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2016-01-06
Magazine
Time to get personal Industry engineers are combining apps, voice, the cloud, and other technologies such as artificial intelligence to enable drivers to customize their vehicles and anticipate their needs. Technology report GM and TARDEC co-developing fuel cell powered Chevrolet Colorado for military evaluation vehicles and anticipate their needs. Global vehicles Sports cars take center stage in Tokyo
2016-01-05
Article
Called the FFZero1, the exotically styled, carbon-fiber-bodied machine—a “high performance electric dream car,” as it was presented to the audience—features interesting battery-pack design and capability to package one to four electric traction motors, delivering up to 1000 hp (746 kW) to two or four drive wheels, depending on configuration.
2015-12-28
Article
Next-generation power semiconductors could achieve price parity with silicon in five years, helping to lower the cost of plug-in hybrids and batter-electric vehicles.
2015-12-17
Article
Ford Motor Co. significantly accelerates its electrified vehicle development, aimed at making 40% of the company’s global vehicles hybrids, plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and battery-electrics by 2020.
2015-12-16
Article
Two upstart Chinese companies with big automotive ambitions are grabbing headlines as they lure top engineering and product-development talent— and prepare to unveil potentially disrupting new products and technology strategies.
2015-12-01
Magazine
Hot-stamping process Hot-stamping process from Schuler employs flexible 'pressure controlled hardening' Fuel cell futures no longer a dream Fuel cell technology is catching up with the hype as fuel cell vehicles become reality. Hot Technologies 2016 Our annual review of significant, innovative, and just plain cool technology applications for the new model year.
2015-12-01
Magazine
Uncertainty quantification The technique is a must for next-generation simulation tools. Oil-pump sizing Researchers from Hinduja Tech investigate options for low friction and power consumption. The future of Indian commercial aviation The growth in traffic that airport modernization has supported has also made a significant contribution to the local and national economies, while the improved infrastructure has been positive for the perception of India in the global market. Driving EVs toward lower cost The race ison to reduce battery and electric-drive systems cost while improving efficiency. Powering on Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer discusses new technologies that inspire current R&D design and evaluation work as part of its strategic roadmap for future big commercial programs. HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematic functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces.
2015-11-25
Article
Claimed to be more package-efficient than conventional portable emissions measurement systems, the Firefly will hit the market as early as mid-2016.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0707
Rashmita Khare, Pramod Reddemreddy, Abhijit Shankar Bahirat, Prashanth Anantha
Urban transportation significantly contributes towards the rapid deterioration of air quality in the Indian cities. Growing affordability has resulted in an increased two wheeler population across India. The Indian government has instituted introduction of emission legislation in phases to mitigate the impact on environment due to the increased growth. As a signatory to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) Global Technical Regulation (GTR)-2, the Worldwide Harmonized Motorcycle Test cycle (WMTC) will be adopted as a standard test cycle for emission assessment beginning 2016. This cycle development was based on the collection and analysis of driving behavior data and statistical information about motorcycles used in three different regions (Europe, Japan and USA).
