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Viewing 241 to 270 of 22071
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0961
Ray Host, Paul Ranspach, Bruce Anderson, Michael Collareno, George Tapos, Cornelius Henderson
Abstract In recent years, the EPA has implemented a requirement for monitoring the air fuel ratio balance in multi-cylinder engines such that those imbalances may not be so great as to cause the tailpipe emissions level to exceed 1.5 times the nominal emissions standard. Such imbalances may be the result of production fuel injector variation, contamination, leaks, or other malfunctions which cause the air or fuel rate to vary across the cylinders controlled by a single oxygen sensor. For many diagnostic systems that rely on the signal from the oxygen sensor, to achieve compliance to the new diagnostic standard, the sensor must see the signal from each cylinder equally. The aftertreatment system must also be robust to individual cylinder air fuel ratio variation. This paper introduces the concept of catalyst zone flow, a condition in which different cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine use different portions of the catalyst brick.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0959
Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu, Sirui Huang
Abstract Although diesel engines offer higher thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption, larger amounts of Particulate Matters (PM) are emitted in comparison with gasoline engines. The Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising technologies due to the “particle number” emissions regulations. In this study, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) multi-channel model of DPF was built properly by utilizing AVL-Fire software code to evaluate the pressure drop and soot accumulation characteristics of DPF. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of soot (capacity and deposit forms) and ash (capacity and distribution factors) interaction on DPF pressure drop and soot accumulation, as well as the effects of DPF boundary conditions (inlet mass flow rate and inlet temperature) on pressure drop.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1003
Ye Liu, Gang Lv, Chenyang Fan, Na Li, Xiaowei Wang
Abstract The evolution of surface functional groups (SFGs) and the graphitization degree of soot generated in premixed methane flames are studied and the correlation between them is discussed. Test soot samples were obtained from an optimized thermophoretic sampling system and probe sampling system. The SFGs of soot were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after removing the soluble impurities from the soot samples, while the graphitization degree of soot was characterized by Raman spectrum and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results reveal that the number of aliphatic C-H groups and C=O groups shows an initial increase and then decrease in the sooting history. The large amount of aliphatic C-H groups and small amount of aromatic C-H groups in the early stage of the soot mass growth process indicate that aliphatic C-H groups make a major contribution to the early stage of soot mass growth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1217
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtain the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25°C to 18°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ethan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
Abstract High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0960
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
Abstract Traditionally, a three-way catalyst (TWC) is controlled to a set heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor voltage (typically placed after the monitored catalyst) that corresponds to optimal catalyst efficiency. This limits the control action, as we rely on emissions breakthrough at the HEGO sensor to infer the state of catalyst. In order to robustly meet the super ultra-low emission regulations, a more precise TWC control around the oxidation level of catalyst is desirable. In this work, we developed a comprehensive set of models to predict the oxygen storage capacity using measured in-vehicle signals only. This is accomplished by developing three models; the first model is a linear in parameter regression model to predict the feed gas emissions from measured signals like engine speed and air-to-fuel ratio (A/F). The second model is a low-dimensional physics based model of the three-way catalyst to predict the exhaust emissions and oxidation state of the catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0127
Norimitsu Matsudaira, Mitsuru Iwasaki, Junichiro Hara, Tomohiko Furuhata, Tatsuya Arai, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Naohiro Hasegawa
Abstract Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0915
Haomiao Zhang, Yuanzhou Xi, Changsheng Su, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0531
Rani Kiwan, Anna Stefanopoulou, Jason Martz, Gopichandra Surnilla, Imtiaz Ali, Daniel Styles
Abstract Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) promises fuel economy benefits at high loads in turbocharged SI engines as it allows better combustion phasing and reduces the need for fuel enrichment. Precise estimation and control of in-cylinder EGR concentration is crucial to avoiding misfire. Unfortunately, EGR flow rate estimation using an orifice model based on the EGR valve ΔP measurement can be challenging given pressure pulsations, flow reversal and the inherently low pressure differentials across the EGR valve. Using a GT-Power model of a 1.6 L GDI turbocharged engine with LP-EGR, this study investigates the effects of the ΔP sensor gauge-line lengths and measurement noise on LP-EGR estimation accuracy. Gauge-lines can be necessary to protect the ΔP sensor from high exhaust temperatures, but unfortunately can produce acoustic resonance and distort the ΔP signal measured by the sensor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0592
Robin Holmbom, Bohan Liang, Lars Eriksson
1 Turbocharging plays an important role in the downsizing of engines. Model-based approaches for boost control are going to increasing the necessity for controlling the wastegate flow more accurately. In today’s cars, the wastegate is usually only controlled with a duty cycle and without position feedback. Due to nonlinearities and varying disturbances a duty cycle does not correspond to a certain position. Currently the most frequently used feedback controller strategy is to use the boost pressure as the controller reference. This means that there is a large time constant from actuation command to effect in boost pressure, which can impair dynamic performance. In this paper, the performance of an electrically controlled vacuum-actuated waste-gate, subsequently referred to as vacuum wastegate, is compared to an electrical servo-controlled wastegate, also referred to as electric wastegate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0591
