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Viewing 1 to 30 of 24143
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0364
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Vasyl Mateichyk, Yurii Gutarevych, Mykola Tsiuman, Nataliia Goridko
The article suggests the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the engine heating system with a phase-transitional thermal accumulator when the vehicle is in motion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the vehicle heating system within thermal accumulator, catalytic converter, and the vehicle interior under operating conditions. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gases to accumulate thermal energy during engine operation. The article describes the methodology to evaluate vehicle fuel consumption and emission in the driving cycle according to the ENECE regulation № 83-05. The methodology takes into account the environmental parameters, road conditions, the design parameters of the vehicle, the modes of its motion, the thermal state of the engine cooling system, the catalytic converter and the interior.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0073
B Ashok, K Nantha Gopal, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal, Sushrut Alagiasingam, Suryakumar Appu, Aravind Murugan
With the alarming increase in vehicular population, there is a depletion of fossil fuel availability. Hence to overcome the difficulties, bio-fuels as an alternative fuels are being used. One of the major difficulties with the bio fuels is higher viscosity in comparison to fossil fuels.To overcome this, preheating of bio-fuel is a good option as it tends to make the fuel less viscous. In our research, a helical coil heat exchanger to preheat the inlet fuel using the engine's exhaust gas is designed, as this would make the system more sustainable since no external energy needed. For evaluating the effectiveness of the preheating device a simulation study has been carried for the ethanol based bio-fuels. In simulation work, set of boundary conditions has been arrived based on the experimental analysis. The obtained results from the experiments such as velocity of air and fuel inlet were utilized as input to the simulation.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0063
Parashuram R Chitragar, K V Shivaprasad, G N Kumar
Hydrogen’s combustion properties made it as a gifted fuel and energy carrier to combat the current scenario of depletion of the fossil fuels and crisis of environmental pollution problems. Its superior thermo physical properties and least toxic emissions are favorable to use it in an internal combustion (IC) engine as an alternative fuel. This paper describes an experimental analysis of performance and emission parameters for a four cylinder, four stroke SI engine by supplementing hydrogen fraction with gasoline. Tests were carried out by using hydrogen fraction from 0-10% in step of 2%. Study revealed an improvement in brake power, efficiency and brake specific energy consumption up to 8% hydrogen fractions in comparison with gasoline while volumetric efficiency decreased for all hydrogen fractions. Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC) emissions were reduced and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) was slightly increased for all hydrogen fractions than gasoline.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0107
Monanshi Gupta, Yasser Rafat, M. Saad Alam
Electric vehicles, EVs are considered as zero emission vehicles because of no exhaust emission (tail-pipe emission) but electric power generation contributes in the well to wheel emissions. Hence, the growing popularity of EVs, will cause a massive growth in demand of electricity. Since, 65% of electricity in India is generated by thermal power plants, it accounted for the emission factor of 0.99 tCO2eq/kWh for the year 2015. One of the promising solutions to curb pollution is popularization of electric vehicles. But increase in electric vehicles will also cause increased burden on electricity grid. In Internal Combustion Engine, ICE vehicles, the pollution is from both the tail-pipe emission and from the well to wheel emission (extraction of the fuel in this case). In this study Tail-pipe emissions are taken in compliance with Bharat stage emission standards.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0117
Matti A Harkonen, Alok Trigunayat, Arvind Kumar, Bosco Rajan
Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), typically with engine displacement volume of less than 1.5L are an integral part of the India's automobile sector as they are one of the most preferred means of transportation in rural as well as urban India. This market has always been on the rise as a result of rising population, growing commercialization, increasing commercial activities, etc. which are all contributing to the increased demand for intra city transportation. The passenger LDVs such as the three wheeler segment dominates the market as the need for affordable passenger commutation is higher than the need for goods carriage within a city. With BS VI norms slated to be implemented in 2020, it becomes imperative to understand, plan and work out strategies to meet these norms effectively on the Indian roads & actual Indian driving behavior, especially for these LDVs.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0056
Suramya Naik, David Johnson, Laurence Fromm, John Koszewnik, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, Neerav Abani
