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Viewing 211 to 240 of 21878
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters to the engine compartment and sometimes reaches the position of the air intake duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is an effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion route. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to become smaller and the undercover tends to become bigger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine compartment becomes higher and causes an increase of the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is causing a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of a water level prediction method in engine compartment while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multibody and fluid dynamics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1327
Prashant Khapane, Vivek Chavan, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1543
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian Gaylard, Jose Escobar
Abstract Vehicle rear and side body soiling has been a concern since the earliest cars. Traditionally, soiling has been seen to be less importance than vehicle aerodynamics and acoustics. However, increased reliance on sensors and cameras to assist the driver means that there are more surfaces of the vehicle that must be kept clean. Failure to take this into consideration means risking low customer satisfaction with new features. This is because they are likely to fail under normal operating conditions and require constant cleaning. This paper numerically investigates features known to have an influence on side and rear face soiling with a demonstration vehicle. These changes include rim design, diffuser strakes and diffuser sharpening. While an exhaustive investigation of these features is beyond the scope of this study, examples of each feature will be considered.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1322
Kunihiko Yoshitake, Hiroyuki Tateyama, Atsushi Ogawa
Abstract Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0918
Joseph R. Theis, Andrew Getsoian, Christine Lambert
Abstract In anticipation that future gasoline engines will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150°C after high mileage aging. A reactor was set up at Ford to follow the catalyst testing protocols established by the USDRIVE ACEC tech team for evaluating catalysts for stoichiometric gasoline direct-injection (S-GDI) engines; this protocol specifies a stoichiometric blend of CO/H2, NO, C3H6, C2H4, C3H8, O2, H2O, and CO2 for the evaluations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0953
Jinyong Luo, Yadan Tang, Saurabh Joshi, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9278
Anders N. Johansson, Stina Hemdal, Petter Dahlander
Abstract The current trend toward more fuel efficient vehicles with lower emission levels has prompted development of new combustion techniques for use in gasoline engines. Stratified combustion has been shown to be a promising approach for increasing the fuel efficiency. However, this technique is hampered by drawbacks such as increased particulate and standard emissions. This study attempts to address the issues of increased emission levels by investigating the influence of high frequency ionizing ignition systems, 350 bar fuel injection pressure and various tumble levels on particulate emissions and combustion characteristics in an optical SGDI engine operated in stratified mode on isooctane. Tests were performed at one engine load of 2.63 bar BMEP and speed of 1200 rpm. Combustion was recorded with two high speed color cameras from bottom and side views using optical filters for OH and soot luminescence.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9277
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari
Abstract The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0234
Arun Narayanan, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract In Earth Moving Machines, performance of an attachments play crucial role in determining the machine performance. Application of the machine is one of the main factors to be considered for bucket design. Different types of buckets are offered in the market to suit the particular application. Trenching, digging, moving loose material are some of the operations done with the backhoe bucket. While operating in these areas bucket handles intact soil, granules, loose rocks etc. Properties of these materials play important role in bucket design methodology. In this paper efforts are made towards understanding the properties of soil along with soil failure mechanism and utilizing these inputs to design a backhoe bucket for better machine productivity. Mathematical modeling and Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) are the tools used for design and validation of this work.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0032
Anuroopa Varsha, Andreas Rainer, Prabhu Santiago, Ramdas Umale
Abstract Modern day diesel engines use systems like Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Variable Geometric Turbo Charger (VGT), inlet throttle for air regulation, multiple injection strategies, high pressure rail systems for fuel regulation to optimize the combustion for meeting the strict emission and fuel consumption demands. Torque based ECU structures which are commonly used for diesel engines require a large amount of calibration work. Conventional manual methods for emission and fuel consumption optimization (Full factorial or Line search method) results in increased test bed usage and it is almost impossible to use these methods as the number of parameters to optimize are very high. The conventional DoE tests have been limited by the necessity of calibration engineer’s expertise and manual prescreening of test points to be within thermal & mechanical limits of engine systems. This subsequently leads to excessive screening of variables; which is time consuming.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0030
Sudhi Uppuluri, Ajay M Naiknaware, Hemant R Khalane
Abstract With the upcoming regulations for fuel economy and emissions, there is a significant interest among vehicle OEMs and fleet managers in developing computational methodologies to help understand the influence and interactions of various key parameters on Fuel Economy and carbon-di-oxide emissions. The analysis of the vehicle as a complete system enables designers to understand the local and global effects of various technologies that can be employed for fuel economy and emission improvement. In addition, there is a particular interest in not only quantifying the benefit over standard duty-cycles but also for real world driving conditions. Present study investigates impact of exhaust heat recovery system (EHRS) on a typical 1.2L naturally aspirated gasoline engine passenger car representative of the India market.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0052
