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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
In the context of evolving market conditions, the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles but a period of rapidly evolving engine development, constrained tailpipe regulations and material supply issues present a unique challenge to catalyst developers. In this regard, CDTi is mainly focused on design and development of copper-free spinel oxide based Zero-precious metal (ZPGM) and spinel synergized precious metal (SPGM) with ultra-low presence of PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvements. The copper-free transition metal based spinel ZPGM catalysts shows improved thermal stability and redox reversibility compared to the copper based ZPGM materials. Fundamental studies of microstructure of spinel by high resolution TEM confirmed the aging stability of new developed spinel composition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1284
Andrew Burnham, Hao Cai, Michael Wang
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. In the past, the life-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheels (WTW) analyses of advanced technology and alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicles, which has been scarce in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of newly enacted and future greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and fuel consumption regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on these vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0986
John pisano, Thomas D. Durbin, Kurt bumiller, Gervase Mackay, Alak Chanda, Keith Mackay, Winston Potts, John Collins
The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVB range of ~200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference with either NO or NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0922
Pooja Malemutt, Thirumalini Subramaniam
Tampering is removing or making inoperable or inactive, any system or device, used to control emissions from a vehicle or engine. Tampering may include, but is not limited to removing the Diesel Particulate Filter, drilling hole into the DPF, adjusting any element of a car or truck's emission control design that is not as per manufacturer's specifications, including Installation of a replacement part that is not as designed and operated as the part that was originally on the vehicle during certification of the vehicle. Experimental investigations were done on tamper detection on a Vehicle which possessed diesel particulate filter along with a regeneration system. The temperature characteristics and combustion of soot were used to indicate tampering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Remanufacturing within a circular economy is becoming increasingly important to ensure business sustainability. Due to the increasing demand for electric vehicles (EVs) and End-of-Life (EoL) legislation such as the European parliament directive 2000/53/EC, the EoL strategy of EVs requires careful consideration at the design stage of the vehicle. This is particularly pertinent if the cited financial and environmental benefits from remanufacturing are to be fully realised. In addition to the EoL scenario that encompasses the EV and battery system as a whole, another important consideration is how to manage premature battery EoL because of an individual battery cell or module that has degraded within the complete assembly. When faced with a failed battery in a customer’s vehicle the default position for many automotive manufacturers will be to replace the complete battery assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0921
Ashok Kumar, Kristopher Ingram, Deepesh Goyal, Krishna Kamasamudram
Vanadia based Selective Catalytic Reduction (V-SCR) catalysts are widely used to meet NOx emissions over off-road diesel engines in North America and both on-road and off-road diesel engines in Europe and rest of the markets. Even though Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts offer higher NOx conversion as compared to V-SCR at lower temperatures, sulfur poisoning of Cu-zeolite leads to a significant decrease in NOx conversion and desulfation (deSOx) temperatures in excess of 500C are needed to restore its performance. Wide-spread application of V-SCR is found in off-road applications due to their resistance to poisoning by sulfur that eliminates the need for periodic thermal management (TM) for deSOx. Several applications with V-SCR catalysts operate below 300C in conditions that are conducive to carbonaceous deposits formation due to the presence of unburned HCs in the exhaust gas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0925
Douglas Ball, David Moser, Lucy Yang, Jason Warkins, Tinghong Tao, Angus Craig, Krishna Aravelli
A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions, using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated gasoline particulate filters. The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC catalyst in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were dyno aged to simulate 120K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at $30 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed CARB LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system back pressure is also presented with the various GPF designs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0758
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Yan Long, Shouzhi Xiang, Jianxin Wang
Particle number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engine (ICE). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and minimum spark advance for best torque (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of various vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that in the current situation, the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0553
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukiko Obara, Yukie Ishizawa, Emi Sato, Mai Sase, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Jun Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Akihama
Restraint of the soot emission is an important issue in the development of the automotive engine and computational methods have been demonstrated to be effective for this purpose in addition to experimental methods .  
