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Viewing 211 to 240 of 22048
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji Yabuzaki
Abstract In the near future, particulate number (PN) regulations, including the Euro 6 regulations, will be going into effective and becoming more stringent around the world targeted at gasoline engine vehicles. There is a type of particulate filter that has used for diesel engine vehicles, as a means to satisfy PN regulations. There are two types of particulate filters. One is a “bare” or “adding-type” GPF that is uncoated with catalyst, and the other is a replaceable-type GPF that is coated with catalyst. The replaceable-type GPF (coated GPF) has advantages in terms of cost-performance, installation space, and lower level of pressure drop, compared to the uncoated GPF. The three main functions required for a coated GPF are, an improvement of three-way catalytic performance, lowering of pressure drop, and PN filtration efficiency improvement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Abstract The CO2 advantage coupled with the low NOX and PM potential of natural gas (NG) makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, because NG is mostly methane, reduced combustion efficiency associated with traditional NG fueling strategies can result in significant levels of methane emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to reduced efficiency and the high global warming potential of methane. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was found to improve thermal and combustion efficiencies over fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0163
Gursaran D. Mathur
The author has developed a model that can be used to predict build-up of cabin carbon dioxide levels for automobiles based on many variables. There are a number of parameters including number of occupants that dictates generation of CO2 within the control volume, cabin leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) characteristics, cabin volume, blower position or airflow rate; vehicle age, etc. Details of the analysis is presented in the paper. Finally, the developed model has been validated with experimental data. The simulated data follows the same trend and matches fairly well with the experimental data.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Abstract Over half of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. To analyze the potential impact of cross-sector cooperation in reducing these emissions, we formulate a bi-level optimization model where the transportation sector can purchase renewable energy certificates (REC) from the electricity generation sector. These RECs are used to offset emissions from transportation in lieu of deploying high-cost fuel efficient technologies. The electricity generation sector creates RECs by producing additional energy from renewable sources. This additional renewable capacity is financed by the transportation sector and it does not impose additional cost on the electricity generation sector. Our results show that such a REC purchasing regime significantly reduces the cost to society of reducing GHG emissions. Additionally, our results indicate that a REC purchasing policy can create electricity beyond actual demand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Abstract Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima, Hideki Tanaka, Takeo Fukuda, Yoshimi Nakasato, Wataru Noguchi, Yoshikazu Katsumasa, Tomohisa Aruga
Abstract The use of electric vehicles (EV) is becoming more widespread as a response to global warming. The major issues associated with EV are the annoyance represented by charging the vehicles and their limited cruising range. In an attempt to remove the restrictions on the cruising range of EV, the research discussed in this paper developed a dynamic charging EV and low-cost infrastructure that would make it possible for the vehicles to charge by receiving power directly from infrastructure while in motion. Based on considerations of the effect of electromagnetic waves, charging power, and the amount of power able to be supplied by the system, this development focused on a contact-type charging system. The use of a wireless charging system would produce concerns over danger due to the infiltration of foreign matter into the primary and secondary coils and the health effects of leakage flux.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0921
Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Alex Graper, Andrew McIntosh, William Kaminski
Abstract The automotive aftermarket industry is an extremely cost competitive market to say the least. Aftermarket manufacturers are sought by customers primarily for their ability to replace an OES (Original Equipment Supplier) for a fraction of the cost. This forces the manufacturers to yield on performance abilities to get a share in the market place. The TWC system in gasoline vehicles not only acts as an emissions reduction device but is an integral part of the overall vehicle performance itself, especially since the introduction of OBD (On-Board Diagnostics) II systems in 1995. An inefficient catalyst not only leads to excessive tailpipe emissions but also acts detrimental to vehicle fueling and hence overall performance. The aftermarket catalyst industry which is regulated by EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and CARB (California Air Resource Board) for gasoline engines is subject to meeting a mandatory performance standard for the same reason.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0917
Go Hayashita, Motoki Ohtani, Keiichiro Aoki, Shuntaro Okazaki
Abstract Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0979
Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu, Yaohui Wang, Sirui Huang
Abstract Although diesel engines have higher output torque, lower fuel consumption, and lower HC pollutant emissions, larger amounts of NOx and PM are emitted, compared with equivalent gasoline engines. The diesel particulate filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising aftertreatment technologies due to the more stringent particulate matters (PM) regulations. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of DPF was built by utilizing AVL-Fire software code. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop and soot regeneration characteristics of hexagonal and conventional square cell DPFs with various inlet mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, cell densities, soot loads and ash loads. Different cell geometry shapes of DPF were evaluated under various ash distribution types.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1004
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Norbert Heeb, Andreas Mayer, Volker Hensel
Abstract In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from five DI gasoline cars are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel. Moreover, five variants of “vehicle - GPF” were investigated. These results originate from the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates), which focused on metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars with different engine technologies. The PN-emission level of the investigated GDI cars in WLTC without GPF is in the same range of magnitude very near to the actual limit value of 6.0 × 1012 #/km. With the GPF’s with better filtration quality, it is possible to lower the emissions below the future limit value of 6.0 × 1011 #/km. There is no visible nuclei mode and the ultrafine particle concentrations below 10mm are insignificant. Some of the vehicles show at constant speed operation a periodical fluctuation of the NP-emissions, as an effect of the electronic control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1318
Prashant Khapane, Suresh Bhosale
Abstract Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirements for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the program when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering changes that are expensive, time consuming and stressful. Like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model the physics of sand media and also solve the complex multi-physics problem of impact of the whole vehicle with the sand dune.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1320
Yucheng Liu
