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2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
The contribution analyses the Volkswagen emission scandal and the impacts on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based mobility. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Volkswagen and the United States prosecutor sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers towards an everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) flavor and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1953
Tushar Narendra Puri lng, Lalitkumar Ramujagir Soni lng, Sourabh Deshpande
The infliction of rigorous emission norms across the world has made the automobile industry to focus and dwell upon researches to reduce the engine emissions of diesel engine. Variation in injection timing has better influence on reduction of engine emissions. This paper deal with numerical simulation of 4-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engine running at 1640 RPM using CONVERGE_STUDIO CFD tool. As the piston and bowl geometry considered in this work is symmetric only 45 degree sector engine model considered for simulation over 360 degree complete engine model. To study the combustion and inside flow physics taking place inside engine cylinder more accurately and to reduce computational time, simulation from 20 bTDC during compression stroke up to 140 aTDC in the power stroke is considered as available in the literature.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1782
Jobin Puthuparampil, Henry Pong, Pierre Sullivan
Abstract Large-scale emergency or off-grid power generation is typically achieved through diesel or natural gas generators. To meet governmental emission requirements, emission control systems (ECS) are required. In operation, effective control over the generator’s acoustic emission is also necessary, and can be accomplished within the ECS system. Plug flow mufflers are commonly used, as they provide a sufficient level of noise attenuation in a compact structure. The key design parameter is the transmission loss of the muffler, as this dictates the level of attenuation at a given frequency. This work implements an analytically decoupled solution, using multiple perforate impedance models, through the transfer matrix method (TMM) to predict the transmission loss based on the muffler geometry. An equivalent finite element model is implemented for numerical simulation. The analytical results and numerical results are then evaluated against experimental data from literature.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1798
Jiri Navratil, Warren Seeley, Peng Wang, Shriram Siravara
Abstract The ability to accurately predict exhaust system acoustics, including transmission loss (TL) and tailpipe noise, based on CAD geometry has long been a requirement of most OEM’s and Tier 1 exhaust suppliers. Correlation to measurement data has been problematic under various operating conditions, including flow. This study was undertaken to develop robust modelling technique, ensuring sensible correlation between the 1-D models and test data. Ford use Ricardo WAVE as one of their 1-D NVH tools, which was chosen for the purpose of this benchmark study. The most commonly used metrics for evaluating the acoustical performance of mufflers are insertion loss (IL), TL, and noise reduction (NR). TL is often the first step of analysis, since it represents the inherent capability of the muffler to attenuate sound if both the source and termination are assumed to be anechoic. It can also be reliably measured and numerically simulated without having to connect to an engine.
2017-05-20
Article
Nissan Europe product planning boss Ponz Pandikithura says total cost of ownership of EVs will drop dramatically.
2017-05-18
WIP Standard
J1979
SAE J1979/ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2017-05-05
Article
FPT Industrial offers a broad range of natural gas engines, with solutions from 136 to 400 hp (101 to 298 kW) for light, medium, and heavy vehicles. The brand is also in the advanced stages of trialing natural gas engines for agricultural equipment, says brand president Annalisa Stupenengo.
2017-05-04
Magazine
Innovations for lightweighting Tough fuel-economy bogies for 2021 and beyond are driving new approaches to materials use, as seen in these case studies. Axellent progress AAM's new Quantum drive-axle technology is a leap forward in lightweight, efficient driveline systems aimed at 2020 and beyond. Low-temperature combustion ready for prime time? At SAE's High-Efficiency IC Engines Symposium, Delphi said its new, third-generation GDCI is promising, but even LTC proponents admit that challenges remain. More automation for ECU testing The latest fault-insertion tests enable engineers to run more test cases in less time.
2017-05-03
WIP Standard
ARD6954
This SAE Aerospace Resource Document (ARD) document covers the requirements for a self-propelled GRV, intended for use at airports to collect spent aircraft de-icing fluid (ADF) from the surface of de-icing areas. This unit will recover de-icing fluid from the surface, which will be stored in a containment unit on the vehicle. The GRV must be capable of night and day operations in all weather conditions, as required.
2017-04-30
Book
Eduardo Galindo, David Blanco, Chris J. Brace, Edward Chappell, Richard Burke
The use of the chassis dynamometer test cells has been an integral part of the vehicle development and validation process for several decades, involving specialists from different fields, not all of them necessarily experts in automotive engineering. CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER TESTING: Addressing the Challenges of New Global Legislation (WLTP and RDE) sets out to gather knowledge from multiple groups of specialists to better understand the testing challenges associated with the vehicle chassis dynamometer test cells, and enable informed design and use of these facilities.
2017-04-27
Article
Uber announced a partnership with Aurora Flight Sciences to develop electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft for its Uber Elevate Network. Aurora’s eVTOL concept is derived from its existing XV-24A LightningStrike VTOL X-Plane subscale vehicle demonstrator aircraft.
