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2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0036
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
Abstract The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles from different emission sources penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and may cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of gravimetry (PM) and granulometry SMPS (PN). In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best materials (fuel, lube oil, ox-cat.) were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be influenced by the lube oil quality and can be considerably reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0032
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Abstract Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend. Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding. This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0031
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Abstract Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0014
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Abstract Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 [3] for type approval coming into force 2016, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and therewith more expensive. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered by the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts have to be introduced on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-32-0592 [1] and 2012-32-0083 [2].
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0029
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Abstract Current catalytic formulations for motorcycles consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (THC) below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), also called platinum group metals (PGM) in different ratios and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfill the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing catalytic formulation for a 690 cm3 motorcycle from model year 2012. The motorcycle is equipped with a quick-change muffler to be able to compare different formulations in a simple way.
2014-11-10
Article
Stanford's Yi Cui and colleagues have created a lithium-ion battery that alerts users of potential overheating and fire.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled.
2014-10-29
Article
Think you know about motor oils and the latest technologies within them? Read this article.
2014-10-29
Article
China’s commercial-vehicles industry is poised for a transformation as suppliers focus on services and clean energy. These changes are occurring amid market shifts as China attempts to reduce pollution and congestion in cities.
2014-10-29
Article
SAE International recently published the J2880 - Recommended Green Racing Protocols. The aims of J2880 are to: • Provide sanctioning bodies with recommendations to help them align competition rules with the objectives of sustainable transportation • Support environmentally responsible and sustainable technology that is transferable to production vehicles • Promote environmentally friendly operations of motorsports venues, competition events, and racing team facilities • Assist sanctioning bodies in establishing a roadmap to increase green initiatives.
2014-10-22
Book
The new Bosch Automotive Handbook, now in its 9th English edition, has been completely revised and enhanced to include the most recent developments in automotive technology. About 200 specialist authors contributed to this new version of every engineer’s must-have reference. The book's format has been revised: it is now 20 percent longer and wider, as this allows for a larger font size. This makes the texts and graphics easier to read. The index has been strongly expanded to make looking up technical terms easier. The Bosch Automotive Handbook is a best-seller, with a broad global readership. Students of engineering programs consult it, as do researchers and engineers in the automotive industry. Mechanics who are studying to become master craftsmen also use it as a reference work. Experts trust the well-founded and extensive expertise that can be found in the classic. The Bosch Automotive Handbook is widely regarded around the world as a standard work for automotive technology.
2014-10-21
Article
General Motors claims that its 2015 Chevrolet Bi-fuel Impala running on gasoline or CNG (compressed natural gas) will be the only bi-fuel-capable sedan on the market to offer a factory warranty. It is slated to go on sale later this year at a starting price of $38,210.
2014-10-20
Article
VCC’s series of IP67- and NEMA 6P-rated panel-mount indicators are designed with a wide viewable angle that delivers bright visibility even in direct sunlight.
2014-10-13
Article
Researchers discover factor that could have significant impact on industrial biofuel production.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2911
Z. Gerald Liu, Dana McGuffin, Chris M. Cremeens, Nathan Ottinger, Niklas Schmidt
Abstract More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines both in the U.S. and Europe have spurred the development of engines and exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, one such system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst, zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst, and an ammonia oxidation catalyst was evaluated using both nonroad transient and steady-state cycles in order to understand the emission characteristics of this configuration. Criteria pollutants were analyzed and particular attention was given to organic compound and NO2 emissions since both of these could be significantly affected by the absence of a diesel particulate filter that typically helps reduce semi-volatile and particle-phase organics and consumes NO2 via passive soot oxidation.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2853
Christoph Menne, Simon Galbraith, Alan Jones, Lars Henning, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract In September 2013 the Jaguar XF 2.2l ECO sport brake and saloon were introduced to the European market. They are the first Jaguar vehicles to realize CO2 emissions below 130 g/km. To achieve these significantly reduced fuel consumption values with an existing 2.2l I4 Diesel engine architecture, selected air path and fuel path components were optimized for increased engine efficiency. Tailored hardware selection and streamlined development were only enabled by the consequent utilisation of the most advanced CAE tools throughout the design phase but also during the complete vehicle application process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2674
Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi
The use of biodiesel or oxygenated fuels from renewable sources in diesel engines is of particular interest because of the low environmental impact that can be achieved. The present paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a light duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, gasoline and butanol mixed, at different volume fractions, with mineral diesel. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged DI four cylinder diesel engine for automotive applications equipped with a common rail injection system. Engine tests were carried out at 2500 rpm, 0.8 MPa of brake mean effective pressure selecting a single injection strategy and performing a parametric analysis on the effect of combustion phasing and oxygen concentration at intake on engine performance and exhaust emissions. The experiments demonstrated that the fuel properties have a strong impact on soot emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2675
Xiaobei Cheng, Shuai LI, Jin Yang, Shijun Dong, Zufeng Bao
PPCI in diesel engine is a combustion mode between conventional diesel combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which has the potential to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions and improve thermal efficiency. N-butanol as a kind of clean and renewable biofuel can effectively prolong ignition delay and enhance fuel/air mixing because of their low cetane number, high volatility fuel characteristics, which make it a better alternative fuel to achieve PPCI. In this paper, PPCI combustion in a boosted four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with n-butanol-diesel blends is realized by adjusting injection timing and EGR rate based on single injection. The results show that both early and late injection have long premixed duration, which is helpful to form more homogeneous mixture, and no diffusion combustion is found in heat release rate curve. Premixed combustion and low temperature combustion are the key factors to reduce PM and NOX.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2671
Wuqiang Long, Qiang Zhang, Jiangping Tian, Yicong Wang, Xiangyu Meng
Abstract To directly control the premixed combustion phasing, a novel method called Jet Controlled Compression Ignition (JCCI) is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder natural aspirated diesel engine at 3000 r/min without EGR. Numerical model was validated by pressure and heat release rate curves at a fixed spark timing. The simulation results showed that the reacting active radical species with high temperature issued from ignition chamber played an important role on the onset of combustion in JCCI system. The combustion of diesel pre-mixtures was initiated rapidly by the combustion products issued from ignition chamber. Consequently, the experiments of spark timing sweep were conducted to verify the above deduction. The results showed a good linear relationship between spark timing and CA10 and CA50, which validated the ability for direct combustion phasing control in diesel premixed combustion.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2668
Maobin Liu, Bang-Quan He, Hua Zhao
Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2681
Zufeng Bao, Xiaobei Cheng, Liang Qiu, Xingcun Luan
The performance of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) relies heavily on the proper mixing between the injected fuel and the in-cylinder gas mixture. This pre-mixing aims to eliminate over-rich regions where the mixture forms soot, and at the same time to avoid the NOX formation region by lowering the combustion temperature by introduction of a large amount of EGR The main effort of this paper focuses on investigating the characteristic of PPC combustion and a suitable injection strategy for achieving the PPC combustion mode. Two injection strategies (i.e. double and single injection) were investigated on a four-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine operating at low, medium and high load conditions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2678
Buyu Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Hong-Qiang Yang, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang, Hongming Xu
Abstract A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2676
Takayuki Fuyuto, Masahiro Taki, Reiko Ueda, Yoshiaki Hattori, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara
Abstract An author's previous studies addressed a combustion system which reduces emissions, noise, and fuel consumption by using PCCI with the split injection of fuel. This concept relies on the premixed combustion of the first injected fuel and accelerated oxidation by the second injected fuel. Although this combustion system requires the optimization of the timing of the second injection, the details of how noise and emissions are reduced have not been elucidated. In this paper, the authors explain the mechanism whereby emissions and noise are reduced by the second injection. In-cylinder visualizations and numerical simulations both showed an increase in smoke and CO as the second injection timing was advanced, as induced by the inhibited oxidation of the rich flame. When the second injection timing is excessively retarded, the amount of soot forming around the near-nozzle increased.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2693
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Abstract In recent years, strict emission regulations, the environmental awareness, and the high price of conventional fuels have led to the creation of incentive to promote alternative fuels. Among the alternative fuels, natural gas is very promising and highly attractive for its abundant resources, clean nature of combustion and low encouraging prices. But nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are still a problem in natural gas engines. In order to reduce NOx emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) were respectively introduced to dilute fuel-air mixtures in the cylinder. To this aim a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged, electronic controlled large-powered NG engine was subjected to a basic performance test to observe the effects of CO2, N2 and Ar on fuel economy and NOx emissions. During the test, the engine speed and torque were separately kept at 1450 r/min and 350 Nm.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2689