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0710
A.S. Silitonga, H.H. Masjuki, Hwai Chyuan Ong, H.G. How, F. Kusumo, Y.H. Teoh, T.M.I. Mahlia
This paper investigates the performance, emission and combustion of a four cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine using jatropha curcas biodiesel blends (JCB). The test was performed with various ratios of jatropha curcas methyl ester (JCME) in the blends (JCB10, JCB20, JCB30, and JCB50). An artificial neural networks (ANN) model based on standard back-propagation algorithm was used to predict combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of the engine using MATLAB. To acquire data for training and testing of the proposed ANN, the different engine speeds (1500-3500 rpm) was selected as the input parameter, whereas combustion, performance and emissions were chosen as the output parameters for ANN modeling of a common-rail turbocharged diesel engine. The performance, emissions and combustion of the ANN were validated by comparing the prediction dataset with the experimental results.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0752
Daisuke Yanase, Shinichi Kuratani, Takashi Abe, Hiroyuki Koga
The regulation for emission gas of the motorcycle is rapidly being strengthened as the concern about global environment grows around the world, and manufacturers are facing the problem to reduce the toxic materials in the emission gas more. As the technology to reduce the toxic materials, it is common to install a three way catalyst (TWC) on an exhaust system and optimize the oxygen concentration at the inlet of TWC by maintaining air fuel ratio (A/F) on stoichiometric A/F with the control of fuel injection quantity. Furthermore, TWC itself is designed to maintain proper oxygen concentration by the addition of a substance with oxygen storage capacity (OSC), which is able to suppress the variation of the oxygen concentration.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0797
Takaaki Yamaji, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Satoshi Kato, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Albert Macamo
A comparative study was performed by use of blends of Jatropha oil-diesel fuel and Jatropha oil-kerosene in order to investigate the feasibility of direct utilization of Jatropha oil in a DI diesel engine. Experimental results at low load demonstrated that mixing 60 vol.% of Jatropha oil into both diesel fuel and kerosene gave less impact on indicated thermal efficiency, whereas further increase of Jatropha oil deteriorated it. Jatropha oil-kerosene decreased particulate matter compared to Jatropha oil-diesel fuel, although particulate matter increased with the increase of Jatropha oil fraction. At partial load where double injection was applied, mixing 80 vol.% of Jatropha oil gave no significant impact on indicated thermal efficiency, exhaust gas emissions and particulate matter and no significant difference was observed between diesel fuel blends and kerosene blends.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0770
Munehiro Matsuishi, Yuya Higuchi, Yasuhide Abe, Yuma Ishizawa, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0783
Yong Fu Syu, Jia Siou Wu, Jhih Si Syu, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Yuh-Yih Wu
In this paper, the off-line analysis method is applied to develop three-way catalytic converter (TWC) diagnostic strategy including oxygen sensor (O2 sensor) diagnostic strategy with common narrow band oxygen sensor (EGO sensor) in Matlab/Simulink software. Moreover, Mototron ECU (Engine Control Unit) is used for monitoring catalyst deterioration. However, aged catalyst is difficult to possess so the different catalytic conversion efficiency (CCE) is simulated by using exhaust by-pass valve. The CEC (China Engine Corporation) 1L V2, four stroke, water-cooled engine is selected as target engine to conduct engine dynamometer test. After making sure O2 sensor operates normally, the catalyst diagnostic strategy test is executed. The experimental result shows that the catalyst deterioration accurately can be detected when the failure phenomenon takes place.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0802
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. As a contribution Continental Emitec started a comprehensive testing program with a state of the art 180 cc Bharat Stage (BS) III Indian motorcycle. The program consists of testing the state of the art of Metallic substrates with structured foils with various catalyst sizes and positions (original or close coupled). The publication presents a short literature survey and the results of the investigation with a big catalyst volume mounted in underfloor position as well as in close coupled position, gained over the World-wide harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle, considering the two possible vehicle classifications of this motorcycle, Sub-Class 2.1 and Sub-Class 2.2.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0807
Takashi Shimada, Yuki Yoshida, Chibin Rin, Masanori Yamada, Naoya Ito, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0816
Pavlos Dimitriou, Richard Burke, Colin D. Copeland, Sam Akehurst
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is widely used in IC combustion engines for diluting air intake charge and controlling NOx emission. The rate of EGR required by an engine varies by the speed and load and control of the right amount entering the cylinders is crucial to ensure good engine performance and low NOx emission. However, controlling the amount of EGR entering the intake manifold does not ensure that EGR rate will be evenly distributed among the engine's cylinders. This can many times lead to cylinders operating at very high or low EGR rates which contradictory can deteriorate particulate matter and NOx emission. The present study analyses the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR dispersion of a 4 cylinder 2.2L EUROV Diesel engine and its effects on the combustion stability. A 1D-3D coupling simulation is performed using GT-Power and STAR-CCM+ to analyze the effects of intake manifold geometry and EGR supply configuration on the EGR homogeneity and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0821
