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2014-04-01
Article
Engineering boss Pierpaolo Antonini noted several technology developments that will help maintain the diesel's viability in the face of increasingly stringent global emission regulations.
2014-04-01
Article
The flywheel energy-storage technology that was used in, among other things, the Le Mans-winning Audi R18 e-tron quattro is being sold by Williams to GKN Land Systems for use mainly in mass-transit vehicles.
2014-04-01
Article
IMSA Tudor United SportsCar Championship promotes a variety of green technologies to link racing to the road.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1370
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, He Ma, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Transient operation is frequently used by vehicle engines and the exhaust emissions from the engine are mostly higher than those under the steady station. An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effect of various valve timings and spark timings on combustion characteristics and particle emissions from a modern 3.0-liter Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. The transient condition was simulated by load increase from 5% to 15% at a constant engine speed with different settings of valve timings and spark timings. The transient particle emission measurement was carried out by a Cambustion DMS500 particulate analyser. The combustion characteristics of the engine during transient operation including cycle-by-cycle combustion variations were analyzed. The time-resolved particle number, particulate mass and particle size distribution were compared and analyzed between different engine settings.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1322
Valentin Soloiu, Alejandro Rivero-Castillo, Martin Muinos, Marvin Duggan, Spencer Harp, Wallace Peavy, Sven Wolter, Brian Vlcek
Abstract This study presents the combustion and emissions characteristics of Reactivity Controlled Combustion Ignition (RCCI) produced by early port fuel injection (PFI) of low reactivity n-butanol (normal butanol) coupled with in cylinder direct injection (DI) of cottonseed biodiesel in a diesel engine. The combustion and emissions characteristics were investigated at 5.5 bars IMEP at 1400 RPM. The baseline was taken from the combustion and emissions of ULSD #2 which had an ignition delay of 13° CAD or 1.5ms. The PFI of n-butanol and DI of cottonseed biodiesel strategy showed a shorter ignition delay of 12° CAD or 1.45ms, because of the higher CN of biodiesel. The combustion proceeded first by the ignition of the pilot (cottonseed biodiesel) BTDC that produced a premixed combustion phase, followed by the ignition of n-butanol that produced a second spike in heat release at 2° CAD ATDC.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1342
Huayu Tian, Baigang Sun, Haichun Yao, Hongyang Tang, Qinghe Luo
Abstract Nowadays, the world is facing severe energy crisis and environment problems. Development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is one of the best ways to solve these problems. Due to the difficulties of infrastructures, such as the hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen fuel vehicles have not been widely used yet. As a result, Hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicle is a solution as a compromise. In this paper, three way catalytic converter (TWC) was used to reduce emissions of hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicles. On wide open throttle and load characteristics, the conversion efficiency of TWC in gasoline engine was measured. Then the TWC was connected to a hydrogen internal combustion engine. After switching the hydrogen and gasoline working mode, emission data was measured. Experiment results show that the efficiency of a traditional TWC can be maintained above 85%., while it works in a hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel alternative working mode.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1292
Yuwei Zhao, Ying Wang, Shenghua Liu
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion has been shown to be a promising combustion technique to improve the combustion process and simultaneously reduce both Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The combination of port dimethyl ether (DME) induction and in-cylinder diesel direct-injection compression ignition (DICI) combustion was studied in a YTR 2105 engine. The main purposes of this paper were to investigate the effects of DME introduction on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Results obtained revealed that PCCI combustion process was composed of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and conventional diffusion combustion. As the DME quantity was increased, the start of combustion (SOC) was advanced. The peak values of in-cylinder pressure and mass averaged temperature increased as well as the maximum heat release rate of DME HCCI combustion.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1298
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1071
Haichun Yao, Baigang Sun, Huayu Tian, Qinghe Luo, Hongyang Tang
Abstract NOx are the only harmful emissions of hydrogen internal combustion engine. EGR is one of the effective methods to reduce NOx. The traditional EGR is not suitable for hydrogen internal combustion engine. Therefore, the study of influence of hot EGR on hydrogen internal combustion engine is important. A 2.0L hydrogen internal combustion engine with hot EGR system model is employed to optimize the diameter and position of hot EGR based on a simulation analysis. The result shows that both of the combustion temperature and NOx increase as EGR increases due to the rise of intake temperature for low load condition, for heavy load, with the increase of EGR rate, NOx emissions decreases slightly before the mixture equivalence ratio comes to 1and then dropped significantly after the mixture equivalence ratio greater than 1. Unburned hydrogen in TWC has the effect of reducing NOx after catalysts decrease largely.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1005
Helmut Brunner, Mario Hirz
