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Viewing 271 to 300 of 24398
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9046
Johann Peer, Fabian Backes, Henning Sauerland, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract In the present work the benefit of a 50 MPa gasoline direct injection system (GDI) in terms of particle number (PN) emissions as well as fuel consumption is shown on a 0.5 l single cylinder research engine in different engine operating conditions. The investigations show a strong effect of injection timing on combustion duration. As fast combustion can be helpful to reduce fuel consumption, this effect should be investigated more in detail. Subsequent analysis with the method of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the optical configuration of this engine and three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations reveal the influence of injection timing on large scale charge motion (tumble) and the level of turbulent kinetic energy. Especially with delayed injection timing, high combustion velocities can be achieved. At current series injection pressures, the particle number emissions increase at late injection timing.
2016-11-15
Article
Hyliion's electric-drive system hybridizes the trailer portion of the tractor-trailer combination and uses regenerative braking to capture power, possibly saving the trucking industry billions in fuel costs. The company recently won the grand prize in the 2016 "Create the Future" Design Contest for the technology.
2016-11-15
Article
Tanktwo, a Finland-based startup company is rethinking the basic battery cell and challenging the fundamental economics and operational assumptions of EVs. The ingenious concept is worth engineers' attention.
CURRENT
2016-11-15
Standard
J100_201611
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
CURRENT
2016-11-12
Standard
AS6286/4
This document shall be used in conjunction with: - AS6286, Training and Qualification Program for Deicing/Anti-icing of Aircraft on the Ground - AS6286/1, Processes including Methods - AS6286/2, Equipment - AS6286/3, Fluids - AS6286/5, Health, Safety and First Aid - AS6286/6, Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Diagrams, No-Spray-Zones
CURRENT
2016-11-10
Standard
AMS3687C
This specification covers a high-humidity-resistant, modified epoxy adhesive in the form of film supplied as rolls or sheets.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0012
Zhimin Lin, Kotaro Takeda, Yuki Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0009
Yuki Takamura, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keito Agui, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
Abstract A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used. Ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. The concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC in the exhaust were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0069
Indranil Brahma, Cristobal Manzanares, Rob Jennings, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Abishek Raghavan, Daniel Johnson, Peter Stryker
Abstract Non-volatile particle number distributions from a single cylinder industrial diesel engine were measured at several operating conditions spanning the torque curve. The effect of increasing the air-fuel ratio by injecting compressed shop air at various boost pressures was also investigated. A bi-modal distribution separated at approximately 20 nm was observed for most operating conditions. Depending on operating condition, the engine produced between 1014 to 1015 particles per kW-hr. Energy specific particle number emissions (per kW-hr) were seen to be strongly dependent on speed and load. Minimum emissions occurred at intermediate speeds and loads. Particles below 20 nm increased with decreasing load while the opposite trend was observed for particles greater than 20 nm. Variation in total particle surface and total particle volume followed the same trends as the particles from the larger mode.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0068
Joel Prince Lobo, James Howard Lee, Eric Oswald, Spenser Lionetti, Robert Garrick
Abstract The performance and exhaust emissions of a commercially available, propane fueled, air cooled engine with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) were investigated by varying relative Air to Fuel Ratio (λ), ignition timing, and Compression Ratio (CR). Varying λ and ignition timing was accomplished by modifying the EFI system using TechniCAL Industries’ engine development software. The CR was varied through using pistons with different bowl sizes. Strong relationships were recorded between λ and ignition timing and the resulting effect these parameters have on engine performance and emissions. Lean operation (λ > 1) has the potential to significantly reduce NOx production (110 g/kW-hr down to 5 g/kW-hr). Unfortunately, it also reduces engine torque by up to an order of magnitude (31 Nm down to 3 Nm).
