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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16806
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2301
Hongli Gao, Fujun Zhang, Wenwen Zeng, Tianpu Dong, Zhengkai Wang
Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2288
Tianyuan Zhou, Changsheng Yao, Fuyuan Yang, Sun Jinwei
Abstract Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Abstract Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies on combustion and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol).The impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines, however, has not been reported. This work examines the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends in steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at blend ratios from 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels are set to obtain the maximum break torque (MBT), i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results show that the particle number concentration is reduced significantly with increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2312
Raouf Mobasheri, Rahman Akbari
Abstract The scope of this work is to investigate the simultaneous effects of injection pressure and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on mixture formation and engine performance in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine. For this, the computational results have been firstly compared to the measured data and a good agreement has been achieved in order to predict the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and the amount of NOx and soot emissions. Then, various injection pressures have been studied to explore its benefits to achieve the low exhaust emission at different EGR rates. The results show, while no EGR has been applied, decreasing the nozzle diameter causes the reduction of Indicate Specific Fuel Consumption (ISFC) with an increase in Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2322
Tankai Zhang, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
Abstract Reducing emissions and improving efficiency are major goals of modern internal combustion engine research. The use of biomass-derived fuels in Diesel engines is an effective way of reducing well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, partially premixed combustion (PPC) makes it possible to achieve very efficient combustion with low emissions of soot and NOx. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using alcohol/Diesel blends or neat alcohols on emissions and thermal efficiency during PPC. Four alcohols were evaluated: n-butanol, isobutanol, n-octanol, and 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26-36) suitable for PPC. The blends were then tested in a single cylinder light duty (LD) engine. To optimize combustion, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level, lambda, and injection strategy were tuned.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2329
Xiao Ma, Yue Ma, Shuaishuai Sun, Shi-Jin Shuai, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Abstract Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2339
Pi-qiang Tan, Yuan Li
Abstract With increasingly severe atmospheric environmental problems, diesel car emissions have attracted broad attention for its main contribution to air pollutant. Alternative fuels become a hot research point in vehicle for rapidly consuming of fossil oil resources. Biodiesel and GTL (gas to liquid) fuels are two typical alternative fuels for diesel fuel. Low blend ratio (≤10%) biodiesel and GTL fuels can be used in a diesel engine without modifying the engine’s configuration. It is important to investigate the difference of low blend ratio biodiesel and GTL fuels used in the same diesel car and to find the optimum one. Gaseous and particle emissions from a light duty diesel car with B10 (10% biodiesel from cooking oil +90% diesel, v/v) and G10 (10% GTL fuel +90% diesel, v/v) was investigated. It was equipped with high pressure common rail system, cooled EGR and DOC and was tested on a chassis dynamometer under NEDC mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2340
Shashank Mishra, Anand Krishnasamy
Abstract Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2424
Shemin Zhang, Huaping Li, Tao Chen, Nan Jiang, Xinzhen Tan, Limei Deng, Qingsong Xia, Paul Kapus, Mingtang Ma, Wei Li, Junqiang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Yong Xia
Abstract In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2410
Ji Gao, Tie Wang, Dandan Sun, Jing Qiao, Yizhuo Feng
Abstract As the explosion proof diesel engine (EPD) of underground trackless tyred vehicle dynamic mechanical device, due to its good dynamic and economic performance, the diesel has been widely applied. The flame arrester can prevent the exhaust system from tempering, but the increased resistance will seriously affect the performance of diesel. Through the comparison of the CFD-FLUENT fluid simulation on flow and pressure field, the results show that the corrugated flame arrester performs better on reducing the exhaust back pressure than flat flame arrester and ensures the explosion-proof effect. The bench test of explosion proof diesel engine on intake and exhaust system is conducted, analysing the effect of the exhaust resistance under different speeds of diesel engine on the power, economy and emission of TY4100QFB type diesel engines with equivalent flow area , different specifications of flat versus corrugated flame-arrester in the course of external characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2361
David R. Lancaster
Abstract Virtually all developed countries regulate light-duty vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Those regulations rely on different procedures and driving cycles in testing to different standards in different countries. As a result, it is often very difficult to compare the standards imposed by different countries. This paper utilizes publicly available data to compare the energy requirements of the chassis dynamometer driving cycles in common use throughout the world. It also examines the relative severity of the currently existing light duty vehicle CO2 standards, some of which are mass-based with a targeted fleet average, and some of which are individual vehicle targets based on footprint.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2244
Shui Yu, Xiao Yu, Zhenyi Yang, Meiping Wang, Xiaoye Han, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
The fuel efficiency improvement of gasoline engines can be achieved through lean burn and/or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, the ignition of a diluted cylinder charge tends to be more diverged, owing to the slower ignition and combustion processes. The operable range of diluted combustion in gasoline engines is often limited, e.g. with lambda below 2.0 or EGR rate lower than 30%, owing to the deterioration in mixture ignitability and severe cyclic variations. In addition, the adoption of intensified cylinder charge motion requires further optimizations of ignition system, including the igniter geometric configurations and the temporal modulations over ignition energy delivery and spark discharge pattern. In this work, a variety of spark ignition approaches are investigated to improve the ignition of diluted gasoline engine under homogeneous mixture mode. A spatially distributed spark arcing control is realized based on a three-pole igniter.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2249
Chen Wang, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Zhen Lu, Yong Gui