Abstract Increasing urbanization, the growing degree of motorization and traffic performance in urban areas and environmental aspects like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are the motivation for a detailed analysis of personal individual mobility in urban areas, which is presented in this study. In the first step, the publication examines a study of market potential of new small and lightweight vehicle concepts. A mobility inquiry conducted in a mid-sized European city enables an estimation of the potential user groups for alternative vehicle concepts for individual urban traffic. In a second step, the CO2 reduction potential of urban car concepts is simulated for a generic vehicle fleet. This fleet consists of conventional vehicles of various classes (subcompact, compact, mid-sized …) as well as new lightweight urban car concepts. A novel vehicle concept for urban transportation will be presented as well.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1245
Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Alberto Vassallo, Richard C. Peterson, Joaquin De la Morena
Abstract Future diesel combustion systems may operate with significantly higher levels of boost and EGR than used with present systems. The potential benefits of higher boost and EGR were studied experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine with capability to adjust these parameters independently. The objective was to study the intake and exhaust conditions with a more optimum combustion phasing to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining proper constraints on emissions and combustion noise. The engine was tested at four part-load operating points using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. Two of the operating points correspond to low-speed and low-load conditions relevant for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The other two points focus on medium load conditions representative of the World-wide harmonized Light-duty Test Procedures (WLTP).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1244
Yiqun Huang, John Colvin, Asanga Wijesinghe, Meng Wang, Deyang Hou, Zuhua Fang
Abstract Dual loop EGR systems (having both a high pressure loop EGR and a low pressure loop EGR) have been successfully applied to multiple light-duty diesel engines to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 and Euro 5/6 emissions regulations [1, 2], including the 2009 model year VW Jetta 2.0TDI. Hyundai and Toyota also published their studies with dual loop EGR systems [3, 4]. More interest exists on the low pressure loop EGR effects on medium to heavy duty applications [5]. Since the duty cycles of light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel applications are very different, how to apply the dual loop EGR systems to heavy duty applications and understanding their limitations are less documented and published. As a specific type of heavy duty application, this paper studied the dual loop EGR effects on the retrofit applications of heavy duty diesel for delivery and drayage applications. The reduction of NOx emissions and the impact on fuel economy and controls are discussed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1243
Johan Genberg, Petter Tornehed, Oivind Andersson, Kristina Stenstrom
Abstract PM in diesel exhaust has been given much attention due to its adverse effect on both climate and health. As the PM emission levels are tightened, the portion of particles originating from the lubrication oil is likely to increase. In this study, exhausts from a biodiesel-fueled Euro 5 engine were examined to determine how much of the carbonaceous particles that originated from the fuel and the lubrication oil, respectively. A combination of three methods was used to determine the PM origin: chain length analysis of the hydrocarbons, determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and the concentration of 14C found in the exhausts. It was found that the standard method for measuring hydrocarbons in PM on a filter (chain length analysis) only accounted for 63 % of the OC, meaning that it did not account for all non-soot carbon in the exhausts.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1240
Dongxian Song, Ning Jia, Xiangyang Guo, Xingxing Ma, Zhigang Ma, Dingwei Gao, Kejun Li, Haipeng Lai, Chunhui Zhang
Abstract Downsizing is regarded as a promising strategy to reduce the fuel consumption of gasoline engines. But downsized turbocharged engines need to take knocking into account to avoid engine damage. Low Pressure (LP) cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective suppressant of knocking at boosted high load and EGR could reduce pumping loss at low loads. Both of them are helpful to improve fuel economy. In the research, a LP cooled EGR system is added to a 1.5L turbocharged PFI production gasoline engine and the compression ratio is changed from 9.3 to 11.5. The results show that the fuel reduction is 4.5% at 2000rpm 5bar (20% EGR ratio) and 9.7 % at 3000rpm 10bar (20% EGR ratio) compared with no EGR case. But at boosted high loads the fuel consumption is almost same to the production engine due to high compression ratio which results in severe knocking. In order to further reduce fuel consumption, the engine is operated in lean burn conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1235
Zhimin Liu, David Cleary
Abstract A 2.0L twin-scroll turbocharged SIDI engine was used to evaluate low-pressure loop water-cooled external EGR at operating conditions between 1000 rpm 75 Nm and 3000 rpm 250 Nm. The engine compression ratio was increased from 9.3 to 10.9. The maximum fuel consumption reduction potential, the boost pressure requirements, and the optimized external EGR calibration were determined. Combination of higher compression ratio and external EGR achieved 5-7% better fuel economy over mid-load region when using the twin-scroll turbocharger. A similar (4-6%) better fuel economy was observed over much of the higher-load region, including peak torque condition at 1000rpm, when the required boost pressure was provided by an externally-driven auxiliary boost system (not connected to the engine). The power consumption of auxiliary boost system (supercharger loss) was estimated and considered in fuel economy assessment. The fuel consumption reduction mechanisms of EGR were also analyzed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1230
Thomas Wallner, Andrew Ickes, Jeff Wasil, James Sevik, Scott Miers
Abstract This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0936
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0781
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1177
Paul B. Dickinson, Kieran Hegarty, Nick Collings, Tashiv Ramsander
Abstract The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1165
Yong-Wha Kim, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Greg Stewart, Jaroslav Pekar