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0063
Marc Cyrill Besch, April Nicole Covington, Derek Johnson, Nathan Fowler, Robert Heltzel
Abstract The aim of this investigation was to improve understanding and quantify the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as an emissions control measure onto cyclic variability of a small-bore, single-cylinder, diesel-fueled compression-ignition (CI) power generation unit. Of special interest were how cycle-to-cycle variations of the CI engine affect steady-state voltage deviations and frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the study strived to elucidate the impact of EGR addition onto combustion parameters, as well as gaseous and particle phase emissions along with fuel consumption. The power generation unit was operated over five discrete steady-state test modes, representative of nominal 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% engine load (i.e. 0-484kPa BMEP), by absorbing electrical power via a resistive load bank. The engine was equipped with a passive EGR system that directly connected the exhaust and intake runners through a small passage.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
Abstract The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0075
Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam, Rahul Sharma
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder closed loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
Abstract One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0028
Pascal Piecha, Philipp Bruckner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Florian Schumann, Stephan Meyer, Tim Gegg, Stefan Leiber
Abstract Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0067
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukie Ishizawa, Manami Sato, Rei Komuro, Masashi Sato, Ryo Sato, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Masanori Hariyama
Abstract On the basis of extensive experimental works about heterogeneous catalysts, we developed various software for the design of automotive catalysts such as Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics (UA-QCMD), which is 10 million times faster than the conventional first principles molecular dynamics, mesoscopic modeling software for supported catalysts (POCO2), and mesoscopic sintering simulator (SINTA) to calculate sintering behavior of both precious metals (e.g., Pt, Pd, Rh) and supports (e.g., Al2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, or CeO2-ZrO2). We integrated the previous programs in a multiscale, multiphysics approach for the design of automotive catalysts. The method was efficient for a variety of important catalytic reactions in the scope of the automotive emission control. We demonstrated the efficiency of our approach by comparing our data with experimental results including both simple laboratory experiments and chassis dynamometer exhaust gas emission control experiments.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0065
Yoshinori Nakao, Yota Sakurai, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Masahide Kazari, Takahito Murase, Kozo Suzuki
In port injection, it is difficult to control in-cylinder fuel supply of each cycle in a transient state as cold start (in this paper, cold start is defined as several cycles from cranking at low engine temperature). Hence, THC, which is one of regulated emission gases, is likely to increase at cold start. As one of THC emission reduction approaches at cold start, the optimization of fuel injection specifications (including injection position and spray diameter) is expected to reduce THC emission. Setting injection position as downstream position is expected to secure the in-cylinder fuel supply amount at cold start because of small fuel adhesion amount on an intake port wall and a short distance between the injection position and in-cylinder. The position injection contributes to reduction of THC emission due to elimination of misfire.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0071
Koji Ueno, Hiroyuki Horimura, Akiko Iwasa, Yuji Kurasawa, Pascaline Tran, Ye Liu
Abstract We developed a copper catalyst using zero Platinum group metals (hereafter PGMs) to fit motorcycle specific emission gas environment. Though many research reports to develop catalyst without using PGMs that are precious and costly resources are available, no reports had proven Base Metal Catalyst development to meet actual emission regulation equivalent to PGM catalysts. Compared to conventional PGM catalysts, higher temperature is required to keep high catalytic conversion efficiency by utilizing properties of this Base Metal Catalyst. Thus, this Base Metal Catalyst is located in cross coupling position, though it is rare case in motorcycle. This catalyst location could cause negative impacts on engine knocking, engine performance and drivability. This time, to overcome such negative impacts we optimized whole exhaust system, including parts around catalyst.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0070
Toyofumi Tsuda, Kazuya Miura, Akio Hikasa, Keiji Hosoi, Fumikazu Kimata
Abstract An exhaust gas purifying catalyst must be durable, i.e., it must maintain a sufficient catalytic performance even after thermal degradation. Therefore, large amounts of platinum group metals (PGMs), such as Pt, Pd, and Rh, should be loaded onto the catalyst substrate. Exhaust gas heat deteriorates the catalyst by sintering the PGM particles, which decreases the active surface area. It is important to reduce the PGM load and many researchers have therefore attempted to carry out PGM load reduction while maintaining sufficient durability. We found that Pt ions could form Pt-hydroxide clusters in a hexahydroxyplatinate (IV) (Pt(OH)6·H2O) nitric acid solution. The Pt-hydroxide cluster size could be controlled by varying the Pt and nitric acid concentrations and solution temperature.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0093
Denis Neher, Fino Scholl, Maurice Kettner, Danny Schwarz, Markus Klaissle, Blanca Giménez Olavarria
Abstract Small natural gas cogeneration engines frequently operate with lean mixture and late ignition timing to comply with NOx emission standards. Late combustion phasing is the consequence, leading to significant losses in engine efficiency. When substituting a part of the excess air with exhaust gas, heat capacity increases, thus reducing NOx emissions. Combustion phasing can be advanced, resulting in a thermodynamically more favourable heat release without increasing NOx but improving engine efficiency. In this work, the effect of replacing a part of excess air with exhaust gas was investigated first in a constant volume combustion chamber. It enabled to analyse the influence of the exhaust gas under motionless initial conditions for several relative air-fuel ratios (λ = 1.3 to 1.7). Starting from the initial value of λ, the amount of CH4 was maintained constant as a part of the excess air was replaced by exhaust gas.
