Criteria

Display:

Results

Viewing 271 to 300 of 22389
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nassim Khaled, Michael Cunningham, Jaroslav Pekar, Adrian Fuxman, Ondrej Santin
Abstract In this paper we consider the issues facing the design of a practical multivariable controller for a diesel engine with dual exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loops. This engine architecture requires the control of two EGR valves (high pressure and low pressure), an exhaust throttle (ET) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). A systematic approach suitable for production-intent air handling control using Model Predictive Control (MPC) for diesel engines is proposed. Furthermore, the tuning process of the proposed design is outlined. Experimental results for the performance of the proposed design are implemented on a 2.8L light duty diesel engine. Transient data over an LA-4 cycle for the closed loop performance of the controller are included to prove the effectiveness of the proposed design process. The MPC implementation process took a total of 10 days from the start of the data collection to build a calibrated engine model all the way through the calibration of the controller over the transient drive cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zhiqiang Zhang, Fuquan Zhao, Liguang Li, Zhijun Wu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu
Abstract Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed. Finally, a closed-loop control strategy for LTC was proposed, which was based on the ion current detecting technology.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kevin Cedrone, Wai K. Cheng
The engine and its exhaust flow behaviors are investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine under simulated cold-fast-idle condition. The metrics of interest are the exhaust sensible and chemical enthalpy flows, and the exhaust temperature, all of which affect catalyst light off time. The exhaust sensible enthalpy flow is mainly a function of combustion phasing; the exhaust chemical enthalpy flow is mainly a function of equivalence ratio. High sensible and chemical enthalpy flow with acceptable engine stability could be obtained with retarded combustion and enrichment. When split injection is employed with one early and one later and smaller fuel pulse, combustion retards with early secondary injection in the compression stroke but advances with late secondary injection. Comparing gasoline to E85, the latter produces a lower exhaust temperature because of charge cooling effect and because of a faster combustion.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David Heuwetter, William Glewen, David E. Foster, Roger Krieger, Michael Andrie
The transient response of an engine with both High Pressure (HP) and Low Pressure (LP) EGR loops was compared by conducting step changes in EGR fraction at a constant engine speed and load. The HP EGR loop performance was shown to be closely linked to turbocharger performance, whereas the LP EGR loop was relatively independent of turbocharger performance and vice versa. The same experiment was repeated with the variable geometry turbine vanes completely open to reduce turbocharger action and achieve similar EGR rate changes with the HP and LP EGR loops. Under these conditions, the increased loop volume of the LP EGR loop prolonged the response of intake O2 concentration following the change in air-fuel ratio. The prolonged change of intake O2 concentration caused emissions to require more time to reach steady state as well. Strong coupling between the HP EGR loop and turbochargers was again observed using a hybrid EGR strategy. The potential benefit of the HP EGR loop's smaller volume and shorter residence time was largely negated by the simultaneous use of the larger LP EGR loop.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Justin E. Ketterer, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston. A conceptual model was established for the particulate matter (PM) formation process in which PM is formed by pyrolysis after the normal premixed flame passage in fuel rich plumes originating from liquid films on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, He Ma, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Transient operation is frequently used by vehicle engines and the exhaust emissions from the engine are mostly higher than those under the steady station. An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effect of various valve timings and spark timings on combustion characteristics and particle emissions from a modern 3.0-liter Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. The transient condition was simulated by load increase from 5% to 15% at a constant engine speed with different settings of valve timings and spark timings. The transient particle emission measurement was carried out by a Cambustion DMS500 particulate analyser. The combustion characteristics of the engine during transient operation including cycle-by-cycle combustion variations were analyzed. The time-resolved particle number, particulate mass and particle size distribution were compared and analyzed between different engine settings. The existing transient lambda control cannot maintain stoichiometric combustion in the transition.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xi Luo, Xin Yu, Kan Zha, Marcis Jansons, Valentin Soloiu
Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC) from diesel engines are a particular concern during the starting process, when after-treatment devices are typically below optimal operating temperatures. Drivability in the subsequent warm-up phase is also impaired by large cyclic fluctuations in mean effective pressure (MEP). This paper discusses in-cylinder wall temperature influence on unburned hydrocarbon emissions and combustion stability during the starting and warm-up process in an optical engine. A laser-induced phosphorescence technique is used for quantitative measurements of in-cylinder wall temperatures just prior to start of injection (SOI), which are correlated to engine out UHC emission mole fractions and combustion phasing during starting sequences over a range of charge densities, at a fixed fueling rate. Squish zone cylinder wall temperature shows significant influence on engine out UHC emissions during the warm-up process. Higher surface temperatures correlate with lower levels of engine-out UHC.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Essam F. Abo-Serie, Mohamed Sherif, Dario Pompei, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract A potentially important, but inadequately studied, source of passengers' exposure to pollutants when a road vehicle is stationary, with an idling engine, results from the ingestion of a vehicle's own exhaust into the passenger compartment through the HVAC intake. We developed and applied a method to determine the fraction of a vehicle's exhaust entering the cabin by this route. Further the influence of three parameters: ambient tail-wind speed, vehicle ground clearance and tail pipe angle, is assessed. The study applies Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation to the distribution of exhaust gasses around a vehicle motorized with a 2.2 liter Diesel engine. The simulation employs efficient meshing techniques and realistic loading conditions to develop a general knowledge of the distribution of the gasses in order to inform engineering design. The results show that increasing tail-wind velocity, tail-pipe angle and ground clearance reduces the presence of CO and NO at the HVAC intake.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Georgios Fontaras, Panagiota Dilara, Michael Berner, Theo Volkers, Antonius Kies, Martin Rexeis, Stefan Hausberger
Due to the diversity of Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV), the European CO2 and fuel consumption monitoring methodology for HDVs will be based on a combination of component testing and vehicle simulation. In this context, one of the key input parameters that need to be accurately defined for achieving a representative and accurate fuel consumption simulation is the vehicle's aerodynamic drag. A highly repeatable, accurate and sensitive measurement methodology was needed, in order to capture small differences in the aerodynamic characteristics of different vehicle bodies. A measurement methodology is proposed which is based on constant speed measurements on a test track, the use of torque measurement systems and wind speed measurement. In order to support the development and evaluation of the proposed approach, a series of experiments were conducted on 2 different trucks, a Daimler 40 ton truck with a semi-trailer and a DAF 18 ton rigid truck. Two different torque measurement systems (wheel rim torque sensors and half shaft torque sensors) were used for the measurements and two different vehicle tracking approaches were investigated (high precision GPS and opto-electronic barriers).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lennert Sterken, Lennart Lofdahl, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker
Abstract Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results. To decrease the dependency of other effects within the engine bay and underbody, the SUV has been investigated in a closed-cooling configuration with upper and lower grille closed and with a smoothened underbody.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthikeyan N, Anish Gokhale, Narendra Bansode
Abstract The Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) in scooters is used to transmit the power from the engine to the wheels. The CVT transmission consists of a drive pulley and a driven pulley connected to each other through a belt. The centrifugal clutch is attached to the rear pulley which transmits the power to the wheel. The engagement and disengagement of the clutch generates heat and friction heat is generated between the belt and pulley, thereby requiring continuous external cooling for its safe operation. A centrifugal fan is employed for cooling of the CVT belt. Since the cooling fan takes air from atmosphere, there is always a possibility of dust from the atmosphere entering the system, which might cause wear of pulley and belt, thereby decreasing the performance of the transmission system. The objective of the work is to analyze the dust ingress pattern in to CVT housing. The work aims at simulating the possible conditions for dust entry into the CVT housing for a complete scooter and the study of different design proposals to minimize the dust entry without compromising the cooling requirement of CVT.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Charles Sprouse III, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Significant progress towards reducing diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions is possible through the simultaneous Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and Particulate Matter (PM) filtration in a novel device described here as a Diesel Particulate Filter Heat Exchanger (DPFHX). This original device concept is based on the shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometry, where enlarged tubes contain DPF cores, allowing waste heat recovery from engine exhaust and allowing further energy capture from the exothermic PM regeneration event. The heat transferred to the working fluid on the shell side of the DPFHX becomes available for use in a secondary power cycle, which is an increasingly attractive method of boosting powertrain efficiency due to fuel savings of around 10 to 15%. Moreover, these fuel savings are proportional to the associated emissions reduction after a short warm-up period, with startup emissions relatively unchanged when implementing a WHR system. Due to the absence of prior DPFHX research and the unique heat transfer process present, this effort describes construction of a prototype DPFHX and subsequent WHR experiments in a single cylinder diesel engine test cell with a comparison between heat exchanger performance with and without DPF cores installed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, Hassina Bilheux, Jean-Christophe Bilheux, Sophie Voisin, C. Scott Sluder, Joseph Stevenson