Abstract A cost effective, portable particulate management system was developed, prototyped, and evaluated for further application and commercialization, which could remove and dispose particulate matter suspended in air efficiently and safely. A prototype of the present system was built for experimental assessment and validation. The experimental data showed that the developed particulate management system can effectively clean the air by capturing the particles inside it. Effects of viscosity of filter medium on the performance of the developed system were also discussed. The present system is very flexible, whose size and shape can be scaled and changed to be fit for different applications. Its manufacturing cost is less than $10. Based on the experimental validation results, it was found that the present system can be further developed, commercialized, and applied for a variety of industries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0923
Ed Szczepanski, Akinori Koda, Daniel Sweeney, Nick Polcyn, Mitsunori Ota
Tightening global emissions standards are driving automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer’s (OEM’s) to utilize Three Way Catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment systems that can perform with greater efficiency and greater measured control of Precious Group Metals (PGM) use. At the same time, TWC aftertreatment systems minimize exhaust system pressure drops. This study will determine the influence of catalyst substrate cell geometry on emission and PGM usage. Additionally, a study of lightoff and backpressure comparisons will be conducted. The two substrate configurations used are hex/750cpsi and square/750cpsi.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0941
Liu Yang, Balaji Sukumar, Mojghan Naseri, Penelope Markatou, Sougato Chatterjee
Abstract Future emissions regulations proposed for the Asian automotive industry (BS VI regulations for India and NS VI regulations for China) are strict and similar to EU VI regulations. As a result, they will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced Particulate Matter (PM) control. This will drive implementation of full Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (cDPF) and simultaneous NOx control using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologies. In this work, we present the performance of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), cDPF, SCR and Ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) systems utilizing the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC). Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) required for both active and passive filter regeneration applications will be discussed. The sensitivity of key design parameters like catalyst technology, PGM loading, catalyst sizing to meet the regulation limits has been investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0962
Jian Gong, Di Wang, Avra Brahma, Junhui Li, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Pingen Chen
Abstract Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is one of the most critical characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. In this study, a dynamic OSC model involving two oxygen storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed. The dual-site OSC model was validated on a bench reactor and a natural gas engine. The model was capable of predicting temperature dependence on OSC with H2, CO and CH4 as reductants. Also, the effects of oxygen concentration and space velocity on the amount of OSC were captured by the model. The validated OSC model was applied to simulate lean breakthrough phenomena with varied space velocities and oxygen concentrations. It is found that OSC during lean breakthrough is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration. Specifically, breakthrough time exhibits a non-linear, inverse correlation to oxygen flux.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0966
Jana Aslanjan, Christian Klauer, Cathleen Perlman, Vivien Günther, Fabian Mauss
Abstract The three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is the most common catalyst for gasoline engine exhaust gas after treatment. The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) is achieved via oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduction of nitrogen oxides. These conversion effects were simulated in previous works using single-channel approaches and detailed kinetic models. In addition to the single-channel model multiple representative catalyst channels are used in this work to take heat transfer between the channels into account. Furthermore, inlet temperature distribution is considered. Each channel is split into a user given number of cells and each cell is treated like a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). The simulation is validated against an experimental four-stroke engine setup with emission outputs fed into a TWC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0964
Jakob Heide, Mikael Karlsson, Mireia Altimira
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx through injection of Urea-Water-Solution (UWS) into the hot exhaust gas stream is an effective and extensively used strategy in internal combustion engines. Even though actual SCR systems have 95-96% de-NOx efficiency over test cycles, real driving emissions of NOx are a challenge, proving that there is room for improvement. The efficiency of the NOx conversion is highly dependent on the size of UWS droplets and their spatial distribution. These factors are, in turn, mainly determined by the spray characteristics and its interaction with the exhaust gas flow. The main purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the sensitivity to the modelling framework of the evaporation and mixing of the spray upstream of the catalyst. The dynamics of discrete droplets is handled through the Lagrangian Particle Tracking framework, with models that account for droplet breakup and coalescence, turbulence effects, and water evaporation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0971
Uladzimir Budziankou, Thomas Lauer, Xuehai Yu, Brian M Schmidt, Nam Cho
Experimental studies have shown that knitted wiremesh mixers reduce the formation of solid deposits and improve ammonia homogenization in automotive SCR systems. However, their implementation in CFD models remains a major challenge due to the complex WM geometry. It was the aim of the current study to investigate droplet WM interaction. Essential processes, such as secondary droplet generation, wall film formation, and heat exchange, were analyzed in detail and a numerical model was set up. A box with heat resisting glass was used to study urea-water solution spray impingement on a WM under a wide range of operating conditions. High speed videography was used to identify the impingement regimes. Infrared thermography was applied to investigate WM cooling. In order to determine the impact of the WM on the spray characteristics, the droplet spectrum was measured both upstream and downstream of the WM using the laser diffraction method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0975
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
Abstract A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is an emissions control device, used to treat the exhaust gases in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to diagnose the track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0160
Longjie Xiao, Tianming He, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Huang, Xianyao Ping
Abstract While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0052
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0609
Pan Song, Shugang Xie, Yuan Zhong, Bolin Gao
Abstract This paper presents a unified creep-speed controller specifically designed for the automated parking system of an automated manual transmission vehicle, whereby the engine management system, transmission control unit, and electronic stability control system can work cooperatively and harmoniously within the same control framework. First, a novel reference speed generator is designed and employs sinusoidal functions to produce the speed profile based on the maneuver-dependent distances computed by a path planner, such that the lag in vehicle response during start-up can be effectively reduced. Second, a well-tuned PID controller is adopted to determine the resultant longitudinal force in attempt to follow the reference speed and eliminate the distance error during the parking maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1009
Yajun Wang, Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Xiuxiu Sun, Hanzhengnan Yu, Xikai Liu
In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 22048