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Viewing 31 to 60 of 22750
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram Jadhav, Madhukar S Tandale
In this study, the heterogeneous catalyst is used instead of homogeneous catalyst. This is because to overcome the problems faced viz; Catalyst recovery, Thermal stability and excessive use of water. This paper are shows the use of heterogeneous catalyst and optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the heterogeneous transesterification for the production of Mahua oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Heterogeneous catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst such as ZnO, MgO and CaO. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well once achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 oC) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at low exhaust temperature encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature afforded by the higher fuel efficiency of advanced diesel engines further challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept with high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 oC at relevant space velocities (70k h-1), using high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0986
Dieter Rauch, David Kubinski, Giovanni Cavataio, Devesh Upadhyay, Ralf Moos
For lowering the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from learn burn diesel engines, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia (NH3) as reducing agent has become serial standard as exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Zeolites are in use as catalyst material as they show a high SCR performance over a wide temperature window. A crucial step in the SCR reaction mechanism over zeolites is an initial adsorption of NH3 on the catalyst surface. Only then, NOX can be converted to harmless N2 and H2O by the zeolite catalyst. In this study, a Chabazite SSZ-13 with and without copper exchange was investigated. Due to NH3 adsorption, the proton conductivity of the zeolite increases distinctly. By monitoring these changes in the material properties of the catalyst material, the NH3 loading can be in operando determined. In this work, a radio frequency technique, based on the cavity perturbation method, was applied to measure these effects.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Technology for light-duty CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) vehicles is well established, and CNG vehicles have performance comparable to their petrol-fuelled equivalents. CNG is commonly used in spark ignition (SI) engines because their powertrains are relatively easy to convert from liquid to gaseous fuels. In addition, the importance of natural gas (NG) will increase significantly as fuel for transportation. Apart from its massive availability at attractive current market prices, its particular advantages in terms of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and exhaust emissions have led to the increased interest in NG as a fuel source. The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fuelled with CNG and with petrol.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1043
Xian Shi, Reinhard Seiser, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert Dibble, Robert Cattolica
Fuel dithering, as a potential engine operation strategy, creates intentional patterns of rich/lean conditions of exhaust-gas composition to optimize the conversion efficiency of the catalyst. For current gasoline spark ignition engines to be run on natural gas, fuel dithering strategy may provide an effective exhaust treatment retrofit, which do not affect the existing engine setup and main operating conditions. A theoretical kinetic study is performed based on a 2D catalyst model including both gas-phase transportation and surface chemistry. It revealed that transient operations of the engine, changing exhaust gas from lean to rich (or from rich to lean) by adjusting equivalence ratio, are able to create a period of time when all THC, CO and NOx are low after the catalyst. It showed that this effect is mainly caused by the difference among absorption rates of different emission species on the catalyst surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1042
Ralf Moos
The state of catalysts and filters plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of particulate filters (GPF, DPF), the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts (TWC), the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in lean NOx traps (LNT) are important parameters. Today, they are determined indirectly and/or model-based calibrated by gas sensors installed up- or downstream of the catalysts or a differential pressure sensor. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine directly the catalyst state by a microwave-based technique. For that purpose, the catalyst housing serves as a cavity resonator. As “sensing” element, one or two simple antennas are mounted in the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb incl. coating and storage material) can be measured.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Future motor vehicle emission regulations, e.g. California’s LEVIII, lead to on-going tightening of emission limitations of Diesel vehicles. The increasing chal-lenge of these limitations will be met by improving the combustion process, i.e. reduced raw emissions on the one hand and on the other hand by additionally improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. The requirements towards OBD systems are increased together with the in-creased complexity of the aftertreatment system. Under these conditions, present monitoring strategies cannot guarantee reliable detection of partly failed systems anymore. New regulations also require OBD strategies that treat and consider the aftertreatment system as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness while striving for using existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1085
Marc C. Besch, Joshua Israel, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Hemanth Kappanna, Daniel Carder