Gopalakrishna Acharya, K.A. Subramanian, R K Malhotra
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. Buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0063
Parashuram R Chitragar, K V Shivaprasad, G N Kumar
Abstract Hydrogen’s combustion properties made it as a gifted fuel and energy carrier to combat the current scenario of depletion of the fossil fuels and crisis of environmental pollution problems. Its superior thermo physical properties and least toxic emissions are favorable to use it in an internal combustion (IC) engine as an alternative fuel. This paper describes an experimental analysis of performance and emission parameters for a four cylinder, four stroke SI engine by supplementing hydrogen fraction with gasoline. Tests were carried out by using hydrogen fraction from 0-10% in step of 2% by volume. Study revealed an improvement in brake power, efficiency and brake specific energy consumption up to 8% hydrogen fractions in comparison with gasoline operation while volumetric efficiency decreased for all hydrogen fractions. Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC) emissions were reduced and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) was slightly increased for all hydrogen fractions than gasoline.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0039
A Abhilash Reddy, J M Mallikarjuna
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are now trending in automobile field because of good fuel economy and low exhaust emissions over their port fuel injection (PFI) counter parts. They operate with a lean stratified mixture in most of conditions. However, their performance is dependent on mixture stratification which in-turn depends on fuel injection pressure, timing and strategy. But, the main challenge to GDI engines is soot and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, they can be reduced by employing multi-stage fuel injection strategy. Therefore, in the present work, an effort has been made to study the effect of fuel injection parameters on soot emissions of a GDI engine using the CFD analysis. In addition, the study is also extended to evaluate the performance, combustion and other emission characteristics of the engine. First the engine is modelled using the PRO-E software. The geometrical details of the engine are obtained from the literature.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0042
Subhanker Dev, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Sanjeev Gothekar, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract With the announcement, as per draft notification GSR 187 (E) dated 19th Feb 2016 issued by MoRTH (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways), on vehicle emission standards to leapfrog from BS IV to BS VI by 2020, diesel engines would be greatly facing challenges to meet the stringent emission requirements of 90% reduction in PM and 50% reduction in NOx emissions simultaneously. Up to BS IV, in-cylinder strategies utilizing higher fuel injection pressure, higher intake boost, lower to moderate EGR, optimized combustion chamber design and lower intake manifold temperature would be sufficient. But meeting emission levels at BS VI levels would require a combination of both in-cylinder combustion control and after treatment system [1]. However, unlike Europe and US markets where wide spread adoption of after treatment solution is viable, for Indian market it would be impeded by infrastructure availability, system cost and cost of ownership.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0072
Moqtik Bawase, M R Saraf
Abstract Utilization of higher ethanol blends, 20% ethanol in gasoline (E20), as an alternate fuel can provide apparent benefits like higher octane number leading to improved anti-knocking properties, higher oxygen content resulting in complete combustion. Apart from technical benefits, use of ethanol blends offer certain widespread socioeconomic benefits including option of renewable source of energy, value addition to agriculture feedstock resulting in increase in farm income, creation of more jobs in rural sector and creating job at local levels. Use of higher blends of ethanol can reduce dependence on foreign crude leading to substantial savings in cost of petroleum import. The impact of higher Gasoline-Ethanol blend (E20), on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known for assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for the complete design life of the system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0110
Lasse Moklegaard, Amitabh Saran
Abstract Truck and car manufacturers are required to satisfy certain emission standards while driving regulatory prescribed driving cycles on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. In India, the requirement is to use the regulatory Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC), derived from the European Driving Cycle. The MIDC is a modal driving cycle with protracted periods at constant speed and uniform acceleration and deceleration patterns. It does not emulate typical road driving. In this study we instrument vehicles with off-the-shelf On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) loggers to record actual drive data. The recorded vehicle speed profiles are then used as inputs for the vehicle simulation model we develop. The simulation model uses vehicle speed as an input and then calculates power required at the wheel, gear box, and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) for the vehicle to achieve the measured speed profile. We use Willans Approximation to model the ICE fuel flow based on torque and speed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0107
Monanshi Gupta, Yasser Rafat, M. Saad Alam
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as zero emission vehicles because of no exhaust emissions (tailpipe emission). But electric power generation contributes in the well to wheel emissions. Hence, Electric vehicle cannot be regarded as completely pollution free. In Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles, the pollution is from both the tailpipe (exhaust pipe) and from the well to wheel (extraction of the gasoline in this case). Tailpipe emissions are taken in compliance with Bharat stage emission standards. Standard emissions of CO2, NOx, PM and CH from refineries, during extraction of fuel (gasoline/diesel), are considered for well to wheel emissions. In this work a comparative study of tailpipe and well to wheel emissions from EVs and ICE vehicles is carried out. Three vehicle categories namely; Heavy Duty Vehicles, Passenger cars and 2 wheelers and four major pollutants, namely; CO2, NOx, PM and CH (hydrocarbons) are taken into consideration.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0117
Matti A Harkonen, Alok Trigunayat, Arvind Kumar, Bosco Rajan
