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Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kohei Yoshida, Yusuke Nozaki, Toshihiro Mori, Yuki Bisaiji, Yuki Haba, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Takao Fukuma
To fulfill upcoming stringent worldwide CO2 emission target, engine thermal efficiency should further be increased and diesel engine is one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless to ensure good air quality, NOx emission should be reduced using a specific catalyst. In order to reduce NOx from a diesel engine operation in lean condition, Urea-Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) systems have been widely adopted in the European market. The NSR system is most efficient for small/mid vehicle size since it requires less packaging space and it is less expensive than a urea SCR system. However, its NOx reduction performance is currently limited under high temperature and high space velocity conditions since the NOx storage ability as nitrate is insufficient under such conditions. For future NSR usage, it is therefore necessary to improve the NOx reduction performance of NSR. DiAir (Diesel NOx After-treatment by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants) has been introduced as one of the measures to improve NOx conversion performance under high space velocity (SV) and temperature conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Pedlow, A1). McCullough1), G. Goguet, A2). 1) School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast 2) School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast Pedlow, A. Email: apedlow01@qub.ac.uk, Tel.: +4428 9097 4569 Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, meaning that mathematical models of after-treatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions in order to meet legislated limits. Automotive Catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
S. F. Benjamin, C. A. Roberts
In an attempt to reduce particulate and NOx emissions from Diesel exhaust, the combined DPF and SCR filter is now frequently chosen as the preferred catalyst. When this device functions effectively it saves valuable packaging space in a passenger vehicle. As part of its development, modelling of its emissions performance is essential. Single channel modelling is the obvious choice for a DPF filter because of its complex geometry. This, however, can be computationally demanding. For a normal flow-through catalyst monolith the porous medium approach is an attractive alternative. This paper attempts to model an SCRF by applying the porous medium approach. The model is essentially 1D but as with all porous medium models, can very easily be applied to 3D cases once developed and validated. The model is described in full in this paper and values for all the key parameters are presented. The filter is assumed to collect soot in the inlet channels, but only the output channels are coated with SCR washcoat, as in the most recent devices.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Achinta Varna, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Alexander Spiteri, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Yuri M. Wright
Simulations for a pressure-assisted multi-stream injector designed for urea-dosing in a selective catalytic reduction SCR exhaust gas system have been carried out and compared to measurements taken in an optically accessible high-fidelity flow test rig. The experimental data comprises four different combinations of mass flow rate and temperature for the gas stream with unchanged injection parameters for the spray. First, a parametric study is carried out to determine the importance of various spray sub-models, including atomization, spray-wall interaction, buoyancy as well as droplet coalescence. Optimal parameters are determined using experimental data for one reference operating condition. The model is subsequently applied to all operating conditions with unaltered parameters and validated by means of the measured droplet velocity fields, droplet diameter distributions and spray-tip propagation which have been characterized by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraph imaging.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kristin Götz, Anja Singer, Olaf Schröder, Christoph Pabst, Axel Munack, Jürgen Bünger, Jürgen Krahl
The political and economic major aim in Europe is the increase of the use of renewable energy resources up to 10 % till 2020. This means a reduction in crude oil dependency. Already well known in diesel fuel area are fatty acid methyl esters, named biodiesel. However, this biogenic component has not only advantages, as a further raise of the amount of biodiesel content in diesel fuel higher than seven percent can lead to an increase of the engine oil dilution in passenger cars with diesel particulate filters. Because of the regeneration of the particulate filters, the entry of fuel components increases. This may induce sludge formation in the engine oil. A promising approach to reduce this problem is a new type of biogenic fuel, called HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil). This is also produced from vegetable oil or animal fat and it is chemically quite similar to fossil diesel fuel. Like biodiesel, HVO is free of sulfur or any aromatics. HVO has a higher cetane number in comparison to biodiesel and most diesel fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Woods, Roy Douglas, Richard O’Shaughnessy
With emission legislation becoming ever more stringent, automotive companies are forced to invest heavily in solutions to meet the targets set. To date, the most effective way of treating emissions is through the use of catalytic converters. Since the introduction of these converters as the main method of reducing automotive emissions, catalyst performance testing has become a major part of automotive research and development. One of the most critical aspects of the performance testing process is catalyst ageing. Legislation has been introduced stating that catalytic converters must meet the set emissions standards legislation up to a lifetime of 150,000 miles (LEV 2014-2022). The catalytic converter will deactivate over its lifetime due to a number of different factors, such as, thermal deactivation, poisoning, fouling and structural breakdown of the catalyst. It is therefore of the utmost importance for automotive companies to evaluate the performance of the catalytic converters under these conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Ashish Karnwal, Dhruv Gupta, Vipul Vibhanshu, Abhishek Sharma, Jitesh Singh Patel