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. Exhaust gas laden with particulate matter flows through the EGR cooler which causes deposits to form through thermophoresis and condensation. The low thermal conductivity of the resulting deposit reduces the effectiveness of the EGR system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, industry-provided coolers were characterized using neutron tomography. Neutrons are strongly attenuated by hydrogen but only weakly by metals which allows for non-destructive imaging of the deposit through the metal heat exchanger. Multiple 2-D projections of cooler sections were acquired by rotating the sample around the axis of symmetry with the spatial resolution of each image equal to ∼70 μm. A 3-D tomographic set was then reconstructed, from which slices through the cooler sections were extracted across different planes. High concentrations of hydrocarbon is necessary for imaging deposits and only those coolers which exhibited large organic fractions or hydrated sulfate phases were successfully characterized.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, John Storey, Sam Lewis, C. Scott Sluder
Abstract All high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers become fouled during operation due to thermophoresis of particulate matter and condensation of hydrocarbons present in diesel exhaust. In some EGR coolers, fouling is so severe that deposits form plugs strong enough to occlude the gas passages thereby causing a complete failure of the EGR system. In order to better understand plugging and means of reducing its undesirable performance degradation, EGR coolers exhibiting plugging were requested from and provided by industry EGR engineers. Two of these coolers contained glassy, brittle, lacquer-like deposits which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which identified large amounts of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Another cooler exhibited similar species to the lacquer but at a lower concentration with more soot. The authors propose that lacquer deposits form when oxygenated PAHs present in the exhaust condense on the cooler walls subsequently experience nitric acid catalyzed polymerization in the presence of aldehydes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alok Warey, Anil Singh Bika, Alberto Vassallo, Sandro Balestrino, Patrick Szymkowicz
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger known as an EGR cooler. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In our previous work surface condensation of water vapor was shown to be successful in removing a significant portion of the accumulated deposit mass from various types of deposit layers typically encountered in EGR coolers. Significant removal of accumulated deposit mass was observed for “dry” soot only deposit layers, while little to no removal was observed for the deposit layers created at low coolant temperatures that consisted of both soot and condensed hydrocarbons (HC). The focus of this study was to explore the potential benefits of combining a pre-EGR cooler oxidation catalyst (OC) in the high pressure EGR loop with exposure to water vapor condensation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
C. Scott Sluder, John M.E. Storey, Michael J. Lance
Abstract Fouling in EGR coolers occurs because of the presence of soot and condensable species (such as hydrocarbons) in the gas stream. Fouling leads to one of two possible outcomes: stabilization of effectiveness and plugging of the gas passages within the cooler. Deposit formation in the cooler under high-temperature conditions results in a fractal deposit that has a characteristic thermal conductivity of ∼0.033 W/m*K and a density of 0.0224 g/cm3. Effectiveness becomes much less sensitive to changes in thermal resistance as fouling proceeds, creating the appearance of “stabilization” even in the presence of ongoing, albeit slow, deposit growth. Plugging occurs when the deposit thermal resistance is several times lower because of the presence of large amounts of condensed species. The deposition mechanism in this case appears to be soot deposition into a liquid film, which results in increased packing efficiency and decreased void space in the deposit relative to high-temperature deposits.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hai Wu, Wen Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Xinlei Wang
Abstract A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design. The simulation studies with internal recycle processes produced promising results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Helmut Brunner, Mario Hirz
Abstract Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study. In the first step, the publication examines a study of market potential of new small and lightweight vehicle concepts. A mobility inquiry conducted in a mid-sized European city enables an estimation of the potential user groups for alternative vehicle concepts for individual urban traffic. In a second step, the CO2 reduction potential of urban car concepts is simulated for a generic vehicle fleet. This fleet consists of conventional vehicles of various classes (subcompact, compact, mid-sized …) as well as new lightweight urban car concepts. A novel vehicle concept for urban transportation will be presented as well. A comparison with the simulation results of a conventional vehicle fleet shows the potential regarding CO2-reduction and a reduction of parking space by application of future-oriented vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling. The simple rectangular block at two different speeds and three immersion depths in water was utilized for the purpose.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kelly Daly Flynn, Ionut C. Harta, J. David Schall
