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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0576
Chad Koci, Kenth Svensson, Christopher Gehrke
Abstract A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0575
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Shyam Jade
Abstract Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0590
Alexandros Hatzipanagiotou, Paul Wenzel, Christian Krueger, Raul Payri, Jose M. Garcia-Oliver, Walter Vera-Tudela, Thomas Koch
Abstract In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0548
Estefanía Hervas-Blasco, Emilio Navarro-Peris, José Corberan, Alex Rinaldi
Abstract Nowadays, more than 50% of the fuel energy is lost in CNG Engines. While efforts to increase their efficiency have been focused mainly on the improvement of the combustion process, the combustion chamber and the reduction of friction losses, heat losses still remain the most important inefficient factor. A global strategy in which several energy recovery strategies are implemented could lead to engine improvements up to 15%. Therefore, the development of accurate models to size and predict the performance of the integrated components as well as to define an optimized control strategy is crucial. In this contribution, a model to analyze the potential of a new powertrain based on the electrification of the main auxiliaries, the integration of a kinetic energy recovery system and the exhaust gases heat recovery through a thermoelectric generator and a turbo-component is presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0547
Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Mahsa Rafigh, Alessandro Gallone, Marcello Rimondi
The predictive capabilities of an innovative multizone combustion model DIPulse, developed by Gamma Technologies, were assessed in this work for a last generation common rail automotive diesel engine. A detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out concerning the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace, as well as NOx and soot emissions for several operating points including both part load and full load points. After a preliminary calibration of the model, the combustion model parameters were then optimized through a Latin Hypercube Design of Experiment (DoE), with the aim of minimizing the RMS error between the predicted and experimental burn rate of several engine operating points, thus achieving a satisfactory agreement between simulation and experimental engine combustion and emissions parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0550
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Gary O'Brien, Richard Stobart, Dezong Zhao
Abstract The intrinsic model accuracy limit of a commonly used Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) mass flow rate model in diesel engine air path control is discussed in this paper. This EGR mass flow rate model is based on the flow of a compressible ideal gas with unchanged specific heat ratio through a restriction cross-area within a duct. A practical identification procedure of the model parameters is proposed based on the analysis of the engine data and model structure. This procedure has several advantages which include simplicity, low computation burden and low engine test cost. It is shown that model tuning requires only an EGR valve sweep test at a few engine steady state operating points.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0558
Christoph Poetsch, Tomaz Katrasnik
Abstract The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1152
Alan Brown, Marc Nalbach, Sebastian Kahnt, André Korner
Abstract Global CO2 reduction by 2021, according to some projections, will be comprised of multiple vehicle technologies with 7% represented by hybrid and electric vehicles (2% in 2014) [1]. Other low cost hybrid methods are necessary in order to achieve widespread CO2 reduction. One such method is engine-off coasting and regenerative braking (or recuperation) using a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE). This paper will show that a 48V power system, compared to a 12V system with energy storage module for vehicle segments B, D and E during WLTP and NEDC, is much more efficient at reducing CO2. Passive engine-off coasting using 12V energy storage shows a CO2 benefit for practical real world driving, but, during NEDC, multiple sources of friction slow the vehicle down to the extent that the maximum benefit is not achieved.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1165
Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Imtiaz Haque, Srikanth Pilla, Zoran S. Filipi, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1176
Karim Hamza, Ken Laberteaux
Abstract This work presents a modeling approach for estimation of the equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for real driving patterns and charging behaviors. In general, modeling of the equivalent GHG for a trip made by a PHEV not only depends on the trip trace in question, but also on the electric range of the vehicle and energy consumption in previous trips since the last charging event. This can significantly increase the necessary computational burden of estimating the GHG emissions using numerical simulation tools, which are already computationally-expensive. The proposed approach allows a trip numerical simulation starting with a fully charged battery to be re-used for GHG estimation of a trip that starts with any initial state of charge by re-allocating the appropriate amount electric energy to an equivalent gas consumption.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1192
Hisao Kato