Komkla Siricholathum, Preechar Karin, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Katsunori Hanamura, Nuwong Chollacoop
As well-known, the diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency at the same load as compared with internal combustion engine but its disadvantage is particulate matter (PM) emitted to the atmosphere. The studies of this paper were divided into two parts. The first part studied the quantity of PM from the both diesel and biodiesel fuels at 80% load (2400 rpm) by the trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a partial flow dilution tunnel. The second part studied the regeneration process of PM under the flow rate of oxygen and nitrogen gas of 13.5 L/min with 10%, 15%, and 21% of oxygen gas. The result showed that amount of PM from biodiesel fuel was lower around two times than PM from diesel fuel. The duration in regeneration process of biodiesel's PM was shorter than diesel while increasing of oxygen percentage can reduce regeneration time.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0824
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulations for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulations, the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic World Motorcycle Testing Cycle (WMTC) will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions for gasoline engines consist of so-called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons (HC) below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different concentrations and ratios. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) which compensates for the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0715
Beini Zhou, Masahiro Horikoshi, Akira Kikusato, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kiyotaka Sato, Hidefumi Fujimoto
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
2015-11-16
Article
The Energy Department recently awarded Cummins, the nation’s only independent diesel engine maker, a two-year, $4.5-million grant to boost its previous mark by 5 percentage points to 55% brake thermal efficiency.
2015-11-13
Article
Aerodynamic experts are cautiously optimistic that a long-awaited leap in vehicle fuel efficiency is advancing toward near-term production: the replacement of the two exterior mirrors with camera-based streaming-vision technology—at no overall cost penalty.
2015-11-11
Article
Jaguar Land Rover is literally intent on harvesting energy saving solutions, researching a range of new technologies including how to mix carbon fiber with flax, says its R&D Director, Dr. Wolfgang Epple.
2015-11-11
Article
The new $30 million facility at the Warren Technical Center uses a belt-type moving ground plane to simulate full driving conditions on clay models up to an indicated 155 mph (250 km/h).
2015-11-10
Article
Suppliers of batteries for electrified cars typically keep their factories closed to the media. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke takes a tour of LG Chem's battery plant in Holland, Michigan. 
2015-11-05
Standard
J1939/3_201511
SAE J1939-03 provides requirements and guidelines for the implementation of On Board Diagnostics (OBD) on heavy duty vehicles (HDV) using the SAE J1939 family of standards. The guidelines identify where the necessary information to meet OBD regulations may be found among the SAE J1939 document set. Key requirements are identified here to insure the interoperability of OBD scan tools across individual OBD compliant vehicles. Market-defined regulations permit the use of SAE J1939 to meet OBD requirements. Implementers are cautioned to obtain and review the specific regulations for the markets where their products are sold. This document is focused on guidelines and requirements to satisfy the State of California Air Resources Board (ARB), the authors of 13 CCR 1971.1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Euro IV and V requirements from European Commission directives, and UN/ECE WP 29 GRPE WWH OBD Global Technical Regulation (GTR).
2015-11-02
Article
The knock on fusion power is that “It is the energy source of the future, and it always will be.” It has seemed like the same criticism could be levied against fuel cell vehicles, as their seemingly magical ability to turn stored hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into motive power for personal transportation — with only water as a by-product emission —has remained tantalizingly out of reach for decades.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/6
This document outlines permissible fluid application areas for Deicing and Anti-icing fluids, no-spray/no-direct fluid application areas, and other cautionary areas/items by aircraft type. The diagrams and cautions are generic representations of the aircraft types specified, and apply to all series/variants unless indicated otherwise. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/4
This document covers the standards of de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/5
In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets this document will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Globalized Deicing Training Manual”.
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