Tribological performance of tungsten sulfide (WS2) nanoparticles, microparticles and mixtures of the two were investigated. Previous research showed that friction and wear reduction can be achieved with nanoparticles. Often these improvements were mutually exclusive, or achieved under special conditions (high temperature, high vacuum) or with hard-to-synthesize inorganic-fullerene WS2 nanoparticles. This study aimed at investigating the friction and wear reduction of WS2 of nanoparticles and microparticles that can be synthesized in bulk and/or purchased off the shelf. Mixtures of WS2 nanoparticles and microparticles were also tested to see if a combination of reduced friction and wear would be achieved. The effect of the mixing process on the morphology of the particles was also reported. The microparticles showed the largest reduction in coefficient of friction while the nanoparticles showed the largest wear scar area reduction. Mixtures of nanoparticles and microparticles did not provide the desired combination of significant friction and wear reductions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Haichun Yao, Baigang Sun, Huayu Tian, Qinghe Luo, Hongyang Tang
Abstract NOx are the only harmful emissions of hydrogen internal combustion engine. EGR is one of the effective methods to reduce NOx. The traditional EGR is not suitable for hydrogen internal combustion engine. Therefore, the study of influence of hot EGR on hydrogen internal combustion engine is important. A 2.0L hydrogen internal combustion engine with hot EGR system model is employed to optimize the diameter and position of hot EGR based on a simulation analysis. The result shows that both of the combustion temperature and NOx increase as EGR increases due to the rise of intake temperature for low load condition, for heavy load, with the increase of EGR rate, NOx emissions decreases slightly before the mixture equivalence ratio comes to 1and then dropped significantly after the mixture equivalence ratio greater than 1. Unburned hydrogen in TWC has the effect of reducing NOx after catalysts decrease largely. Hydrogen engine combustion characteristics with hot EGR was analyzed, it suggests that EGR hasn't any benefit on combustion and NOx emission under low load condition; however, a significant amount reduce of NOx can be achieved under a rich condition (equivalence ratio greater than 1) by adjusting the EGR rate for high load condition with sacrificing power output slightly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Glenn Lucachick, Aaron Avenido, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) is an operational strategy that is effective at reducing soot and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions at low engine loads in-cylinder. A downside to LTC in diesel engines is increased hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. This study shows that semi-volatile species from LTC form the bulk of particulate matter (PM) upon dilution in the atmosphere. The nature of gas-to-particle conversion from high HC operating modes like LTC has not been well characterized. In this work, we explore engine-out PM and HC emissions from LTC and conventional diffusion combustion (CC) operation for two different engine load and speed modes using a modern light-duty diesel engine. An experimental method to investigate PM volatility was implemented. Raw exhaust was diluted under two dilution conditions. A tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) was used to identify differences in volatility between particle sizes. The study revealed that LTC PM mass and number concentration showed a greater dependence on dilution conditions than PM from CC.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiao Ma, Yunliang Qi, Zhi Wang, Hongming Xu, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Using EGR instead of throttle to control the load of a stoichiometric dual-fuel dieseline (diesel and gasoline) compression ignition (SDCI) engine with three-way catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment is considered a promising technology to address the challenges of fuel consumption and emissions in future internal combustion engines. High-speed imaging is used to record the flame signal in a single-cylinder optical engine with a PFI+DI dual injection system. The premixed blue flame is identified and separated using green and blue channels in RGB images. The effects of injection timing on SDCI combustion are studied. An earlier injection strategy is found to be ideal for soot reduction; however, the ignition-injection decoupling problem results in difficulties in combustion control. It is also found that a split injection strategy has advantages in soot reduction and thermal efficiency. Only 10% of the total diesel fuel for the main injection can advance the combustion phase significantly and the combustion duration can be reduced by approximate 50%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke
Abstract The advantages of applying Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a fuel for internal combustion engines are well known. In addition to a significant operating cost savings due to a lower fuel price relative to diesel, there is an opportunity to reduce the engine's emissions. With CNG combustion, some emissions, such as Particulate Matter (PM) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), are inherently reduced relative to diesel fueled engines due to the nature of the combustion and the molecular makeup of the fuel. However, it is important to consider the impact on all emissions, including Total Hydrocarbons (THC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO), which can increase with the use of CNG. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emission is often reported to decrease with the use of CNG, but the ability to realize this benefit is significantly impacted by the control strategy and calibration applied. FEV has investigated the emissions and performance impact of operating a heavy-duty diesel engine with CNG in a dual fuel mode. The CNG was introduced via injectors mounted to an inlet pipe located upstream of the intake manifold.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure. The applicable window of the injection timing for the n-butanol fuel was much narrower than that of the conventional diesel fuel because of the constraints of misfiring and excessive pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yizhou Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, David Rothamer
