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Viewing 61 to 90 of 24143
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2213
Tomoaki Ito, Makoto Nagata
Abstract Diesel exhaust emission control systems often contain DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) + CSF (Catalyzed Soot Filter) components. In this system PM (particulate matter) is filtered and accumulated in the CSF and such filtered PM is periodically combusted by supplying heat to the CSF. The heat to CSF is generated within the DOC by an exothermic reaction with extra fuel supplied to the DOC. Here the exothermic performance of DOC depends on not only the active catalytic site (such as Pt and/or Pd) but also on the characteristics of the porous material supporting the precious metals. Various properties of Al2O3, i.e. pore diameter, pore volume, BET surface area, acidity, basicity and the Ea (activation energy) of fuel combustion, used in DOCs and PGM particle size of each DOC were measured. The fuel combustion performance of each DOC was evaluated by diesel engine bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2327
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Cary Henry
Abstract Ideally, complete decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products via thermolysis. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid (CYN), biuret (BIU), melamine (MEL), ammeline (AML), ammelide (AMD), and dicyandimide (DICY). These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2329
Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven Rogak
Abstract Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector variability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of better than one millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2264
Mrinmoy Kalita, M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, M Sithananthan, Anil Yadav, Vivekanand Kagdiyal, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh
Abstract In the current scenario of global emissions, growing demand for petroleum fuels and highly volatile crude prices, the current usage of petroleum fuel must be curbed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution several alternative fuels are being explored. Butanol is one of the potential alternative fuels that can be used in IC engines in the same way of conventional fuels for reducing conventional fuels. An experimental study was conducted to establish the impact of n-butanol as a blending component for gasoline fuel in passenger car on chassis dynamometer. Commercial gasoline meeting Euro-IV fuel standards was used as the base fuel while n-butanol was used as the blending component in the ratio of 5, 10 & 20% by volume. The vehicle was tested on chassis dynamometer for fuel evaluation in respect of fuel economy, regulated and un-regulation emissions under standard driving cycle of NEDC.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract The Global Fuel Economy Initiative in 21st session of COP21 to the UNFCCC aims to develop 50 percent more efficient automobiles by the year 2050.This initiative has enhanced interest in fuel economy improvements and emission reduction using novel engine-related technologies and fuel efficient engine oil. Low viscosity grade engine oils have demonstrated the potential to improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lowering the greenhouse gases. In this context of developing fuel efficient engine oils, this study focuses on establishing the validity of an in-house short duration test protocol to differentiate engine oils from a fuel economy aspect and also attempts to relate reduced exhaust emissions. In the present study, low viscosity grade oils - SAE 0W-20, SAE 5W-30 and SAE 20W-40 as the baseline oil, were selected for assessing engine oil effects on fuel economy of diesel engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2284
Yuan Wen, Yinhui Wang, Chenling Fu, Wei Deng, Zhangsong Zhan, Yuhang Tang, Xuefei Li, Haichun Ding, Shijin Shuai
Abstract Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have developed rapidly in recent years driven by fuel efficiency and consumption requirements, but face challenges such as injector deposits and particulate emissions compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. While the mechanisms of GDI injector deposits formation and that of particulate emissions have been respectively revealed well, the impact of GDI injector deposits and their relation to particulate emissions have not yet been understood very well through systematic approach to investigate vehicle emissions together with injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a GDI vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and an optical spray test bench to determine the impact of injector deposits on spray and particulate emissions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2181
Yong Qian, Yahui Zhang, Liang Yu, Zhen Huang, Xing-Cai Lu
Abstract In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to study the effects of iso-alkanes blending in diesel on combustion and emission characters based on a modified single cylinder diesel engine. Iso-octane, iso-dodecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) were chosen as test iso-alkanes. The direct injection timing was kept at 7 oCA BTDC. The injection pressure was maintained at 120 MPa. The study found that iso-alkanes had strong effects on the heat release phase under low load. The effects were weakened gradually with the increase of loads. The peak value of heat release curves and the maximum pressure rising rate gradually increased with the increase of loads. Blending iso-alkanes resulted in the increase of CO emissions and decrease of HC emissions. NOx emissions also decrease under low loads. Under high loads, blending iso-alkanes reduced the soot emissions significantly.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2172