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0975
Xander Seykens, Erik van den Tillaart, Velizara Lilova, Shigeru Nakatani
SCR technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for the reduction of NOx emissions in on-road and non-road applications. Accurate measurement of the NH3 slip is a key input for the SCR system, its control development, calibration and performance verification to meet operational requirements defined by legislative constraints and real-world use. TNO and Horiba are highly motivated to facilitate a correct interpretation and use of emissions measurement data. As a result, different hypotheses were defined to investigate the impact of measurement system temperature and flow rate on urea decomposition. The effect of these parameters is strongly related to the completeness of urea decomposition, and thus, to the formation of NH3. During the test campaign different SCR catalyst gas feed conditions (mass flow, temperature and species) as well as various urea dosing quantities were investigated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0932
Masanori Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Nakanishi, Hiroshi Koyama, Syouji Inose, Hiroki Takeori, Takayuki Watanabe, Takeshi Narishige, Tatsuya Okayama, Yukio Suehiro
The application of the powerplant technologies, including the increased combustion efficiency and the downsizing turbo is increasing in order to reduce automotive CO2 emissions (EM). However, these technologies reduce the exhaust gas temperature. And the catalyst activity is decreased, consequently CO, HC and NOx EM get worsen. Therefore it is necessary to develop low-temperature-active catalysts to purify EM. The research was focused on palladium (Pd) supported by cerium oxide (CeO2), which is able to oxidize carbon monoxide (CO) at low temperatures. In order to promote the active oxygen release, the effectiveness of the addition of some elements to the CeO2 was studied. The reactor experiments showed that the zinc (Zn) addition to reduced CO light-off temperature by approximately 60°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0981
Susan Collet
Light Duty Vehicle corporate average fuel economy (CAFE), fuel economy label, and greenhouse gas (GHG) requirements are related but are very different. The fundamentals to obtain the data are the same, but to derive the required values, the final formulas have different components. These formulas, how to obtain the values which comprise the formulas, and how to use the test output to obtain the final result necessary to determine compliance with the standards are in regulations, but are not easily located. The information is contained in many documents; such as various sections in the Code of Federal Regulations, EPA Guidance documents, SAE Papers, American Society of Testing and Materials standards, and law suit judgments. This paper compiles the fundamentals of vehicle CAFE, fuel economy label, and GHG basic information. The intent is to provide a reference to the foundation of these requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1279
Ko Wei Lin, Ya Lun Chen, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang
Biodiesel is a kind of alternative fuel and it could be made from animal or plant oil. It’s chemically different from petroleum diesel. Some different fuel properties such as oxygen content, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and so on. They cause oxidation reaction of biodiesel easier than diesel. This may cause deposit formation on piston rings and clogging of fuel filter etc. Research biodiesel using management rule is important. The storage life of biodiesel depends on the type of biodiesel and additives and local climate and quality control etc. This article was primarily concerned with Taiwan B2 storage life, and performed three tests such as static state of tank test, dynamic state of tank test and long-term placement vehicle cold-start performance test. The fuel D100 was control group and B2 was experiment group. The first section was a static state test, and four kinds of tanks (Buses / vans / trucks /passenger car) have been put under outdoor condition for one year.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0977
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Zbigniew Stepien, Stanislaw Oleksiak
A well-balanced use of alternative fuels worldwide is an important objective for a sustainable development of individual transportation. Several countries have objectives to substitute a part of the energy of traffic by ethanol as the renewable energy source. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Investigations of limited and unregulated emissions of a flex fuel vehicle with gasoline-ethanol blend fuel have been performed in the present work according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Network. The investigated fuel contained ethanol (E), in the portions of 10% & 85% by volume. The investigated vehicle represented a newer state of technology and an emission level of Euro 5. The engine works with homogenous GDI concept and with 3-W-catalyst (3WC).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0662
Mark Stuhldreher
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from tests on recent engines and vehicles. The data are used as inputs to an EPA vehicle simulation model created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. Under these new light-duty fuel economy standards vehicle power trains must become significantly more efficient. Cylinder deactivation engine technology, studied by EPA, is capable of deactivating one or more of its combustion cylinders when not needed to meet power demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0929
Devin Aryan, Kenneth Price, Thomas Pauly