2017-04-20
Article
Exa Corp. is focusing on the vital and sometimes overlooked aspect of automated drivin: keeping onboard camera lenses and other sensor surfaces clean in all road conditions.
2017-04-17
Article
Cabins with triple sealing, and EPA fuel economy credits promote use of recirculation position with outside air shut off. CO2 builds up well beyond 0.1% comfort level, says CalsonicKansei researcher at SAE WCX17.
2017-04-17
Article
Our HVAC expert dives deep into the Prius Prime PHEV and sees an ultra-compact refrigerant liquid-gas separator and sophisticated circuitry that operates in any of six modes.
2017-04-11
Article
As Mercedes and Audi launch the new CO2 A/C refrigerant in production, members of Germany's VDA consortium ask for a compatible SAE standard during the SAE Interior Climate Control Committee meeting in April.
2017-04-06
Magazine
Connectivity continues its advance More OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are focusing on embedded telematic systems, hoping to displace aftermarket hardware. Tailoring fuel injection to control NOx The next big step to help heavy-duty diesel engines meet stricter emissions regulations involves adapting the fuel-injection system to the combustion needs. Active on safety Crash-avoidance technologies are vital "building blocks" to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents. Engineering with simulation and data Companies are discovering new simulation techniques, especially optimization; the next step is to combine simulation with sensor data and predictive analytics to create even more robust off-highway equipment.
2017-04-05
Article
A car sharing study involving college students is providing Denso with feedback that could help the supplier develop new products.
2017-04-03
Article
The electrical power needed just to process the increasing deluge of incoming and in-vehicle data—generated from on-board sensor arrays, from other vehicles, the infrastructure and the cloud—is “the dirty little secret” of autonomous vehicle engineering.
2017-03-30
Magazine
Thought leadership at WCX17 Proliferating electrification and performance. Clarity of purpose Honda's 2017 Clarity Fuel Cell has impressive performance, zero emissions and zero range anxiety. Clarity is ready for the mainstream, but is hydrogen fuel? Lightweighting hinges on the details Multi-material design approaches require careful integration of all adjacent constituents. Haptic feedback for gesture-control HMI Mid-air gesture controls rely on sophisticated sensing to aid the human-machine interface and help keep drivers' eyes on the road. Road-efficient mud machine Jeep's new Compass benefits from a trick AWD system co-developed with GKN. Past as prelude to the future SAE's Mobility History Committee brings a trove of knowledge- and cool technology. The new Fellow from Ricardo Prof. Neville Jackson will be recognized as an SAE Fellow at WCX17.
2017-03-28
Collection
Topics include the effects of fuel and additives on deposit formation, intake system cleanliness, friction, wear, corrosion, and elastomer compatibility. Also covered are effects of fuel specification on drivability, on evaporative emissions, and on the relationship between emissions and drive cycle.
2017-03-28
Collection
Proper thermal management can significantly contribute to overall system energy efficiency. The papers in this collection highlight the latest developments in thermal management energy efficiency.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1282
Ashish Jaiswal, Tarun Mehra, Monis Alam, Jatin Agarwal, Harshil Kathpalia
Abstract Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1217
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtain the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25°C to 18°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1320
Yucheng Liu
Abstract A cost effective, portable particulate management system was developed, prototyped, and evaluated for further application and commercialization, which could remove and dispose particulate matter suspended in air efficiently and safely. A prototype of the present system was built for experimental assessment and validation. The experimental data showed that the developed particulate management system can effectively clean the air by capturing the particles inside it. Effects of viscosity of filter medium on the performance of the developed system were also discussed. The present system is very flexible, whose size and shape can be scaled and changed to be fit for different applications. Its manufacturing cost is less than $10. Based on the experimental validation results, it was found that the present system can be further developed, commercialized, and applied for a variety of industries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1318
Prashant Khapane, Suresh Bhosale
Abstract Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirements for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the program when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering changes that are expensive, time consuming and stressful. Like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model the physics of sand media and also solve the complex multi-physics problem of impact of the whole vehicle with the sand dune.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with a concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx, and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle complies with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel, however, showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0875
Valentin Soloiu, Jose Moncada, Martin Muinos, Aliyah Knowles, Remi Gaubert, Thomas Beyerl, Gustavo Molina
Abstract This paper investigates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with Bu25, 75% ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) blended with 25% n-butanol by mass. N-butanol, derivable from biomass feedstock, was used given its availability as an alternative fuel that can supplement the existing limited fossil fuel supply. Combustion and emissions were investigated at 2000 rpm across loads of 4.3-7.2 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Cylinder pressure was collected using Kistler piezoelectric transducers in the precombustion (PC) and main combustion (MC) chambers. Ignition delays ranged from 0.74 - 1.02 ms for both operated fuels. Even though n-butanol has a lower cetane number, the high swirl in the separate combustion chamber would help advance its premixed combustion. The heat release rate of Bu25 became initially 3 J/crank-angle-degree (CAD) higher than that of ULSD#2 as load increased to 7.2 bar IMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
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