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Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima zotin PhD, Marcelo errera PhD
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective The motorcycle sales have improved consistently during the last decade mostly in developing and BRICS countries. There are many reasons for it such as their low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars, associated to the economic growth on those cited countries. New emissions limits have been reduced and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Additionally Flex Fuel motorcycles have been offered to the market and a combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends and their effect on the emissions still an open issue to be fully understood. The objective of the paper is to present recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends. Methodology One motorcycle was fuelled with gasoline blended with 22, 61 and 85% ethanol. Additionally a 100% ethanol fuel was used. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) have been measured with 7000 series Horiba benches.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Andrew Smith, James Howard Lee, Robert Garrick, Daniel Piekarski, Kenneth Krapf, John Bulzacchelli
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is rapidly becoming one of the best potential alternatives for replacing traditional gasoline or diesel for engines. Engines burning natural gas can operate nearly identically to traditionally fueled models with only minor changes in engine control and fueling parameters. Natural gas produces fewer emissions and can be run at higher compression ratios without exhibiting pre-detonation due to its high octane number [1]. This investigation examined combustion and exhaust gas emissions of natural gas in a twin cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 750 CC engine. Three rounds of testing were conducted to evaluate the effects of fuel, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), and Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) on engine emissions. The v-twin engine, a Kohler Command ProCH749 with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), was naturally aspirated, fitted with natural gas injectors, external EGR valve, and an increased compression ratio (CR) of 13.8:1. The EGR rates, Revolutions Per Minute (RPM), load, and torque of the engine were varied to investigate the engine's emissions, combustion pressure, and combustion rates through combustion software produced by TFX.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulation for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulation the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic WMTC will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different relations and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing Euro 3 catalytic formulation for a 690cc motorcycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry (PM), granulometry SMPS (PN) and differential analysis of filter residue. In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best material were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be considerably influenced by the lube oil quality and reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
With environmental issues such as global warming getting acute, the demand of engine exhaust gas emission reduction is increasing. The purpose of this study is the reduction of exhaust gas emissions for small size generators by using after-treatment device. The requirement of small size generators are portability, so they must be lightweight and compact. After-treatment device should be housed in the compact package. And sometimes generators are used near a house, so CO discharge amount should be a little under the condition of fuel rich mixture for high specific power. To meet these conditions, a catalytic converter with secondary air induction is adopted. Secondary air is used for oxidization of CO. However before this study, sufficient amount of secondary air couldn’t be inducted because of the shortage of minus pressure in exhaust pipe which caused by high-load operating and the shortness of an exhaust pipe. But high-load operating is inevitable in generator and adoption of a long exhaust pipe is impossible to compact casing.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a 216 cc spark ignited four-stroke, air cooled, carburated gasoline engine as a possible low-cost technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical XG4000 Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six 500 watt halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture created by an external electrolyzer and tested at low, medium and high loads. The electrolyzer created approximately 1 liter/minute of STP gas production from 40.2 amps of current from a 12 VDC power supply. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared; addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Manivel R, Ayyappan PR, Yazharasu A
Diesel being the main transport fuel, developing countries like India spends lot of money to import petroleum. And the use of petroleum based fuels increased in the recent years is the main contributor to the urban air pollution. Finding a suitable alternative to diesel is an urgent need. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement petroleum based fuels. Due to pressure on edible oils, non-edible oil of Pongamia Pinnata (karanja) and Jatropa Curcas are evaluated as diesel fuel extender. Pongamia pinnata based bio-diesel (PBD) is receiving increasing attention in India because of its potential to increase the rural employment and relatively low impact on environment. Diesel engines running on PBD are found to emit higher oxides of nitrogen. In this work a single cylinder constant speed (1500 rpm) water cooled four stroke direct injection diesel engine with compression ratio 17 is selected for the experimental investigations to model the performance and emission characteristics fuelled with plain Diesel and Pongamia Biodiesel blends PBD10 (10% Pongamia Biodiesel and 90% Diesel) and PBD20 (20% Pongamia Biodiesel and 80% Diesel) with different cooled EGR rates (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Many two stroke engines for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce exhaust gas emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight , dimensions and temperature . One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter .
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, the authors want to demonstrate the possible achievements by the application of state of the art technology to a standard small capacity two-wheeler engine being representative for the current market situation. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations. Thus, the possibility for investigations on the optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment was given.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
The small gasoline engines are widely used as prime movers in the urban areas. For this reason great efforts have been paid to improve their efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions because of the non-uniform mixture preparation and piston wetting. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. In this sense, ethanol is becoming even more attractive for spark ignition fuels as more resistant to knock phenomena due to its higher octane number. Moreover, ethanol is also expected to play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. It was investigated two operating condition representative of the typical EUDC.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juan J. Hernández, Rosario Ballesteros, Javier Barba, José Guillén-Flores
In order to reduce the pollutant emissions (mainly NOx and PM) of diesel engines, the addition of small gaseous fuel amounts (such as natural gas, biogas, reforming gas, LPG) or dual mode operation (in which a pilot injection of diesel fuel promotes the gaseous fuel combustion) have been proved as potential techniques. This paper is focused on a detailed characterization of the particles emitted from a single cylinder diesel engine when part of the reference diesel fuel (10 and 20% by energy) is replaced by a gaseous fuel (producer gas, mainly composed by H2, CO and CH4) coming from biomass steam gasification (renewable fuel which has not been previously analyzed when used in diesel engines). The engine was operated at constant speed and torque, varying the EGR rate (0 and 15%). Particle samples were collected by means of fiber glass filters placed in a dilution mini-tunnel for both to determine the particle mass and for further characterization. Simultaneously, during tests, part of the exhaust gas was conducted to a system formed by two diluters and a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) to obtain the particle size distribution.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Maria Bogarra, Angel Ramos, Daniel Fennell, Jose Herreros, Andrew York, Paul Millington, Athanasios Tsolakis
Over last few years gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have become popular in high performance transportation vehicles due to several attractive advantages (e.g. fuel economy, improved power, downsizing, knock resistance, reduced gaseous emissions) over preceding engine technologies (e.g. port injection). GDI engines however are associated with high levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions, which is a major concern on account of the new emission legislation. Thus, this research work is focused on the possible advantages that on-board hydrogen production in the exhaust gas fuel reforming process can offer on PM emissions from the GDI combustion. The potential benefits of reformate, a rich hydrogen gas, on different components of PM emissions (soot and organic material) under different injection strategies. On the other hand, it is well-known the uncertainties related to the measurement of particulates due to the different phenomena occurring in the exhaust pipe (e.g. collision, agglomeration, etc.), sampling lines and dilution system (e.g. adsorption, condensation and nucleation of hydrocarbons) which modify the nature and/or alter the characteristics of particulates formed in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Matthew McAllister, Stephen Smith, Paul Kapus, Khai Vidmar, Alexander Hochnetz
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, the combustion system was redesigned and the calibration was optimised in order to meet an engineering target Pn value of 3x1011 in the NEDC drive cycle. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are reported within this paper along with the results compared to target. The ECU software was optimised in order to allow for calibration strategies leading to minimised wall interaction of injected fuel. The Pn optimisation by calibration measures with the improved combustion system followed a specific development process.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Christoph Menne, Simon Galbraith, Alan Jones, Lars Henning, Thomas koerfer
In September 2013 the Jaguar XF 2.2l ECO sport brake and saloon were introduced to the European market. They are the first Jaguar vehicles to realize CO2 emissions below 130 g/km. To achieve the significantly reduced fuel consumption values with an existing 2.2l I4 Diesel engine architecture selected air path and fuel path components were optimized for increased engine efficiency. Hardware selection and development in the available short time frame were only enabled by the consequent utilization of the most advanced CAE tools throughout the design phase but also during the complete vehicle application process. Changes to the base engine architecture were ruled out at the beginning of the project due to the implications on manufacturing complexity and the limited given time frame for realization. To allow a fuel consumption reduction of more than 10% vs. the first introduction of the 2.2l I4 Diesel in XF the following measures were identified: - Improved combustion efficiency due to more advanced centre of combustion for most engine operating points - Improved fuel spray and mixture preparation - Air path with reduced pressure losses especially for the high pressure exhaust gas recirculation - significantly enhanced cooling performance of the high pressure exhaust recirculation path - downspeeding with advanced transmission control The potential of the listed measures and their interactions, the chosen hardware components and the used development and application methodologies shall be presented in this paper.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Aayush Mehrotra, Simhachalam Juttu, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji
