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2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0403
Daniel Mousinho Lago, Fábio César Miranda de Oliveira, Manoel Fernandes de Oliveira Filho, João Telésforo Nóbrega de Medeiros
Abstract A challenge of the maintenance engineering is to detect future failures and the wear in machine components without interrupting its operation. Doing it in a cheap and simple way is even more challenging. With this purpose, the present study collected the debris expelled in the exhaust pipe of an engine through an innovative device built in the Tribology Study Group of UFRN. It was tested a 5 HP stationary diesel engine working under constant load over 150 hours (non-continuous). The morphology and chemicals compounds of the debris collected by the device were analyzed using Scanning Electrons Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. After the 150 hours of testing, the engine was disassembled and visually inspected. Photos were taken to identify the wear mechanisms present on the piston skirt, piston head, cylinder head and valves. After that, was made a correlation between the collected debris and the wear mechanisms observed in the piston.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0250
T. A. A. Moreira, G. S. Paiva, O. A. Anjos, T. S. Ferreira, F. A. Rodrigues Filho, R. M. Valle
Abstract Global trends in the development of spark ignition internal combustion engines lead to the adoption of solutions that reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Downsizing is a well-established path for this reduction, but it is necessary to use other technologies in order to achieve these ever more rigorous levels. A homogeneous torch ignition system is a viable alternative for reducing CO2 emissions with a combined reduction in specific fuel consumption and increased thermal efficiency. Thus a prototype adapted from an Otto engine with four cylinders is used for analysis. The performance and CO2 emission reference data were initially obtained with the baseline engine operating with a stoichiometric mixture. Then for the same conditions of BMEP, angular velocity and gradual lean of the mixture from the stoichiometry, the results of the adapted system are obtained.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0259
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The current energy and climate world condition presents the need for development of increasingly efficient and sustainable internal combustion engines. In order to meet these requirements, environmental regulatory agencies establish long-term goals of fuel consumption and pollutant gases emissions reduction, which in turn lead the engines to a constant evolution. Thus, this work exploits some recent technologies that tend to minimize the environmental impact of the world’s extensive automotive fleet. Among them, direct injection systems, especially with the use of biofuels, such as ethanol, allow the engine to operate under lean stratified conditions through split-injection. This strategy consists to split several times the fuel injection phase, so that an injection portion can be performed at the intake stroke and the other injection portion at the compression stroke.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0264
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The downsized ethanol Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to reduce both the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In addition to this engine concept, the use of Fully Variable Camshaft Timing (FVCT) can provide the Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (I-EGR) into the combustion chamber. The Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (Cooled - EGR) technique, has been adopted in order to reduce the NOx formation rate. However, through the FVCT system, acceptable levels of charge dilution by I-EGR can be achieved resulting in less fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In this paper, the I-EGR technique has been investigated by carrying out an experimental analysis of a downsized ethanol SIDI engine running on boosted and unboosted conditions. The results at part load operation present a gain on fuel conversion efficiency due to the I-EGR dilution and the use of de-throttling technique.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0110
Giovanne Davanço Cosme, Juliana Soares Leite Martins, Charles Correa Conconi
Abstract Absorbent blankets are used to control engine and diesel oil leaks, which in turn are the main problems encountered in the automotive industry, and may lead to contamination in groundwater, rivers sheets. In order to meet increasingly restrictive environmental requirements, as well as to mitigate the environmental impacts that may be caused by spills or leaks, it is necessary to use efficient absorbent blankets, as well as their composition. To evaluate efficiency and certify the choice of blanket, a simple methodology has been developed that can have results quickly. This work shows a methodology that uses equipment normally found in the laboratory, such as Analytical balance with three decimal precision, Petri dish, Becker, Buchner funnel.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0115
Luís Carlos M. Sales, Lícia G. Souza, Luís Gustavo C. Monteiro, Marcelo S. Rodrigues, Fábio R. Borges