2016-11-07
Article
The Administration recently announced details of the expanded network of EV charging stations across nearly 25,000 mi (40,233 km) of highways in 35 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
2016-11-07
Article
Eliminating EV range anxiety and minimizing system costs appear to be the primary drivers behind the series-hybrid strategy, which is expected to spread to other Renault-Nissan Alliance vehicles.
2016-10-31
Article
Despite rumors of an acquisition by Apple, McLaren is racing ahead on £1B in self-funded R&D and an ambitious plan to develop an electric supercar worthy of the name.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0240
Guilherme Bastos Machado, José Eduardo Mautone Barros, Sérgio Leal Braga, Carlos Valois Maciel Braga
Abstract Gasoline is a complex mixture, composed of hundreds of different hydrocarbons. Surrogate fuels decrease the complexity of gasoline and are being used to improve the understanding of internal combustion engines (ICEs) fundamental processes. Computational tools are largely used in ICE development and performance optimization using simple fuels, because it is still not possible to completely model a commercial gasoline. The kinetics and interactions among all the chemical constituents are not yet fully understood, and the computational cost is also prohibitive. There is a need to find suitable surrogate fuels, which can reproduce commercial fuels performance and emissions behavior, in order to develop improved models for fuel combustion in practical devices, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and spark ignition (SI) engines. Representative surrogate fuels can also be used in fuel development processes.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9079
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9078
Herbert Feld, Nadine Oberender
Abstract Biodiesel contains a variety of compounds, depending on the production and the provenance of the fuel. During the production process and usage, some of these compounds can form deposits (nozzle tip deposits or internal diesel injector deposits: “IDID”), which may lead to severe problems, such as corrosion, filter blockage and other technical issues. To deal with these difficulties, it is essential to exactly determine the components of these deposits. Most analytical methods used before, require complex preparations and result in limited information of the deposit material. Using infrared microscopy (ATR-FTIR: Attenuated-Total-Reflection Fourier-Transform-Infrared-Spectroscopy) or mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS: Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry), a direct analysis of the original deposit material is possible.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9075
Martijn van Essen, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Torsten Mundt, Howard Levinsky
Abstract The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at non-knocking conditions are compared with calculated pressure profiles using a model that predicts the time-dependent in-cylinder conditions (P, T) in the test engine (“combustion phasing”). This model was extended to include the effects of humidity. The results show that the extended model accurately computes the in-cylinder pressure history when varying the water fraction in air. Increasing the water vapor content in air decreases the peak pressure and temperature significantly, which increases the measured Knock Limited Spark Timing (KLST); at 4.3 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 19 °CA BTDC while at 11 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 21 °CA BTDC for the same fuel.
2016-10-20
Article
EPA's Christopher Grundler and expert panelists at COMVEC 2016 offered their insights on technology pathways and challenges to meeting the recently issued final greenhouse-gas standards affecting model year 2021-2027 medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicles.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2219
Pramit Baul, Courtney Tamaro, Hrusheekesh Warpe, William Baumann, Douglas Nelson
Abstract EcoRouting refers to determining a route that minimizes vehicle energy consumption compared to traditional routing methods, which usually attempt to minimize travel time. EcoRoutes typically increase travel time and in some cases this increase may have to be constrained for the route to be viable. While significant research on EcoRouting exists for conventional vehicles, incorporating the novel aspects of plug-in hybrids opens up new areas to be explored. A prototype EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed and grade. The route with the minimum energy consumption is selected as the EcoRoute unless there is more than an 8% difference between the minimum time route and the EcoRoute.
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