Andreas Thomasson, Xavier Llamas, Lars Eriksson
1 In modern turbocharged engines the power output is strongly connected to the turbocharger speed, through the flow characteristics of the turbocharger. Turbo speed is therefore an important state for the engine operation, but it is usually not measured or controlled directly. Still the control system must ensure that the turbo speed does not exceed its maximum allowed value to prevent damaging the turbocharger. Having access to a turbo speed signal, preferably by a cheap and reliable estimation instead of a sensor, could be beneficial for over speed protection and supervision of the turbocharger. This paper proposes a turbo speed observer that only utilizes the conditions around the compressor and a model for the compressor map. These conditions are either measured or can be more easily estimated from available sensors compared the conditions on the turbine side.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0601
Huayi Li, Kenneth Butts, Kevin Zaseck, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Ilya Kolmanovsky
Abstract The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for controller design validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0636
Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Nhut Lam, Arne Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0611
Viktor Leek, Kristoffer Ekberg, Lars Eriksson
1 ABSTRACT Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0135
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an effective technique for reducing NOx emissions in order to achieve the ever more stringent emissions standards. This system is widely used in commercial vehicle engines in which thermal loads and durability are a critical issue. In addition, the development deadlines of the new engine generations are being considerably reduced, especially for validation test phase in which customers usually require robust parts for engine validation in the first stages of the project. Some of the most critical issues in this initial phases of program development are heavy boiling and thermal fatigue. Consequently it has been necessary to develop a procedure for designing EGR coolers that are sufficiently robust against heavy boiling and thermal fatigue in a short period of time, even when the engine calibration is not finished and the working conditions of the EGR system are not completely defined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0154
Sudhi Uppuluri, Hemant R Khalane, Ajay Naiknaware
Abstract With the upcoming regulations for fuel economy and emissions, there is a significant interest among vehicle OEMs and fleet managers in developing computational methodologies to help understand the influence and interactions of various key parameters on Fuel Economy and carbon dioxide emissions. The analysis of the vehicle as a complete system enables designers to understand the local and global effects of various technologies that can be employed for fuel economy and emission improvement. In addition, there is a particular interest in not only quantifying the benefit over standard duty-cycles but also for real world driving conditions. The present study investigates impact of exhaust heat recovery system (EHRS) on a typical 1.2L naturally aspirated gasoline engine passenger car representative of the India market.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0169
Ward J. Atkinson, William Raymond Hill, Gursaran D. Mathur
Abstract The EPA has issued regulations in the Final Rulemaking for 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (420r12901-3). This document provides credits against the fuel economy regulations for various Air Conditioning technologies. One of these credits is associated with increased use of recirculation air mode, when the ambient is over 24°C (75°F.). The authors want to communicate the experiences in their careers that highlighted issues with air quality in the interior of the vehicle cabin. Cabin contamination sources may result in safety and health issues for both younger and older drivers. Alertness concerns may hinder their ability to operate a vehicle safely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0511
Tianhao Yang, Lianhao Yin, Gabriel Ingesson, Per Tunestal, Rolf Johansson, Wuqiang Long
Abstract In this paper, a control-oriented soot model was developed for real-time soot prediction and combustion condition optimization in a gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Engine. PPC is a promising combustion concept that achieves high efficiency, low soot and NOx emissions simultaneously. However, soot emissions were found to be significantly increased with high EGR and pilot injection, therefore a predictive soot model is needed for PPC engine control. The sensitivity of soot emissions to injection events and late-cycle heat release was investigated on a multi-cylinder heavy duty gasoline PPC engine, which indicated main impact factors during soot formation and oxidation processes. The Hiroyasu empirical model was modified according to the sensitivity results, which indicated main influences during soot formation and oxidation processes. By introducing additional compensation factors, this model can be used to predict soot emissions under pilot injection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0645
Jeremy Galpin, Thierry Colliou, Olivier Laget, Fabien Rabeau, Gaetano De Paola, Pascal Rahir
Abstract In spite of the increasingly stringent emission standards, the constant growth of road traffic contributes to climate change and induces detrimental effects on the environment. The European REWARD project (REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines) aims to develop a new generation of Diesel engines complying with stricter post Euro 6 legislation and with lower CO2 emissions. Among the different technologies developed, a fuel-efficient two-stroke Diesel engine suited for C-segment passenger cars will be designed and experimentally evaluated. One major challenge for two-stroke engines is the achievement of an efficient scavenging. As the emptying of the in-cylinder burnt gases and the filling by fresh gases is performed at the same time, the challenge consists in removing as much burnt gases as possible while avoiding the by-pass of fresh air toward the exhaust line.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0967