Abstract There is a worldwide race to adopt measures that are efficient in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the planet's atmosphere and consequently minimize the possibility of global warming. In this regard, several countries have adopted laws and programs that encourage the automotive industry to apply advanced and innovative technologies to increase the vehicles energy efficiency. In many cases the adoption of more than one technology does not mean that the result of energy efficiency is the simple sum of the effects of each one of them. Therefore, the relevance of analyzing the interactivity between technologies is justified. The objective of this work is to present the experimental evaluation of the comparison of energy consumption and CO2 reduction with the combined application of Start & Stop and Intelligent Alternator.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0116
Luís Carlos M. Sales, Edilson P. Pacheco, Luis Gustavo C. Monteiro, Lícia G. Souza, Moises S. Mota
Abstract The automotive industry has played an important role in the international purpose of containing carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate the negative effects of the greenhouse effect. International agreements and treaties promoted legislation that set targets for CO2 emissions and also for the energy consumption of motor vehicles. Several technologies have been implemented and are being developed to increase the energy efficiency of the vehicles and consequently reduce the fuel consumption which is a direct relation with the emission of CO2. This research aimed at the experimental analysis of an alternator equipped with a mechanical decoupling system of the crank shaft of the internal combustion engine. This new system consists of an integrated pulley to an electromagnetic clutch. It is a technological innovation and unprecedented in terms of control of the generation and use of electric energy.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0196
Alessandro Kulitch, Renato de Arruda Penteado Neto, Bruna de Monaco Lopes
Summary In this study, a prototype oil filter was developed as a replacement for the shielded filters currently used in automotive applications. The goal was to reduce the residual lubricating oil disposed with a used filter. This is considered a Class I, waste (dangerous), under NBR 10004. Current Brazilian legislation, including CONAMA Resolution No. 362 of 2005, prioritizes the collection and disposal of used lubricating oil, and requires all contaminated material to be recycled or, where current technology does not permit this, to be sent to industrial landfills certified to handle toxic waste. To quantify the volume of residual oil in a commercial shielded oil filter, an experiment was conducted using 120 samples of a standard model. These samples were weighed before and after use. Before developing our novel design, a survey was conducted of professionals from the automotive field, to identify the main opportunities for progress.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0155
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Paulo Smith Schneider, Bárbara Pacheco da Rocha, Bernardo dos Santos Piccoli, Marcelo Risso Errera, Sérgio M. Corrêa
Abstract This paper reports and compares the performance of five motorcycles, four of them powered by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and one by an Electric Engine (EE). The power grade of those vehicles represents more than 80% of Brazilian motorcycle fleet. Motorcycles are submitted to standard routines, in accordance with regulations established by PROMOT (Control of Air Pollution for Motorcycles and Similar Vehicles). Main output parameters allowed for the assessment of their energy performance in respect to the energy source, followed by their greenhouse gases emission potential due to CO2, CH4 and N2O. The paper presents regulated emissions results for CO, THC and NOx, provided by EE and ICE engines. Different ICE motorcycles are tested, and fueled by a range of ethanol/gasoline contents from 22 to 100%, allowing to analyze the influence of the renewable biofuel on the motorcycle energetic efficiency and emissions.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0189
A. L. S. Forcetto, R. de Abrantes
Abstract The motor vehicles are the main source of atmospheric pollution, especially carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx). To reduce these emissions for environmentally acceptable levels, Europe and the United States have developed control programs, where are set emissions limits for new vehicles, which are gradually reduced over time and the compliance must be done through standardized tests in laboratories. However, Europe is facing a problem: NOx level in the cities is not being reduced in the same proportion of the homologation limits, due to two factors: the poor representativeness of the test procedures in comparison of the “real world” and the use of engine management software that produces low pollutants just in laboratory tests. Several studies about real world emissions have pointed to vehicles, approved in the laboratory, emitting in the streets about 7 up to 40 times more NOx than the homologation limit.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0199
R Lopes, A Carbonara
