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Viewing 1 to 30 of 24399
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0996
Sebastian Gramstat, André Cserhati, Matthias Schroeder
Since particle emissions from combustion engines have been reduced during the last decades, the importance of non-exhaust emission sources, such as airborne brake dust, tyre pollution, etc., is increasing. Unlike the powertrain, a conventional vehicle brake is an open system and the sampling of the emitted particles becomes a complex process. The presented study introduces a particular measurement setup for brake particle emission investigations. Beside a brake dynamometer, two solid particle counting systems (SPCS) were used to determine the emitted particle numbers. It must be mentioned that both devices were modified prototypes with a cut-off of 10 nm. During the studies an 18” two-piston frame-design brake caliper, in combination with low-steel brake linings and cast-iron brake discs, was used. As a first result it is shown that the employed setup and test procedure revealed a stabilised behaviour after a few test runs in terms of emitted particle numbers and friction conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0984
Wenran Geng, Diming Lou, Ning Xu
Recently Hybrid Electric Buses have been widely used in China. In order to study their emissions reduction effects, the exhaust emissions of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus have been evaluated both over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) on chassis dynamometer and on the road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The diesel-electric hybrid bus adopts a coaxial parallel mode hybrid system and is driven by electric motor at 0~20km/h while engine keeps idling. Only if the vehicle speed exceeds 20km/h, engine and electric motor will provide driving force together, which leads to more violent transient conditions of engine. Firstly, exhaust emissions of the diesel-electric hybrid bus and a Chinese V stage bus with traditional powertrain have been tested on heavy chassis dynamometer over CCBC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results will be presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 51%+ brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying 4.0 g/kWhr engine out NOx and 0.01 g/kWhr engine-out soot. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance without the use of additional technologies such as thermal barrier coatings, waste heat recovery or additional turbo-compounding.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0644
Michael Pontoppidan, Adm José baeta
Vehicle emissions significantly increase the atmospheric air pollution and the green house gas (GHG) effect. This fact together with a fast global vehicle fleet growth requires a scientific technological solution, which introduces a significant reduction of vehicle fleet fuel consumption and emission to comply with future legislation. As a response to this requirement a prototype engine equipped with a torch ignition system and designed for stratified mixture conditions was made. The design is based on a commercial baseline engine layout. In this system, the combustion starts in a pre-chamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main combustion chamber. The combustion jet flames have high thermal and kinetic energy being able to promote a stable lean combustion process through enhanced mixture stratification.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0907
Timothy Johnson, Ameya Joshi
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Euro 6 type regulations for Beijing, China, and India in the 2017-20 timeframe. Europe finalized real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx and GDI PN ramping down to 1.5X by 2021. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0990
Carl Paulina, Dan McBryde, Mike Matthews
ABSTRACT Track Road Load Derivations (RLDs) and subsequent load matching on test cell dynamometers has traditionally been conducted using vehicle coastdowns (CDs). A vehicle’s speed changes during these coastdowns are used to calculate the drag forces that slow vehicles when on the road. Drag forces exerted on a vehicle, can also be quantified by holding a vehicle at a specific steady state speed and measuring the forces required to maintain that speed. Track coastdowns require the vehicle to be placed in neutral to accomplish. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) do not necessarily have true neutral mechanical power transmission modes and some vehicles exhibit large variations from CD run to CD run. This paper focuses on two steady state speed methods to quantify parasitic forces which a vehicle must work against when motoring.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0970
Johann C. Wurzenberger, Christoph Triebl, Susanne Kutschi, Christoph Poetsch
Wall flow filters have successfully been used for many years to abate particulate matter emissions. Since then, modeling of this type of filter device has supported the development by a broad variety of approaches reaching from explicit pressure drop correlations up to complex 3D CFD simulations. 1D models are commonly used in the context of plant modeling supporting control development and calibration. Here most differences can be identified by the applied filtration, active or passive soot regeneration and catalytic reaction mechanisms. The proposed paper discusses a 1D+1D wall flow filter model resolving transport phenomena along the axial direction of the inlet/outlet channel and also in transverse direction through the soot cake and filter wall. The basic set of gas phase flow equations is extended by the passive transport of an arbitrary number of soot classes. The balance equations of deposit soot are extended to handle individual soot population.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0992
Dereck Dasrath, Richard Frazee, Jeffrey Hwang, William Northrop
Partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines is a strategy for reducing soot and NOX formation though it is accompanied by higher unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions compared to conventional mixing-controlled diesel combustion. In this work, two independent methods of quantifying light UHC species from a diesel engine operating in early LTC (ELTC) modes were compared: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). A sampling system was designed to capture and transfer exhaust samples for off-line GC-MS analysis, while the FT-IR sampled and quantified engine exhaust in real time. Three different ELTC modes with varying levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were implemented on a modern light-duty diesel engine. GC-MS and FT-IR concentrations were within 10 % for C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C2H4O. While C3H8 was identified and quantified by the FT-IR, it was not detected by the GC-MS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0562
