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2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0130
Takashi Onishi, Tomoya Akitomo, Yuichi Tamaki, Yoshikazu Takemoto, Hideyuki Goto, Mitsugu Okuda
Abstract All of non-road diesel engines over 19 kW in North America are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) to meet US EPA emissions regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in engine, it is needed to add exhaust gas after-treatment device to reduce PM emission. It is necessary for diesel engine with exhaust gas after-treatment device, to have Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration system, which burns periodically PM in DPF. Generally, DPF regeneration is implemented by using post injection with common rail system. However, post injection is not available in small diesel engine which has mechanical injection system and IDI combustion system instead of common rail system. As an alternative way, an original fuel reformer technique is introduced for DPF regeneration.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0032
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Abstract Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend. Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding. This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0086
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Abstract This paper describes the influence of different kinds of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) on the smoke emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and the soot formation characteristics in suspended single droplet combustion. The study used eight kinds of commercial FAME and diesel fuel blends. The tested FAMEs are saturated fatty acids with 8 to 18 carbon molecule chains, and with three different double bonds with C18. The results show that with all the FAME mixtures here, the brake thermal efficiencies with the FAME-diesel fuel blends were similar to neat diesel fuel operation while the smoke emissions with all of the tested FAME-diesel fuel blends were lower. To examine the differences in the soot formation characteristics, measurements of the formed soot mass were also performed with a basic experimental technique with suspended single droplet combustion.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0003
Gen Shibata, Ryota Kawaguchi, Soumei Yoshida, Hideyuki Ogawa
Abstract The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0103
Yoshitane Takashima, Hiroki Tanaka, Takahiro Sako, Masahiro Furutani
Abstract Engines using natural gas as their main fuel are attracting attention for their environmental protection and energy-saving potential. There is demand for improvement in the thermal efficiency of engines as an energy-saving measure, and research in this area is being actively pursued on spark ignition engines and HCCI engines. In spark ignition gas engines, improving combustion under lean condition and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) condition is an issue, and many large gas engines use a pre-chamber. The use of the pre-chamber approach allows stable combustion of lean gas mixtures at high charging pressure, and the reduction of NOx emissions. In small gas engines, engine structure prevents the installation of pre-chambers with adequate volume, and it is therefore unlikely that the full benefits of the pre-chamber approach will be derived.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0133
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Thang Pham, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
Abstract In this study, we evaluated NOx production rates of diesel combustions occurred in a constant volume chamber of a rapid compression machine in order to investigate relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the chamber at a designated time. An EINOx (Emission Index of NOx) production rate was evaluated on the time history of NOx concentration. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with a high speed 2-color thermometry. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel. The EINOx production rate increases with increasing injection pressure through temperature rises in flames due to enhanced mixing of fuel vapor with ambient air. An increase in the ambient pressure causes overlaps between flames formed around the nozzle, which reduces the flame temperature.
2014-11-10
Article
Stanford's Yi Cui and colleagues have created a lithium-ion battery that alerts users of potential overheating and fire.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled.
2014-10-29
Article
Think you know about motor oils and the latest technologies within them? Read this article.
2014-10-29
Article
China’s commercial-vehicles industry is poised for a transformation as suppliers focus on services and clean energy. These changes are occurring amid market shifts as China attempts to reduce pollution and congestion in cities.
2014-10-29
Article
SAE International recently published the J2880 - Recommended Green Racing Protocols. The aims of J2880 are to: • Provide sanctioning bodies with recommendations to help them align competition rules with the objectives of sustainable transportation • Support environmentally responsible and sustainable technology that is transferable to production vehicles • Promote environmentally friendly operations of motorsports venues, competition events, and racing team facilities • Assist sanctioning bodies in establishing a roadmap to increase green initiatives.
