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Viewing 31 to 60 of 24612
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2424
Shemin Zhang, Huaping Li, Tao Chen, Nan Jiang, Xinzhen Tan, Limei Deng, Qingsong Xia, Paul Kapus, Mingtang Ma, Wei Li, Junqiang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Yong Xia
In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislation on fuel and emissions. Turbocharged downsizing DI engine is playing an increasing vital role in OEM’s powertrain strategies. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new type of 1.0-liter 3 cylinder TGDI gasoline engine to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concepts of DFM 3-cylinder 1.0TGDI gasoline engine are explored to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerning about the fuel cost and pollution. The combustion system with side-mounted 6-hole direct injector and 200bar injection pressure has been optimized by CFD simulation and transparent engine investigation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2458
Mohamed Awadallah, Peter Tawadros, Paul Walker, Nong Zhang
Driven by stricter mandatory regulations on fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, market penetration of electrified vehicles will increase in the next 10 years, among which mild hybrid will become a leading sector in growth. Researchers forecast the sales of mild hybrid vehicles will reach 1.4 million units per year by 2020, and 7 million units by 2024. The high cost of HEVs has somewhat limited their widespread adoption, especially in developing countries. Conversely, it is these countries that would benefit most from the environmental benefits of HEV technology. Compared to a full hybrid, a plug‐in hybrid or an electric vehicle, a mild hybrid system stands out due to its maximum benefit/cost ratio. As part of our ongoing project to develop a mild hybrid system for these markets to improve the drive performance and efficiency. High power density ultra-capacitors are incorporated for fast charging and discharging during the acceleration and other operations.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2200
Peter Priesching, Mijo Tvrdojevic, Ferry Tap, Casper Meijer
Turbulent combustion modeling in a RANS or LES context imposes the challenge of closing the chemical reaction rate on the sub-grid level. Many turbulent combustion models exist in literature. Such turbulent models have as their two main ingredients sources from chemical reactions and turbulence-chemistry interaction. The various combustion models then differ mainly by how the chemistry is calculated (level of detail, canonical flame model) and on the other hand how turbulence is assumed to affect the reaction rate on the sub-grid level (turbulence-chemistry interaction - TCI). In this work, an advanced combustion model based on tabulated chemistry is applied for 3D CFD modeling of Diesel engine cases. The combustion model is based on the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) chemistry reduction technique. The underlying chemistry tabulation process uses auto-ignition trajectories of homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, which are computed with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2255
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Santiago Cardona, Sridhar Ayyapureddi
In this article, a prototype multi-hole diesel injector from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bars under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used thanks to the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. Experimental results show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in chamber temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in chamber density.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2325
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2339
Pi-qiang Tan, Yuan Li
With increasingly severe atmospheric environmental problems, diesel car emissions have attracted broad attention for its main contribution to air pollutant. Alternative fuels become a hot research point in vehicle for rapidly consuming of fossil oil resources. Biodiesel and GTL (gas to liquid) fuels are two typical alternative fuels for diesel fuel. Low blend ratio (≤10%) biodiesel and GTL fuels can be used in a diesel engine without modifying the engine’s configuration. It is important to investigate the difference of low blend ratio biodiesel and GTL fuels used in the same diesel car and to find the optimum one. Gaseous and particle emissions from a light duty diesel car with B10 (10% biodiesel from cooking oil +90% diesel, v/v) and G10 (10% GTL fuel +90% diesel, v/v) was investigated. It was equipped with high pressure common rail system, cooled EGR and DOC and was tested on a chassis dynamometer under NEDC mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2329
Xiao Ma, Yue Ma, Shuaishuai Sun, Shi-Jin Shuai, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
PODEn highlights advantages in soot reduction and renewable alternate fuels. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production as the oxygen fuel. Spray combustion of PODEn and diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using PLII-LEM and OH chemiluminescence. Several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. It is found that 20% PODEn blended with diesel (P20) can effectively reduce the total soot. Significant soot reduction as over 70% lower than diesel case is observed in P30 combustion. The distribution of soot cloud of P30 is different with that of diesel, which indicates the high oxygen content in PODEn results in big differences in soot formation and oxidization process. However, OH images shows that the ignition positions of blend fuels have small differences, which indicates that low lend ratio does not have great impact on combustion control strategies.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2259
