Effects of N-butanol and Isobutanol on Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine During Dynamometer and On-road Tests.
*** This paper is also relevant to session ICENA303, Alternative and Advanced Fuels *** This work reports on the effects of using butanol, an alternative to ethanol, in an unmodified production direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. Butanol, a higher alcohol that can be produced from biomass by fermentation, is an emerging alternative fuel viewed as more compatible with gasoline engines and fuel systems than ethanol. In this work, a Euro 5 Ford Focus car with a 1.0-liter Ecoboost DISI engine has been tested on a chassis dynamometer using WLTP and Artemis driving cycles, and on the road on a one-hour test loop containing urban, rural and motorway driving. Two isomers of butanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-propanol, were each blended with gasoline at 25% volume corresponding to 5% oxygen by weight or 15% ethanol (E15). Non-oxygenated gasoline and E15 were used as reference fuels. The vehicle performed well in terms of cold start, driveability, and general performance.
Comparison between Internal and External EGR Performance on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by means of a Refined 1D Fluid-Dynamic Engine Model
The potential of internal EGR (iEGR) and external EGR (eEGR) in reducing the engine-out NOx emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine has been investigated by means of a refined 1D fluid-dynamic engine model developed in the GT-Power environment. The engine is equipped with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) systems. The activity was carried out in the frame of the CORE (CO2 Reduction for Long Distance Transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The engine model integrates an innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), which is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach, and a multi-zone thermodynamic model for the simulation of the in-cylinder temperatures. NOx emissions are calculated by means of the Zeldovich thermal and prompt mechanisms.
Maritime environmental restrictions urge the need for cleaner emissions from shipping, by improved combustion processes, alternative cleaner fuels and exhaust gas cleaning. Alternative fuels, like bio fuel (fish oil), has a potential to reduce soot production during the combustion process and will be deeply investigated in this article. For this purpose a constant volume pre-combustion rig laboratory was build up in the last year and is used as a basic investigation tool for studying the fuel injection system (including investigation in combustion, spray development, fuel evaporation process and ignition delay) in engines. The focus of this study is to investigate the injector in full size, including experiments with multi nozzle injections, and with full optical access to the chamber. To generate similar injection condition in the combustion rig as in the internal combustion engine, the rig is heated up using a so called chemical heating process.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
SAE International has published the new book, Ice Accretion and Icing Technology by Robert J. Flemming. The collection consists of 10 SAE International technical papers, chosen by Flemming, a known expert in the field.
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Overview of the HAIC “Space-borne Observation and Nowcasting of High Ice Water Content Regions” Sub-Project and Mid-Term Results
Abstract The High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) Sub-Project 3 (SP3) focuses on the detection of cloud regions with high ice water content (IWC) from current available remote sensing observations of space-based geostationary and low-orbit missions. The SP3 activities are aimed at supporting operationally the two up-coming HAIC flight campaigns (the first one in May 2015 in Cayenne, French Guyana; the second one in January 2016 in Darwin, Australia) and ultimately provide near real-time cloud monitoring to Air Traffic Management. More in detail the SP3 activities focus on the detection of high IWC from space-borne geostationary Meteosat daytime imagery, explore the synergy of concurrent multi-spectral multiple-technique observations from the low-orbit A-Train mission to identify specific signatures in high IWC cloud regions, and finally develop a satellite-based nowcasting tool to track and monitor convective systems over the Tropical Atlantic.
Abstract Diesel engine noise is classified into mechanical noise, flow dynamic noise and combustion noise. Among these, combustion noise level is higher than the others due to the high compression ratio of diesel combustion and auto ignition. The injected fuel is mixed with air in the ignition delay process, followed by simultaneous ignition of the premixed mixture. This process results in a rapid pressure rise, which is the main source of combustion noise. The amount of fuel burned during premixed combustion is mainly affected by the ignition delay. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate has an impact on ignition delay, and thus, it influences the combustion noise characteristics. Therefore, during the transient state, the combustion noise characteristics change as the EGR rate deviates from the target value. In this study, the effect of the EGR rate deviation during the transient state of the combustion noise is examined.