Abstract Electrode catalyst (platinum) degradation represents a major challenge to the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). While various mechanisms have been proposed and investigated previously, there is still a need to develop in situ imaging techniques that can characterize and provide direct evidence to confirm the degradation process. In the present study, we report an in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method that enables real time, high-resolution observation of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte under working conditions. By improving the design of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sample holder, the migration and aggregation of neighboring platinum nanoparticles could be visualized consistently and correlated to applied electrode potentials during aging process (i.e., cyclic voltammetry cycles).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles; in the meantime a rapid period of evolving engine developments, the constrained tailpipe regulations and the material supply issues present a unique challenge to the catalyst developers. A key approach here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on the ultra-low PGM levels. In this regard, we mainly focus on the materials design and have developed the advanced spinel oxides for zero precious metals (ZPGM) and synergized precious metals (SPGM) TWCs. These advanced spinel materials showed improved thermal stability compared to that of PGM based standard materials. Fundamental studies on the microstructure of spinel oxide with newly developed composition confirm the aging stability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0930
Yasunari Hanaki, Misaki Fujimoto, Junji Itou
Abstract This paper describes a new catalyst powder has been developed that provides cleaner exhaust emissions and reduces the consumption of precious metals. In recent years, precious metal usage has been increasing due to the tightening of emission regulations and the increase in automobile production worldwide. Minimizing the use of precious metals in exhaust catalysts is crucial not only for reducing the cost of vehicles but also for effective utilization of scarce resources. Iron is one of the alternative material candidates for precious metals. It was found that the Iron catalyst was activated by iron becoming the low oxidation state while iron oxide and cerium oxide synchronized in a nanostructure interface. A catalyst with improved iron support technology that enables better contact between highly dispersed particles of iron and ceria was found to exhibit higher exhaust gas cleansing performance than precious metal catalysts even after aging.
CURRENT
2016-04-05
Standard
J3071_201604
This SAE Battery Identification and Cross Contamination Prevention document is intended to provide information that may be applicable to all types of Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) devices. It is important to develop a system that can facilitate sorting by chemistry. The recycler is interested in the chemistry of the RESS. This is true for the recyclers of Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium etc. Thus recyclers of RESS will receive RESS from automotive, commercial, and industrial applications. These RESS have the potential to be contaminated with a RESS of an incompatible chemistry. It is recognized that mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate the introduction of incompatible chemistries into a given recycling stream would also benefit safety and the environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0683
Kai Morganti, Abdullah Alzubail, Marwan Abdullah, Yoann Viollet, Robert Head, Junseok Chang, Gautam Kalghatgi
Abstract This paper is the second of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This second study focuses on drive cycle simulations and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for vehicles equipped with Octane-on-Demand combustion. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. The experimental engine calibration maps developed in the previous study are first provided as inputs to a drive cycle simulation tool. This is used to quantify the total fuel consumption, octane requirement and tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions for a light-duty vehicle equipped with two alternative powertrain configurations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0990
Robert Zummer, Tim Nevius, Scott Porter
Abstract The application of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to control nitric oxides (NOx) in diesel engines (2010, Tier 2, Bin5) introduced significant amounts of Ammonia (NH3) and Urea to the NOx exhaust gas analyzers and sampling systems. Under some test conditions, reactions in the sampling system precipitate a white powder, which can accumulate to block sample lines, rendering the exhaust emission sampling inoperable. NOx gas analyzers used for exhaust measurement are also susceptible to precipitation within the sample path and detector components. The contamination requires immediate maintenance for powder removal to restore baseline performance. The results of experiments to eliminate the powder are presented. Analysis of the powder identifies it as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), which is consistent with the white crystalline precipitate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0975
Xander Seykens, Erik van den Tillaart, Velizara Lilova, Shigeru Nakatani
Abstract Since the introduction of Euro IV legislation [1, 2], Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for NOx reduction in many applications. Ammonia (NH3) is the reagent and key element for the SCR system and its control calibration to meet all operational requirements. TNO and Horiba are highly motivated to facilitate a correct interpretation and use of emissions measurement data. Different hypotheses were defined to investigate the impact of temperatures and flow rates on urea decomposition. These parameters are known to strongly affect the urea decomposition process, and thus, the formation of NH3. During a test campaign, different SCR catalyst feed gas conditions (mass flow, temperature, species and dosing quantities) were applied. Three Horiba FTIR gas analyzers were installed to simultaneously sample either all upstream or all downstream of the SCR brick. Both steady-state and dynamic responses were evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Paul Ragaller, Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Abstract Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0995