Mohand Said Lounici, Khaled Loubar, Mohand Tazerout, Mourad Balistrou, Lyes Tarabet
Abstract The crude oil depletion, as well as aspects related to environmental pollution and global warming has caused researchers to seek alternative fuels. Biogas is one of the most attractive available fuels. It is of great interest both economically and ecologically. However, it faces problems that may compromise its industrial use. The dual-fuel engines have been investigated as a technique for the recovery of these gases and finding solutions to these problems. In the present work, performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine were first evaluated in conventional mode and dual fuel mode. The effect of biogas composition, based on methane content, is then examined. Also, dual fuel operation with regard to knock is investigated. The results show that, up to 95% of engine full load, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is lower in dual fuel mode.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2632
Clemens Brückner, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract New emission legislations applicable in the near future to sea-going vessels, off-road and off-highway vehicles require drastic nitric oxides emission reduction. A promising approach to achieve part of this decrease is charge air temperature reduction using Miller timing. However, it has been shown in literature that the reduction potential is limited, achieving a minimum in NOx emissions at a certain end-of-compression temperature. Further temperature reduction has shown to increase NOx emissions again. Some studies have shown that this increase is correlated to an increased amount of premixed combustion. In this work, the effects of pilot injection on engine out NOx emissions for very early intake valve closure (i.e. extreme Miller), high boost pressures and cold end-of-compression in-cylinder conditions are investigated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2626
Timothy J. Jacobs, Louis Camilli, Matthias Neubauer
Abstract A key element to achieving vehicle emission certification for most light-duty vehicles using spark-ignition engine technology is prompt catalyst warming. Emission mitigation largely does not occur while the catalyst is below its “light-off temperature”, which takes a certain time to achieve when the engine starts from a cold condition. If the catalyst takes too long to light-off, the vehicle could fail its emission certification; it is necessary to minimize the catalyst warm up period to mitigate emissions as quickly as possible. One technique used to minimize catalyst warm up is to calibrate the engine in such a way that it delivers high temperature exhaust. At idle or low speed/low-load conditions, this can be done by retarding spark timing with a corresponding increase in fuel flow rate and / or leaning the mixture. Both approaches, however, encounter limits as combustion stability degrades and / or nitrogen oxide emissions rise excessively.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2628
Loic Francqueville, Jean-Baptiste Michel
Abstract EGR dilution is a promising way to improve fuel economy of Spark-Ignited (SI) gasoline engines. In particular, at high load, it is very efficient in mitigating knock at low speed and to decrease exhaust temperature at high speed so that fuel enrichment can be avoided. The objective of this paper is to better understand the governing mechanisms implied in EGR-diluted SI combustion at high load. For this purpose, measurements were performed on a modern, single-cylinder GDI engine (high tumble value, multi-hole injector, central position). In addition 0-D and 1-D Chemkin simulations (reactors and flames) were used to complete the engine tests so as to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms. EGR benefits were confirmed and characterized at 19 bar IMEP: net ISFC could be reduced by 17% at 1200rpm and by 6% at 5000rpm. At low speed, knock mitigation was the main effect, improving the cycle efficiency by a better combustion phasing.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2637
Katsufumi Kondo, Junya Takahashi, Tetsuya Aizawa
Abstract Wall-deposition of soot particles occurs due to the interaction between spray flame and cylinder liner wall/piston surface, which can potentially affect soot morphology after the in-flame formation/oxidation processes and before the exit from engine cylinder. In order to investigate these effects, flame wall impingement was simulated in a constant volume combustion vessel and thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted for Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis. A TEM grid for the sampling was exposed to a single-shot diesel spray flame multiple times and the variation of soot morphology (concentration, primary particle diameter and aggregate gyration radius) among the multiple exposures was compared. Furthermore, a newly designed impingement-type sampler vertically exposed the grid to the spray flame and sampled soot particles under different boundary condition from that of conventionally used skim-type sampler.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2633
Sushant S. Pandurangi, Nicolò Frapolli, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract Numerical simulations of a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with n-heptane have been performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model and an embedded two-equation soot model. The influence of exhaust gas recirculation on the interaction between post- and main- injection has been investigated. Four different levels of EGR corresponding to intake ambient oxygen volume fractions of 12.6, 15, 18 and 21% have been considered for a constant intake pressure and temperature and unchanged injection configuration. Simulation results have been compared to the experimental data by means of pressure and apparent heat-release rate (AHRR) traces and in-cylinder high-speed imaging of natural soot luminosity and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII). The simulation was found to reproduce the effect of EGR on AHRR evolutions very well, for both single- and post-injection cases.
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