Display:

Results

Viewing 271 to 300 of 22530
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1313
Nicolas Dronniou, Julian Kashdan, Bertrand Lecointe, Kyle Sauve, Dominique Soleri
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion strategies combining a premixed charge of natural gas and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of the high Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio of methane gas. Moreover, the high octane number of methane means that dual-fuel combustion strategies can be employed on compression ignition engines without the need to vary the engine compression ratio, thereby significantly reducing the cost of engine hardware modifications. The aim of this investigation is to explore the fundamental combustion phenomena occurring when methane is ignited with a pilot injection of diesel fuel. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder optical research engine which is typical of modern, light-duty diesel engines. A high-speed digital camera recorded time-resolved combustion luminosity and an intensified CCD camera was used for single-cycle OH*chemiluminescence imaging.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1311
Debabrata Barik, Murugan Sivalingam
Abstract The present study was aimed to run the diesel engine only with two renewable fuels in a dual fuel mode. The karanja methyl ester (KME) derived from karanja oil was used as an injected fuel, and the biogas obtained from the anaerobic digestion of pongamia pinnata (Karanja) de-oiled cakes, was used as a secondary fuel in a single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Four different flow rates of biogas, viz., 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h were inducted along with the air in the suction of the engine. The results of the experiment were compared with those of diesel and KME operations. Biogas inducted at a flow rate of 0.9 kg/h was found to be the best among all the flow rates, in terms of the performance and emission of the engine. The dual fuel operation showed a higher BSEC than that of diesel operation at full load.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1342
Huayu Tian, Baigang Sun, Haichun Yao, Hongyang Tang, Qinghe Luo
Abstract Nowadays, the world is facing severe energy crisis and environment problems. Development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is one of the best ways to solve these problems. Due to the difficulties of infrastructures, such as the hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen fuel vehicles have not been widely used yet. As a result, Hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicle is a solution as a compromise. In this paper, three way catalytic converter (TWC) was used to reduce emissions of hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicles. On wide open throttle and load characteristics, the conversion efficiency of TWC in gasoline engine was measured. Then the TWC was connected to a hydrogen internal combustion engine. After switching the hydrogen and gasoline working mode, emission data was measured. Experiment results show that the efficiency of a traditional TWC can be maintained above 85%., while it works in a hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel alternative working mode.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1329
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
Abstract The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1526
Takahiro Umeno, Masaya Hanzawa, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Masao Hori
Abstract In this study several NOx storage materials have been investigated to see their NOx storage properties. And sulfur release properties of these materials have been also investigated. Based on these findings, new LNT catalyst was developed. In this new LNT catalyst Barium is supported on one basic material, and Strontium is coated in the whole catalyst with high dispersion. And it shows higher NOx storage performance against conventional LNT one even though 10g/L of sulfur was introduced to the catalysts. According to analysis results of new LNT catalyst after sulfur poisoning, it was found that sulfur was mainly adsorbed on Strontium selectively, and then it formed sulfate compound as SrSO4. On the other hand, another sulfate compounds could be hardly observed. And regarding Barium on basic material some analysis measurement said that it has not only better NOx storage function, but also better sulfur release function.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1535
Hongsuk Kim, Cheon Yoon, Junho Lee, Hoyeol Lee
Abstract One of most effective NOx control technology of modern diesel engines is SCR with ammonia. Current NOx reduction systems are designed to use a solution of urea dissolved in water as a source of ammonia. However, the liquid urea systems have technical difficulties, such as a freezing point below −11°C and solid deposit formation in the exhaust temperature below 200°C. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of a new ammonia generation system that uses low-cost solid ammonium salt, such as solid urea and ammonium carbonate. The result shows that ammonium carbonate is more suitable than solid urea because of low decomposition temperature and no change to the other ammonium salt during the decomposition process. This paper also shows the NOx reduction capability of the new ammonia delivery system that uses ammonium carbonate.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1528
S. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, H. Suenobu, H. Sakamoto, F. Katsube, P. Busch, A. Martin, R. Kai, C. D. Vogt
Today the Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system with good NOx conversion is the emission technology of choice for diesel engines globally. High NOx conversion SCR systems combined with optimized engine calibration not only address the stringent NOx emission limits which have been introduced or are being considered for later this decade, but also reduce CO2 emissions required by government regulations and the increase in fuel economy required by end-users. Reducing the packaging envelope of today's SCR systems, while retaining or improving NOx conversion and pressure drop, is a key customer demand. High SCR loadings ensure high NOx conversion at very low temperatures. To meet this performance requirement, a High Porosity Substrate which minimizes the pressure drop impact, was introduced in SAE Paper 2012-01-1079 [1], [2], [3].