The interest of using alternative fuels in diesel engines has been accelerated exponentially due to a foreseen scarcity in world petroleum reserves, increase in the prices of the conventional fossil fuels and restrictions on exhaust emissions such as greenhouse gases from internal combustion (IC) engines initiated by environmental concerns. The constant trade-off between efficiency and emissions should be in proper balance with the conventional fuels in a fuel design process for future combustors. Unlike gasoline and diesel, alcohols act as oxygenated fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust properly due to the presence of oxygen, which enhances premixed combustion phase, improves the diffusive combustion phase which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The higher activation energy of alcohols leads to better resistance to engine knocking that allows higher compression ratios and greater engine thermal efficiencies. Direct use of alcohol/diesel fuel blends is one of the most interesting possibilities because of their lower viscosity and similar physio-chemical properties to mineral diesel; most importantly, prior modifications on diesel engine are not required.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Haichao Fu, Yinhui Wang, Xinyan Li, Shi-Jin Shuai
An experimental study on particulate emission was conducted on four cars from Chinese market, three of which powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and the other one powered by port fuel injection (PFI) engine. Experiments were performed on a chassis dynamometer over new European driving cycle (NEDC). Particulate mass and number were measured using PMP system, and transient particulate number and size distribution were measured through DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Three kinds of gasoline with RON 91.9, 94.0 and 97.4 were tested on these four cars to find impacts of RON on particulate emission. In order to get what extent cold start influences the particulate emission, both cold and hot start NEDCs were tested. Large scale of particles were emitted from both GDI and PFI cars during cold start condition (first 200s of NEDC). Compared with cold start NEDC, hot start NEDC particulate mass of these three GDI cars decreased by 65.1%, 27.9% and 66.3% respectively, and particulate number of these three GDI cars decreased by 58.5%, 34.0% and 53.3% respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kotaro Tanaka, Masatoshi Takano, Shuji Iimura, Kai Miyamura, Mitsuru Konno
 Ammonia (NH3) contributes to the production of secondary particulate matter (PM) as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Recent studies have indicated that NH3 emission from automobiles may increase as a result of using a system for the urea selective catalytic reduction of NOx. In addition, the operating condition of the automobile plays an important role in the formation of NH3 in automobile exhaust. Therefore, it is very important to perform real-time measurements of the NH3 concentration in automobile exhaust.  Recently, highly sensitive near-IR laser absorption spectrometer has been employed to obtain measurement of NH3. This instrument allows in-situ measurements of highly time-resolved NH3 emission levels in automobile exhaust. However, the effect of the CO2 included in automobile exhaust on the measurement of NH3 has not been evaluated in detail. Because the CO2 concentration in automobile exhaust has been 2 or 3 orders of magnitude higher than the NH3 concentration, there is a possibility that spectral overlap by CO2 lines and/or the spectral broadening of NH3 by CO2 could have an influence on the measurement of the NH3 concentration.  
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jinyoung Jang, Young-Jae Lee, Ohseok Kwon, Minseob Lee, Jeonghwan Kim
The emissions from vehicle are affected by engine type, fuel and engine oil making particulate matter (PM) 13% of total PM. In this study, engine oil is focused to show the effect of engine oils on PM and other emission. Group III base oil, Group III base oil with additives and poly alpha olefins (PAO’s) with additives are tested and have identical SAE grad for same vehicle. Gasoline vehicle, which has direct injection system, and diesel vehicle, which has no PM trap, were selected because those vehicles clearly emit PM more than port fuel type gasoline and diesel with PM trap vehicle. Combined mode test, consisting of FTP 75 and highway drive mode, are used to assess exhaust emission and fuel economy. The number of PM was counted using PPM-S, which is based on the measurement of electrical charge carried by particles. Regulated emissions and fuel economy for gasoline vehicle were analyzed by HORIBA gas analyzer with sampling bags. Diesel vehicle’s emissions and fuel economy were analyzed by PIERBURG gas analyzer.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Christophe Barro, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in the NOx emissions. However, an accurate and general rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not understood thoroughly. In earlier research it was observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly based on two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. A third effect of heat addition during the soot oxidation is debated in the literature. The experimental investigation presented in the current work provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of soot formation and reduction using post injections under different operating conditions. The measurements aim to provide additional understanding in the sources of PM reduction, which will allow the optimization of post injection settings.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Arjun Prakash, Edward Nelson, Aaron Jones, James Macias, Matthew Hinojosa, Eugene Jimenez
