Display:

Results

Viewing 31 to 60 of 22543
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J551/15
This SAE Standard specifies the ESD test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electronic modules intended for vehicle use. It describes test procedures for evaluating electronic modules in complete vehicles. A procedure for verifying the simulator that is used to generate the electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. Functional status classifications for immunity to ESD are given in Appendix B.
2014-12-12
Article
BorgWarner Chief Technology Officer, Christopher P. Thomas, discusses the company's new exhaust gas recirculation modules, EcoFlash ignition system, and heavy-duty controlled coolant pump for commercial diesel and natural gas engines, as well as the trends driving their development.
2014-12-04
Article
Electric cars offer the big benefit of almost no maintenance. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the almost maintenance-free life of owning an electric car. SAE Eye on Engineering can be viewed at http://youtu.be/iXo_jaFhZvw. 
2014-12-03
Article
The American National Standards Institute on Dec. 2 issued a progress report (http://publicaa.ansi.org/sites/apdl/evsp/ANSI_EVSP_Roadmap_May_2013.pdf) on an organized standardization effort to help electric vehicles thrive in the U.S. marketplace.
2014-12-03
Article
At the recent 2014 L.A. Auto Show, various OEMs put their latest hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles on stage. Engineers developing FCEVs are working against overlapping regulatory clocks, and OEM collaborations are taking the some of the sting out of development time and costs.
2014-11-30
Magazine
Riding on a high Rudi Schurmans and Ben Patel head up Tenneco's suspension and clean air divisions. Ian Adcock discovers what the automotive future holds for them Driverless revolution has begun! Breakthrough Photonic radar promises greater accuracy at lower cost, Ian Adcock discovers Winds of change are here Simulating aerodynamics will make a step-change in vehicle design, as Stephen Remondi, President and CEO of EXA, explains to Ian Adcock
2014-11-26
Article
Lead-acid batteries have clear advantages in cost and low-temperature performance, but Li-ion has its own set of pluses.
2014-11-25
Article
Allison Transmission is offering a new option to fully electrify components used with its H 40/50 EP hybrid propulsion system for transit buses and coaches. Co-developed with Vanner Inc., Increased Accessory Power II provides power from the hybrid system to accessories such as electric air conditioning, electric air compressors, and power steering systems.
2014-11-24
Article
SEMA develops step-by-step system in conjunction with California Air Resources Board to help participating members comply with emissions regulations. Clemson University I-CAR is an active participant, providing laboratory facilities for analysis to aid SEMA members who are aftermarket manufacturers.
2014-11-19
Article
The rise of new geographical auto markets (and stagnation of others), the proliferation of new "connected-car" technologies including automated driving, and a diminishing case for car ownership are among a number of challenges facing automotive industry decision makers.
2014-11-18
Article
Market success of the new fuel-cell sedan depends to a large extent on steady installation of hydrogen fueling stations worldwide.
2014-11-18
Article
Potential exists for more efficient re-use of rare earth elements, Purdue professor asserts. Regardless of choice, original component design should be engineered for dismantling to enhance end-of-life recovery, he tells Automotive Aftermarket Industry Week forum in Las Vegas.
2014-11-17
Article
Among the many premium interior features in the 2015 Hyundai Genesis is a “world-first” safety technology—an in-cabin CO2 sensor control system, located under the glove box, that combats occupant drowsiness.
2014-11-13
Article
Having two gear ratios rather than the single ratio that is typical of EVs enables the eAxle to boost the i8's all-wheel-drive performance across its entire speed range.
2014-11-12
Article
A Level 2 electric vehicle charger that can dispense power based on the available grid supply is undergoing its first field test in Detroit.
2014-11-12
Magazine
Harley-Davidson's e-bike shocker (video) Is the motorcycle market ready for a Harley-Davidson EV? Project LiveWire was designed to provide answers, said Chief Engineer Jeff Richlen. Airbus has its eye on the future of cleaner flight CleanSky 2 targets are to increase aircraft fuel efficiency enough to reduce CO2 emissions by 20-30% and reduce aircraft NOx and noise emissions by 20-30% compared to newly designed aircraft entering into service in 2014-or essentially halve 2005 CO2 emissions levels by 2050. Soul EV extends the range frontier (video) Specially formulated NCM battery cells are key in giving the vehicle class-leading EV range while enabling engineers to fit a high-energy-density battery pack underfloor with little sacrifice of passenger cabin space.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0003
Gen Shibata, Ryota Kawaguchi, Soumei Yoshida, Hideyuki Ogawa
Abstract The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0079
Yuta Kugimachi, Yusuke Nakamura, Norimasa Iida
Abstract To approach realization of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion without external combustion ignition trigger, it is necessary to construct HCCI engine control system. In this study, HCCI research engine equipped with the EGR passage for external EGR and the two-stage exhaust cam for exhaust rebreathed. This system can control the mixing ratio of four gases (air, fuel, rebreathed EGR gas, external EGR gas) of in-cylinder by operating four throttles and fuel injection duration while maintaining acceptable pressure rise rate (PRR) and cycle-to-cycle variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), closed-loop control system designed by applying feedback variables (equivalence ratio, combustion-phasing, IMEP) for feedback control. Those control inputs (four throttles and fuel injection) has correlation mutually, control inputs cause interference, response become low and hunching occurs.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0090
Jeffrey Blair, Glenn Bower