2014-10-22
Book
The new Bosch Automotive Handbook , now in its 9th English edition, has been completely revised and enhanced to include the most recent developments in automotive technology. About 200 specialist authors contributed to this new version of every engineer’s must-have reference. The book's format has been revised: it is now 20 percent longer and wider, as this allows for a larger font size. This makes the texts and graphics easier to read. The index has been strongly expanded to make looking up technical terms easier. The Bosch Automotive Handbook is a best-seller, with a broad global readership. Students of engineering programs consult it, as do researchers and engineers in the automotive industry. Mechanics who are studying to become master craftsmen also use it as a reference work. Experts trust the well-founded and extensive expertise that can be found in the classic. The Bosch Automotive Handbook is widely regarded around the world as a standard work for automotive technology.
2014-10-21
Article
General Motors claims that its 2015 Chevrolet Bi-fuel Impala running on gasoline or CNG (compressed natural gas) will be the only bi-fuel-capable sedan on the market to offer a factory warranty. It is slated to go on sale later this year at a starting price of $38,210.
2014-10-20
Article
VCC’s series of IP67- and NEMA 6P-rated panel-mount indicators are designed with a wide viewable angle that delivers bright visibility even in direct sunlight.
2014-10-13
Article
Researchers discover factor that could have significant impact on industrial biofuel production.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2608
Zhengyang Ling, Alexey Burluka, Ulugbek Azimov
Abstract Replacing the conventional fossil fuel totally or partially with alcohols or ethers in spark-ignition (SI) engine is a promising way to reduce pollutant emissions. A large number of studies on alcohol-containing blends in SI engines could be found in the literature. Nonetheless, investigations of ether-containing blends are by far much less numerous, especially for modern boosted engines. Blending with ether compounds might change the burning rate at high pressure, which consequently changes the anti-knock properties of these fuels and leads to a deterioration in the vehicle drivability. This work reports experiments carried out in two one-cylinder engines: one is a naturally aspirated, variable compression ratio engine, and the other is a strongly charged optical engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2569
Fabrizio Bonatesta, Salvatore La Rocca, Edward Hopkins, Daniel Bell
Abstract Gasoline Direct Injection engines are efficient devices which are rivaling diesel engines with thermal efficiency approaching the 40% threshold at part load. Nevertheless, the GDI engine is an important source of dangerous ultra-fine particulate matter. The long-term sustainability of this technology strongly depends on further improvement of engine design and combustion process. This work presents the initial development of a full-cycle CFD model of a modern wall-guided GDI engine operated in homogeneous and stoichiometric mode. The investigation was carried out at part-load operating conditions, with early injections during the intake stroke. It included three engine speeds at fixed engine-equivalent load. The spray model was calibrated using test-bed and imaging data from the 7-point high-pressure fuel injectors used in the test engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2570
Karthik Puduppakkam, Chitralkumar Naik, Ellen Meeks, Christian Krenn, Roswitha Kroiss, Johannes Gelbmann, Guenther Pessl
Abstract An important goal for CFD simulation in engine design is to be able to predict the combustion behavior as operating conditions are varied and as hardware is modified. Such predictive capability allows virtual prototyping and optimization of design parameters. For low-temperature combustion conditions, such as with high rates of exhaust-gas recirculation, reliable and accurate predictions have been elusive. Soot has been particularly difficult to predict, due to the dependence of soot formation on the fuel composition and the kinetics detail of the fuel combustion. Soot evolution in diesel engines is impacted by fuel and chemistry effects, as well as by spray dynamics and turbulence. In this work, we present a systematic approach to accurately simulate combustion and emissions in a high-performance BMW diesel engine. This approach has been tested and validated against experimental data for a wide range of operating conditions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2564
Andrew Smallbone, Amit Bhave, Peter Man
Abstract This paper demonstrates how the validation and verification phase of prototype development can be simplified through the application of the Model Development Suite (MoDS) software by integrating advanced statistical and numerical techniques. The authors have developed and present new numerical and software integration methods to support a) automated model parameter estimation (model calibration) with respect to experimental data and, b) automated global sensitivity analysis through using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR). These methods are demonstrated at 1) a component level by performing systematic parameter estimation of various friction models for heavy-duty IC engine applications, 2) at a sub-component level by performing a parameter estimation for an engine performance model, and 3) at a system level for evaluating fuel efficiency losses (and CO2 sources) in a vehicle model over 160 ‘real-world’ and legislated drive cycles.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2853