Abstract Comparison of particulate size distribution measurements from different combustion strategies was conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine. Measurements were performed at four different load-speed points with matched combustion phasing. Particle size distributions were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). To study the influence of volatile particles, measurements were performed with and without a volatile particle remover (thermodenuder) at low and high dilution ratios. The use of a single testing platform enables quantitative comparison between combustion strategies since background sources of particulate are held constant. A large number of volatile particles were present under low dilution ratio sample conditions for most of the operating conditions. To avoid the impact of volatile particles, comparisons were made based on the high dilution ratio measurements with the thermodenuder. As anticipated, CDC had the highest particle number emissions for all operating conditions for particle sizes greater than the 23 nm PMP cutoff.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yuwei Zhao, Ying Wang, Shenghua Liu
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion has been shown to be a promising combustion technique to improve the combustion process and simultaneously reduce both Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The combination of port dimethyl ether (DME) induction and in-cylinder diesel direct-injection compression ignition (DICI) combustion was studied in a YTR 2105 engine. The main purposes of this paper were to investigate the effects of DME introduction on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Results obtained revealed that PCCI combustion process was composed of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and conventional diffusion combustion. As the DME quantity was increased, the start of combustion (SOC) was advanced. The peak values of in-cylinder pressure and mass averaged temperature increased as well as the maximum heat release rate of DME HCCI combustion. But the maximum heat release rate of diesel diffusion combustion decreased.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Randy Hessel, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor, Daniel Flowers
One in-cylinder strategy for reducing soot emissions from diesel engines while maintaining fuel efficiency is the use of close-coupled post injections, which are small fuel injections that follow the main fuel injection after a short delay. While the in-cylinder mechanisms of diesel combustion with single injections have been studied extensively and are relatively well understood, the in-cylinder mechanisms affecting the performance and efficacy of post injections have not been clearly established. Here, experiments from a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical research engine incorporating close- coupled post injections are modeled with three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The overall goal is to complement experimental findings with CFD results to gain more insight into the relationship between post-injections and soot. This paper documents the first stage of CFD results for simulating and analyzing the experimental conditions. In this stage, an engineering CFD model with a two-stage soot sub-model facilitates development of new and appropriate analysis methods.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jacqueline O'Connor, Mark Musculus
Post injections have been shown to reduce engine-out soot emissions in a variety of engine architectures and at a range of operating points. In this study, measurements of the engine-out soot from a heavy-duty optical diesel engine have conclusively shown that interaction between the post-injection jet and soot from the main injection must be, at least in part, responsible for the reduction in engine-out soot. Extensive measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of soot using high-speed imaging of soot natural luminosity (soot-NL) and planar-laser induced incandescence of soot (soot-PLII) at four vertical elevations in the piston bowl at a range of crank angle timings provide definitive optical evidence of these interactions. The soot-PLII images provide some of the most conclusive evidence to date that the addition of a post injection dramatically changes the topology and quantity of in-cylinder soot. As the post jet penetrates toward the bowl wall, it carves out regions from the main-injection soot structures, either through displacement of the soot or through rapid and progressive oxidation of the soot.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ireneusz Pielecha, Przemyslaw Borowski, Wojciech Cieslik
Abstract The current paper is a continuation of research on fuel atomization presented in SAE 2012-01-1662. The influence of varied position of the injector inside the combustion chamber on combustion, toxic compounds formation and exhaust emission were investigated. The simulation research (injection and combustion with NO formation) was supported with the model using the FIRE 2010 software by AVL. Modelling studies of toxic compounds formation were compared with the results of measurements on single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine. There thermodynamic evaluation indicators and exhaust emission were made.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 22389

Filter

  • Article
    1054
  • Book
    75
  • Collection
    38
  • Magazine
    498
  • Technical Paper
    20113
  • Standard
    611
  • Article
    611