The government of India has decided to implement Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards from April 2020. This requires OEMs to equip their diesel engines with costly after-treatment, EGR systems and higher rail pressure fuel systems. By one estimate, BS-VI engines are expected to be 15 to 20% more expensive than BS-IV engines, while also suffering with 2 to 3 % lower fuel economy. OEMs are looking for solutions to meet the BS-VI emissions standards while still keeping the upfront and operating costs low enough for their products to attract customers; however traditional engine technologies seem to have exhausted the possibilities. Fuel economy improvement technologies applied to traditional 4-stroke engines bring small benefits with large cost penalties. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, emissions standards with much improved fuel economy at lower cost is the Opposed Piston (OP) engine.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0052
Gopalakrishna Acharya, K.A. Subramanian, R K Malhotra
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. It is reported that more than 50% of the diesel sold in the country is consumed by these category of vehicles. Consumption of diesel fuel is ~ 4 times that of gasoline produced in the country. Besides, buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Soot loading in diesel engine oil is reported during the operation of engine at high load & torque in highway service. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0072
Moqtik Bawase, M R Saraf
ABSTRACT
2016-12-07
Article
Christopher Grundler, the Director of OTAQ for the U.S. EPA, answered questions about Phase 2 rule-making for heavy trucks, global harmonization of emissions regulations, and his outlook for a new national NOx standard. Grundler will be the featured speaker on opening day of the SAE 2017 Government/Industry Meeting taking place January 25-27 in Washington D.C.
2016-12-02
Article
London Mayor Sadiq Khan unveiled the world’s first double-decker hydrogen bus at the end of November as part of a commitment to phase out purchase of new pure diesel buses in the capital's fleet beginning in 2018, according to a release from London’s City Hall.
2016-12-02
Magazine
Autonomous plows ahead Agriculture, construction, mining-even marine-are advancing autonomous technology to improve the productivity and safety of vehicles on the job. Expediting engine design Simulation tools drive development of the most complex, fuel- efficient and powerful engines ever seen in off-highway applications. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce vehicles and their high-tech systems are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. The future is not so far-off Enhanced Cat 3500 engine boosts power 20%, trims fuel usage by 10% Phase 2 GHG rules driver for advanced technology, alternative fuels Eaton demonstrates waste heat recovery, variable valve actuation for HD diesels Hyliion develops add-on hybrid system for semi-trailers that reduces fuel consumption by 30% Tech-heavy Iveco Z Truck concept spawns 29 patents EPA's Grundler talks Phase 2 regs
2016-12-01
Article
Ford is to introduce a cylinder deactivation version of its 3-cylinder EcoBoost triple. It will enter production by early 2018 and it is expected to deliver up to a 6% fuel saving with associated CO2 emissions reduction.
2016-12-01
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using E10 gasoline (10% ethanol mixed with pump gasoline). Performance technologies that are presented include: • Engine Design: application of the four-stroke engine • Applications to address both engine and track noise • Exhaust After-treatment to reduce emissions The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
2016-11-18
WIP Standard
J100
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
2016-11-16
Magazine
Focus on advanced safety systems and human-factor interventions The impact of REACH on the aviation sector Considered the most comprehensive chemical-regulation legislation to date, REACH presents serious ramifications for the aircraft industry. Lightweighting: What's Next? Experts weigh in on the challenges and future enablers in the battle to reduce vehicle mass. The best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles and improved fuel efficiency via advanced powertrain solutions are pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Autonomous solutions in agriculture Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Zero-emissions electric aircraft: Theory vs. reality
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9046
Johann Peer, Fabian Backes, Henning Sauerland, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract In the present work the benefit of a 50 MPa gasoline direct injection system (GDI) in terms of particle number (PN) emissions as well as fuel consumption is shown on a 0.5 l single cylinder research engine in different engine operating conditions. The investigations show a strong effect of injection timing on combustion duration. As fast combustion can be helpful to reduce fuel consumption, this effect should be investigated more in detail. Subsequent analysis with the method of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the optical configuration of this engine and three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations reveal the influence of injection timing on large scale charge motion (tumble) and the level of turbulent kinetic energy. Especially with delayed injection timing, high combustion velocities can be achieved. At current series injection pressures, the particle number emissions increase at late injection timing.
