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Viewing 22021 to 22050 of 22071
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310022
D. B. Brooks, N. R. White, G. C. Rodgers
AFTER stating briefly the requirements that reference fuels used in determining the detonation values of test fuels should meet, the tests conducted by the Bureau of Standards to ascertain the effect that atmospheric conditions have upon the relations between the primary scale and each of a number of secondary detonation-standards are described. All tests were made with a Cooperative Fuel-Research engine having a 6:1 compression-ratio L-head. Varying the throttle opening gave the desired intensity of detonation, which was estimated by the bouncing-pin apparatus. Air-conditioning apparatus, used in previous tests, controlled the air temperature and humidity.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300022
ROBERT E. WILSON
IN THIS PAPER the author discusses the significance of the various tests for motor fuels, particularly in the light of extensive research work along these lines in the past few years by various industrial laboratories and the United States Bureau of Standards. A bibliography of the literature on the subject supplements the paper. Although a large part of the public still seems to assume that the principal difference to the car user between different grades of gasoline is in mileage per gallon, actually, if today's best and poorest commercial gasolines are compared, the difference in mileage is very small compared with the differences in engine-starting ability, antiknock quality, vapor-locking tendency and liability to injure the engine or the fuel-induction system.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300045
H. B. HEWITT
MAINTENANCE is a part of automotive production and as such is destined to adopt production standards. While passenger-car manufacturers have fostered the application of these standards to maintain a parity between factory production and maintenance, commercial-vehicle operators have established standards and methods in response to an economic demand to obtain low-cost maintenance. How this has been done in Philadelphia is the subject of the paper. Scheduling vehicles through the shop in accordance with the seasonal requirements of transportation enables a centralized shop having 120,000 sq. ft. of floor space to service a fleet of 450 motorcoaches, 1500 taxicabs and approximately 150 pieces of various utility equipment with practically no fluctuations in the working force and the minimum number of spare units. Major overhauling of motorcoaches is done in the winter months when the demand is relatively light, while the taxicabs receive attention in the summer.
1929-01-01
Technical Paper
290034
DONALD B. BROOKS
SEVERAL series of tests made on two multi-cylinder engines to determine the effect of humidity on engine performance are described and the results discussed. The basis for these tests was the so-called oxygen-content hypothesis that the presence of any given volume of water vapor in the cylinder, by lessening the oxygen present, reduces the quantity of fuel that can be burned efficiently per cycle and correspondingly decreases the power output. The results obtained closely verified this hypothesis. As double interpolation is necessary in humidity tables for water-vapor pressure, the process is both laborious and conducive to errors, contour charts reducing both troubles only to a certain extent. Nomograms enabling the humidity correction to be obtained from thermometer and barometer readings were employed and are included in the paper. Instructions for using the nomograms are given and the method of their computation is reviewed briefly in an Appendix.
1929-01-01
Technical Paper
290010
E. J. HALL
THE 4¼ x 5½-in. six-cylinder motorcoach engine built by his company is used by the author as an example of the methods governing its design, the main controlling factors being that regularly recurring maintenance operations should come in groups, so that the operator can systematize his shop-work; that all units should be interchangeable; that any operation should be completed by a trained crew in a maximum time of 2 hr.; and that removal of the engine from the chassis should almost never be necessary except for work on the main bearings and for crankshaft regrinding.
1929-01-01
Technical Paper
290033
ARTHUR W. GARDINER
SO-CALLED correction factors to compensate for variations in atmospheric temperature and pressure have been in practical use in connection with engine testing; but the influence of the varying amount of aqueous vapor present in the atmosphere has not had sufficient consideration. The author submits brief test-data indicative of the effect of humidity on some factors of engine performance and of the feasibility of using rational power-correction factors. By assigning due importance to the effect of humidity, he believes that a more satisfactory analysis of car and of engine performance can be obtained. Using a single-cylinder engine operated at full throttle and 1000 r.p.m. under stabilized conditions, tests were made observing maximum power, air-flow, fuel-flow, detonation and spark-advance requirements over a wide range of relative humidity for an air-intake temperature of 100 deg. fahr. Curves made from the data obtained are given and discussed.