Xin Liu, Jeong Kim, Timothy Chanko, Christine Lambert, James Pakko
Abstract With an emerging need for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) to lower particle emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, studies are being conducted to optimize GPF designs in order to balance filtration efficiency, backpressure penalty, filter size, cost and other factors. Metal fiber filters could offer additional designs to the GPF portfolio, which is currently dominated by ceramic wall-flow filters. However, knowledge on their performance as GPFs is still limited. In this study, modeling on backpressure and filtration efficiency of fibrous media was carried out to determine the basic design criteria (filtration area, filter thickness and size) for different target efficiencies and backpressures at given gas flow conditions. Filter media with different fiber sizes (8 - 17 μm) and porosities (80% - 95%) were evaluated using modeling to determine the influence of fiber size and porosity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
Abstract New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1016
Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0997
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Luis Sousa, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte
Abstract The gap between regulated emissions from vehicle certification procedures and real-world driving has become increasingly wider, particularly for nitrogen oxides (NOx). Even though stricter emission regulations have been implemented, NOx emissions are dependent on specific, short-duration driving events which are difficult to control, therefore high concentrations of these pollutants are still being measured in European cities. Under certification procedures, vehicle emissions compliance is evaluated through standards, recurring to driving cycles performed on chassis dynamometer under controlled laboratory conditions. Different countries use different standard cycles, with the US basing their certification cycle on FTP-75 and Europe using NEDC (Euro 5/6c)/WLTP (Euro 6d).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1006
Fadzli Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Shahrir Abdullah, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor
Abstract Application of computational method in studying soot formation and its characteristics has become more preferable in today’s automotive field. Current developments of computer programs with higher precision mathematical models enable simulation results to become closer to the real engine combustion phenomena. In the present study, investigation on soot has been performed using various soot models with different levels of complexity, from simple two-step Hiroyasu-NSC soot model to the detailed-kinetic soot model. Detailed soot models, Particulate Mimic (PM) which is based on methods of moment and Particulate Size Mimic (PSM) which is based on sectional method, are applied in this study. Result of soot mass from Hiroyasu-NSC model provides 120% error compare to experimental result, while both detailed models provide an acceptable error of 7%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1282
Ashish Jaiswal, Tarun Mehra, Monis Alam, Jatin Agarwal, Harshil Kathpalia
Abstract Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0999
Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0741
Xinlei Liu, Laihui Tong, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao
Abstract In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by both premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio (PR), injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were varied with the pressure rise rate below 10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that higher PR and earlier injection timing resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. Besides, a lowest ISFC of 176 g/kWh (corresponding to IMEP =7.24 bar) was obtained, and the soot emissions could be controlled below 0.6 FSN. Despite that NOx emission was effectively reduced with the increase of EGR, HC and CO emissions were high. However, it showed that GCI combustion of this work was sensitive to EGR, which may restrict its future practical application.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0675
Kenichiro Ogata
Low pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to suppress engine knocking is increasingly being used to downsize engines and increase the compression ratio to improve thermal efficiency. This study aims to develop an ignition system to extend the EGR limit and EGR operation area. The ignition system must be improved to enhance ignitability of a mixture of fuel and air. In this paper, we focus on ignition energy of the ignition coil and summarize experimental results on a test dyno obtained by using reinforced conventional ignition coil on the basis of ignition energy and engine speed. As engine speed (mixture flow velocity between ignition plug electrode-gap) and EGR ratio were increased, the secondary energy requirement of the ignition coil was increased. This increase was considered to be caused by an increase of mixture flow velocity at the plug gap and a decrease of laminar flame velocity as EGR ratio increased.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0679
Kelvin Xie, Shui Yu, Xiao Yu, Geraint Bryden, Ming Zheng, Mengzhu Liu
Abstract In order to meet the future carbon dioxide legislation, advanced clean combustion engines are tending to employ low temperature diluted combustion strategies along with intensified cylinder charge motion. The diluted mixtures are made by means of excess air admission or exhaust gas recirculation. A slower combustion speed during the early flame kernel development because of the suppressed mixture reactivity will reduce the reliability of the ignition process and the overall combustion stability. In an effort to address this issue, an ignition strategy using a multi-pole spark igniter is tested in this work. The igniter uses three electrically independent spark gaps to allow three spatially distributed spark discharges. The multi-pole spark strategy displayed more advanced combustion phasing and lower phasing variability compared to single spark discharges.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 22071