Matthieu Cordier, Olivier Laget, Florence Duffour, Xavier Gautrot, Loic De Francqueville
Abstract Increasing global efficiency of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine is nowadays one of the main concerns in automotive research. A conventional way to reduce DISI engine fuel consumption is through downsizing. This approach is well suited to the current homologation cycle as NEDC, but has the drawback to induce over-consumptions in customer real driving usage. Moreover, the driving cycles dedicated to EURO 6d and future regulations will evolve towards higher load operating conditions with higher particulate emissions. Therefore, efficiency of current DISI has to be strongly increased, for homologation cycle and real driving conditions. This implies to deeply understand and improve injection, mixing and flame propagation processes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2321
Zahra Nazarpoor, Steve Golden, Maxime Launois, Sen Kitazumi, Dianyong Xie, Campbell McConnell
Abstract Stricter regulatory standards are continuously adopted worldwide to control heavy duty emissions, and at the same time, fuel economy requirements have significantly lowered exhaust temperatures. The net result is a significant increase in Precious Group Metal (PGM) usage with current Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) technology. Therefore, the design and development of synergized precious metal (SPGM) in which ultra-low PGM is synergized with mixed metal oxide (MMO) to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvement, is necessary. The presence of MMO in SPGM is responsible for NO oxidation to NO2 which is critical for the passive regeneration of the downstream filter and SCR function. This paper presents an initial study outlining the development of MMOs for application in modern DOCs and addresses some specific challenges underlying this application. Lab and flow reactor data in this study demonstrated SPGM DOCs thermal resistance and sulfur poisoning resistance.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2211
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Abstract Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2212
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Jessica Dahlstrom, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Abstract Yearly 3.3 million premature deaths occur worldwide due to air pollution and NOx pollution counts for nearly one seventh of those [1]. This makes exhaust after-treatment a very important research and has caused the permitted emission levels for NOx to decrease to very low levels, for EURO 6 only 0.4 g/kWh. Recently new legislation on ammonia slip with a limit of 10 ppm NH3 has been added [2], which makes the SCR-technology more challenging. This technology injects small droplets of an aqueous Urea solution into the stream of exhaust gases and through a catalytic reaction within the SCR-catalyst, NOx is converted into Nitrogen and Water. To enable the catalytic reaction the water content in the Urea solution needs to be evaporated and the ammonia molecules need to have sufficient time to mix with the gases prior to the catalyst.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2282
Toru Uenishi, Eijiro Tanaka, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract Experimental and numerical studies on the combustion of the particulate matter in the diesel particulate filter with the particulate matter loaded under different particulate matter loading condition were carried out. It was observed that the pressure losses through diesel particulate filter loaded with particulate matter having different mean aggregate particle diameters during both particulate matter loading and combustion periods. Diesel particulate filter regeneration mode was controlled with introducing a hot gas created in Diesel Oxidation Catalyst that oxidized hydrocarbon injected by a fuel injector placed on an exhaust gas pipe. The combustion amount was calculated with using a total diesel particulate filter weight measured by the weight meter both before and after the particulate matter regeneration event.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2254
Karin Munch, Tankai Zhang
Abstract Heavy alcohols can be mixed with fossil diesel to produce blended fuels that can be used in diesel engines. Alcohols can be obtained from fossil resources, but can also be produced more sustainably from renewable raw materials. The use of such biofuels can help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study examines four alcohol/diesel blends each containing one heavy alcohol: n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All of the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. To compensate for the alcohols′ low cetane numbers (CN), a third component with high CN was added to each blend, namely hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The composition of each mixture was selected to give an overall CN equal to that of fossil diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
