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Viewing 1 to 30 of 23234
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1841
Peter R. Hooper
Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1843
Jan Krueger, Viktor Koch, Ralf Hoelsch
Abstract Over the past few years, the measurement procedure for the pass-by noise emission of vehicles was changed and new limit values have been set by the European Parliament which will come into force within the next few years. Moreover, also the limits for chemical emissions such as NOx, particulates and CO2 have been lowered dramatically and will continue to be lowered according to a roadmap decided not only in Europe but also in other markets throughout the world. This will have an enormous impact on the design of future passenger cars and in particular on their powertrains. Downsizing, downspeeding, forced induction, and hybridization are among the most common general technology trends to keep up with these challenges. However, most of these fuel saving and cleaner technologies also have negative acoustic side effects.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1761
Antonio Acri, Guenter Offner, Thomas Resch, Eugene Nijman, Roberto Corradi
Abstract For vibration and acoustics vehicle development, one of the main challenges is the identification and the analysis of the noise sources, which is required in order to increase the driving comfort and to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission. Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. This technique is commonly applied on test measurements, based on prototypes, at the end of the design process. In order to apply such methodology already within the design process, a contribution analysis method based on dynamic substructuring of a multibody system is proposed with the aim of improving the quality of the design process for vehicle NVH assessment and to shorten development time and cost.
2016-05-19
WIP Standard
AS1426C
This specification is intended to be used as a general standard for industry use for design and construction of air transport galley equipment and inflight food service systems.
2016-05-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9109
Roxanna Moores, Nicholas Cernansky, Gregory Birky, Timothy Suder
Abstract In this study a 1-dimensional computational model of a Fe-Zeolite catalyst, implementing conservation of mass, species and energy for both gas and catalyst surface phases has been developed to simulate emissions conversion performance. It is applied to both a fresh catalyst and one that has been aged through exposure to the exhaust system of a Heavy Duty Diesel engine performing in the field for 376K miles. Details of the chemical kinetics associated with the various NOx reduction reactions in the two Fe-Zeolite configurations have been examined and correlated with data from a synthetic gas rig test bench. It was found that the Standard reaction, (4NH3 + 4NO + O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O), which is one of the main reactions for NOx reduction, degraded significantly at the lower temperatures for the aged system.
2016-05-18
WIP Standard
AMS1424/3
This detail specification AMS1424/3 covers the use of In-Truck Manufacturing of a deicing SAE Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid. This detailed specification contains technical and other requirements that apply for the In-Truck Manufacturing of Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid.
2016-05-17
Magazine
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.
2016-05-16
WIP Standard
AS29512C
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-05-12
Article
National Renewal Energy Laboratory tests use of insulation and other techniques to reduce A/C cooling and heating loads by more than 30%. Savings for cooling alone estimated at 774 gal/yr of diesel fuel compared with overnight idling.
2016-05-09
WIP Standard
ARP4902C
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.
2016-04-25
Article
A maker of expansion valves has demonstrated a significant reduction in A/C compressor workload, benefiting vehicle energy use, by going electronic.
2016-04-24
Article
Consortium of OEMs and suppliers worked on all fronts, while the SAE Interior Climate Control Committee reopened a suite of draft standards to prepare for possible importation of cars with R-744: CO2 as a refrigerant.
2016-04-20
Article
Experts say Phase Change Material (PCM) formulated for high latent heat capacity can provide cabin warmth for a typical U.S. daily commute, with residual capacity insulated for an EV parked during an eight-hour workday.
2016-04-14
Article
Animals, birds, and mammals are natural-born innovators that inspire vehicle engineers to create novel technologies.
2016-04-13
Article
Though battery-powered vehicles haven’t yet met predicted sales levels, leading automakers are bullish about the future, saying that newer generation vehicles now provide features and prices that will attract buyers.
2016-04-13
Standard
ARP1533C
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact. While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines, the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor.
