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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
Abstract BS III norms (BS IV in 13+26 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future sooner or later. The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent emission norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be incorrect to say there have been little work been done specifically on after-treatment systems which has been built for Indian market and driving conditions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion. Swirl and tumble are forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0093
S. Jayagopal
Abstract The automobile industries have seen a great evolution since 19th century. Reducing the NOx emissions from Diesel engines remains as a challenging issue as the emission standards for Diesel engines & its powered vehicles have become more stringent than ever before. As one has to develop for improved life-style, something has to be sacrificed and one among them is global warming. So, many nations have come up with regulations to control exhaust emissions of the vehicles. In the case of Medium & Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, the emissions to be met on Engine Dynamometer on both ESC & ETC cycles for BS-IV or Euro-IV as on date. In which, the optimizing the emission parameters are logically used to meet Random NOx requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow emissions sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of Particulate Matter (PM). Mass flow controllers operating at 5Hz are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a bag emissions analyzer.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Abstract Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat, Sukrut Thipse, Neelkanth V Marathe, Narendra Pawar, Hirak Jyoti Gayen, Dadarao Narwade, Bhaskar Melage, S V A Achari
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers, agricultural machines and in small house-hold applications in India as well as other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies in such engines are very expensive and also becoming complex. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. In the present work, an existing two cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine is upgraded with Turbocharged & Intercooled (TCIC) version to meet the revised stringent stage-II emission limits. The two cylinder diesel engine has been upgraded with optimum selection of turbocharger, intercooler and EGR valve to control the EGR mass flow rate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Abstract Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-Design™(Longitudinal Structure) metallic substrates with LS foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behaviour in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market in the near future, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0100
Prasanna G Bhat, Neelkanth V Marathe, Bhaskar Melage, Hirak Gayan, Dadarao Narwade, Narendra Pawar, Dharmdev Vyas, Samadhan Awate, Abhishek Meshram, Pramod Ghadage, PJM Khan
Abstract The Objective of the work is to upgrade existing series of multi cylinder DI turbocharged intercooled diesel engines to meet revised stringent Stage-II emission norms for diesel genset application. In this engine tuning activity, focus is given on optimization of engine without any major modification on engine design features. In recent years, the demand use and penetration of diesel operated generating sets for the power generation application has sharply rise in India. These sharp rises in the DG engines have made the high impact on pollutants emitted by these sets. Hence, concerned authorities have first enforced the limits on the pollutants emitted by these sets in the year 2004. Further these emission limits were tightened recently and reduced the emissions from diesel engines. Concerned authorities implemented the revised emission norms with effective from July 2014. The reduction in NOx+HC emission is around 62% for the engines having rated power above 75 kW.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
With growing need for air quality improvement the emission norms are becoming stringent than ever, triggering a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission standard and engine performance has to be ensured with improved fuel efficiency, and control cost. To comply with future emission standards, intensive efforts are required to optimize the overall engine out emissions with reduce dependency on exhaust after treatment systems. This paper highlights about strategies employed in developing BS V emissions compliant engine for SUV application. The authors have assumed the limits of EURO 5 emission norms as equivalent to BS5 for this purpose. An existing BS IV compliant engine is selected as a base engine and engine out emission targets were defined considering certain conversion efficiency for the after treatment system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Sachin gogia, Senthur Pandian, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass filtration and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
Abstract The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. Based on experimental data, a range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
Abstract As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Vehicle manufacturers' develop new ways and technologies to meet the norms levied for cleaner vehicles. Especially in diesel engines, NOx emissions are considered an important pollutant to be treated. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for diesel engines. In order to meet such stringent emission norms without compromising on engine performance, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the solution to achieve EURO 6 NOx emission levels from diesel engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through ammonia which is injected into exhaust stream in the form of Aqueous Urea solution known as DEF.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0142
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shakti Kumar Singh, Mangeshkumar Jadhao
Abstract In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl and injector specifications in 2.34 l off road diesel engine. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically, investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. Then experimental tests were carried out, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination were determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations were evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Abstract Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. Hence considerable research has been directed to improve low temperature activity of catalysts used in diesel application. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature (LOT). To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Abstract Selection of EGR system is very complex for a particular engine application. The performance of the EGR system depends highly on the Cooler Heat Transfer Efficiency. Cooler effectiveness drops over a period of operation due to soot deposition, HC condensation, and fuel quality. This phenomenon is called as Cooler Fouling. Fouling cannot be avoided completely but the level of performance drop over time has to be studied and minimized. The minimum pressure drop and the highest efficiency in fouled condition is the target for selection of a cooler. In this study, various parameter combinations like tube shape and profile, tube length, number of tubes, tube diameter, and pitch of corrugations, which influence the cooler performance were tested. A better understanding of each of its effect on cooler effectiveness and fouling behavior was obtained. The tube shape was changed from rectangular to circular, also from smooth surface to corrugate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Abstract Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in pollutant emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however - the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for three different operating points on a research single cylinder engine. Special focus lies on the partially/unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions which are typically high when CNG is well premixed and burning in a globally lean combustion environment.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0108
Vijay Narkhede, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji, Touquire A Sidiquie
Abstract Diesel engines are becoming popular because of more fuel efficient and durability. While the CO and HC impurities are significantly lower than in gasoline engines, the design strategies for reduction of Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides remain a major challenge for environment. The work mainly focused on reduction of NOx from diesel engines using SCR technology under Indian driving conditions and furl availability. With BS III/IV fuel available in the country, the catalyst system of choices the Vanadia Tungsten Titania (VWT) system because of its proven resistance to Sulfur poisoning. However, under urban driving conditions on Indian roads, the major obstacle is the low engine out temperatures which are below the normal operating temperature window (200 to 450 °C) of VWT - SCR.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0105
Prakash Kamat, Yogesh Aghav, Nitin Gokhale, M N Kumar
Abstract An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower the trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect, a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that they affect local in-cylinder emissions.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-12
Article
An advanced start-stop system using two different battery chemistries is now in the prototype phase, Johnson Controls officials announced during the first media day at the 2015 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
2015-01-06
Article
Toyota announced at CES that it will grant royalty-free use of all 5680 of its solely owned fuel-cell patents, including those pending from development of the first hydrogen fuel-cell production vehicle, the Toyota Mirai.
2015-01-05
Article
Treating molten metal with ultrasound is cleaner and more efficient than using argon rotary degassing to produce high-quality castings, according to scientists at Brunel University London. Cost reduction is another benefit, demonstrated in the research team's pilot-scale trials.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles.
2014-12-30
Article
With air traffic expected to increase four-fold between now and 2050, a global fleet of composite planes could help reduce carbon emissions by up to 15%, a value researchers say roughly corresponds to current emissions levels.
2014-12-23
Article
The potential impact to public health from GDI engine particulates is driving new developments in fuel delivery, controls, and combustion strategies.
2014-12-23
Article
Plastic composite parts outnumber bio-based material vehicle applications, but "green" projects are making inroads by overcoming various hurdles.
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J551/15
This SAE Standard specifies the ESD test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electronic modules intended for vehicle use. It describes test procedures for evaluating electronic modules in complete vehicles. A procedure for verifying the simulator that is used to generate the electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. Functional status classifications for immunity to ESD are given in Appendix B.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 22822

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