Cooling EGR & improving its mixing with air has given consistent improvement in diesel emissions, hence the evolution of superior cooling technologies & low pressure EGR helps in meeting stringent diesel emission norms. For the same volume of exhaust gas, cooled exhaust gas occupies lower volume for the same mass; thereby it is possible for engine to digest more amount of EGR or air depending upon the trade off and substantially improve the heat carrying capacity of exhaust gas. Lowering the temperature of EGR gives a great potential in reducing NOx and smoke in diesel engines, it helps in lowering the EGR mixture temperature and hence reducing the in cylinder temperature. An attempt has been made here to lower the EGR temperature downstream of a conventional cooler without changing the cooler design itself. For this, the source for coolant has been taken from radiator outlet unlike the conventional location of cylinder block. A 12 V electric pump circulates coolant to EGR cooler with a bypass from radiator; since the radiator outlet is much cooler than cylinder block outlet the cooling efficiency increases significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Pedlow, A1). McCullough1), G. Goguet, A2). 1) School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast 2) School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast Pedlow, A. Email: apedlow01@qub.ac.uk, Tel.: +4428 9097 4569 Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, meaning that mathematical models of after-treatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions in order to meet legislated limits. Automotive Catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Luke Aubrey William Blades, Roy Douglas, Geoffrey McCullough, Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Woods
Regulations concerning automotive exhaust emissions are becoming more and more stringent, making it necessary for the development of more efficient and resistant catalytic control systems. The three-way catalytic converter acts to reduce these emissions by performing simultaneous oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) and reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Conversion of these harmful gases by exothermic reactions leads to high temperatures within the catalytic converter, causing catalyst ageing due to thermal deactivation. At high temperatures the precious metal particles agglomerate, decreasing the surface area of catalytic sites and therefore reducing catalyst activity. Catalyst deactivation can be shown by a shift of light-off temperature. With the increasing complexity of modern automotive after-treatment systems, and the slow and expensive nature of testing and ageing catalyst samples on-road, much more rapid laboratory test methods must be considered. The accelerated thermal ageing of cored catalyst samples was performed in a static air (oxidising) atmosphere, an ageing method which is commonly used in industry.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Stewart, Roy Douglas, Alexandre Goguet, Cristina Elena Stere, Luke Blades
Kinetic models are becoming an ever present tool in the development of automotive catalysis, primarily used for characterisation of catalysts and as a predictive tool for performance. This has led to a large number of kinetic models related to automotive catalysis appearing in literature in literature in the past decades. Most kinetic models for automotive application focus primarily on the global kinetic approach for reaction kinetics, with the more chemically accurate micro-kinetics appearing more frequently in the past number of years. One of the most critical aspects in the development of a kinetic model in general is the method used to control the switch between limiting factors over the period of the chemical reaction, namely mass transfer and reaction kinetics. This balance becomes increasingly more critical with the automotive application as the gas composition and gas flow vary throughout the automotive cycles resulting in a large number or reactions competing, with a constantly changing space velocity.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Benjamin Kingsbury, Jonathan Stewart, Zhentao Wu, Roy Douglas, Kang Li
This study describes an innovative monolith structure designed for applications in automotive catalysis using an advanced manufacturing approach developed at Imperial College London. The production process combines extrusion with phase inversion of a ceramic-polymer-solvent mixture in order to design substrate micro-structures that offer improvements in performance, including reduced PGM loading, reduced catalyst ageing and reduced backpressure. The novel substrate is formed from hollow fibres which are fused together to form a ceramic monolith. A highly ordered micro-structure is present, formed from micro-channels which extend from the inner surface to the outer surface of the hollow fibres. The entrances to the micro-channels are in the range of 10 – 90 μm and are directly accessible to the exhaust gas as it passes along the substrate. The designed micro-structure generates a geometric surface area of 32,000 m²/m³, while at the same time achieving a 40-70 % reduction in pressure drop along the length of the substrate.