2016-11-15
Article
Hyliion's electric-drive system hybridizes the trailer portion of the tractor-trailer combination and uses regenerative braking to capture power, possibly saving the trucking industry billions in fuel costs. The company recently won the grand prize in the 2016 "Create the Future" Design Contest for the technology.
2016-11-15
Article
Tanktwo, a Finland-based startup company is rethinking the basic battery cell and challenging the fundamental economics and operational assumptions of EVs. The ingenious concept is worth engineers' attention.
CURRENT
2016-11-15
Standard
J100_201611
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
CURRENT
2016-11-12
Standard
AS6286/4
This document shall be used in conjunction with: - AS6286, Training and Qualification Program for Deicing/Anti-icing of Aircraft on the Ground - AS6286/1, Processes including Methods - AS6286/2, Equipment - AS6286/3, Fluids - AS6286/5, Health, Safety and First Aid - AS6286/6, Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Diagrams, No-Spray-Zones
CURRENT
2016-11-10
Standard
AMS3687C
This specification covers a high-humidity-resistant, modified epoxy adhesive in the form of film supplied as rolls or sheets.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0012
Zhimin Lin, Kotaro Takeda, Yuki Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0009
Yuki Takamura, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keito Agui, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
Abstract A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used. Ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. The concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC in the exhaust were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0069
Indranil Brahma, Cristobal Manzanares, Rob Jennings, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Abishek Raghavan, Daniel Johnson, Peter Stryker
Abstract Non-volatile particle number distributions from a single cylinder industrial diesel engine were measured at several operating conditions spanning the torque curve. The effect of increasing the air-fuel ratio by injecting compressed shop air at various boost pressures was also investigated. A bi-modal distribution separated at approximately 20 nm was observed for most operating conditions. Depending on operating condition, the engine produced between 1014 to 1015 particles per kW-hr. Energy specific particle number emissions (per kW-hr) were seen to be strongly dependent on speed and load. Minimum emissions occurred at intermediate speeds and loads. Particles below 20 nm increased with decreasing load while the opposite trend was observed for particles greater than 20 nm. Variation in total particle surface and total particle volume followed the same trends as the particles from the larger mode.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0068
Joel Prince Lobo, James Howard Lee, Eric Oswald, Spenser Lionetti, Robert Garrick
Abstract The performance and exhaust emissions of a commercially available, propane fueled, air cooled engine with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) were investigated by varying relative Air to Fuel Ratio (λ), ignition timing, and Compression Ratio (CR). Varying λ and ignition timing was accomplished by modifying the EFI system using TechniCAL Industries’ engine development software. The CR was varied through using pistons with different bowl sizes. Strong relationships were recorded between λ and ignition timing and the resulting effect these parameters have on engine performance and emissions. Lean operation (λ > 1) has the potential to significantly reduce NOx production (110 g/kW-hr down to 5 g/kW-hr). Unfortunately, it also reduces engine torque by up to an order of magnitude (31 Nm down to 3 Nm).
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0063
Marc Cyrill Besch, April Nicole Covington, Derek Johnson, Nathan Fowler, Robert Heltzel
Abstract The aim of this investigation was to improve understanding and quantify the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as an emissions control measure onto cyclic variability of a small-bore, single-cylinder, diesel-fueled compression-ignition (CI) power generation unit. Of special interest were how cycle-to-cycle variations of the CI engine affect steady-state voltage deviations and frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the study strived to elucidate the impact of EGR addition onto combustion parameters, as well as gaseous and particle phase emissions along with fuel consumption. The power generation unit was operated over five discrete steady-state test modes, representative of nominal 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% engine load (i.e. 0-484kPa BMEP), by absorbing electrical power via a resistive load bank. The engine was equipped with a passive EGR system that directly connected the exhaust and intake runners through a small passage.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
Abstract The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0075
Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam, Rahul Sharma
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder closed loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.
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