Xiuxiu Sun, Xingyu Liang, Hanzhengnan Yu, Yuesen Wang, Yajun Wang
The two-stroke marine engine have higher NOx emission for its low rotational speed. However, the limited can be improved for the NOx emission in recent years. The large size of the two-stroke marine engine makes the use of experimental techniques, the investigate this potential, expensive and time consuming. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of two-stroke marine diesel engines can be built in this article. The model is valeted with the results of experiment. The in-cylinder pressure is agreement with that of experiment. The error located in the acceptable range for the emission products, NOx, CO, HC and CO2. This model can be used in the simulated the performance of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR. Four different EGR ratio can be simulated in this article, for example 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The in-cylinder pressure, temperature, specific fuel consumption, power and the quantity of emission product can be compared for different EGR ratio.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0910
Michiel Makkee, Yixiao Wang
Next Generation Automotive DeNOx Catalysts: Ceria what else? The NOx abatement of the more fuel economic lean-burn engines remains a demanding challenge. The Di-Air system opts to meet future stringent emission standards, especially under realistic driving conditions [1]. It is claimed that this system is able to maintain high NOx conversion to N2 at high temperatures and exhaust flow rates by applying direct high frequency high intensity fuel injections just upstream of a NSR catalyst in the exhaust with only a very small fuel penalty. How this system can achieve this performance remains largely unresolved. A detailed investigation is required in order to elucidate the role that the different potential catalyst components play. Among other our TAP study shows NO reduction to N2 over H2 and hydrocarbons reduced (La-Zr doped) ceria [2]. Ceria is found to be capable of fuel oxidation (above 500 oC) and NO reduction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0741
Xinlei Liu, Laihui Tong, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao
In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by the premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio, injection strategy, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates were varied with the pressure rise rates below10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that the higher premixed ratio and earlier injection timing with high injection pressure resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. The soot, HC, and CO emissions decreased with higher injection pressure and earlier injection timing, while the HC emission increased significantly with higher premixed ratio. With the increase of EGR, the soot and NOx emissions decreased while the CO and HC emissions increased significantly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0945
Markus Dietrich, Carsten Steiner, Gunter Hagen, Ralf Moos
State of the art for NOx reduction for low- and heavy-duty diesel engines is the ammonia SCR technique. Today’s SCR control approaches are model-based, relying on NOx sensors and the ammonia-providing urea dosing module. Based on model uncertainties, low ammonia storage levels on the catalyst surface are aimed to avoid ammonia slip. This leads to the disadvantage of catalyst oversizing or that the maximum catalytic potential is not exploited. The radio-frequency (RF) or microwave based catalyst state determination offers the ability to operate automotive catalysts at its optimal point. By using the catalyst canning as a resonator, knowledge about the electric properties of the catalyst can be derived from its resonance parameters. Their direct correlation to the catalyst state has already been proven for the oxidation state of a TWC, the soot loading on a DPF/GPF and the ammonia storage on vanadium and zeolite based SCR catalysts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0695
Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
In order to meet the continuously stringent standards in terms of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption from combustion engines of road vehicles, several investigations have been recently conducted about in-cylinder techniques and aftertreatment systems. In particular, the control of the fuel injected quantity and of the center of combustion (MFB50) performed cylinder-by-cylinder can effectively provide advantages in terms of pollutant formation and fuel consumption. In the present investigation, an experimental comparison among different control strategies is performed in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. The first control strategy is the standard one originally implemented in the ECU, whereas the other two are referred to as model-based and pressure-based combustion controls and have been implemented by means of rapid prototyping and proper hardware device connected to the ECU.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0583
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Phil Mortimer, Justin Seabrook
With the introduction in Europe of drive cycles such as RDE and WLTC, transient emissions prediction is more challenging than for the NEDC. Transient predictions are used in the calibration optimisation process to determine the cumulative cycle emissions for the purpose of meeting objectives and constraints. Predicting emissions such as soot accurately is the most difficult area, because soot emissions rise very steeply during certain transients. Besides model accuracy, prediction time also is also important when applying a dynamic model because the optimisation process can take a significant amount of time to converge to a solution that satisfies all constraints. The method proposed in this paper is an evolution of prediction using a steady state global model. A dynamic model can provide the instantaneous prediction of boost and EGR that a static model cannot. Meanwhile, a static model is more accurate for steady state engine emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0924