Natural gas (NG) has immerged as a promising energy source to power the transportation sector over the next decades due to its abundant availability and comparably less production intensive process from well-to-tank than associated with conventional liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Furthermore, natural gas’s clean-burning properties and reduced carbon footprint make it a fuel of choice to comply with upcoming stricter emissions and greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations and aid in attaining national ambient air quality standards. Especially Diesel/NG dual-fuel operation has gained increased interest as it allows to combine both improved combustion efficiencies, inherent to the diesel-cycle, with the low carbon properties of NG.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1081
Axel Maier, Ulrike Klaus, Andreas Dreizler, Hermann Rottengruber
The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1071
Qi Jiao, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to the upcoming regulations for particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling study to predict soot emissions (both mass and solid particle number) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines was undertaken to provide insights on how and why soot emissions are formed from GDI engines. In this way, better methods may be developed to control or reduce PM emissions from GDI engines. In this paper, the influence of engine operating parameters was examined for a side-mounted fuel injector configuration in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The present models are able to reasonably predict the influences of the variables of interest compared to available experimental data or literature. For a late injection strategy, effects of the fuel composition, and spray cone angle were investigated with a single-hole injector.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect to the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. A lot of research is being carried throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels. Expert studies indicate hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This article experimentally characterizing the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0873
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Yongzhi Li, Haifeng Liu, Bowen Yan
In this study, three external EGR systems, named HPL-EGR (high-pressure loop EGR), LPL-EGR (low-pressure loop EGR) and DL-EGR (dual-loop EGR) respectively, were established in a heavy-duty diesel engine, and experimental investigation on the effects of EGR modes and combustion phasing (CA50 - crank angle at 50 percent total fuel energy released) on combustion characteristics, engine performance and emissions were conducted in view of best fuel consumption. At a fixed CA50, the oxygen equivalence ratio (Φoxy) and pumping loss are two fundamental factors that determine the proportion of low pressure loop EGR flow rate to total EGR flow rate. As operating load or speed changes, the turbine inlet enthalpy available, pumping loss and turbocharger total equivalent isentropic efficiency of each operating condition should be also taken into account, so the optimized proportion of low pressure loop flow rate in DL-EGR ought to varies regularly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Jai Gopal Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive in economic and environmental terms. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emission and few of them are regulated worldwide, while several other species are not regulated as yet. New research is indicating that these unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is very popular in several Asian countries and various governments are considering its wide scale implementation. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at rated engine speeds for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using Karanja biodiesel blends (KB20 and KB40) in a state-of-the-art common rail direct injection (CRDI) SUV transportation engine (Tata, Safari DICOR 2.2L). This engine has a maximum fuel injection pressure of 1600 bar.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0973
Aaron Brooker, Jeffrey Gonder, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Sean Lopp, Laurie Ramroth
The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high level advanced vehicle powertrain analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and easy way to estimate and compare the impact of technology improvements on light or heavy duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery life. It automatically imports the required inputs for almost any existing light duty vehicle. Those inputs can be modified to represent variations of the vehicle or powertrain. The vehicle and its components are then simulated through a speed versus time drive cycle. At each time step FASTSim accounts for drag, acceleration, ascent, rolling resistance, each powertrain components’ efficiency and power limits, and regenerative braking.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0981
Patrick Phlips
A first order analytical vehicle fuel consumption model is developed, based on an input/output description of engine fuel consumption and transmission efficiency. The model for the engine sub-system has been described previously for naturally aspirated spark ignition engines. Here it is shown that the model also applies for boosted engines in the lower half of the load range and for Diesel engines at all loads. The fuel consumption is expressed in units of Mean Effective Pressure (MEP), which normalizes for engine size and speed. At typical operating conditions, the Fuel MEP is nearly independent of engine speed and increases approximately linearly with engine load (Willans line). The slope reflects the indicated efficiency and the pumping trend, and the offset reflects engine combustion, friction, and pumping losses at zero load. The magnitude of the slope and offset are shown to follow from established engine properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0990
Brett M. Bailey