Abstract Operation of snowmobiles in national parks is restricted to vehicles meeting the Best Available Technology standard for exhaust and noise emissions as established by the National Parks Service. An engine exceeding these standards while operating on a blend of gasoline and bio-isobutanol has been developed based on a production four-stroke snowmobile engine. Miller cycle operation was achieved via late intake valve closing and turbocharging. The production Rotax ACE 600cc 2 cylinder engine was modeled using Ricardo WAVE. After this model was validated with physical testing, different valve lift profiles were evaluated for brake specific fuel consumption and brake power. The results from this analysis were used to determine a camshaft profile for Miller cycle operation. This was done to reduce part load pumping losses and increase engine efficiency while maintaining production power density.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0086
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Abstract This paper describes the influence of different kinds of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) on the smoke emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and the soot formation characteristics in suspended single droplet combustion. The study used eight kinds of commercial FAME and diesel fuel blends. The tested FAMEs are saturated fatty acids with 8 to 18 carbon molecule chains, and with three different double bonds with C18. The results show that with all the FAME mixtures here, the brake thermal efficiencies with the FAME-diesel fuel blends were similar to neat diesel fuel operation while the smoke emissions with all of the tested FAME-diesel fuel blends were lower. To examine the differences in the soot formation characteristics, measurements of the formed soot mass were also performed with a basic experimental technique with suspended single droplet combustion.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0133
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Thang Pham, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
Abstract In this study, we evaluated NOx production rates of diesel combustions occurred in a constant volume chamber of a rapid compression machine in order to investigate relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the chamber at a designated time. An EINOx (Emission Index of NOx) production rate was evaluated on the time history of NOx concentration. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with a high speed 2-color thermometry. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel. The EINOx production rate increases with increasing injection pressure through temperature rises in flames due to enhanced mixing of fuel vapor with ambient air. An increase in the ambient pressure causes overlaps between flames formed around the nozzle, which reduces the flame temperature.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0130
Takashi Onishi, Tomoya Akitomo, Yuichi Tamaki, Yoshikazu Takemoto, Hideyuki Goto, Mitsugu Okuda
Abstract All of non-road diesel engines over 19 kW in North America are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) to meet US EPA emissions regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in engine, it is needed to add exhaust gas after-treatment device to reduce PM emission. It is necessary for diesel engine with exhaust gas after-treatment device, to have Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration system, which burns periodically PM in DPF. Generally, DPF regeneration is implemented by using post injection with common rail system. However, post injection is not available in small diesel engine which has mechanical injection system and IDI combustion system instead of common rail system. As an alternative way, an original fuel reformer technique is introduced for DPF regeneration.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0102
Patrick Pertl, Philipp Zojer, Michael Lang, Oliver Schoegl, Alexander Trattner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Nagesh Mavinahally, Vinayaka Mavinahalli
Abstract The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson Cycle, realized over the crank train and/or valve train, is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel Mono-Shaft valve train concept.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0103
Yoshitane Takashima, Hiroki Tanaka, Takahiro Sako, Masahiro Furutani
Abstract Engines using natural gas as their main fuel are attracting attention for their environmental protection and energy-saving potential. There is demand for improvement in the thermal efficiency of engines as an energy-saving measure, and research in this area is being actively pursued on spark ignition engines and HCCI engines. In spark ignition gas engines, improving combustion under lean condition and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) condition is an issue, and many large gas engines use a pre-chamber. The use of the pre-chamber approach allows stable combustion of lean gas mixtures at high charging pressure, and the reduction of NOx emissions. In small gas engines, engine structure prevents the installation of pre-chambers with adequate volume, and it is therefore unlikely that the full benefits of the pre-chamber approach will be derived.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0037
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Abstract Many two stroke engine for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight, dimensions and temperature. One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0035
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
Abstract Environmental problems such as air pollution have recently led to increasingly demanding emissions regulations. To address this issue, the present study aims to develop a technology that will enable the exhaust gas from compact generators, with output of less than 3 kVA, to satisfy the world's most demanding emissions regulations. The method we used is driven by pulsed secondary air injection with a catalyst. Whereas pump-driven methods have conventionally been the mainstream approach to attaining sufficient secondary air quantity to reduce emissions, our objective was to create a pump-free method for increasing the secondary air quantity by focusing on secondary air pipe pulsation. Our study had two aims: one was to create a computation method for predicting the optimum secondary air pipe length that maximizes secondary air, and the other was to verify this method by using actual equipment, and to achieve our target emissions values.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 22543

Filter