Jan Schoenhaber, Nikolas Kuehn, Bastian Bradler, Joerg Michael Richter, Sascha Bauer, Bernd Lenzen, Christian Beidl
Recently, the European Union has adopted a new regulation on Real-Driving-Emissions (RDE) and also China is considering RDE implementation into the China 6 legislation. This new regulation is focused on measuring nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate number (PN) emissions of both light-duty gasoline and diesel vehicles under real world conditions. A supplemental RDE test procedure was developed for European type approval, which includes on-road testing with cars equipped with portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). This additional requirement will significantly affect the engine calibrations and the exhaust gas aftertreatment. In this study the impact of the new RDE regulation on two recent EU6b certified turbocharged direct injected gasoline vehicles has been investigated. A comparison of several chassis dyno drive cycles with two new defined on-road RDE trips was performed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0953
Jinyong Luo, Yadan Tang, Saurabh Joshi, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Selective Catalytic Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with NH3 is a leading technology for lean-burn engines to meet the increasingly stringent environmental regulations worldwide. Among various SCR catalysts, Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including their unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200oC, these catalysts may not show desired NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 which is possible to achieve by DOC selection and optimization of its location. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation leading to the inhibition of NOx conversion. In addition, the decomposition of accumulated NH4NO3 will lead to the formation of N2O, an undesired greenhouse gas.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0674
Benjamin Matthew Wolk, Isaac Ekoto
Pulsed nanosecond discharges (PND) can achieve ignition in internal combustion engines through enhanced reaction kinetics as a result of elevated electron energies without the associated increases in translational gas temperature that cause electrode erosion. Atomic oxygen (O), including its electronically excited states, is thought to be a key species in promoting low-temperature ignition. In this paper, high-voltage (17-24 kV peak) PND are examined in oxygen/nitrogen/carbon dioxide/water mixtures at engine-relevant densities (up to 9.1 kg/m^3) through pressure-rise calorimetry and direct imaging of excited-state O-atom and molecular nitrogen (N2) in an optically accessible spark calorimeter, with the anode/cathode gap distance set to 5 mm or with an anode-only configuration (DC corona). The conversion efficiency of pulse electrical energy into thermal energy was measured for PND with secondary streamer breakdown (SSB) and similar low-temperature plasmas (LTP) without.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0962
Jian Gong, Di Wang, Avra Brahma, Junhui Li, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Pingen Chen
Three-way catalysts (TWCs) have been widely used on stoichiometric gasoline and natural gas engines for CO, hydrocarbons and NOx emissions control. Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is a critical factor of a TWC and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. On natural gas engine aftertreatment development, on-board diagnostic (OBD) is required and OSC monitoring is the primary TWC OBD method. A dynamic OSC model involving two storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed and validated on the engine. The validated OSC model was utilized to study the effects of engine operating conditions (oxygen concentration and space velocity) on lean breakthrough OSC (OSB), which is monitored through OBD. Base on the simulation analysis, it was found that OSB is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0602
Vladimir Vasilije Kokotovic, Colby Buckman
Abstract – Vehicle accessories electrification trend comes with new control concepts that in many cases frees up the direct engine drives. Considering that direct engine drives do not have as much flexibility as independent electric drives, it is apparent that several advantages are to be expected form electric drives. New developed high efficient electric drives can be implemented with the consideration of better fuel economy, end better performance in different engines operating regimes. In some cases that is achieved with better Start up procedure, Pressure, Flow, ”On Demand” features, or more intensive cooling when is needed (cooling “On demand”), power “On Demand”,… Electrification trend should be seen as an opportunity not only for better performance but also for better fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0939
Ashok Kumar, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Copper and iron-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel after-treatment system to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emissions. The type of transition metal ion in zeolite has a significant impact on their key performance and durability characteristics including the response to sulfur containing exhaust gas. In this article, we made an attempt to address the impact of only the transition metal ion on various SCR catalytic functions, by using a single source of zeolite BEA in the preparation of H-, Fe- and Cu-BEA samples. Similar molar amounts of copper and iron were ion-exchanged into H-BEA and washcoated on the cordierite support by Johnson Matthey Inc. Below 300C, Fe-BEA showed lower NOx conversion than Cu-BEA despite the former catalyst more active for NO oxidation to NO2, a potential reaction intermediate. Upon sulfation, the NOx reduction activity of Cu-BEA degraded much more than Fe-BEA SCR catalysts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0955
Hai-Ying Chen, Donna Liu, Erich Weigert, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Kenneth Camm, Patrick Bannon, Julian Cox, Louise Arnold