In developed countries, the reduction of emissions from internal combustion engines will become ever more challenging, as more efficient methods of vehicle operation, such as future diesel electric hybrid systems and exhaust energy recovery, place further thermal constraints on the current state-of-the-art Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR effectiveness and Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF regeneration aftertreatment technologies. The stop/start advantages of a hybrid and anti-idling systems reduce the time available for thermal particulate filter regeneration along with creating multiple low temperature starts during normal operation. Exhaust energy recovery systems will require high differential exhaust temperature in order to attain sufficient conversion efficiency placing further constraints on current thermal management approaches.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0992
Mojghan Naseri, Ceren Aydin, Shadab Mulla, Raymond Conway, Sougato Chatterjee
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, while discussions are in progress for tightening NOx emissions from HD engines post 2020. This will require increasingly higher NOx conversions across the emission control system and will challenge the current aftertreatment designs. Typical 2010/2013 Heavy Duty systems include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) along with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as cold start concept (dCSC™), SCR coated on filter (SCRF®) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversions, in combination with improved control strategies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed for future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. Since EuroIV/US10 legislation, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) has been widely and successfully used in order to reduce NOx emissions from HDD vehicles. There are four main types of SCR catalysts; Vanadia/Titania, Cu zeolite, Fe zeolite and mixed oxides of transition metals; and all of them have different performance characteristics, both positive and negative. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimisation has to be considered. Examples of this could be: catalyst development, optimised thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimised SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1000
Anna Fathali, Fredrik Wallin, Annika Kristoffersson, Mats Laurell
The objective of this work was to investigate which of the artificial ageing cycles used in the automotive industry causes major deactivation of three-way catalysts (TWCs) and can be used to obtain an aged catalyst similar to the road aged three-way catalyst. Three-way catalysts were aged on an engine bench using two different fuel-cut strategies, i.e. fuel-cut retardation (FCR) and fuel-cut acceleration (FCA) and their impact on catalysts life and performance. Furthermore standard bench ageing cycles (with secondary air injection SAI) with various mass flows were also investigated. The secondary air injection cycle consisted of a flow from three cylinders into one catalyst system and a flow from three cylinders into two parallel connected catalysts. Later on, an accelerated poisoning was adapted to the deactivation procedure in order to shorten the ageing time of catalytic converters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0999
Jan Schoenhaber, Joerg Michael Richter, Joel Despres, Marcus Schmidt, Stephanie Spiess, Martin Roesch
The new emission regulations in Europe, EU6 will promulgate more realistic driving conditions with more stringent HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This legislation will also include the WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure) cycle for standard for CO2 measurements and a new requirement called “Real-Driving-Emissions” (RDE) as well. The RDE requirement is to ensure modern vehicles comply with the legislation under all conditions of normal driving. More robust aftertreatment solutions are needed to meet these new requirements. This work introduces an improved three-way-catalyst (TWC) for gasoline engines for these new regulations. It is tested under static and dynamic conditions and on several engines and vehicles with various drive cycles. It offers better thermal stability combined with lower backpressure than former TWC generations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1003
Tomohito Kakema, Yukio Suehiro, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Takeshi Narishige, Masanori Hashimoto
This research is aimed at development of the catalyst for gasoline automobiles which uses only palladium (Pd) among platinum group metals (PGMs). And the conformity emission category aimed at LEV III-SULEV30. For evaluation, the improvement effect was verified for 2013 model year (MY) ACCORD (LEV II-SULEV) as the reference. As compared with Pd-rhodium (Rh) catalyst, a Pd-only catalyst had the low purification performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and there was a problem in the drop in dispersion of Pd by sintering, and phosphorus (P) poisoning.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1001
Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Cameron Tanner, David Bronfenbrenner, Tinghong Tao, Kenneth Twiggs
The necessity of reducing the emission of CO, HC, and NOx air pollutants from automobiles into the atmosphere is paramount; the regulations are becoming stricter. The emission at right after engine start accounts for most of the emission of these pollutants. If the catalyst could be warmed up quickly after engine start, it would reduce emissions. A three-way catalyst warms from the heat of the emissions being discharged from the engine. Heating the emissions to a high temperature and reducing the weights of the three-way catalyst and the three-way catalyst-coated substrate are effective for warming the catalyst. However, heating the emissions to a high temperature reduces the thermal efficiency of the engine. The method involving lightening the three-way catalyst by reducing the coating promotes sintering of the precious metals of the catalyst, and leads to reduction of the emissions purification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1019
Changpu Zhao, Man Bai, Junwei Yang, Fang Shang, Gang Yu