Particulate mass (PM) emissions from DISI engines can be reduced via fuels technology that facilitates injector deposit clean-up. A significant drawback of DISI engines is that they can have higher particulate matter emissions than PFI gasoline engines. Soot formation in general is dependent on the air-fuel ratio, combustion chamber temperature and the chemical structure and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this regard, PM emissions and DISI injector deposit clean-up were studied in three identical high-selling vehicles. The tests compared the effects of a fuel (Fuel A) containing a market generic additive at lowest additive concentration (LAC) against a fuel formulated with a novel additive technology (Fuel B). The fuels compared had an anti-knock index value of 87 containing upto 10% ethanol. The vehicles were run on Fuel A for 20,000 miles followed by 5,000 miles on Fuel B using a chassis dynamometer. It was observed that Fuel A gave rise to an increase in PM emissions indicative of DISI injector deposit build-up.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Particulate emissions are of growing concern due their negative health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent have been under investigation at MAHLE Powertrain, with this paper focussing on the improvement potential of the injection equipment. This investigation is part of MAHLE’s ongoing particulate research and method development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process. As part of this work, a spark eroded and a laser drilled injector were fully characterised in a spray vessel under key engine running conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianye Su, Min Xu, Peng Yin, Yi Gao, David Hung
Spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine, especially in downsized boosted engine platform, has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy, and are increasing their market share relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines in U.S., European and Chinese vehicles. However, higher particle number emission associated with operating the engine at higher loads provide additional challenges for meeting future stringent emission regulations. In this study, the potential of using multiple injection strategies (double injection and triple injection strategy during the intake stroke in homogeneous combustion mode) to reduce particle number emission was investigated using Horiba Mexa SPCS1000 in a 2.0 liter boosted SIDI gasoline engine at 1000 rpm, 11 bar BMEP condition. To clarify the mechanism for the particle emission benefit by multiple injection strategies, three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the in-cylinder process was realized using CONVERGE software with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Christoph Menne, Simon Galbraith, Alan Jones, Lars Henning, Thomas Koerfer
In September 2013 the Jaguar XF 2.2l ECO sport brake and saloon were introduced to the European market. They are the first Jaguar vehicles to realize CO2 emissions below 130 g/km. To achieve the significantly reduced fuel consumption values with an existing 2.2l I4 Diesel engine architecture selected air path and fuel path components were optimized for increased engine efficiency. Hardware selection and development in the available short time frame were only enabled by the consequent utilization of the most advanced CAE tools throughout the design phase but also during the complete vehicle application process. Changes to the base engine architecture were ruled out at the beginning of the project due to the implications on manufacturing complexity and the limited given time frame for realization. To allow a fuel consumption reduction of more than 10% vs. the first introduction of the 2.2l I4 Diesel in XF the following measures were identified: - Improved combustion efficiency due to more advanced centre of combustion for most engine operating points - Improved fuel spray and mixture preparation - Air path with reduced pressure losses especially for the high pressure exhaust gas recirculation - significantly enhanced cooling performance of the high pressure exhaust recirculation path - downspeeding with advanced transmission control The potential of the listed measures and their interactions, the chosen hardware components and the used development and application methodologies shall be presented in this paper.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ossi Kaario, Teemu Sarjovaara, Olli Ranta, Tuomo Hulkkonen, Karri Keskinen, Martti Larmi, Sauli Halonen, Arno Amberla
In the present study, we analyze urea solution spray mixing and evaporation in a novel selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. In typical SCR systems, low urea solution injection pressures are used. This may result in low evaporation rates implying that some additional methods need to be used to obtain feasible mixing and evaporation rates in the system. However, the aim in the present study is to use very high injection pressure for the solution in order to enhance droplet breakup, mixing, and evaporation and thus remove the need to use additional mixing enhancement techniques. We measure the spray characteristics of the urea solution, namely the spray penetration, opening angle, and droplet sizes from several distances from the nozzle and with various nozzle hole sizes and injection pressures. We focus our experiments on low gas density setting which is typically the SCR system operating environment. This kind of experimental data (low gas density, high injection pressure) is scarce in literature.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Rong Ma, Chao He, Jiaqiang Li
A simulation model of catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) is established based on the CFD software FIRE and has been validated through a series of experimental comparison. This model simulates the CDPF continuity regeneration process, and the factors that influence the exhaust NO2 concentration from CDPF including oxygen concentration, exhaust temperature, space velocity, proportion of NO2/NOX and soot mass fraction are studied. The results show that the higher oxygen concentration causes an increase in NO2/NOX. The NO2/NOX is significantly increased when the exhaust temperature is about 350℃. The space velocity in a certain degree leads higher NO2/NOX. There is no significant influence of increasing proportion of the NO2/NOX, and the soot mass fraction in the exhaust on the NO2/NOX at the CDPF outlet
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bernhard Lüers, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Koerfer, Stefan Pischinger, Markku Honkanen