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1527
Xiangyu Feng, Yunshan Ge, Jianwei Tan, Jiaqiang Li, Yao Zhang, Chenglei Yu
Abstract The NOx conversion efficiency of vanadium-based SCR catalyst is lower under low temperature. Utilizing an exhaust analyzer, the effects of electrically heated catalyst on the performance of vanadium-based SCR catalyst under low temperature was studied on the engine test bench. The inlet temperature of SCR catalyst without the electrically heated catalyst were in the range of 150°C∼270°C under various steady engine modes, and the NSR (Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio) was set as 0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0. The results showed that under the space velocity of 20000h−1, with the application of the electrically heated catalyst, the inlet temperature of SCR increased about 19.9°C on average and the NOx conversion efficiency improved about 8.0%. The NOx conversion efficiency increased 1.7%∼8.6% at the temperatures of 150°C∼174°C, and 1.0%∼15.9% at the temperatures of 186°C∼270°C.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1530
Joel Op de Beeck, Kevin Slusser, Neall Booth
Abstract Automotive SCR systems are dimensioned to reduce NOx efficiently in normal driving conditions. In markets such as North America and Europe, extreme winter conditions are common over a period of many weeks where temperatures are usually below DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) freezing temperatures at −11°C (12°F). In previous studies and applications, DEF was heated in the tank in a dedicated pot or alternatively by a standardized central heater. Due to the local character of these heating solutions, it was not possible to thaw the full tank volume. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how to significantly improve performance of the SCR system in cold weather conditions for passenger car, light commercial vehicles and SUV applications. The performance improvement is demonstrated by sustainability testing showing how much of the full tank content can be thawed and made available for injection in the exhaust system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1529
Jongik Jeon, Hyongman Seo, Kangwon Lee, Soonhyung Kwon, Kisong Bae
Abstract This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1531
Joel Michelin, Frederic Guilbaud, Alain Guil, Ian Newbigging, Emmanuel Jean, Martina Reichert, Mario Balenovic, Zafar Shaikh
Abstract Future Diesel emission standards for passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles, require the combination of a more efficient NOx reduction performance along with the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the package requirements to facilitate it. With the increasing availability of aqueous urea, DEF or AdBlue® at service stations, and improved package opportunities, the urea SCR technical solution has been demonstrated to be very efficient for NOx reduction; however the complexity in injecting and distributing the reductant remains a challenge to the industry. The traditional exhaust system contains Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), all require additional heat to facilitate each of their specific functions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1532
Nic van Vuuren
Abstract The implementation of stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reduction legislation in Europe and North America is driving the introduction of new exhaust aftertreatment systems, including those that treat NOx under the high-oxygen conditions typical of lean-burn engines. One increasingly common solution, referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). It is customary with these systems to use a liquid aqueous urea solution, typically at a 32% concentration of urea (CO(NH2)2). The solution is referred to as AUS-32, and is also known under its commercial name of AdBlue® in Europe, and DEF - Diesel Exhaust Fluid - in the USA. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1519
Douglas Lee Ummel, Kenneth Price
Non-road Tier 4 Final emissions standards offer opportunities for engines to be certified with DOC + SCR aftertreatment systems (ATS), where particulate matter (PM) emissions will be controlled by engine measures. These non-filter systems will not experience high thermal conditions common for filter regeneration and, therefore, will not have the secondary benefit of thermal events removing sulfur from the DOC and SCR aftertreatment. An experimental program was conducted on DOC + SCR systems in which the DOC was selected for the anticipated NO2 and sulfur management requirements of a fixed volume of 3 SCR types (vanadia, copper and iron). Each system was optimized to NOx conversion levels of 90%+ on NRTC cycles then exposed to accelerated sulfur poisoning and various cycles of increasing temperature after each poisoning to observe the performance recovery of the system. Specific sulfur management strategies are defined, depending on technology.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1533
Zakwan Skaf, Timur Aliyev, Leo Shead, Thomas Steffen