The phase-in of US EPA Tier 3 and California LEV III emission standards require further reduction of tailpipe criteria pollutants from automobiles. At the same time, the mandate for reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emissions continuously lowers the exhaust temperature. Both topics pose significant challenges to emission control catalyst technologies, especially for cold start emissions. The recently developed diesel cold start concept technology (dCSC™) shows promising results. It stores NOx and HC during the cold start period until the downstream catalytic components reach their operating temperatures, when the stored NOx/HC are subsequently released and converted. The technology also has oxidation functions built in and acts as a diesel oxidation catalyst under normal operating conditions. In a US DOE funded project, the diesel cold start concept technology enabled a high fuel efficiency vehicle to achieve emissions targets well below the SULEV30 emission standards.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0714
Qinglong Tang, Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a potential combustion strategy to achieve high engine efficiency with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. Fuel stratification can be used to control the heat release rate of RCCI combustion. But the in-cylinder combustion process of the RCCI under different fuel stratification degrees has not been well understood, especially at a higher engine load. In this paper, simultaneous measurement of natural flame luminosity and emission spectra was carried out on a light-duty optical RCCI engine under different fuel stratification degrees. The engine was run at 1200 revolutions per minute under a load about 7 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In order to form fuel stratification degrees from low to high, the common-rail injection timing of n-heptane was changed from -180° CA after top dead center (ATDC) to -10° CA ATDC, while the iso-octane delivered in the intake stroke was fixed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0593
Ivan Arsie, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare
The development of more affordable sensors together with the enhancement of computation features in current Engine Management Systems (EMS), makes the in-cylinder pressure sensing a suitable methodology for the on-board engine control and diagnosis. Since the 1960’s the in-cylinder pressure signal was employed to investigate the combustion process of the internal combustion engines for research purposes. Currently, the sensors cost reduction in addition to the need to comply with the strict emissions legislation has promoted a large-scale diffusion on production engines equipment. The in-cylinder pressure signal offers the opportunity to estimate with high dynamic response almost all the variables of interest for an effective engine combustion control even in case of non-conventional combustion processes (e.g. PCCI, HCCI, LTC).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0795
Changhoon Oh, Wai K. Cheng
The gasoline direct injection engine (GDI) particulate emission sources are assessed under cold start conditions: the fast idle and speed/load combinations representative of the 1st acceleration in the US FTP. The focus is on the accumulation mode particle number (PN) emission. The sources are non-fuel, combustion of the premixed charge, and liquid fuel film. The non-fuel emissions are measured by operating the engine with premixed methane/air or hydrogen/air. Then the PN level is substantially lower than what is obtained with normal GDI operation; thus non-fuel contribution to PN is small. When operating with stoichiometric premixed gasoline/air, the PN level is comparable to the non-fuel level; thus premixed-stoichiometric mixture combustion does not significantly generate particulates. For fuel rich premixed gasoline/air, PN increases dramatically when lambda is less than 0.7 to 0.8.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0796
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing, and they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
Reducing engine-out particulates is one of the main issues of direct injection gasoline engines and further efforts are still needed to comply with near-future emission regulations. However, engine-out particulate emission characteristics strongly depend on fuel properties associated with the combustion design and/or calibration, due to the complicated mechanisms of particulate formation, including both physical and chemical processes. For these reasons, the purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0702
Raouf Mobasheri, Mahdi Seddiq
The simultaneous effects of pilot fuel quantity and pilot injection timing on engine performance and amount of pollutant emission have been computationally investigated in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine. In this study, a modified parameter called “Homogeneity Factor of in-cylinder charge (HF)” has been applied to analyze the air-fuel mixing and combustion processes. For this purpose, the simulated results has been firstly compared with the experimental data and a good agreement has been achieved for simulating the in-cylinder pressure and the amount of pollutant emissions. Then, nine different strategies based on two variables (the amount of fuel mass in pilot and main injection as well as the dwell between two injections) have been investigated. The results show that employing pilot injection results in higher in-cylinder temperature and shorter auto-ignition delay which causes a rapid increase in the rate of NOx formation in early stage of combustion process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0601
Huayi Li, Kenneth Butts, Kevin Zaseck, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Ilya Kolmanovsky
The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for online prediction and controller validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with multi-layer perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0604
Christian Friedrich, Yves Compera, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch, Georg Wachtmeister
Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation, are among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be reduced steadily. For these reasons high demands regarding quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are rising continuously. In this paper a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion relevant component setups will be presented. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
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