The present work is a continuation to the earlier published results on the investigation of the Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System. These results suggest a significant reduction of engine out carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), particulate matter (PM) and engine noise emissions using HVO as compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (SAE Technical Paper: 2013-01-1677). The test program was further extended to analyze the impact of HVO fuel properties on the soot physico-chemical characteristics and its consequences on the oxidation behavior in DPF. The initial study regarding the soot structure and oxidation behavior indicates a higher oxidative reactivity for HVO soot as published in Part-1 (JSAE Technical Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot structure and oxidation behavior, the test program was further extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, microstructure and physical properties on the oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Matthias Stark, Richard Mittler
Tribodynamic Effects on Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Exhaust Gas of Large Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines Upcoming emission regulations and power demands for large two stroke marine diesel engines call for a detailed investigation focusing on cylinder lubrication impacts on the exhaust gas composition. The content of the foreseen paper focuses on recent developments towards the design of an emission optimized lubrication concept, helping to significantly reduce lube oil consumption and related particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas. The described approach involves the application of substantially modified engine components in a full scale engine test, as well as the application of dedicated measurement technologies combined with intensive simulation activities in order to derive the desired correlation between lubrication system parameters and the exhaust gas composition. The foreseen paper highlights measures to enhance lubrication system performance considering key components of the tribosystem.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Barouch Giechaskiel, Urbano Manfredi, Giorgio Martini
Current vehicle exhaust legislation for diesel vehicles prescribes particle number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm. The legislation was extended to include gasoline direct injection (G-DI) vehicles since 2014. Target of this paper was to investigate whether smaller than 23 nm solid particles are emitted from engines in considerable concentration focusing on G-DI engines. The literature survey and the experimental investigation of 5 vehicles showed that engines emit solid sub-23 nm particles. The average percentage over a cycle (WLTP) is higher for G-DIs (40%) compared to diesel engines (20%). These percentages are relatively low considering the emission limit levels (6x10^11 p/km) and the repeatability (10-20%) and reproducibility of the particle number method (50%). These percentages are close to the percentages expected theoretically not to be counted due to the 23 nm cut-off size (5-15%). High emissions can be found when additives are added in the fuel or lubricant. Based on this literature survey, the PN legislation should remain the same.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Barouch Giechaskiel, Giorgio Martini
Current heavy-duty engine and light duty vehicle exhaust legislation prescribes particle number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm. The legislation was extended to include gasoline direct injection (G-DI) vehicles since 2014 and will be applied to non-road mobile machinery. Target of this paper was to investigate whether existing PN measurement equipment are capable of measuring below 23 nm. More specifically, it was investigated 1) whether all volatile particles can be removed efficiently in the PN measurement systems 2) whether any artifacts happen in the PN systems (e.g. formation of non-volatile particles due to pyrolysis), and 3) whether by lowering the lower size the measurement uncertainty increases significantly. The main conclusions are: 1) The volatiles are not always removed efficiently in the PN measurement systems. The major issue is re-nucleation of sulfuric acid downstream of the evaporation tube. These particles typically do not grow at sizes above 23 nm. 2) There are indications of formation of 10 nm solid particles from hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the PN systems. 3) The measurement uncertainty due to differences between commercial systems will increase with lower cut-off size.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Antoine Delorme, Jason L. Robert, William Eli Hollowell, Andre M. Strobel, Jason T. Krajewski
In the recent years, Automated Manual Transmissions have become more popular for class 8 heavy trucks. Besides the benefits of smoother gear changes and reduced driver fatigue, AMTs can also greatly reduce fuel consumption by using optimized shifting strategies and advanced controls. The Detroit DT12 AMT demonstrated significant fuel savings due in part to its eCoast feature. eCoast relies on intelligent and advanced electronic controls to safely allow the vehicle to coast on downgrades. While the engine is idling, the drag parasitic energy losses are decreased and the vehicle can fully use its momentum to travel further up and down hill. As one could expect, the type of route profile can greatly affect the fuel savings due to eCoast, since more hilly terrains might offer more opportunities to activate eCoast than flatter roads. In addition, when combined with different vehicle and driving parameters such as vehicle weight and driver desired cruise set speed, the fuel consumption reduction of eCoast is always there, but becomes a more complicated function.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Steffen Hoppe, Troy Kantola