Abstract The target of the European Union (EU) from the 1990s has been to reduce the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the climate by 40 % by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector. Diesel R33, a newly developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and reduces the GHG emissions by about 18.2 % against fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made of 7 % used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 % hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 % high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes. The impact of the new fuel on the vehicles, their emissions and the engine oil aging was investigated.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2265
Ashraya Gupta, Dhruv Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2324
Xiaoguo Tang, Dan McBryde
Abstract Modern light-duty vehicles require well-controlled engine-out feed-gas and very high catalyst efficiencies to meet the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2 & 3 standards. When a vehicle with either a gasoline or diesel engine is operating within its controlled state-space the exhaust emissions present at the tailpipe are extremely low. When it is not operating within its controlled state-space the combustion process and therefore its exhaust emissions characteristics will be different. This may occur when an emission control device fails or if a defeat device is employed. Moreover, different control technologies each have unique characteristics or signatures that could assist in identifying either emission control device failure or an existing defeat device.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2184
Manuel A. Gonzalez D, Davide Di Nunno
Abstract The application of stringent requirements on emission reduction and higher fuel economy in diesel engines has led to the need for efficient energy extraction in the cylinders and reductions in exhaust gas temperatures, as well as posing challenges for energy availability for emission control systems. Internal exhaust gas recirculation (I-EGR) can increase the exhaust gas temperature and reduce engine-out gaseous emissions. The secondary opening of exhaust valves in a diesel engine produces an efficient recirculation of exhaust gases from the previous engine cycle to the cylinder mass charge during the intake stroke. However, I-EGR alone can increase exhaust gas temperature only up to a limit determined by the resulting increase in soot emissions. To obtain higher exhaust gas temperatures, I-EGR can be combined with multiple injections after the main injection event, thereby altering the heat release rate and the exothermic reactions in the exhaust stroke.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2182
Olivier Laget, Louis-Marie Malbec, Julian Kashdan, Nicolas Dronniou, Romain Boissard, Patrick Gastaldi
Abstract The accumulation of particulate matter in lubricant oil can become an important issue in Diesel engines where large amounts of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) are used at medium to high load operating conditions. Indeed, the transport and subsequent accumulation of particulate matter in the engine oil can negatively impact the oil lubricant properties which is critical to ensure mechanical durability and limit the vehicle Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by reducing the servicing intervals. The objective of this investigation was to gain an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the accumulation of particulate matter in the lubricating oil, and ultimately provide design guidelines to help limit this phenomenon. The present study presents the development and validation of experimental and numerical tools used to investigate this phenomenon.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2183
Yann Gallo, Zheming Li, Mattias Richter, Oivind Andersson
Abstract Soot emissions from diesel engines are the net result of two competing processes: soot formation and soot oxidation. Previous studies have shown poor correlation between soot formation rates and the soot emissions. This article presents a systematic study of a number of parameters affecting soot oxidation rate and how it correlates with the soot emissions. An optical heavy-duty engine is used in conjunction with a laser extinction setup in order to collect time resolved data of the soot concentration in the cylinder during the expansion stroke. Laser extinction is measured using a red (685 nm) laser beam, which is sent vertically through the cylinder and modulated to produce 10 pulses per crank angle degree. Information is obtained about the amount of soot formed and the soot oxidation rate. The parameters studied are the motored density at top dead center (TDC), motored temperature at TDC, injection pressure, engine speed, swirl level and injector orifice diameter.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2288
Sam Shamun, Mengqin Shen, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Joakim Pagels, Anders Gudmundsson, Per Tunestal
Abstract The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running an engine in PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest mass concentration of particles (Micro Soot Sensor) were gasoline and methanol followed by ethanol.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2330
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll, Kristin Favela
Abstract Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2323
Hiroki Nakayama, Yasuharu Kanno, Makoto Nagata, Xiaolai Zheng