Abstract This paper presents the application of model predictive control (MPC) to DOC temperature control during DPF regeneration. The model predictive control approach is selected for its advantage - using a model to optimize control moves over horizon while handling constraints. Due to the slow thermal dynamics of the DOC and DPF, computational bandwidth is not an issue, allowing for more complex calculations in each control loop. The control problem is formulated such that all the engine control actions, other than far post injection, are performed by the existing production engine controller, whereas far post injection is selected as the MPC manipulated variable and DOC outlet temperature as the controlled variable. The Honeywell OnRAMP Design Suite (model predictive control software) is used for model identification, control design and calibration.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1169
Jean-Claude Habumuremyi
Since 2004, INERGY is working on the development of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system Components and controls to enable the reduction of NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) in the exhaust gas using an aqueous urea solution. This paper is focused on the pump control strategy. In this paper, we modelled an INERGY SCR pump system (gear pump, DC motor, line and injector) used. Then we considered PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers since they are common in the automotive industry. We developed 4 controllers to achieve the necessary system function which include: line filling, pressure build-up, pressure hold-up, and purge. Windup introduced by saturation of the motor command and transition between the controllers were taken into account during development. We tested different anti-windup approaches on this model. We derived lessons regarding the overshoot, the rise time and the performance of the different anti-windup techniques.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1161
Donald Selmanaj, Harald Waschl, Michael Schinnerl, Sergio Savaresi, Luigi del Re
Abstract Especially in view of more and more stringent emission legislation in passenger cars it is required to reduce the amount of pollutants. In the case of Diesel engines mainly NOx and PM are emitted during engine operation. The main influence factors for these pollutants are the in-cylinder oxygen concentration and the injected fuel amount. Typically the engine control task can be divided into two separate main parts, the fuel and the air system. Commonly air system control, consisting of a turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation control, is used to provide the required amount of oxygen and address the emission targets, whereas the fuel is used to provide the desired torque. Especially in transient maneuvers the different time scales of both systems can lead to emission peaks which are not desired. Against this background in this work instead of the common way to address the air system, the fuel system is considered to reduce emission peaks during transients.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1082
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1084
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1455
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Nicole Davis, James Lents
Abstract Engine manufacturers have explored many routes to reducing the emissions of harmful pollutants and conserving energy resources, including development of after treatment systems to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the engine exhaust, using alternative fuels, and using alternative fuels with after treatment systems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one alternative fuel in use and this paper will discuss emission measurements for several LPG vehicles. Regulated emissions were measured for five school buses, one box truck, and two small buses over a cold start Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (CS_UDDS), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Central Business District (CBD) cycle. In general, there were no significant differences in the gas phase emissions between the UDDS and the CBD test cycles. For the CS-UDDS cycle the total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are higher than they are from the UDDS cycle.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1479
Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1481
Achombili Asango, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler
Abstract The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1964
Tingting Zhang, Xiaomin Xie, Zhen Huang
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1963
Anne Marie Lewis, Gregory Keoleian, Jarod Kelly
Abstract As lightweight materials and advanced combustion engines are being used in both conventional and electrified vehicles with diverse fuels, it is necessary to evaluate the individual and combined impact of these technologies to reduce energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This work uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the total energy and GHG emissions for baseline and lightweight internal combustion vehicles (ICVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) when they are operated with baseline and advanced gasoline and ethanol engines. Lightweight vehicle models are evaluated with primary body-in-white (BIW) mass reductions using aluminum and advanced/high strength steel (A/HSS) and secondary mass reductions that include powertrain re-sizing. Advanced engine/fuel strategies are included in the vehicle models with fuel economy maps developed from single cylinder engine models.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1956
Alessandro Libriani
Abstract Synthetic rubber is used in automobiles for various applications. Tires, seals, gaskets, engine mounts, wiring cables and under the hood hoses are just a few examples. Synthetic rubber is a man-made material that uses several components as polymers, resins, carbon black, fillers, vulcanizing agents, reinforcement agents. It is a material that heavily depends on oil for its constituency, therefore it has a large carbon footprint. This study proposes the use of natural filler for automotive seals using synthetic rubber in order to reduce the impact on the environment. Calcium carbonate is the most preponderant choice as material filler because it is abundant in nature and is mined extensively. Calcium carbonate is also present in several structures in nature. Oyster shells have a great amount of it as well as egg shells. Egg shells also constitute an environmental bio-hazard when discarded in a landfill due to the organic inner membrane.
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