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a leading aftertreatment technology for the removal of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from exhaust gases (DeNOx). It presents an interesting control challenge, especially at high conversion, because both reagents (NOx and ammonia) are toxic, and therefore an excess of either is highly undesirable. Numerous system layouts and control methods have been developed for SCR systems, driven by the need to meet future emission standards. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art control methods for the SCR aftertreatment systems, and provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on SCR control. The existing control techniques fall into three main categories: traditional SCR control methods, model-based SCR control methods, and advanced SCR control methods. For each category, the basic control technique is defined.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1518
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Zammit, Luis Cattani, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly
Abstract To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1521
Jason D. Pless, Mojghan Naseri, Wassim Klink, Glen Spreitzer, Sougato Chatterjee, Penelope Markatou
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. There is a drive to reduce the overall packaging volume of the aftertreatment system for these applications. In addition, more active SCR catalysts will be needed as the applications become more challenging: e.g. lower temperatures and higher engine out NOx, for fuel consumption improvements. One approach to meet the challenges of reduced volume and/or higher NOx reduction is to increase the active site density of the SCR catalyst by coating higher amount of SCR catalyst on high porosity substrates (HPS). This approach could enable the reduction of the overall packaging volume while maintaining similar NOx conversion as compared to 2010/2013 systems, or improve the NOx reduction performance for equivalent volume and NH3 slip.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1523
Keld Johansen, Henrik Bentzer, Arkady Kustov, Kenneth Larsen, Ton V.W. Janssens, Rasmus G. Barfod
Abstract Today, the DPF and SCR catalysts are combined sequentially in diesel exhaust systems. However, such sequential system configuration has several drawbacks: 1) large volume; 2) insufficient temperature for the SCR catalyst during cold start when DPF is placed in front of SCR; and 3) unfavorable conditions for passive soot regeneration if SCR is placed upstream of the DPF. The problems can potentially be solved by integrating the SCR catalyst into the particulate filter as one multifunctional unit. The study indicates that SCRonDPF based on Cu-zeolite type as SCR material can achieve the NOx conversion levels close to flow-through SCR catalysts for LDV (Light Duty Vehicles) using forced regenerations. Forced soot regeneration solves potential sulfur poisoning.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1522
Jean Balland, Michael Parmentier, Julien Schmitt
Similar to single-brick SCR architectures, the multi-brick SCR systems described in this paper require urea injection control software that meets the NOx conversion performance target while maintaining the tailpipe NH3 slip below a given threshold, under all driving conditions. The SCR architectures containing a close-coupled SCRoF and underfloor SCR are temperature-wise more favorable than the under-floor location and lead to significant improvement of the global NOx conversion, compared to a single-brick system. But in order to maximize the benefit of close-coupling, the urea injection control must maximize the NH3 stored in the SCRoF. The under-floor SCR catalyst can be used as an NH3 slip buffer, lowering the risk of NH3 slip at the tailpipe with some benefit on the global NOx conversion of the system. With this approach, the urea injection strategy has a limited control on the NH3 coverage of the under-floor SCR catalyst.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1525
Mojghan Naseri, Raymond Conway, Howard Hess, Ceren Aydin, Sougato Chatterjee
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, which will require increasingly higher NOx conversion to meet emission regulations. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as SCR coated on filter (SCRF®) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversion. In this work, different options were evaluated for achieving high NOx conversion. First, high performance NOx control catalysts were designed by using SCRF unit followed by additional SCR on high porosity substrates. Second, different control strategies were evaluated to understand the effect of reductant dosing strategy and thermal management on NOx conversion. Tests were carried out on a HD engine under transient test cycles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1524
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux, Arnaud Frobert
Abstract The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea water solution (UWS) is an effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by engines. The high potential offered by this solution makes it a promising way to meet the future stringent exhaust gas standards (Euro6 and Tier2 Bin5). UWS is injected into the exhaust upstream of an SCR catalyst. The catalyst works efficiently and durably if the spray is completely vaporized and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases before entering. Ensuring complete vaporization and optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging, especially for compact exhaust lines. Numerous parameters affect the degree of mixing: urea injection pressure and spray angle, internal flow field (fluid dynamics), injector location ….