Abstract Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), typically with engine displacement volume of less than 1.5L are an integral part of the India’s automobile sector as they are one of the most preferred means of transportation in rural as well as urban India. This market has always been on the rise as a result of rising population, growing commercialization, increasing commercial activities, etc. which are all contributing to the increased demand for intra city transportation. The passenger LDVs such as the three wheeler segment dominates the market as the need for affordable passenger commutation is higher than the need for goods carriage within a city. With BS VI norms slated to be implemented in 2020, it becomes imperative to understand, plan and work out strategies to meet these norms effectively on the Indian roads & actual Indian driving behavior, especially for these LDVs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0132
Abhilash Jain, Jyotirmoy Barman, Kumar Patchappalam, Srikanth Gedela
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction has established itself to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typically, in this technology, aqueous urea solution is injected into hot exhaust stream which chemically decomposes to form ammonia and then reacts with NOx to form safe byproducts as H2O and N2 over the catalyst surface. However, incomplete thermal decomposition of urea not only reduces the NOx conversion efficiency and increases the ammonia slip, but also leads to the formation of solid crystals that adversely affect the performance of the system by increasing the back pressure and lowering the overall fuel economy. The present study discusses about the main reasons that lead to crystal formation in a vanadium based SCR system on a six cylinder 5.6l diesel engine and also design considerations of decomposition tube that affect the formation of crystals and ways to mitigate them.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0127
Antoine Lacarriere, Thierry Seguelong, David Spivey, Ashish DAS
Abstract India is moving to Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) from 2019 significantly lowering particulate mass (PM) , particle number (PN) and Nitrogen Oxides NOx emissions limits, as well as Carbon Dioxide CO2. BSVI’s particulate limits will require the use of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which will need to operate properly under the driving conditions prevalent in India. Furthermore, NOx and CO2 emissions control will include advanced combustion modes with advanced fuel injectiontechnologies based on high pressure fuel injection and smaller injector holes, in combination with active NOx reduction measures. These advanced technologies will increase sensitivity to fuel quality, so will require tighter control of sulfur content, water contamination, fuel stability, lubricity and corrosion. These are real challenges for the robustness and durability of strategies developed for BS-VI and beyond.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0120
Kevin Hallstrom, Sandip D. Shah
Abstract The legislative decision to accelerate the implementation of regulations requiring advanced emissions control in India have accelerated the need to advanced emissions control systems. Particulate filters and NOx abatement technology will be needed to meet the new BSVI standards. Integration of these emission control technologies into engine design poses new challenges to the Indian Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Industry. Each new market that implements advanced emission regulations faces challenges that are unique to the local regulation, the local vehicle design, and the local operating conditions. This paper will review the technology options available for BSVI, their strengths and weaknesses, and potential system designs. Additionally this paper will review how critical design factors such as filter regeneration conditions, duty cycle temperatures, and urea injection can affect the system design and catalyst selection.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0118
Satoshi Sumiya, David Bergeal, Kenan Sager
Abstract The Indian government has announced that India will skip BS V legislation and move to BS VI from 2020. In order to meet this NOx emission standard, most vehicles will need to adopt either NOx Storage Catalyst (NSC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). It is shown that these two devices have different NOx reduction temperature windows and different sulfur tolerance. In the LDD application, it is highly important to deal with NOx in the low temperature region directly after a cold start. NSC works in this region with better performance than SCR, but its sulfur tolerance is weaker than SCR. To improve the weakness in low temperature NOx control on SCR, SCRF® which is SCR coated Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was developed and it demonstrated an advantage in light-off performance, due to the advantage in temperature conditions, by minimizing heat loss upstream of the SCR device.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0126
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles in the broad context of evolving engine technology; the move to more real-world, transient testing and much tighter tailpipe emissions regulations. The specific context here is the launch of BSVI regulations for gasoline passenger cars in India. The key approach described here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on low PGM levels with the emphasis on new materials technology to significantly alter the functional balance between PGM and “promoters”. We will focus on the design of materials with the spinel structure and have developed catalyst products that synergize low levels of PGM (so-called SPGM) leveraging the key properties of the advanced spinel oxides.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0123
Fabien Ocampo, Naotaka Ohtake, Barry W. L. Southward
Abstract In order to achieve NOx tailpipe targets of current diesel regulation standards two main catalytic technologies have been employed, specifically NH3-SCR and LNT. However both of these technologies face challenges with the implementation of newer / colder test cycles such as “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), combined with CO2 targets (95 g/km is 2020 target in Europe). These cycles will require higher NOx Storage Capacity (NSC) in the low temperature region (120-350°C). Conversely, lean-burn Gasoline vehicles, with their higher operational temperatures, will require improved NSC over a broader temperature range (200-500°C). Therefore, the development of NSC materials to meet these opposing requirements is an area of extensive study by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), washcoaters, and raw materials suppliers. Today, ceria is a key component in the formulation of active NSC washcoats.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 21878