Christoph Menne, Simon Galbraith, Alan Jones, Lars Henning, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract In September 2013 the Jaguar XF 2.2l ECO sport brake and saloon were introduced to the European market. They are the first Jaguar vehicles to realize CO2 emissions below 130 g/km. To achieve these significantly reduced fuel consumption values with an existing 2.2l I4 Diesel engine architecture, selected air path and fuel path components were optimized for increased engine efficiency. Tailored hardware selection and streamlined development were only enabled by the consequent utilisation of the most advanced CAE tools throughout the design phase but also during the complete vehicle application process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2843
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Abstract Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2847
Arjun Prakash, Edward Nelson, Aaron Jones, James Macias, Matthew Hinojosa, Eugene Jimenez
Abstract Particulate mass (PM) emissions from DISI engines can be reduced via fuels additive technology that facilitates injector deposit clean-up. A significant drawback of DISI engines is that they can have higher particulate matter emissions than PFI gasoline engines. Soot formation in general is dependent on the air-fuel ratio, combustion chamber temperature and the chemical structure and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this regard, PM emissions and DISI injector deposit clean-up were studied in three identical high sales-volume vehicles. The tests compared the effects of a fuel (Fuel A) containing a market generic additive at lowest additive concentration (LAC) against a fuel formulated with a novel additive technology (Fuel B). The fuels compared had an anti-knock index value of 87 containing up to 10% ethanol. The vehicles were run on Fuel A for 20,000 miles followed by 5,000 miles on Fuel B using a chassis dynamometer.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2671
Wuqiang Long, Qiang Zhang, Jiangping Tian, Yicong Wang, Xiangyu Meng
Abstract To directly control the premixed combustion phasing, a novel method called Jet Controlled Compression Ignition (JCCI) is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder natural aspirated diesel engine at 3000 r/min without EGR. Numerical model was validated by pressure and heat release rate curves at a fixed spark timing. The simulation results showed that the reacting active radical species with high temperature issued from ignition chamber played an important role on the onset of combustion in JCCI system. The combustion of diesel pre-mixtures was initiated rapidly by the combustion products issued from ignition chamber. Consequently, the experiments of spark timing sweep were conducted to verify the above deduction. The results showed a good linear relationship between spark timing and CA10 and CA50, which validated the ability for direct combustion phasing control in diesel premixed combustion.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2709
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li
Abstract Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2674
Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi
The use of biodiesel or oxygenated fuels from renewable sources in diesel engines is of particular interest because of the low environmental impact that can be achieved. The present paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a light duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, gasoline and butanol mixed, at different volume fractions, with mineral diesel. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged DI four cylinder diesel engine for automotive applications equipped with a common rail injection system. Engine tests were carried out at 2500 rpm, 0.8 MPa of brake mean effective pressure selecting a single injection strategy and performing a parametric analysis on the effect of combustion phasing and oxygen concentration at intake on engine performance and exhaust emissions. The experiments demonstrated that the fuel properties have a strong impact on soot emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2675
Xiaobei Cheng, Shuai LI, Jin Yang, Shijun Dong, Zufeng Bao
PPCI in diesel engine is a combustion mode between conventional diesel combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which has the potential to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions and improve thermal efficiency. N-butanol as a kind of clean and renewable biofuel can effectively prolong ignition delay and enhance fuel/air mixing because of their low cetane number, high volatility fuel characteristics, which make it a better alternative fuel to achieve PPCI. In this paper, PPCI combustion in a boosted four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with n-butanol-diesel blends is realized by adjusting injection timing and EGR rate based on single injection. The results show that both early and late injection have long premixed duration, which is helpful to form more homogeneous mixture, and no diffusion combustion is found in heat release rate curve. Premixed combustion and low temperature combustion are the key factors to reduce PM and NOX.
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