2016-04-11
Article
Powertrain experts detailed the technologies they see as most promising to enable light-vehicle engines to meet global CO2 regulations through 2025, at the 2016 SAE High-Efficiency IC Engines Symposiumt. The list includes growing use of the Miller and Atkinson thermodynamic cycles, cooled EGR, and water injection, as well as variable compression ratio systems, dedicated EGR, and divided exhaust boosting.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Standard
J3071_201604
This SAE Battery Identification and Cross Contamination Prevention document is intended to provide information that may be applicable to all types of Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) devices. It is important to develop a system that can facilitate sorting by chemistry. The recycler is interested in the chemistry of the RESS. This is true for the recyclers of Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium etc. Thus recyclers of RESS will receive RESS from automotive, commercial, and industrial applications. These RESS have the potential to be contaminated with a RESS of an incompatible chemistry. It is recognized that mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate the introduction of incompatible chemistries into a given recycling stream would also benefit safety and the environment.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1165
Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Imtiaz Haque, Srikanth Pilla, Zoran S. Filipi, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Abstract A low pressure exhaust gas recirculation system (LP EGR system) enables the expansion of the EGR operating area than that of the widely used high pressure EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions can be improved. In order to meet the EU 5 emissions regulations, an exhaust throttle LP EGR system was used. The EU5 vehicles developed using this system have greater merits than other vehicles. However, because the exhaust throttle LP EGR valve is installed adjacent to the after-treatment system, the material of the LP EGR valve itself must be stainless steel in order to withstand the thermal stress, consequently, the cost is increased. Therefore, in order to achieve cost rationalization for EU6 vehicles, an intake throttle LP EGR system is developed and applied to replace the exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In order to apply the intake throttle LP EGR system, the EGR valve is installed in front of the turbo charger compressor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
Abstract The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate is a critical parameter of turbocharged diesel engines because it determines the trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. On some heavy duty engines the EGR mass flow is directly measured with a Venturibased sensor and a closed loop control system maintains EGR flow. However, on most light duty diesel engines the EGR mass flow must be estimated. This paper compares two methods for estimating EGR mass flow. The first method, referred to as the Speed Density method, serves as a baseline for comparison and uses sensors for engine speed, intake manifold pressure and temperature, as well as fresh air flow (MAF). The new, second method adds turbo speed to this sensor set, and includes additional engine modelling equations, such as the EGR valve equation and the turbine equation. Special measures are taken to allow the additional equations to execute without issue on production ECMs (Electronics Controls Modules).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1052
Adwitiya Dube, A Ramesh
Abstract Direct injection of fuel has been seen as a potential method to reduce fuel short circuiting in two stroke engines. However, most work has been on low pressure injection. In this work, which employed high pressure direct injection in a small two stroke engine (2S-GDI), a detailed study of injection parameters affecting performance and combustion has been presented based on experiments for evaluating its potential. Influences of injection pressure (IP), injection timing (end of injection - EOI) and location of the spark plug at different operating conditions in a 199.3 cm3 automotive two stroke engine using a real time open engine controller were studied. Experiments were conducted at different throttle positions and equivalence ratios at a speed of 3000 rpm with various sets of injection parameters and spark plug locations. The same engine was also run in the manifold injection (2S-MI) mode under similar conditions for comparison.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0871
Sanjoy Biswas, Manish Bakshi, G Shankar, Achintya Mukhopadhyay
Abstract An emissions, combustion noise and performance study were conducted to explore the effects of two different multiple injections strategies on emissions, combustion noise and performances without altering EGR %. The experiments were done on a six cylinder inline CRDI diesel production engine. The aim of this study is to improve performances (brake specific fuel consumption [BSFC], torque) and combustion noise (reduction) using multiple injection strategies without violating emission regulations. The other objective of this carried-out analysis is to examine the influence of different operating parameters (Speed and Load) and main injection timing combined, on same multiple injection strategies (Pilot- main – after {PMA}and Early - pilot- main –after {EPMA}) by means of analyzing emissions/soot, combustion noise and performances data.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 23234

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