There is growing interest in application of SCR on DPF (SDPF) for light and heavy duty applications, particularly to provide improvements in cold start emissions, as well as improvements in system cost and packaging. The first of systems containing SDPF are just coming to market, with additional introductions expected, particularly for light duty applications. To provide real world testing for the new SDPF technology prior to the availability of production vehicles configured for SDPF, an SDPF and one SCR catalyst were substituted in place of the original two SCR catalysts and a CDPF on a Ford F250 HD pickup. A reference aged set of components was first run on chassis dynamometer cycles in configuration DOC+SDPF+SCR and DOC+SCR+SDPF, as well as DOC+SDPF. The DOC+SCR+SDPF was chosen for the road aging as the best match to the original system NOx performance and control compatibility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe for non-road engines will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions of those engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO₂ implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1010
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Gonçalo Duarte, Tiago Farias
Internal combustion engine (ICE) cold-start is an issue that occurs either in conventional and hybrid powertrains before the ICE reaches its normal operation temperature, affecting both fuel consumption due to higher heat losses, and pollutant emissions due to low catalytic converter temperatures. The study of cold start emissions on conventional powertrains has been extensively addressed, although typically under laboratorial conditions, however studies addressing the impact of this phenomenon on hybrid powertrains is still reduced. Hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles usually incorporate technologies to manage the battery and ICE power supply leading to ICE on/off operation under regular driving, which can result in a decrease on catalytic converter efficiency (due to cooling).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0733
Valentin Soloiu, Tyler Naes, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp, Jose Moncada, Remi Gaubert, Gustavo Molina
This study investigates combustion and emissions of Jet-A in an indirect injection (IDI) compression ignition engine and a direct injection (DI) compression ignition engine at 4.5 bar IMEP and 2000 RPM. The Jet-A was blended with ULSD that resulted in 75%Jet-A and 25% ULSD#2 by mass. Both engines were instrumented with Kistler pressure sensors in the main chamber and the IDI engine had a second pressure sensor in the pre-chamber. Combustion properties and emissions from both engines using the 75% jet-A blend (75Jet-A) were compared to a baseline test of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #2 (ULSD). The ignition delay was shorter when running on 75Jet-A compared to ULSD in the DI engine. For ULSD, the ignition delay was 1.8 ms and it reduced to 1.7 ms when operating on 75Jet-A (difference of 6%). In the IDI engine the ignition delay for both fuels was 2.3 ms based off the gross heat release in the Pre-Chamber.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0928
Sujay Bagi, Nishant Singh, Rob Andrew
Ash accumulation in the DPF over life results in higher back-pressure reduced soot storage capacity, lower catalytic activity and may even alter substrate properties; hence ash-cleaning of the DPF is required periodically to extend the life of the DPF and restore its catalytic performance. Several ash cleaning technologies are available which utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and wet-chemical cleaning techniques or their combinations. A batch of DPFs with various ash accumulation levels were recovered from customer field units. X-ray CT imaging was performed to understand the ash distribution in the DPF channels. Field returned DPFs were tested on Engine Dynamometer to determine the impact on overall system performance loss from fresh state. The DPFs were then cleaned using various cleaning techniques; X-ray imaging and dynamometer testing was repeated to evaluate the performance recovery.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an iterative improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team's math-based design tools for use in evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture tweaks, controls code development and testing. This paper includes the results of the team's work in the EcoCAR 2 competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Plant model validations and advancements brought the vehicle plant model directionally closer to the actual vehicle's experimental data and achieved a significant error reduction in 10 of 11 metrics detailed in the research. The EcoCAR 2 competition events provided the opportunity for the team to get experimental data of the vehicle's behavior on the vehicle chassis dyno and the vehicle on road testing from General Motors proving ground test tracks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The technologies which realized miniaturization and higher performances will be explained. Basic performances such as flow and dilution ratio accuracies and proportionality between raw exhaust and sample flows have been evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0756
Dong Han, Peng Zhao, Zhen Huang
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been proven an effective strategy for the ignition and combustion control in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a major constituent in EGR, was found to pose a coupled effect on engine combustion: reduced intake oxygen concentration (dilution effect), increased gas heat capacity (thermal effect) and participation of CO2 in chemical reactions (chemical effect). In this paper, a numerical study using a detailed chemical kinetic model was conducted, aiming to isolate the dilution, thermal and chemical effects of CO2 on the two-stage auto-ignition process of n-heptane at engine-like pressure conditions. Four different initial temperatures were selected in this study, representing the low-temperature dominant region, the boundary between the low-temperature region and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region, the NTC region and the high temperature region, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