Tianpu Dong, Fujun Zhang, Hongli Gao, Sufei Wang, Yidong Fei
The diesel low temperature combustion(LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. It has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. In order to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC were analyzed by experimental study. Combustion performance and emission characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission are presented and discussed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2248
Haichun Ding, Wenbin Zhang, Xiao Ma, Shi-Jin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song Zhan, Bin Liu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low HC emission during cold start. However, high particle emission has become an inevitable challenge especially with injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 50 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine ignition angle, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gas emissions ( THC, NOx, CO) and particle emission were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operation conditions. The test results indicated that, although the injector flow rate and injection pulse did not change a lot after the injector fouling test which means few internal deposit was built inside the injector hole, it still had some effect on engine combustion and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2265
Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Bowen Li, Shi-Jin Shuai, Jian-Xin Wang
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from initial boiling point of gasoline to final boiling point of diesel. Recent experimental results have shown WDF by blending 50% gasoline and 50% diesel (G50) exhibits much lower soot emissions than diesel at medium load with relatively low injection ratio with similar thermal efficiency. However, the engine performances fueled by G50 at both low load end and high load end are still unknown. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of G50 and diesel have been compared at 1600 r/min and a wide load range from 0.2 MPa IMEP to 1.4 MPa IMEP at a light-duty diesel engine. The results shown that G50 has much lower soot emissions and similar thermal efficiency compared with diesel at high load end. At 0.2 MPa IMEP, G50 exhibits high cycle-to-cycle variation and low thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2264
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Joseph Kermani, Florence Duffour, Simon Dosda
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low RON gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different Cetane Number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine. The purpose of this paper is to assess different airpath and after treatment system (ATS) definitions to maximize the potential of a low-RON gasoline fuel running on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2267
Erik Svensson, Lianhao Yin, Per Tunestal, Martin Tuner
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in engines has shown to achieve very high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on PPC has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The PPC concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR and charge air coolers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 percent 89 RON gasoline and 20 percent n-heptane. A wide range of engine speeds and loads were run using a long route EGR system.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2288
Tianyuan Zhou, Changsheng Yao, Fuyuan Yang, Sun Jinwei
Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen
The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fration (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative DOC+V-SCR exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2393
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. As a result, a sampling method was validated using dilute exhaust for sampling and analyzing SVOCs in engine exhaust during transient engine operation. Trends for the comparison of volatile-, semi-volatile-, and particulate-phase SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2391
Daisy Thomas, Hu Li, Xin Wang, Bin Song, Yunshan Ge, Wenlin Yu, Karl Ropkins
Real world driving emissions have become an ever increasing problem in urban areas, particularly in some mega cities. In this paper, eight in-use spark ignition gasoline-fueled and hybrid passenger cars were tested for real driving emissions (RDE). The vehicles tested include both European and Japanese makes, spanning from EURO 5 to EURO 6 emission compliance. During the RDE testing, the vehicles’ emissions were logged alongside their driving and operational parameters, such as exhaust flow rate and temperature, using the vehicles’ OBD systems. The RDE cycles are comprised of 33% urban, 33% rural and 34% motorway driving, of total duration approximately 1.5 hours. The RDE testing was performed in Beijing, China, using the Horiba OBS-ONE Gas and Horiba OBS-ONE PN equipment for six of the RDE tests, and the AVL M.O.V.E equipment for two of the RDE tests.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2381
Kristian Hentelä, Ossi Kaario, Vikram Garaniya, Laurie Goldsworthy, Martti Larmi
In the present study, a new approach for modelling emissions of coke particles or cenospheres from large diesel engines using HFO (Heavy fuel oil) was studied. The used model is based on a multicomponent droplet mass transfer and properties model that uses a continuous thermodynamics approach to model the complex composition of the HFO fuel and the resulting evaporation behavior of the fuel droplets. Cenospheres are modelled as the residue left in the fuel droplets towards the end of the simulation. The mass-transfer and fuel properties models were implemented into a cylinder section model based on the Wärtsilä W20 engine in the CFD-code Star CD v.4.24. Different submodels and corresponding parameters were tuned to match experimental data of cylinder pressures available from Wärtsilä for the studied cases. The results obtained from the present model were compared to experimental results found in the literature.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2410