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) effectively convert exhaust heat into electrical energy, which gradually improve utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, a newly heat exchanger with the shape of regular-octagon cylinder box in TEG is designed. Through building three-dimensional models of different TEGs , it is available to calculate thermal stress field distribution of them separately in ANSYS software and test the reliability of expected TEG .By conducting multi -ordered temperature - fluid - solid coupling of heat exchanger in FLUENT software , adopting different heat exchanger structures, setting different parameters of length, width, height, thickness of the distributing fins, guiding fins, converging fins in the heat exchanger, and installing different distribution angles and spacing of these fins, the temperature field, pressure field and flow field simulation results are gained to explore the influence of air current resistance and the thermal performance of TEG caused by diverse heat exchanger structures and various physical-dimension and distribution of the fins.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
HaNa Kim, Gwon Koo YEO, Moon Soon Cha, Kyung-Min Lee
With the increasingly stringent regulation of exhaust emissions, more effectively reducing cold-start emission is important. The main challenge is to reduce the cold-start emissions. Closed-coupled catalyst(CCC) provides fast light-off time by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas. Also, it is a well-known fact that dispersion of PGM(Patinum group metal)particles effects on the catalytic activity. For the high conversion of CO and THC emissions during cold start period, the fact was confirmed that the design of deposition of high Pd in the first brick of the TWC. However, CCC occurred during engine operation and the catalyst temperature exceeds 1050˚C, the pattern Shape on the crystallinity of PGM be effected with high temperature. From two aging temperature conditions(900℃ and 1050℃), the conversion rate of THC showed different behaviors. In this work, We investigates the THC conversion rate of Pd/Rh catalysts to their aging and testing. To show the effcets of Pd distribution on two factor: one featured Zone-coating length ratio: the other, Pd deposition of Zone-coating.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kohei Yoshida, Yusuke Nozaki, Toshihiro Mori, Yuki Bisaiji, Yuki haba, Kazuhiro umemoto, Takao Fukuma
To fulfill upcoming stringent worldwide CO2 emission target, engine thermal efficiency should further be increased and diesel engine is one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless to ensure good air quality, NOx emission should be reduced using a specific catalyst. In order to reduce NOx from a diesel engine operation in lean condition, Urea-Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) systems have been widely adopted in the European market. The NSR system is most efficient for small/mid vehicle size since it requires less packaging space and it is less expensive than a urea SCR system. However, its NOx reduction performance is currently limited under high temperature and high space velocity conditions since the NOx storage ability as nitrate is insufficient under such conditions. For future NSR usage, it is therefore necessary to improve the NOx reduction performance of NSR. DiAir (Diesel NOx After-treatment by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants) has been introduced as one of the measures to improve NOx conversion performance under high space velocity (SV) and temperature conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Erkka Saukko, Panu Karjalainen, Topi Ronkko, Jorma Keskinen, Pekka Nousiainen, Liisa Pirjola
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the norm of soot reduction strategy in road transportation. The filters currently in use remove virtually all of the soot mass. As the DPF loading increases the engine backpressure, the filters are regenerated using various techniques. The common denominator in these techniques is the temperature elevation needed to oxidize the captured soot from the filter with NO2 or O2. The frequency and extent of regeneration is an optimization problem for the fuel economy: regeneration uses extra energy while extending the regeneration interval increases the backpressure reducing the total fuel economy of the engine. From the standpoint of soot emission control, the DPF is better to be loaded than fresh, as the collected soot particles generally tend to increase the collection efficiency of the filter. As the energy expenditure on regenerations is also needed to minimize, the collection efficiency optimum is aligned with the regeneration energy saving need.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Arjun Prakash, Edward Nelson, Aaron Jones, James Macias, Matthew Hinojosa, Eugene Jimenez
Particulate mass (PM) emissions from DISI engines can be reduced via fuels technology that facilitates injector deposit clean-up. A significant drawback of DISI engines is that they can have higher particulate matter emissions than PFI gasoline engines. Soot formation in general is dependent on the air-fuel ratio, combustion chamber temperature and the chemical structure and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this regard, PM emissions and DISI injector deposit clean-up were studied in three identical high-selling vehicles. The tests compared the effects of a fuel (Fuel A) containing a market generic additive at lowest additive concentration (LAC) against a fuel formulated with a novel additive technology (Fuel B). The fuels compared had an anti-knock index value of 87 containing upto 10% ethanol. The vehicles were run on Fuel A for 20,000 miles followed by 5,000 miles on Fuel B using a chassis dynamometer. It was observed that Fuel A gave rise to an increase in PM emissions indicative of DISI injector deposit build-up.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
S F Benjamin, C A Roberts