Abstract Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emission measurements requires road load determination by standardized Coast-down test. Worldwide stablished standards for testing and calculation apply second order polynomial fit models to describe road load. The common approach on road load analysis and validation is by direct comparison of coefficients and corresponding parabolas. This paper discuss an alternative approach (currently used by the USA Environmental Protection Agency) for estimating road load energy loss on standard test driving profile. Combining simple physical concepts on Work with the road load model and the chassis dynamometer driving profile, equations are derived describing the energy loss as a function of road load coefficients on a fuel economy test.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0215
Felipe V. Lewiski, Edson Bazzo, Mario E. S. Martins, Paulo R. M. Machado, Jácson Antolini, Geovane A. F. Prante, Vitor V. Cogo
Abstract Vegetable oils have been seen as promising surrogates to petroleum diesel in compression ignition internal combustion engines, showing similar performance and combustion characteristics of the fossil fuel. Nevertheless, the use of straight (crude) vegetable oil (SVO) is unfavorable due to its high viscosity, which affects the Sauter Mean Diameter of fuel spray and, consequently, fuel-air mixing process, resulting in incomplete combustion. The SVO heating, as well as transesterification and blending with diesel or additives, are some of the techniques to reduce its viscosity and enable its use. Of these the most simple and direct is the heating and was used in this paper to evaluate the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with preheated soybean oil (PSO) by electrical resistances. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder four-stroke compression ignition engine with mechanical fuel injection.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0076
Adyati Yudison, Driejana, Iman K. Reksowardojo, Aminudin Sulaeman
Motorcycles account for almost 80% of private vehicles in Indonesia, with an annual growth rate of 12% per year. This paper aims to investigate the emission profiles of CO2, CO, HC and NOx based on typical fuel and motorcycle types in Indonesia. Questionnaire surveys were undertaken to gather fuel type, engine technology and capacity representing the motorcycle population in Bandung City, Indonesia. Emissions were measured based on six-speed variations on a chassis dynamometer. Questionnaire surveys from 290 respondent show that EURO II and EURO III technology with engine capacity less than 150cc is the most utilized type of motorcycle in Bandung. Most of the users’ chose RON 90 and RON 92 gasoline. Based on the results, four groups of 5 motorcycle of EUROII-RON90, EUROII-RON92, EUROIII-RON90, and EUROIII-RON92 were tested. Emission data showed that the higher the speed, the lower the emission, except for CO and NOx which have a different pattern.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0087
Sangriyadi Setio, Wiranto Arismunandar, Rudy Ong, Adefrid Dwithama, Stefanus Adrian, Angela Claudia, Nu’man Amri Maliky, Jery Octavianus, Muhammad Alif Mabbrur, Michell Tjhoi
Developing and designing fuel efficient vehicle for a one gallon of fuel marathon is a challenging task. Engines have to be optimized to achieve maximum fuel efficiency. In this study, we evaluate the optimal compression ratio (CR) and ignition timing that produce the best torque in a custom gasoline-based-motorcycle-engine that use ethanol E100 fuel. In the first experiment, CR was adjusted between 9 and 12 to evaluate its effect on the engine mileage’s record. The experiment was conducted on the test track. In the second experiment, Ignition timing was adjusted by a custom-made engine control unit (ECU) between 15° and 45° before top dead center (BTDC). The engine performance was investigated in terms of best torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), with variation of engine speed between 1500 and 8000. The test was conducted on dynamometer. The test was also performed in constant compression ratio and stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, 9.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0085
Masaaki Togawa, Takeshi Nishiyama, Keito Agui, Yuki Takamura, Akira Iijima, Hideo SHOJI
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0052
Katsunori Tasaki
Misfire is the condition where the engine does not fire correctly due to an ignition miss or poor combustion of the air fuel mixture, resulting in serious deterioration of tailpipe emissions due to the discharge of unburned gas. In order to prevent further exacerbating environmental problems, misfire detection is obligatory in On Board Diagnosis (OBD) II systems. OBD II technology for passenger cars cannot be easily adopted to motorcycles for several reasons. However, very little research has been reported on misfire detection for an unevenly firing engine in which the degree of contribution to engine output and the variation pattern of angular velocity show a large difference between cylinders, an aspect that is unique to motorcycles. This research focuses on uneven firing V-twin motorcycle engines, to explore misfire detection techniques using variation characters in crank angular velocity.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0054
Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo, Phonethip Trichanh, Kevin Ferdyamin, Mega Zulfikar Akbar