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1510
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou
Asymmetric and Variable Cell (AVC) geometry Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) occupy an increasing portion of the DPFs currently offered by various DPF manufacturers, aiming at providing higher filtration area in the same filter volume to meet demanding emission control applications for passenger cars but also for heavy duty vehicles. In the present work we present an approach for designing and optimizing such DPFs by providing a quantitative description of the flow and deposition of soot in these structures. Soot deposit growth dynamics in AVC DPFs is studied computationally, primary and secondary flows over the inlet channels cross-sectional perimeters are analyzed and their interactions are elucidated. The result is a rational description of the observed growth of soot deposits, as the flow readjusts to transport the soot particles along the path of least resistance (which is not necessarily the shortest geometric path between the inlet and outlet channel, i.e. the wall thickness).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1509
Hsiao-Lan Chang, Hai-Ying Chen, Kwangmo Koo, Jeffery Rieck, Philip Blakeman
Stricter emission standards in the near future require not only a high conversion efficiency of the toxic air pollutants but also a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gases from automotive exhaust. Advanced engines with improved fuel efficiency can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions; their exhaust temperature is, however, also low. This consequently poses significant challenges to the emission control system demanding the catalysts to function at low temperatures both during the cold start period and under the normal engine operation conditions. In this paper, we will introduce a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology developed for advanced stoichiometric-burn gasoline engines to meet future stringent emission regulations. To improve the low temperature performance of three-way catalysts, a novel Al2O3/CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxide was developed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1512
Kazuki Nakamura, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Toshiaki Shibata, Yuki Hashizume
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) equipped with diesel vehicles have become indispensable components to capture the soot emitted from the engines from a viewpoint of both human health and global warming problems as well as the prevailing regulations. Meanwhile, the pressure drop caused by them leads to a direct increase of fuel consumption. In order to reduce it guaranteeing the sufficient soot filtration efficiency, we have developed the new concept of asymmetric plugging layout for the DPF design, so-called Valuable Plugging Layout (VPL), on the basis of octosquare (OS) structure and have clarified the advantage of the pressure drop reduction both experimentally and theoretically. The VPL-DPF consists of two kinds of octagonal/square inlet channels and octagonal outlet channels, and there are thought to be five filtration velocity modes as well as four kinds of soot deposit layers on each side of the inlet channel walls.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1511
Yosuke Goto, Naohiro Kato, Shota Kawashima, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Hideki Goto, Masao Hori
The diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) having high purification performance to the exhaust gas at low temperatures were investigated. In this paper two main technological improvements from conventional DOC are shown. First is forming Pt/Pd composite particles in order to suppress sintering of precious metal under high thermal aging condition. This generating Pt/Pd composite and the effect were exemplified by TEM-EDS and XRD analysis. Second is adjusting electric charge of Pt/Pd surface to reduce interaction between Pt/Pd and carbon monoxide (CO) by modifying the support material components. Adjusting electric charge of Pt/Pd surface by applying new support material could cancel CO poisoning at Pt/Pd surface. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) studies suggested that improved support material is more suitable for CO oxidation at a low temperature based on the concept.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1515
Lifeng Wang, Takeshi Kadono, Satoshi Sumiya