Increasingly, the fundamental drivers in the development of commercial vehicle engines are improved fuel efficiency and the need to meet more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. This strategy presents significant challenges in the development of engine components, particularly piston rings. Within the power cylinder, piston rings are significant contributors to friction losses, with the ring pack contributing up to 25 percent of the total mechanical engine friction loss, and a corresponding fuel consumption of up to four percent. The challenge lies in reducing friction power loss while also mastering the increasing thermomechanical and tribological demands that piston rings must endure due to increased power density, smoother cylinder bores, reduced lubrication, and the use of alternative fuels. In this context, the robustness of the piston ring running face, as characterized by wear resistance and scuff resistance in particular, plays an increasing role. As coatings are a crucial surface design element, they inevitably are a primary focus for addressing friction loss and increasing robustness in the piston ring/cylinder tribological system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ashish Kumar Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Fast depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding a carry out work for research to find out the viable alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researcher has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuels used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to trouble like higher NOx emission and engine deposit due to partially incomplete combustion. There is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines in the present rigid emissions norms and the fossil depletion. In the current analysis CNG with KOME is used in dual fuel mode for complete combustion of charge so as to reduce emission.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
L. Joseph Bachman, Anthony Erb, Jeffry Sellers
Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were estimated using the SAE J1321 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 per cent relative to the baseline. The return factor for the new tires was 3.1:1, that is a 3.1 per cent decrease in rolling resistance yielded a fuel consumption decrease of 1 per cent.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Bryan Roy, Paul Windover, Terry Levinson, Joseph Tario, Eric VanOoyen
A State Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining a safe, efficient, balanced, and sustainable transportation system. It has many types of on-road vehicles and off-road equipment, which are operated by various personnel. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is also governed by Executive Orders to improve overall fleet efficiency, reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gases. While the NYSDOT Region 4 is actively addressing this issue by using more efficient LED hazard warning signs and encouraging personnel to turn off vehicles when not in use, it wanted to do more. Thus, with the support of NYSDOT and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energetics Incorporated is evaluating the operational, economical, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reducing idling in the fleet without compromising functionality. NYSDOT Region 4 has a fleet of 328 on-road vehicles to serve the more than one million customers in seven western New York counties.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved singh, A K Sehgal, B basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil kumar, G Gopal
Air Pollution is a serious global problem. Increase in population the growing demands further aggravates it. This has resulted in exploring alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines. Some of the promising alternative fuels are Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Hydrogen, LPG, Ethanol etc. CNG is gaining popularity as fuel in transport sector due to lower carbon to hydrogen ratio, cost & infrastructure. Hydrogen (H2) for IC engines is considered as a future fuel due to carbonless structure. But several obstacles need to be overcome before commercialization of H2 as an IC engine fuel for transport sector. Presently, lack of hydrogen infrastructure and refuelling stations prevent widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles. One of the solutions is to blend hydrogen to CNG. Such types of blends acquire benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Also these blends can use the existing natural gas infrastructure and existing CNG engine without any major hardware modification.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. VTT Technical Research Centre has monitored the performance of both diesel and natural gas buses for more than a decade, and has a very comprehensive data base on bus performance. VTT also has carried out work on buses for the Energy Technology Network of the International Energy Agency. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines, have, in a historical perspective, been brought close to zero level. This means that the competitive advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation where electric city buses are also entering the market.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Manoj K. Sampath, Figen Lacin
Diesel engine combustion process results in harmful exhaust emissions mainly composed of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Several technologies utilizing catalyst has been developed in the past decades to control these diesel emissions. Reduction of PM by advanced combustion research often results in increase of NOx due to more complete combustion and hence reducing NOx becomes even more challenging. One of the promising and well matured technology of reducing NOx is to implement Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia (NH3) as the reducing agent. The generation of NH3, in this case, is from the evaporation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) or liquid urea through thermolysis and hydrolysis process. For an effective SCR system, the mal-distribution of ammonia across the SCR Inlet has to be evenly distributed. There are several commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools available to predict the SCR flow distribution including ammonia formation from the urea decomposition.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan Ozturk
Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market. Therefore, a total of nine combinations (i.e., three quality index and three collecting strategies) are benchmarked in terms of total profit from new and remanufactured HDV clutches, number of customers won, and amount of saved raw material for environmental considerations.
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