This research aims to investigate the effect of ethanol blends with pure gasoline to the rate of fuel consumption and emissions of fuel injection motorcycle 115 cc with automatic transmission which is the population is dominant in Indonesia. Variations of the bioethanol mixture are 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol. The experiment conducted in two different conditions by using three ways catalytic converter (TWC) in the exhaust pipe and without using TWC in the exhaust pipe. First, all engine setting was originally manufacture setting. Second, the AFR is set in stoichiometry condition (λ = 1) and ignition timing set in MBT timing using modified ECU. The experiment performed on the chassis dynamometer and referred on the standard cycle ECE 15. The results of this experiment showed that increment of ethanol content in the fuel makes the rate of fuel consumption and CO2 emission both increased but CO and HC emissions decreased.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0059
Yoshinori Nakao, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kozo Suzuki, Katsumi Sobakiri
In this paper, it is also elucidated that the influence of the downstream injection, which caused different fuel behavior in contrast with upstream injection, on the THC after warm-up and at the maximum power, as well as its mechanism. The mechanism is clarified by use of the intake port visualization system. First, at each injection position, the effect of injection timing on THC emission after warm-up was evaluated. In the downstream injection, THC emission increases during the injection timing, in which the fuel spray directly flows in-cylinder during the intake process (hereinafter defined as the intake valve opening injection timing), and the amount of THC emission is reduced at the other injection timing (hereinafter defined as the intake valve closing injection timing). Based on the results of visualizing the intake port, injected fuel phase near the intake valve is spray in the downstream injection.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0041
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0046
Tomoyuki Mukayama, Ryota Nishigami, Annisa Bhikuning, Go Asai, Masaki Kuribayashi, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0042
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0020
Koichi Tanaka, Kunio Arase, Amane Kitayama, Toru Shimizu, Akihisa Shimura
The aim of this study is to analyze the emission improvement in the oil-cooled engine by use of internal cylinder gas pressure measurement and 3D simulation of thermal flow and combustion. In the previous study, two test engines were designed to evaluate the benefits of the oil-cooled engine. One was an oil-cooled, and the other was a water-cooled engine. Both engines were single cylinder engines with SOHC valve-train systems. The hardware specifications of both engines were exactly the same except for their cooling systems in order to clarify how the difference in engine cooling system affects their cooling performance, warm-up performance and emission performance.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0107
C. C. Chou, T. F. Kuo, T. H. Tsai, Y. H. Su, J. H. Lu, Y. Y. Ku
The urea-water-solution based selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system is one of the effective devices for reduction of NOx from diesel engines. In an effort to understand the various levels of oscillation observed in the NOx measurement downstream of a SCR in which the urea dosage is controlled by a crankshaft-link pump, a zero-dimensional dynamic SCR model is developed in this paper based on conservation of mass. The model contains three states including the concentrations of NOx and ammonia in the SCR and the surface coverage rate of the catalyst. The temperature-dependent reactions considered in the model include the adsorption, desorption and oxidation of ammonia and the NOx reduction with the reaction constants provided by the catalyst company. The dynamic SCR model is validated both at steady state and during transient under various engine operating conditions and urea dosing rates.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0105
C. J. Chiang, T. F. Kuo, Anton Halim, S. C. Cheng, Y.Y. Ku
The main function of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is to remove the particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine emission. However, the accumulated PM restricts the exhaust flow through the DPF and increases the back pressure which may negatively impact fuel consumption. Therefore, the particulate filter needs to be regenerated by burning off the accumulated particulate, which is achieved either by passively use of a catalyst or by actively introducing high heat into the exhaust system. In the exhaust after treatment system considered in this paper, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is installed upstream of the DPF to facilitate the regeneration process. In order to combust the captured particulate in the DPF, a small amount of fuel can be injected into the exhaust, upstream of the DOC, when necessary.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0101
K. Thammakul, C. Charoenphonphanich, H. Kosaka, M. Tongroon