In an attempt to reduce particulate and NOx emissions from Diesel exhaust, the combined DPF and SCR filter is now frequently chosen as the preferred catalyst. When this device functions effectively it saves valuable packaging space in a passenger vehicle. As part of its development, modelling of its emissions performance is essential. Single channel modelling is the obvious choice for a DPF filter because of its complex geometry. This, however, can be computationally demanding. For a normal flow-through catalyst monolith the porous medium approach is an attractive alternative. This paper attempts to model an SCRF by applying the porous medium approach. The model is essentially 1D but as with all porous medium models, can very easily be applied to 3D cases once developed and validated. The model is described in full in this paper and values for all the key parameters are presented. The filter is assumed to collect soot in the inlet channels, but only the output channels are coated with SCR washcoat, as in the most recent devices.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jing Qin, Xiang Li, Yiqiang Pei
Abstract The aim of this detailed research is to experimentally investigate the effects of ignition timings, injection timings, excess air ratio (λ) and lubricating oil on particulate matter (PM) emissions from a 2.0 L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (T-GDI) engine fueled with gasoline, methanol/gasoline blends and pure methanol. The results of this paper show that the PM number concentration mostly presents a typical bimodal or trimodal distribution in figures. The particle number concentration mainly concentrates in the nucleation mode. With the increase of methanol volume fraction in the blended fuel, the PM emissions decrease significantly. Furthermore, there are few particles when the engine fueled with pure methanol. As advancing ignition timing, the total PM number rises by over about 200%. Under the pre-ignition condition, the higher in-cylinder temperature may also accelerate the formation of the nucleation mode particles. As advancing injection timing, PM emissions decrease first, and then increase.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Bhimrao Patil, Vighnesha Nayak, Mohanan Padmanabha
This work aims study on the method of NOx reduction and performance enhancement by analysis of MPFI multi-cylinder gasoline engine running on LPG using gas injection system and vaporized water methanol induction to the intake manifold. For the generation of vaporized water methanol, heat from the exhaust gas has been used. Different percentages of water methanol by mass basis were used with variable engine speed ranging from 2000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that as the percentage water methanol induction level to the engine increased, there is slight increase in percentage of useful work, while the NOx decreased drastically about 47%. Additionally, the engine brake thermal efficiency increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for a 20% water methanol with LPG is approximately 1.5% over the use of LPG without water methanol induction.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Particulate emissions are of growing concern due their negative health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent have been under investigation at MAHLE Powertrain, with this paper focussing on the improvement potential of the injection equipment. This investigation is part of MAHLE’s ongoing particulate research and method development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process. As part of this work, a spark eroded and a laser drilled injector were fully characterised in a spray vessel under key engine running conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Woods, Roy Douglas, Richard O’Shaughnessy
With emission legislation becoming ever more stringent, automotive companies are forced to invest heavily in solutions to meet the targets set. To date, the most effective way of treating emissions is through the use of catalytic converters. Since the introduction of these converters as the main method of reducing automotive emissions, catalyst performance testing has become a major part of automotive research and development. One of the most critical aspects of the performance testing process is catalyst ageing. Legislation has been introduced stating that catalytic converters must meet the set emissions standards legislation up to a lifetime of 150,000 miles (LEV 2014-2022). The catalytic converter will deactivate over its lifetime due to a number of different factors, such as, thermal deactivation, poisoning, fouling and structural breakdown of the catalyst. It is therefore of the utmost importance for automotive companies to evaluate the performance of the catalytic converters under these conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Matthias Stark, Richard Mittler
Tribodynamic Effects on Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Exhaust Gas of Large Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines Upcoming emission regulations and power demands for large two stroke marine diesel engines call for a detailed investigation focusing on cylinder lubrication impacts on the exhaust gas composition. The content of the foreseen paper focuses on recent developments towards the design of an emission optimized lubrication concept, helping to significantly reduce lube oil consumption and related particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas. The described approach involves the application of substantially modified engine components in a full scale engine test, as well as the application of dedicated measurement technologies combined with intensive simulation activities in order to derive the desired correlation between lubrication system parameters and the exhaust gas composition. The foreseen paper highlights measures to enhance lubrication system performance considering key components of the tribosystem.
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