Abstract Reduction of the amount of platinum group metals (PGM: Pt, Pd, Rh) utilized in three-way catalysts (TWC) has been required from a point of resource shortage and cost effectiveness. A conventional TWC system is composed of a close-coupled (CC) catalyst and an underfloor (UF) catalyst, both PGM-based. The CC-TWC promotes HC/CO oxidation and NOx reduction by CO. The UF-TWC mainly facilitates further NOx reduction by CO. In this study, a TWC system comprising a CC catalyst with PGM and an UF catalyst without PGM has been described. The newly developed system, performing reasonably well with a conventional stoichiometric gasoline combustion engine, offers an opportunity to reduce PGM usage. In this system, the UF-non-PGM catalyst is composed of a Ni/CeO2 bottom layer which functions as a deNOx catalyst with CO-NO reaction and a zeolite based top layer which works as a deNOx catalyst with passive NH3-SCR reaction.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2179
Marius Zubel, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Benedikt Heuser, Bastian Holderbaum, Sebastian Doerr, Jukka Nuottimäki
Abstract This work is a continuation of earlier results presented by the authors. In the current investigations the biofuels hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 1-octanol are investigated as pure components and compared to EN 590 Diesel. In a final step both biofuels are blended together in an appropriate ratio to tailor the fuels properties in order to obtain an optimal fuel for a clean combustion. The results of pure HVO indicate a significant reduction in CO-, HC- and combustion noise emissions at constant NOX levels. With regard to soot emissions, at higher part loads, the aromatic free, paraffinic composition of HVO showed a significant reduction compared to EN 590 petroleum Diesel fuel. But at lower loads the high cetane number leads to shorter ignition delays and therefore, ignition under richer conditions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2166
Ahfaz Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Eshan Singh, William Roberts, Sukho Chung, Mani Sarathy
Abstract Commercial gasoline fuels are complex mixtures of numerous hydrocarbons. Their composition differs significantly owing to several factors, source of crude oil being one of them. Because of such inconsistency in composition, there are multiple gasoline fuel compositions with similar octane ratings. It is of interest to comparatively study such fuels with similar octane ratings and different composition, and thus dissimilar physical and chemical properties. Such an investigation is required to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasoline fuels that show similar knock characteristics in a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, but may behave differently in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines or any other engine combustion modes.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven Przesmitzki
Abstract Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2255
Martin Krieck, Marco Günther, Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Heinze, Matthias Thewes
Abstract Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2209
Uisung Lee, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Jacob Ward, Elliot Hicks, Dan Goodwin, Rebecca Boudreaux, Per Hanarp, Henrik Salsing, Parthav Desai, Emmanuel Varenne, Patrik Klintbom, Werner Willems, Sandra L. Winkler, Heiko Maas, Robert De Kleine, John Hansen, Tine Shim, Erik Furusjö
Abstract Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2281
Simon Dosda, David Berthout, Gilles Mauviot, Adeline Nogre
Abstract With the upcoming Euro 6c emission regulations, the performance of Diesel exhaust lines needs to be improved to meet NOX and soot emission targets. A promising exhaust line architecture to reach these requirements is the association of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Selective Catalytic Reduction coated on a particulate filter (SCR-F) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. To develop this system, the car manufacturers have to face several challenges. One of the first is the design of the exhaust line volumes, which has a strong impact on the light-off temperatures of the catalysts and so on system performance. Then, urea injection has to be optimized with an adapted control system to maximize NOx reduction while keeping low tailpipe ammonia emission. Moreover, performance degradation of catalysts due to harsh exhaust conditions during vehicle life time have to be detected by OBD system.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2286
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Adaptation of both oil based fuel and engine technologies are key enablers to reduce CO2 footprint as well as pollutant emissions. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In addition, properties of naphtha produced directly from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process in a refinery offer significant CO2 benefits. When introducing such innovative fuel and engine, after-treatment investigations are mandatory to meet pollutant regulations. In that respect, this work focuses on investigating structure and properties of the particulates produced with naphtha fuel to validate Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) design requirements. First, soot mass measurement techniques are detailed. Then, characterization of soot is performed through DPF pressure drop, soot oxidation rates with and without Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC), composition & structure analysis.
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