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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0890
Richard Butcher
Abstract Measuring lubricant related fuel economy of internal combustion [IC] engines presents technical challenges, due to the relatively small differences attributable to lubricants. As engine technology progresses, large benefits become harder to find; so the importance of precise measurement increases. Responding to the challenge of meeting CO2 targets, many successful IC engine technologies have been deployed; these include downsizing/rightsizing[1], mechanical efficiency improvements, advanced charging and combustion systems, thermal management, sophisticated electronic control and calibration. These technologies have been deployed against a back-drop of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Increasing attention is focused on technologies which offer smaller but important contributions. The search for smaller improvements combined with growing engine and vehicle technology complexity increases the challenge of producing high quality data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0906
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. A fully integrated GT-Power engine model with physics based sub-models was developed to capture any positive or negative synergies between the technologies. The two zone multi-cylinder engine model included typical thermodynamic subroutines, with predictive combustion, flame quench and knock models, along with map-based turbocharger models to capture key combustion and efficiency behaviors. The engine model was calibrated to data from a boosted GDI engine and exercised through one series of current and production viable technology configurations for 2025 regulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Abstract A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0875
Ludvig Adlercreutz, Andreas Cronhjort, Johannes Andersen, Roy Ogink
Abstract With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Biodiesel is a potential alternative to Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD); however, it often suffers from increased fuel consumption in comparison to ULSD when injection timings and/or pressures are similar. To decrease fuel consumption, increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate the issues associated with its relatively high viscosity and lower energy content. When doing so, the literature indicates decreased emissions, albeit with potentially greater nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in contrast to ULSD. In order to better understand the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions, this study explores the influence of fuel injection pressure on ULSD, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) biodiesel, and their blends in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. In particular, fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to attempt to mimic the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation using ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0888
Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Masahiko Kawabata
Abstract Several attempts have been reported in the past decade or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil in order to monitor sliding conditions (1). Laser light extinction is typically used for the measurement. It would be an ideal if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles couldn't have been separated from other particles, and therefore this method couldn't have been applied to measurement devices for detection when maintenance service is required and how the wear state goes on. It is not possible to grasp the abnormal wear in real time by the conventional techniques such as intermittent Ferro graphic analysis. In addition, it is no way to detect which particle size to be measured by the particle counter alone.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0887
Erik Svensson, Changle Li, Sam Shamun, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss
Abstract Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1010
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Gonçalo Duarte, Tiago Farias
Abstract Internal combustion engine (ICE) cold-start is an issue that occurs either in conventional and hybrid powertrains before the ICE reaches its normal operation temperature, affecting both fuel consumption due to higher heat losses, and pollutant emissions due to low catalytic converter temperatures. The study of cold start emissions on conventional powertrains has been extensively addressed, although typically under laboratorial conditions, however studies addressing the impact of this phenomenon on hybrid powertrains is still reduced. Hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles usually incorporate technologies to manage the battery and ICE power supply leading to ICE on/off operation under regular driving, which can result in a decrease on catalytic converter efficiency (due to cooling).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1006
Cary Henry, Svitlana Kroll, Vinay Premnath, Ian Smith, Peter Morgan, Imad Khalek
Abstract In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1008
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Abstract Concern over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air quality has made exhaust emissions from passenger cars a topic interest at an international level. This situation has led to the re-evaluation of testing procedures in order to produce more “representative” results. Laboratory procedures for testing exhaust emissions are built around a driving cycle. Cycles may be developed in one context but later used in another: for example, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was not developed to measure fuel consumption, but has ended up being used to that end. The new Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test cycle (the WLTC) will sooner or later be used for measuring regulated exhaust emissions. Legal limits for emissions of regulated pollutants are inherently linked to the test conditions (and therefore to the driving cycle); inter-cycle correlations for regulated pollutants are an important research direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1009
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Chuanzhen Zhang, Jia Liu, Zihang Peng, Huiming Gong
Abstract Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1002
Benjamin Kaal, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1003
Fabian Fricke, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Terrence Scofield, Elmar Grußmann, Marco Kollmeier
Abstract Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines has led to a reduction in exhaust gas temperatures. The simultaneous tightening of exhaust emission limits requires ever more complex emission control methods, including aftertreatment whose efficiency is crucially dependent upon the exhaust gas temperature. Double-walled (also called air-gap) exhaust manifold and turbine housing modules made from sheet metal have been used in gasoline engines since 2009. They offer the potential in modern Diesel engines to reduce both the emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. They also offer advantages in terms of component weight and surface temperatures in comparison to cast iron components. A detailed analysis was conducted to investigate the potential advantages of insulated exhaust systems for modern diesel engines equipped with DOC and SCR coated DPF (SDPF).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1004
Somendra Pratap Singh, Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Singhal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The energy crisis coupled with depleting fuel reserves and rising emission levels has encouraged research in the fields of performance enhancement, emission reduction technologies and engineering designs. The present paper aims primarily to offset the problem of high emissions and low efficiencies in low cost CI engines used as temporary power solutions on a large scale. The investigation relates to the low cost optimization of an intake runner having the ability to vary the swirl ratio within the runner. Test runs reveal that NOx and CO2 follow a relatively smaller gradient of rise and fall in their values depending on the configuration; whereas UHC and CO have a rapid changes in values with larger gradients. However, in a relative analysis, no configuration was able to simultaneously reduce all emission parameters and thus, there exists a necessity to find an optimized configuration as a negotiation between the improved and deteriorated parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1005
Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0996
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Shon Van Hulzen, Robert L. Furey
Abstract In 2008-2009, EPA and DOE tested fifteen 2008 model year Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended to specific fuel parameter targets. The fuel parameter targets were pre-selected to represent the range of fuel properties from fuel survey data from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers for 2006. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics, ethanol, and T90 increase particulate matter (PM) emissions. EPA focused their analysis only on the targeted fuel properties and their impacts on emissions, namely RVP, T50, T90, aromatics, and ethanol. However, in the process of fuel blending, at least one non-targeted fuel property, the T70 distillation parameter, significantly exceeded 2006 Alliance survey parameters for two of the E10 test fuels. These two test fuels had very high PM emissions. In this study, we examine the impacts of adding T70 as an explanatory variable to the analysis of fuel effects on PM.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0997
Huzeifa Badshah, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract To ensure reliable starting under cold weather conditions (< 0 oC ambient), gasoline engines use fuel enrichment, leading to higher soot formation and greater tailpipe particle number (PN) emissions. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, PN emissions are higher due to liquid fuel impingement on cold surfaces of the combustion chamber and piston. This study characterizes solid (mostly elemental carbon) and semi-volatile (organic) particle number, mass, and size distributions during cold-cold engine start-up from light duty vehicles. Particle emissions were sampled from vehicles upon engine start-up after an overnight soak, with an average ambient temperature of -8 ± 7 oC. The average PN emitted during 180 seconds by GDI and PFI vehicles were 3.09E+13 and 2.12E+13 particles respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0998
Shuli Wang, Xinda Zhu, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0999
Yuesen Wang, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, lihui Dong, Hanzhengnan Yu, Yajun Wang, Zhijun Li
Abstract In this paper, the influence of sulfur and ash fraction of lubricating oil on particle emissions was investigated via experimental works. Especially, we focus on the characterizations like size distribution, morphology and element composition in diesel particles. All of the research was done on a two-cylinder diesel engine under different load conditions. Five kinds of lubricating oils with different levels of sulfur and ash fraction were used in this study, among which a kind of 5W-30 (ACEA, C1) oil was used as baseline oil. Diesel primary particles were collected by thermophoretic system, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum technique, respectively. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the sulfur and ash change the primary particle emissions directly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The on-board PM analyzer is a combination of a partial flow dilution system (PFDS) particulate sampler and a diffusion charger sensor (DCS) for real-time PM signals. The measuring technology and basic performance of the analyzer will be explained. Acceleration of the vehicle can cause uncertainty of flow measurement in the PM sampler.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0992
Justin Koczak, Andre Boehman, Matthew Brusstar
Abstract With increasingly stringent light duty particulate emissions regulations, it is of great interest to better understand particulate matter formation. Helping to build the knowledge base for a thorough understanding of particulate matter formation will be an essential step in developing effective control strategies. It is especially important to do this in such a way as to emulate real driving behaviors, including cold starts and transients. To this end, this study examined particulate emissions during transient operation in a recent model year vehicle equipped with a GDI engine. Three of the major federal test cycles were selected as evaluation schemes: the FTP, the HWFET, and the US06. These cycles capture much of the driving behaviors likely to be observed in typical driving scenarios. Measurements included particle size distributions from a TSI EEPS fast-response particle spectrometer, as well as real-time soot emissions from an AVL MSS soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0994
Chetankumar Patel, Nikhil Sharma, Nachiketa Tiwari, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Biodiesel made from Jatropha oil by transesterification process has viscosity and other important physical properties comparable to mineral diesel hence it can be used as an alternate fuel in conventional diesel engines. It is important to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel because emissions from the engines are dependent on fuel atomization process and resulting fuel-air mixing. This study focuses on the Jatropha biodiesel spray investigations using Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) for measurement of various microscopic spray parameters such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and spray droplet size and velocity distributions. The spray and engine experiments were carried out for Jatropha biodiesel (JB100) and their 20% blends (JB20) with mineral diesel as baseline. Fuel injection pressure during the spray experiments was maintained at 200 bars for all tests, quite similar to small horse power agricultural engines, and the fuel injection quantity was varied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0989
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Alice Yau, John Gomez, Cary Henry
Abstract Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction includes the formation of isocyanic acid as an intermediate product. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide [1,2,3,4]. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions, can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon [5, 6] that are difficult to remove from exhaust systems. Deposits can affect the efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0987
Mike M. Lambert, Belachew Tesfa
Abstract Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper proposes a method to recover species concentrations at the tail pipe exit of heavy-duty vehicles during chassis dynamometer tests, and investigates its effect in the calculation of emissions from their raw exhaust streams. It was found that the method shown in this paper recovered the sharp peaks of the gas species. The effect on calculations was significant, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transport of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and deformed due to mixing and diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in g/mile.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0990
Robert Zummer, Tim Nevius, Scott Porter
Abstract The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0983
Travis C. Malouf, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper presents details of the development of, and experimental results from, an internal combustion engine dynamic cylinder heat transfer control device for use on single-cylinder research engines. This device replicates the varying temperature profile and heat transfer distribution circumferentially around a cylinder in a multicylinder engine. This circumferential temperature distribution varies around a cylinder because of the location of, or lack of coolant passages around the cylinders, and varies from cylinder to cylinder as a result of the flow of the coolant through these passages as it accumulates thermal energy and increases in temperature. This temperature distribution is important because it directly affects the NO emissions from each cylinder, as will be seen in the experimental results.
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