Diesel particulate filters have contributed to decreasing particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas of diesel cars and they have become standard diesel exhaust gas after-treatment devices. As the pressure drop through DPF increases with the increasing soot loading, DPF needs periodically regeneration to eliminate PM after certain miles. However, a part of the PM emissions of the engine contains non-combustible contributions (ashes) which mostly come from lubricating oil and fuel additives. These materials accumulate in the filter over lifetime, usually resulting in an increase in pressure drop as well as a reduction of the filter volume available for soot loading. The impact of ash can be mitigated by optimization of filter design parameter (asymmetric cell technology, ACT) or by periodic ash cleaning. The ACT DPF has larger inlet and smaller outlet and therefore a higher volume available for ash storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1005
Masahide Miura, Yuki Aoki, Nobusuke Kabashima, Takahiko Fujiwara, Toshitaka Tanabe, Akira Morikawa, Hirotaka Ori, Hiroki Nihashi, Suguru Matsui
In response to the growing awareness for environmental protection, automobile emissions regulations are gradually becoming more stringent all over the world. Moreover, the amount of precious metals used for automobile catalysts is required to decrease in order to lower the consumption of natural resources. As a consequence, further improvements to catalysts which contribute to a decrease in the amount of precious metals used while satisfying emission regulations are greatly needed. In this report, with the application of nanoparticle rhodium (Rh) clusters with controlled optimized particle sizes along with a high thermal stabilized pyrochlore-ceria/zirconia (CZ) catalyst which efficiently controls O2 storage and release, a robust, high performance three-way catalyst enhanced NOx purifying activity has been developed. Moreover, a zone coat strategy has been developed which improves cold start catalytic performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple types of new substrates were developed in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides normal product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration and thermal cycle tests. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of these properties were made. Conclusions regarding to their applicability were provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1013
Shankar Ramadas, Sunil Prasanth Suseelan, Thiyagarajan Paramadhayalan, Ambalavanan Annamalai, Rahul Mital
Meeting emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge to vehicle manufacturers from the time it became a part of regulatory requirement to certify vehicles under production. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to 'over design' the diesel oxidation catalyst to 'absorb' the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1007
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois
The synthesis and use of newly developed Mixed Metal Oxides for use as stand-alone Three-Way Catalysts and in conjunction with low PGM loadings will be discussed. Performance described will include conversion of pollutants and Oxygen Storage Capacity as a function of Space Velocity and Temperature and linked to material properties and reaction mechanisms. Implications for Tier3/Lev-3 compliance will be discussed in the light of trends of gasoline engine development.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the ability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations for gasoline applications. Initial target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were determined. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum volume of LNT/SCR that satisfied the NOx target. Temperature studies were performed to determine the temperature ranges for the TWC and LNT/SCR that satisfied the HC, CO, and NOx targets. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during the rich purge periods through steam reforming was crucial for maintaining the HC slip below the target level. The temperature of the LNT/SCR needed to be maintained between 300 and 350 C to satisfy the NOx slip target during lean/rich cycling while minimizing the slip of NH3, N2O, and HC during the rich purges.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1057
Scott Drennan, Gaurav Kumar, Shaoping Quan, Mingjie Wang
Controlling NOx emissions from vehicles is a key aspect of meeting new regulations for cars and trucks across the world. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a NOx reduction option that many engine manufacturers are adopting. The performance of urea injection and mixing upstream of an SCR catalyst is critical in obtaining reliable NOx reduction. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of urea injection systems have become an important development and diagnostic tool for designers. Designers are interested in applying more accurate spray and kinetic models to their CFD simulations and in reducing mesh generation time. This paper presents the application of an automatically generated Cartesian meshing approach to a urea liquid injection system. Investigations of the impact of injection and operating conditions are presented for a model urea-water injection case.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1051
Jean Milpied, Arnaud Frobert, Olivier Lepreux
This paper presents the evaluation of the impact of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality on the behavior of a controlled SCR system. Proper control of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system is crucial to fulfill NOx emissions standards of modern Diesel engines. Today, the urea is not considered as a control input in the system. Moreover, Urea Quality Sensors are now available to provide real time information of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality. The impact of %urea from 20 to 36% of urea on the NOx emissions of a passenger car 2.2L Diesel engine is calculated using a reference SCR model and a reference SCR control tool in multiple NEDC transient conditions. Several control strategies are tested with different levels of feedback. Ammonia slip levels are also calculated.
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