Small, electrically driven propellers spaced along wing leading-edges could benefit both small and medium-size aircraft
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives from companies such as BorgWarner, Perkins, Cummins, and Danfoss reflect upon challenges inside, and outside, the industry, and what technologies, innovations, and strategies will need to be implemented to thrive into the long-term future. 16th Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
Balancing GDI fuel economy and emissions Will OEMs have to adopt gasoline particulate filters to comply with stringent new emissions regulations? Top engineers discuss current developments. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Mixing metals Cadillac pursues aluminum/steel mix for new CT6 luxury sedan, leading to advances in body assembly.
A second coolant loop in a Fiat Grande Punto prototype provides liquid cooling of the A/C condenser and turbo intercooler, with potential for including air coolers for engine and transmission oil, power steering fluid and other heat exchangers. Engineers measured a 5% improvement in fuel economy during A/C-on operation during NEDC testing.
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids.
In-Service Emissions from Model Year 2012 Hydraulic Hybrid and Model Year 2008 Conventional Diesel Package Delivery Trucks
Abstract In-service emissions measurements were conducted on two package delivery trucks: one model year 2008 FCCC MT-55 conventional diesel and one model year 2012 FCCC MT-55 hydraulic hybrid (HHV). Mass emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, PM, and THC from the HHV and the conventional diesel test vehicle were each measured under conditions closely simulating normal package delivery operation. The HHV demonstrated a 29.4% improvement in fuel economy and a 17.4% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the conventional diesel vehicle. The HHV showed its best potential in operating areas characterized by low driving speeds and high number of stops (“pick-up and delivery”) with a 40.5% improvement in fuel economy and a 21.2% reduction in CO2 emissions.
New AWD systems from BorgWarner and Honda deliver significant improvements in efficiency, as well as vehicle dynamic performance.
FCEV advocates point to new stack platforms with greater power density, and manufacturing strategies aimed at building production scale.
There’s been a push to wean vehicles from petroleum, but fossil fuels will contain to power the transportation field for the next few decades, according to the Exxon Mobil researcher who advises the company’s corporate executives. He spoke at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as "EPA Part 1065") on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
The Tube Fittings Division of Parker Hannifin Corp. has expanded its Seal-Lok O-ring face seal tube fitting line to provide alternative-fuel application compatibility.
This SAE Technical Information Report provides information on Automotive Battery Recycling. This document provides a compilation of current recycling definitions, technologies and flow sheets and their application to different battery chemistries.
Megacity growth and energy demand are driving a diverse future mix of autonomous vehicles, car sharing, and cycling, among other more sustainable future-transportation solutions.
Papers cover exhaust aftertreatment system models, as well as their validation and application. Technologies encompassed include DOC, HC Trap, DPF, GPF, LNT, TWC, SCR, SCRF, ammonia oxidation catalysts, hybrid or combined catalysts, urea-water solution spray dynamics, and mixture non-uniformity. Modeling aspects range from fundamental, 3D models of individual components to system level simulation, optimization, variation, degradation, and control.
This technical paper collection covers the systems engineering experience required to achieve ultra-low emission levels on light-duty vehicles. Emission system component topics include the development of advanced three-way catalysts, the development of NOX control strategies for gasoline lean burn engines, the application of high cell density substrates to advanced emission systems, and the integration of these components into full vehicle emission systems.
This technical paper collection will focus on ‘Advances in NOx Reduction Technology’. The topics covered will include: new materials for lean NOx traps (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR); system integration and durability; advances in NOx catalyst substrates, novel reductants and mixing designs.
Effect of Automatic Choke System on Emissions, Light-off Characteristics and Cold Start-Ability of Four-Stroke Scooter Engine
Abstract In cold weather conditions, starting and maintaining low speed stability (engine idle RPM) has been difficult for smaller volume (50cc to 200cc) single cylinder engines. In order to improve the cold start ability without causing any inconvenience to user, automatic choke systems (auto-choke) have been employed. These auto-choke systems enrich the fuel-air mixture depending on predefined operating conditions. For Euro III and Bharat Stage IV (India) emission legislations, cold start emissions are very critical. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of auto-choke systems on CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions in addition to studying temperature and light-off characteristics of catalytic converter of a 4-stroke scooter engine. The vehicle was tested on chassis dynamometer to investigate emissions on WMTC and ECE R40 test driving cycles, with and without the auto-choke system. Three durations of auto-choke operations were studied.
Abstract The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
Impact of Ethanol and Isobutanol Gasoline Blends on Emissions from a Closed-Loop Small Spark-Ignited Engine
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.