Primary energy source such as fossil fuel keep decreasing due to various kind of usage. According to less amount of the fossil fuel, human seeks for an alternative fuel source such as alcohol. Alcohol like ethanol can be produced easily from strarchy plant. But using alcohol as blended fuel with diesel fuel doesn't work well because alcohol has low cetane number, lack of lubricity and very low miscibility with diesel fuel. To overcome this, fumigation system or port fuel injection of alcohol seems interesting. Although it requires more complicate system but it can compensate the miscibility issue and alcohol can be used in higher dose to give more energy. Diesel engine produces a lot of emission such as NOx and some other carbon content emission like HC, CO and soot due to they run in lean condition as their characteristic. Modern diesel engines are now coupled with exhaust gas recirculation system to help reduce in main emission like NOx.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0096
H. R. Guru Kiran, J. M. Mallikarjuna
Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0095
Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa, Phiranat Khamsrisuk, Pol-ake Budsayahem, Pattara Chammana, Kobsak Sriprapha, Katsunori Hanamura
The soot contamination in used engine oils of diesel engine vehicles was about 1% by weight. The soot and metal wear particle sizes might be in the range of 0-1 µm and 1-25 µm, respectively. The characteristics of soot affecting on metal wear was investigated. Soot particle contamination in diesel engine oil was simulated using carbon black. Micro-nanostructure of soot particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS). The metal wear behavior was studied by means of a Four-Ball tribology test with wear measured. Wear roughness in micro-scale was investigated by high resolution optical microscopy (OM) , 3D rendering optical technique and SEM image processing method. It was found that the ball wear scar diameter increased proportionally to the soot primary particle size. The effect of biodiesel contamination were also increasing in wear scar diameter.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0094
Preechar Karin, Park Watanawongskorn, Jiramed Boonsakda Eakkawut Saenkhumvong, Sippakorn Rungsritanapaisan, Settavit Srivarocha, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Diesel engines are high thermal efficiency because of high compression ratio but produce high concentration of particulate matter (PM) because of direct injection fuel diffusion combustion. PM must be removed from the exhaust gas to protect human health. This research describes biodiesel engine performance, efficiency and combustion behavior using combustion pressure analyzer. It was clearly observed that PM emitted from CI engines can be reduced by using renewable bio-oxygenated fuels. The morphology and nanostructure of fossil fuel and biofuel PMs were investigated by using a Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology of biodiesel and diesel doesn’t have much different in the viewpoint of particulate matter trapping using DPF micro surface pores. The agglomerated ultrafine particles and primary nanoparticles sizes of diesel and biodiesel engine’s PM are approximately 50-500 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0089
Hiroki Oso, Akira Tanaka, Kentaro Nagai, Takahiro Yamazaki, Hideyuki Goto
The EURO4 standard has been enforced since the year 2017 for European quadricycle. The vehicles are regulated upper limit of unladen weight and engine displacement, in addition to the exhaust emissions and the net power. In order to meet those regulations, the engine for European quadricycle is demanded low exhaust emissions and light weight. Further, it is required to be achieved good drivability, low fuel consumption, low noise and more compact. We introduce technologies to meet demand for European quadricycle in compliance with EURO4. The limit values of exhaust emissions have been strengthened in EURO4 standard compared to the previous one. As devices to improve the exhaust emissions, the exhaust-after-treatment devices and the common rail injection system are well known, whereas those devices make engine systems heavier. In addition, to satisfy high torque at low speed for better drivability, larger displacement is effective.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0126
Huynh Thanh Cong, Takahiro Kashima, Daisuke Komasaki, Yuta Saito, Akihiko Azetsu
To explore the production and oxidation characteristics of soot in the flame of diesel jet under the condition equivalent to the direct injection diesel engine condition, the effect of three different important parameters (including injection pressure, injection duration, and oxygen concentration) are experimentally examined. For these purposes, a small CVCC (constant volume combustion chamber) with the volume of 60cc equivalent to the volume of combustion chamber of automotive diesel engine is used. To obtain the experimental data of soot production and oxidation, in experiments, the ambient condition of temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration before injection timing are prepared by the combustion of lean hydrogen mixture (with help of 8 spark plugs) at a high temperature and pressure condition around 1000K and 4.5MPa. The common rail type injector with 8 injection holes for modern diesel engine is attached to this vessel.
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