The influence of oxygenates on particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines has differing reports in the literature. It is hypothesised that these conflicting results can be explained by fuel vaporisation, and its composition in terms of aromatic content and heavy end components. For good control of the experiments M15 fuels have been mixed from pure fuel components and this enables the distillation characteristics to be matched to those of an M15 ULG. Code has been written to predict the vapour pressure of the non-ideal M15 blends; by controlling the fuel temperature experiments can be conducted with flashing and non-flashing fuel sprays. Two contrasting M15 fuels have been used: one ‘clean’ fuel, and a second ‘heavy’ fuel in terms of the vapour pressure, T90, aromatic content. Rig studies with backlit illumination and Mie scattering have been used for characterization of penetration length, spray angles (and collapse) and bulk evaporation rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0558
Christoph Poetsch, Tomaz Katrasnik
The steadily decreasing emission limits and the continuous quest to improve fuel economy are key driving forces to optimize internal combustion engines. Turbocharged, direct injection Diesel engines equipped with various EGR strategies and advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems are a promising technology. Still, great potential to further improve the emission vs. BSFC trade-off lies in the optimization of the whole engine process. Model based optimization techniques have become indispensable in the development process, both in the office simulation as on the HiL testbed. If identical models can be used in both environments, process time and costs are significantly reduced. Therefore it is necessary to combine the high degree of modeling depth of physical based models for injection, combustion and emission with fast calculation times of real-time engine models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0963
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Giorgio Amati PhD, Elio jannelli, Giacomo Falcucci
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is among the most efficient processes to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in engine exhaust. Research efforts are currently devoted to realizing and tuning SCR-reactors for automotive applications to meet the severe future emission standards, such as the European ``Euro VI'', in terms of NOx and particulate matter produced by vehicles. In this paper, we present the results of A detailed 2D computational model based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the performance of a SCR reactor. LBM has been employed for the study of complex phenomena of technical interest, and it is characterized by a detailed reproduction of both the porous structure of SCR reactor and the fluid-dynamic and chemical phenomena that take place in it. The aim of our model is to predict the behavior and performances of SCR reactor by accounting for the physical and chemical interactions between exhaust gas flow and the reactor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0966
Yujun Wang, Carl Kamp
It has been observed that a certain percentage of DPFs from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle region of DPF inlet channels, which effectively reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50% in some cases. The percentage of inlet channels having mid-channel plugs in the collection of field samples is in range of 10% to 75%. The mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and probably decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel, which explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. The mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0775
Zhanteng Chang, Chao Yu, Haiyan Zhang, Shuojin Ren, Zhi Wang, Boyuan Wang, Jianxin Wang
Homogeneous charge induced ignition (HCII) combustion is realized by using a port injection of gasoline to form a homogeneous charge and using a direct injection of diesel fuel to ignite.Compared to conventional diesel combustionwith high injection pressures (normally more than 1000 bar), HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injection, which would benefit the engine cost savings remarkably. In this paper, the impacts of injection pressure (400 to 800 bar) on HCII were studied in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at a medium engine load (8 bar). Combustion characteristics, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0799
George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Maryam Hajbabaei, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
We assessed the emissions response from a waste hauler fitted with a 2011 model year spark-ignited stoichiometric natural gas 8.9L Cummins Westport ISL-G engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalyst (TWC). Five fuels were employed for this study including two high methane number fuels and three high Wobbe number fuels. The vehicle was exercised on each fuel over the William H. Martin (WHM) refuse truck cycle (RTC). Emissions measurements were obtained using the CE-CERT Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). For all tests, standard emissions measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM), were measured. Measurements of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbonyl compounds were also made. Particles were characterized in terms of total and solid particle number emissions.
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