in which different cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine use different portions of the catalyst brick.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima
Reducing the amount of CO2 emissions to zero while driving is considered an important goal for the mobility sector in order to achieve a zero CO2 society. A key point in achieving this is the further evolution of electrified vehicles that are driven only by motors and are not equipped with a generator that uses fossil fuels, that is to say electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV). Major issues facing EV include range, charging (hassle, time, construction of infrastructure), and reduced driving performance due to increased vehicle weight. Technology enabling to both supply power and perform charging while driving (dynamic charging) is being researched and developed as a means of addressing issues such as those above.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0986
Mohd Azman Abas, Shaiful Fadzil Zainal Abidin, Srithar Rajoo, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, Muhammad Izzal Ismail
Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation is gaining acceptance as a trend by car manufacturers to improve fuel consumption of passenger cars. The engine stop/start technology switches off the engine to eliminate the usage of fuel whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia tropical climate such as Malaysia is the requirement for the air-conditioning system to be in constant operation, which reduces the duration of engine switch-off during vehicle stops and consequently nullifying the benefit of the system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speed when the engine is at part load operation only.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0908
Fanxu Meng, Asanga Wijesinghe, John Colvin, Carolyn LaFleur, Richard Haut
Natural gas, which consist of mostly methane, can be added in existing compression ignition engines through dual fuel technology with reasonable engine modifications. The removal of short-chain alkanes (e.g. CH4, C2H6 and C3H8) of a dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engine raises a distinctive topic to the exhaust after treatment system (ATS). However, there are few studies reported based on tests with real engine exhaust. This present study focuses on the conversion of short-chain alkanes by Co, Ni and Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, which are commonly used for oxidation/partial oxidation. These catalysts are tested with exhaust of a dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engine. The complicated and dynamic components in the exhaust, which are determined by the engine loading and natural gas substitution, can result in different components in the exhaust and various conversions for species.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0634
Schoeffmann Wolfgang, Helfried Sorger, Siegfried Loesch, Wolfgang Unzeitig PhD, Thomas Huettner, Alois Fuerhapter
In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, the utilization of the full potential of the internal combustion engine will be essential. In addition to further optimization steps on the combustion processes, reduction of mechanical losses and thermal- and energetic system consideration the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the single measure with the highest potential. VCR systems are expected to gain a considerable share in next generation turbocharged SI engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system explained in the paper is a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus the compression ratio.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0645
Jeremy Galpin, Thierry Colliou, Olivier Laget, Fabien Rabeau, Gaetano De Paola, Pascal Rahir
In spite of the increasingly stringent emission standards, the constant growth of road traffic contributes to climate change and induces detrimental effects on the environment. The European REWARD project (REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines) aims to develop a new generation of Diesel engines complying with stricter post Euro 6 legislation and with lower CO2 emissions. Among the different technologies developed, a fuel-efficient two-stroke Diesel engine suited for C-segment passenger cars will be designed and experimentally evaluated. One major challenge for two-stroke engines is the achievement of an efficient scavenging. As the emptying of the in-cylinder burnt gases and the filling by fresh gases is performed in the same time, the complexity consists in removing as much as burnt gases as possible while avoiding the by-pass of fresh air toward the exhaust line.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1020
Finn Tseng, Imad Makki, Pankaj Kumar, Robert Jentz, Aed Dudar
Engine-Off Natural Vacuum (EONV) principles based leak detection monitors are designed to determine the presence of a small leak in the fuel tank system. It was introduced to address the ever more stringent emission requirement (currently at 0.02”) for gasoline engine equipped vehicles as proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the United States [2, 3]. Other environmental protection agencies including the ones in EU and China will be adopting similar regulations in the near future. Due to its sensitivity to known noise factors such as the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, drive pattern and parking angle, it has been historically a lower performing monitor that is susceptible to warranty cost or even voluntary recalls. The proposed new model based monitor utilizes production pressure signal and newly instrumented temperature sensors [15].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0960
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
Traditionally, a three-way catalyst (TWC) is controlled to a set heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor voltage (typically placed after the monitored catalyst) that corresponds to optimal catalyst efficiency. This limits the control action, as we rely on emissions breakthrough at the HEGO sensor to infer the state of catalyst. In order to robustly meet the super ultra-low emission regulations, a more precise TWC control around the oxidation level of catalyst is desirable. In this work, we developed a comprehensive set of models to predict the oxygen storage capacity using measured in-vehicle signals only. This is accomplished by developing three models; the first model is a linear in parameter regression model to predict the feed gas emissions from measured signals like engine speed and air-to-fuel ratio (A/F). The second model is a low-dimensional physics based model of the three-way catalyst to predict the exhaust emissions and oxidation state of the catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1320
Yucheng Liu
A cost effective, portable particulate management system was developed, prototyped, and evaluated for further application and commercialization, which could remove and dispose particulate matter suspended in air efficiently and safely. A prototype of the present system was built for experimental assessment and validation. The experimental data showed that the developed particulate management system can effectively clean the air by capturing the particles inside it. Effects of viscosity of filter medium on the performance of the developed system were also discussed. The present system is very flexible, whose size and shape can be scaled and changed to be fit for different applications. Its manufacturing cost is less than $10. Based on the experimental validation results, it was found that the present system can be further developed, commercialized, and applied for a variety of industries.
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