Low cost and S(sulphur)-tolerant DOCs (Diesel Oxidation Catalysts) are being demanded in emerging countries such as China and India, where Euro 4 and 5 type emission standards are going to be implemented or are being implemented. However, fuel S content is different in the metros vis-à-vis non metros in many emerging countries. In such a scenario, DOCs need to maintain catalytic performance with high S fuel as well as standard low S fuel. This paper describes the development results of S tolerant Pt-Pd based DOCs. A new washcoat technology (WT D) has been developed for EU 4 passive Pt-Pd DOC applications, in which PGM cost was thrifted by replacing part of Pt by Pd. Vehicle test results after thermal ageing and S poisoning demonstrated that the Pt-Pd DOC (Pt:Pd=4:1) prepared with WT D gave similar tailpipe CO (Carbon monoxide) and HC (Hydrocarbon) emission conversions as a commercially available EU 4 passive Pt-only DOC when 50ppm S diesel fuel was used.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1513
Bernhard Kern, Stephanie Spiess, Joerg Michael Richter
Abstract With the growing awareness about the presence of fine/ultra fine particulates in the ambient air and their negative impact on climate and health, some regions of the world have started to look closer at the contribution of road traffic. Since Gasoline engines, in particular when injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, proved to emit relevant numbers of particulates, even hardly visible, the growing share of Gasoline DI engines and their small size of particulate emissions is a concern. To address the same, the EU has already set limits for the particulate number with EU6 from 2015 onwards. The US considers setting challenging limits by particulate mass. Since mass of ultra fine particulates is very low and difficult to measure, experts investigate if a measurement by number might better address the particular concern. The implementation of a coated Particulate Filter enables meeting not only basic demands during traditional emission test cycles.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1517
Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang, Ruo-Qian Wang, Carl Kamp, Victor Wong
Ash accumulation in the channels of ceramic, honeycomb-type particulate filters is controlled by several key parameters, which are the focus of this study. Ultimately, it is the formation of ash deposits, their transport, and the manner in which the ash accumulates in the particulate filter, which determines the useful service life of the filter and its resulting impact on engine performance. Although significant variations in ash deposit properties and their spatial distribution within the filter channels have been reported, depending on the filter's application, understanding the key parameters and mechanisms, such as the effects of exhaust flow and temperature conditions, as well as the processes occurring during filter regeneration events (whether passive or active) are critical in developing improved filter ash management strategies.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1516
Kihong Kim, Rahul Mital, Takehiro Higuchi, Seomoon Chan, Chang Hwan Kim
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a widely used emission control device on diesel vehicles. The DPF captures the particulate matter coming from the engine exhaust and periodically burns the collected soot via the regeneration process. There are various trigger mechanisms for this regeneration, such as distance, time, fuel and simulation. Another method widely used in the industry is the pressure drop across the filter. During calibration, relation between the pressure sensor reading and soot mass in the filter is established. This methodology is highly effective in successful DPF operation as pressure sensor is a live signal that can account for any changes in engine performance over time or any unforeseen hardware failures. On the other hand, any erroneous feedback from the sensor can lead to inaccurate soot mass prediction causing unnecessary regenerations or even needless DPF plugging concerns.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1623
Timothy H. DeFries, Michael Sabisch, Sandeep Kishan, Francisco Posada, John German, Anup Bandivadekar
Fuel economy (FE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured via chassis testing under laboratory conditions were never intended to represent the wide range of real-world driving conditions that are experienced during a vehicle's lifetime. Comprehensive real-world information is needed to better assess US FE label adjustments, determine off-cycle credits for FE standards, and forecast real-world driving behavior, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. This paper explores a cost effective method to collect in-use fuel consumption data using the on-board diagnostics (OBD) data stream in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). The accuracy of fuel consumption calculated from the OBD data was analyzed in two ways. First, fuel rates calculated from standard OBD Parameter IDs (PIDs) were compared with fuel rate estimates based on enhanced PID (OEM fuel injector fuel rate) data in two different vehicles.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 22530

Filter