Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 22534
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Mukesh Kumar
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-DesignTM metallic substrates with Longitudinal structured foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behavior in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of PM. Mass flow controllers are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag in real time, at 5 Hz. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a micro bench bag emissions analyser.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
BS III norms (BS IV in 18 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future later then sooner. OEs have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be tough to say there have been little work been done specifically on after treatment systems which has been focused Indian market and driving conditions. Performance challenges with catalyst systems have been well known to OEs as well system supplier.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion.Swirl, squish and tumble are three forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0089
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Michele Miccio, Thomas Koerfer
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand delivers a novel air path control approach, developed by FEV, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Around 30% of the global warming is caused by the green house gases emitted from automobiles, out of which 60% is contributed by passenger cars. Globally, this scenario has taken prime importance for all organizations to reduce the Emission levels of their products. Many technologies have been developed in order to address Diesel engine emissions, out of which NOx reduction has been a top priority due to it toxicity. Extensive work on Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) has played a key role in reducing NOx emission (30% ~ 50% reductions). Relatively EGR with intercooling has shown greater improvement in BSFC and NOx reduction at higher load points in HSDI engines. EGR Cooler, merely a heat exchanger, cools the recirculated gas which in turn reduces the in-cylinder charge temperature and increases the EGR flow Rate as compared to hotter EGR. Selection of EGR system for a particular engine is critical.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram T, Kalyan Hatti
A methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system II (OBD II) is derived with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the system as per the requirement of commercial vehicle technology. This paper will give an overview of approach to the development of OBD II design concept / strategy as per requirement for variants of vehicles & engines keeping India specific design critique with regulatory requirements, compilation of design & development plan with supplier as a partner using a reliability tool DFMEA, DVVP & On road trials or vehicle level test. Paper will include, format of DFMEA, DVVP and vehicle level test results used during the development of OBD II.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
To meet OBD norms for oxygen sensor component in exhaust path, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to engine stop state of vehicle due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and lambda in the engine becomes “infinitely lean” or only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here are two transitions of lambda changes can be realized by oxygen sensor signal during engine running to engine stop, i.e. rich to infinitely lean and lean to infinitely lean.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. A range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of EGR is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0105
Prakash Kamat, Yogesh Aghav, Nitin Gokhale, M N Kumar
An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that it attacks local in-cylinder emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Senthur Pandian, Sachin gogia
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 5mg/km in the NEDC cycle starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel particulate filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Now, the major challenges for DPF technology adaptation are: 1) Soot mass estimation and loading for the DPF 2) DPF Regeneration - Process involving soot mass burning inside a DPF(temperature based/ under fuel post injection) This paper deals with the most important aspect of the regeneration of DPF – Regeneration Interval and factors affecting the same. Regeneration interval: kilometers of driving a vehicle after which the DPF will reach the maximum limit of soot mass present inside it.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
Stringent emission norms for better quality of environmental air triggers a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission norms has to be ensured with improve fuel efficiency and control cost. This paper highlights an overview of hardware development and calibration strategies carried out for up gradation of 2.2 L common rail direct injection diesel engine, to meet BS V Emissions norms. Existing BS IV compliance engine is selected as a base engine. Target was to minimize possible engine out emission with reduce dependency on after treatment. Major hardware changes in the baseline engine includes reduction in compression ratio, Injectors, EGR cooler optimization, Turbocharger, Diesel oxidation catalyst.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms are based on US-EPA Tier 4 final, major technology up gradations is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. These solutions are varying from advanced in-cylinder combustion strategies to sophisticated exhaust after-treatment technologies. Generally, the proven technology concepts such as Common Rail System (CRS), efficient Turbocharged-Intercooled (TCI), controlled cooled EGR along with DOC-DPF in after treatment are used for emission controls. However, this approach will increase engine cost in addition to the Packaging challenges for the existing vehicle layouts.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0099
Rehan Shaik, Anand Kumar, R Padmavathi, Jagan G, Agarwal Anshul, Gourav Ganguly, Krishna Dwarshala, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar
With over seven billion people and 1.015 billion cars in the world today, the global energy requirement is skyrocketing. Over the past 30 years, governments in the world have been focusing on utilization of energy sources. The solution to the problems has been approached in several ways, such as advanced fuel injection system, best in cylinder combustion, reduced engine friction etc. To utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M) has come up with single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with flexible fuel injection system, reduced engine friction and best in cylinder combustion. In single cylinder naturally aspirated engines volumetric efficiency is a critical parameter to meet BS IV emission norms. Objective of the present work is to maximize the volumetric efficiency of the single cylinder engine by optimizing the valve timing. M&M single cylinder engine has got volumetric efficiency of around 80%.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel for diesel engines owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of blends of DEE with diesel as an oxygenate and cetane improver on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% diethyl ether (by volume) were blended into diesel. The engine tests were carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% of full load and 100% load. The laboratory fuel tests also carried out to measure the basic properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane index, flash point, distillation profile and miscibility. Laboratory fuel tests showed that the DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan V, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Oxides of Nitrogen gases are one of the most harmful emissions from the IC Engines. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for CI engines. In order to achieve these NOx limits SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology is used for CI engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through aqueous urea solution injected in exhaust stream. The composition of aqueous urea solution is 62.5% water and 32.5% is urea. After injection, this aqueous urea solution disintegrated into Ammonia and carbon dioxide by Thermolysis and Hydrolysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets will be upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines between 75 – 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to EU Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0040
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Diesel Engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to Gasoline Engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by 2013 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature. To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, crystalline aluminosilicate etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope. This paper presents the performance studied under simulated conditions in a laboratory reactor as well as on a chassis dynamometer for mass emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put in the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a model of the physical plant of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0093
S. Jayagopal
The automobile industries have seen a great evolution since 19th century. Reducing the NOx emissions from Diesel engines remains as a challenging issue as the emission standards for Diesel engines & its powered vehicles have become more stringent than ever before. As one has to develop for improved life-style, something has to be sacrificed and one among them is global warming. So, many nations have come up with regulations to control exhaust emissions of the vehicles. In the case of Medium & Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, the emissions to be met on Engine Dynamometer on both ESC & ETC cycles for BS-IV or Euro-IV as on date. In which the optimizing the emission parameters to meet Random NOx requirement is logical technique to use.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Aftertreatment system design involves multiple trade-offs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0108
Vijay Narkhede, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji, Touquire A Sidiquie
Diesel engines are becoming increasingly popular because they are inherently more fuel efficient. While the CO and HC impurities are significantly lower than in gasoline engines, the design strategy for reduction of Particulate Matter and Nitogen Oxides remains a major challenge for environmental catalysis. The catalyst system of choice with BS 3 fuel with 350 ppm of S available in most parts of the country, is the Vanadia Tungsten Titania (VWT) system which is resistant to poisoning by the S in the fuel.However under urban driving conditions on Indian roads, the major obstacle is the low engine out temperatures which are below the normal operating window (250 to 400 C) for VWT – SCR. The objective of the present investigation is to develop low temperature SCR catalyst systems that outperform the existing commercial catalytic systems during the cold start and low load conditions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0100
Prasanna G Bhat, Bhaskar Melage B.H, Dadarao Narwade, Hirak Gayan, Narendra Pawar, Neelkanth V Marathe, Dharmdev Vyas, Samadhan Awate, Abhishek Meshram, Pramod Ghadage, PJM Khan
Abstract The Objective of this work is to upgrade existing TCIC Engine from current stage-I emission limits to the revised stage-II limits for diesel operated generating set application. In this optimization work, it is focused to meet the stringent emission limits by optimizing the existing engine without any major modification in the basic design. Over recent past years, stringent emission legislations have been imposed on reduction of emission parameters emitted from diesel engines. The concerned authorities have revised emission limits which are applicable from July 2014. The se revised limits are the most stringent limits for the category engines above 75 kW. This paper deals with the task of upgrading the present engine with certain design changes, experimentation details & strategies applied to meet the revised emission Norms. The criticality of the task surges exponentially for Turbocharger and Intercooled versions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat, Sukrut Thipse, Neelkanth V Marathe, Narendra Pawar, Dadarao Narwade, Hirak Jyoti Gayen, Bhaskar Melage, S V A Achari
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers as well as agricultural machines in small house-hold applications in India and other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies makes these engines too expensive. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. The up-gradation of a two cylinder diesel genset engine is achieved with minimum hardware changes in the engine to make it cost effective. The engine is upgraded from Naturally Aspirated to Turbocharged Intercooled configuration with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The changes in hardware include selection of suitable turbocharger, intercooler, and EGR flow rate. Presently, there are very few twin cylinder diesel engines with turbocharging for genset application.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles.
2014-11-26
Article
Lead-acid batteries have clear advantages in cost and low-temperature performance, but Li-ion has its own set of pluses.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 22534

Filter