Michael A. Robinson, Jacob Backhaus, Ryan Foley, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The on-board PM analyzer is a combination of a partial flow dilution system (PFDS) particulate sampler and a diffusion charger sensor (DCS) for real-time PM signals. The measuring technology and basic performance of the analyzer will be explained. Acceleration of the vehicle can cause uncertainty of flow measurement in the PM sampler.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
Abstract Catalyst aging is presently one of the most important aspects in aftertreatment development, with legislation stating that these systems must be able to meet the relevant emissions legislation up to a specified mileage on the vehicle, typically 150,000 miles. The current industry approach for controlling aging cycles is based solely on the detailed specification of lambda (air-fuel mixture concentration ratio), flow rate and temperature without any limitations on gas mixture. This is purely based upon the experience of engine-based aging and does not take into account any variation due to different engine operation. Although accurate for comparative testing on the same engine/engine type, inconsistencies can be observed across different aging methods, engine types and engine operators largely driven by the capability of the technology used.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0698
Zheng Xu, Zhou Zhou, Tao Wu, Tong Li, Chuanhui Cheng, Haiting Yin
Abstract Engine downsizing has become a leading trend for fuel consumption reduction while maintaining the high specific power and torque output. Because of this, Turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) technology has been widely applied in passenger vehicles even though a number of technical challenges are presented during the engine development. This paper presents the investigation results of three key issues in the combustion development of a 2.0L TGDI engine at SAIC motor: fuel dilution, smoke emission and low speed stochastic pre-ignition(LSPI). The effect of the injection timing and injection strategy on fuel dilution and smoke emission, and LSPI are the focus of the experimental study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0892
Oliver P. Taylor, Richard Pearson, Richard Stone
Abstract Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselisation. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller, but significant incremental efficiency benefits, such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. The reduction in tail pipe CO2 emissions through the reduction of engine friction using lubricants has been reported by many authors. However, opportunities also exist to reduce the lubricant viscosity during warm up by the thermal management of the lubricant mass.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1346
Tomoyuki Hosaka, Taisuke Sugii, Eiji Ishii, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Yoshihiro Sukegawa
Abstract We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0875
Ludvig Adlercreutz, Andreas Cronhjort, Johannes Andersen, Roy Ogink
Abstract With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0992
Justin Koczak, Andre Boehman, Matthew Brusstar
Abstract With increasingly stringent light duty particulate emissions regulations, it is of great interest to better understand particulate matter formation. Helping to build the knowledge base for a thorough understanding of particulate matter formation will be an essential step in developing effective control strategies. It is especially important to do this in such a way as to emulate real driving behaviors, including cold starts and transients. To this end, this study examined particulate emissions during transient operation in a recent model year vehicle equipped with a GDI engine. Three of the major federal test cycles were selected as evaluation schemes: the FTP, the HWFET, and the US06. These cycles capture much of the driving behaviors likely to be observed in typical driving scenarios. Measurements included particle size distributions from a TSI EEPS fast-response particle spectrometer, as well as real-time soot emissions from an AVL MSS soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1265
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Sasikumar Nandagopal
Abstract This work aims at studying the combined effect of oxygen enrichment and emulsification techniques on engine performance behavior of a compression ignition engine fuelled with WCO (waste cooking oil) as fuel. Used sunflower oil collected from a restaurant was chosen as fuel. A single cylinder, water cooled, agricultural oriented, diesel engine was used for the experiments. Initially tests were performed using neat diesel and neat WCO as fuels. Performance, emission, and combustion parameters were obtained. In the second phase of work, WCO was converted into its emulsion by emulsification process using water and ethanol and tested. In the third phase, the engine intake system was modified to admit excess oxygen along with air to test the engine with WCO and WCO emulsion as fuels under oxygen enriched environment. A comparative study was made at 100% and 40% of the maximum load (i.e. 3.7 kW power output) at the rated engine speed of 1500 rpm.
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