Clean combustion is critical for marine engines to meet the Tier III emission regulation. In this paper, the effects of EGR and injection strategies (including injection pressure, injection timing as well as multiple injection technology) on the performance and emissions of a 2-stroke, low speed marine diesel engine were investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to reach the IMO Tier III NOx emissions target and reduce the fuel consumption rate. Due to the large length scale of the marine engine, RANS simulation was performed in combination with the CTC-SHELL combustion model. Based on the simulation model, the variation of the cylinder pressure curve, the average temperature in the cylinder, the combustion heat release rule and the emission characteristics were studied.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2248
Haichun Ding, Wenbin Zhang, Xiao Ma, Shi-Jin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song Zhan, Bin Liu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low HC emission during cold start. However, high particle emission has become an inevitable challenge especially with injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 50 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine ignition angle, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gas emissions ( THC, NOx, CO) and particle emission were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operation conditions. The test results indicated that, although the injector flow rate and injection pulse did not change a lot after the injector fouling test which means few internal deposit was built inside the injector hole, it still had some effect on engine combustion and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2247
Wenbin Zhang, Haichun ding, Shijin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song ZHAN, Yunping Pu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2255
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Santiago Cardona, Sridhar Ayyapureddi
In this article, a prototype multi-hole diesel injector from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bars under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used thanks to the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. Experimental results show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in chamber temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in chamber density.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2254
Sirui Huang, Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with intake air humidification have to be conducted in this paper. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and intake air humidification against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidifying rates with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2259
Tianpu Dong, Fujun Zhang, Hongli Gao, Sufei Wang, Yidong Fei
The diesel low temperature combustion(LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. It has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. In order to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC were analyzed by experimental study. Combustion performance and emission characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission are presented and discussed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2264
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Joseph Kermani, Florence Duffour, Simon Dosda
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low RON gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different Cetane Number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine. The purpose of this paper is to assess different airpath and after treatment system (ATS) definitions to maximize the potential of a low-RON gasoline fuel running on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2263
S. Vedharaj, R Vallinayagam, Yanzhao An, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Junseok Chang, Bengt Johansson
Naphtha boils in the gasoline range of 40°C to 75°C with a RON of 65, showing increased resistance to auto-ignition. It is not possible to use naphtha as a drop in fuel for CI engine and therefore, it is ideal to investigate premixed combustion of naphtha. Previous studies reports the use of naphtha in CI engine under partially premixed combustion (PPC) mode, wherein the fuel injection timing and intake air temperature controls combustion. In this study, we investigate the combustion visualization and stratification of surrogate fuel in PPC mode. The composition of naphtha surrogate is 2-methyl butane (0.21% mol), 2-methyl hexane (0.07% mol), n-pentane (0.6% mol), n-heptane (0.07% mol) and toluene (0.05% mol). Investigation of surrogate fuel in engine expands on the previous studies on surrogate fuel formation for naphtha. Based on the experimental outcome, start of injection (SOI) was found to be inversely correlated with combustion phasing during early injection timings.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2265
Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Bowen Li, Shi-Jin Shuai, Jian-Xin Wang
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from initial boiling point of gasoline to final boiling point of diesel. Recent experimental results have shown WDF by blending 50% gasoline and 50% diesel (G50) exhibits much lower soot emissions than diesel at medium load with relatively low injection ratio with similar thermal efficiency. However, the engine performances fueled by G50 at both low load end and high load end are still unknown. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of G50 and diesel have been compared at 1600 r/min and a wide load range from 0.2 MPa IMEP to 1.4 MPa IMEP at a light-duty diesel engine. The results shown that G50 has much lower soot emissions and similar thermal efficiency compared with diesel at high load end. At 0.2 MPa IMEP, G50 exhibits high cycle-to-cycle variation and low thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2267
Erik Svensson, Lianhao Yin, Per Tunestal, Martin Tuner
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in engines has shown to achieve very high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on PPC has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The PPC concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR and charge air coolers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 percent 89 RON gasoline and 20 percent n-heptane. A wide range of engine speeds and loads were run using a long route EGR system.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2287
Aniseh Abdalla, Guoyang Wang, Jun Zhang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Emission control technologies are required to achieve stringent emission regulations such as Beijing 6 (equivalent to Europe 6). In order to meet Europe 6 emission regulation, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) with supplementary fuel injection (hydrocarbon injection (HCI)) are used for the X7 diesel engine to control the particulate matter (PM) for a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study investigated soot loading and active regeneration process in a CDPF by using secondary fuel injection in order to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature. The injected fuel is burnt in a DOC where the injector is mounted in the tailpipe upstream of DOC.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2325
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2295
Ahmad Omari, Stefan Pischinger, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16806