Ji Gao, Tie Wang, Dandan Sun, Jing Qiao, Yizhuo Feng
As the explosion proof diesel engine (EPD) of underground trackless tyred vehicle dynamic mechanical device, due to its good dynamic and economic performance the diesel has been widely applied. The flame arrester can prevent the intake and exhaust system from tempering, but the increased resistance will seriously affect the performance of diesel. The bench test of explosion proof diesel engine on intake and exhaust system is conducted, analysing the effect of the exhaust resistance under different speeds of diesel engine on the power, economy and emission of TY4100QFB type diesel engines with equivalent flow area, different specifications of corrugated / flat flame-arrester in the course of external characteristics. The test results show, on account of the large porosity ratio, the corrugated flame arrester has a significant effect on reducing the intake and exhaust resistance, optimizing combustion, reducing NOx, CO, PM.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
The impact of gasoline compositions to vehicle particular emission response have been widely investigated and documented with recently proposed so called Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN data has demonstrated correlations of the indices to vehicle response. In previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented. With increasing air pollution concern and ever stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenge. Emission control requires systematic approach on both fuel and vehicle. This paper will focus on China market gasoline on fuel’s sooting tendency. Additional China vehicle response with ranges of PEI fuels are presented. In addition to PEI index, other fuel properties in gums, final boiling, aromatics, and fuel detergency are also reviewed
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2312
Raouf Mobasheri, Rahman Akbari
The scope of this work is to investigate the simultaneous effects of injection pressure and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on mixture formation and engine performance in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine. For this, the computational results have been firstly compared to the measured data and a good agreement has been achieved in order to predict the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and the amount of NOx and soot emissions. Then, various injection pressures have been studied to explore its benefits to achieve the low exhaust emission at different EGR rates. The results show, while no EGR has been applied, decreasing the nozzle diameter causes the reduction of Indicate Specific Fuel Consumption (ISFC) with an increase in Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). In addition, this strategy results to better air-fuel mixing, a faster combustion process, a considerable reduction of soot emissions but at the same time to a significant increase of NOx emission.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies in flames and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol). However, the impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines has not been reported. This work examined the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends at steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at the blend ratio 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels were set to obtain the maximum break torque, i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results showed that the particle number concentration could be reduced significantly with the increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2301
Hongli Gao, Fujun Zhang, Wenwen Zeng, Tianpu Dong, Zhengkai Wang
Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2340
Shashank Mishra, Anand Krishnasamy
Owing to a rapid rise in global energy demand in various sectors including power, agriculture and transport, there is a tremendous increase in demand for conventional diesel fuel. Biodiesel are emerging as renewable alternative to diesel with better emission characteristics (except nitric oxides). The biodiesel could be produced from various feedstock including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their fatty acid methyl ester composition and physico-chemical properties and thereby, engine performance and emissions. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations in conjunction with changes in engine load and injection timings are captured using a multi-linear regression model which is applied to predict performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2295
Ahmad Omari, Stefan Pischinger, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2299
Susumu Nagano, Nozomi Yokoo, Koji Kitano, Koichi Nakata
Abstract The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2386
Naoki Ohya, Kohei Hiyama, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno, Atsuko Tomita, Takeshi Miki, Yutaka Tai
Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst coated on DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has a lower volume and cost compared with the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: one is combustion of PM and the other is reduction of NOx emissions.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 24612

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