1928-01-01
Technical Paper
280047
E. H. LOCKWOOD
1928-01-01
Technical Paper
280046
OSCAR C. BRIDGEMAN
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270050
ALFRED W. DEVINE
IT is common practice to provide single-filament motor-vehicle head-lamps with but one focus-adjusting mechanism. The advisability of incorporating also a vertical-focusing mechanism in two-filament tilting-beam head-lamps has been a subject of discussion. The intent of State laws is to require the proper use of lighting equipment that meets the legal requirements. Focusing is the most difficult obstacle in the way of practical enforcement of the laws. Types of focusing mechanism are described and the effect of the use of each type on the instructions issued by State motor-vehicle departments is explained at some length. Movement of the light source by the use of the different types of mechanism for focusing head-lamps is described to explain complications that attend the use of multiple adjusting-mechanisms. Head-lamps can be designed with a focal zone, instead of a focal point, so that they will be less sensitive to filament positioning.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270057
F. W. STEIN
Abstract IN a large plant, especially where the product is diversified, the problem of tool equipment is complex. Great savings can be made by standardization and simplification in small items of tool equipment. Typical examples of drawings and tabulated dimensions for tools and tool parts are given; also a list of some 20 parts that can be standardized to advantage. Without simplification and cooperation from every man connected with tool work, standardization does not bring the desired results.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270067
E. N. FALES
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260016
This subject is treated in a paper in two parts. Part I, by Alex Taub, deals with laboratory tests to prove by comparative data that the higher average operating-temperatures maintained in the engine by the constant-temperature, or evaporation, system of cooling have negligible detrimental effects. Part II, by L. P. Saunders, gives the results of road-tests of cars operated under the same conditions when fitted with a standard water-cooling radiator-core and with a constant-temperature cross-flow condenser-core. Although contamination of the crankcase oil by heavy ends of the fuel is not prevented by the higher temperature of constant-temperature operation, it is asserted that this higher temperature is effective in striking an acceptable balance in such contamination and results of the tests show that the cylinder-walls are maintained at temperatures sufficiently above the vaporization point of water to reduce the condensation of water vapor to the minimum.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260034
W. G. WALL
Lubricating-oil, despite the abuse it receives, is expected to perform its function properly. Road dust, gasoline and water are allowed to mix with it, and it is subjected to a high temperature and mixed with carbon, so that the original oil soon becomes hardly recognizable. Some remedies that have been proposed provide for the removal of either the dirt or the dilution, but both should be kept out. Water not only dilutes the oil, but forms sulphurous acid, rusting the parts and, in winter, probably freezing at the oil-pump. When mixed with oil, it forms an emulsion and when this emulsion is mixed with road dust or carbon particles, sludge is gradually formed. Sludge, when agitated and sucked through the oil-pump, tends to clog the oil-holes and to wear the bearings. Oil, when exposed to a high temperature on the cylinder-walls, becomes oxidized and black in color. Sulphur in the fuel probably forms sulphur dioxide and, by mixing with water in the crankcase, becomes sulphurous acid.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250053
H M CRANE
After referring to the recommendations made to the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety by the Committee on Motor Vehicles and the Committee's further explanation of the recommendations, the author amplifies more fully the difficulties that have arisen in the operation of the system of headlight regulations sponsored by the Illuminating Engineering Society and this Society and suggests a line of fundamental research with a view to drafting more desirable regulations. Inasmuch as road conditions have changed greatly since the regulations at present in force were first proposed, he believes that a new study of the subject might result in marked improvement. Definite control of a concentrated headlight beam, deflected below a horizontal line, as originally proposed by the Society, failed to produce the desired result, and the next step was the formulation of the regulations listed in the S.A.E. HANDBOOK.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250036
T A BOYD
As the automobile, a chemical factory on wheels, converts gasoline and air into energy for propelling itself and its load, its prinicpal problems of operation center on the properties and impurities of the raw materials, the utilization and disposition of the by-products and the proper maintenance of the plant equipment. After discussing the nature of gasoline, the author enumerates the five sources from which motor fuel is derived. The major part of the gasoline is said to be obtained directly by distillation from petroleum; about one-quarter of American gasoline, to be secured by the cracking of heavier petroleum oils; about one-tenth, to be gasoline that is separated from natural gas; from 1 to 2 per cent, to consist of benzol and similar material; and fuel used in some sugar-producing localities, to comprise alcohol made from molasses.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250030
FRANK JARDINE
Corrosion in gasoline engines is generally believed to be due to sulphuric acid formed by the combination of sulphur carried in low-grade fuels and oils with water that enters or is generated in the engine. Much of this trouble occurs in winter and may be traced directly to the action of water that condenses on the inside of the cylinders and crankcase when a cold engine is started. The water destroys the oil-film and comes into direct contact with metal of the pistons, cylinders and other parts, causing them to rust. If this occurs and the lubricating system does not supply more oil to the surfaces immediately upon the restarting of the engine, scored cylinders and pistons are likely to result, or, if the engine is stopped before it is warmed up, condensation and rusting will be rapid and will result in excessive wear.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250010
C E Summers
In a study of the dust problem that has lasted more than 2 years, many observations, measurements and experiments were made to determine the nature and effect of dust and the best means for its elimination as a cause of engine wear. The results of these experiments, which seem to be of general interest, are reported and cover briefly such matters as the chemical composition of road dust, its particle size, specific gravity, and abrasive nature and the relative amounts of it to which an engine may be exposed under varied conditions. Curves are also submitted that show the average cylinder-wear on a number of test cars. The methods of testing air-cleaners are described, the principles underlying commercial air-cleaners are discussed and a list of what the author believes to be important elements of air-cleaners for passenger cars is given.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250004
G A ROUND
Studies of samples of used engine-oil under the microscope show that the carbonaceous material is extremely finely divided and that the particles are held together loosely by oxidized oil. Dust particles in the oil can be distinguished from other foreign material by means of photographs taken with polarized light. Examination of a number of samples shows that the dust particles circulating with the oil are small in comparison with those drawn in through the carbureter intake, indicating that they have been pulverized on the cylinder-walls. The results of tests indicate that air-cleaners are of direct benefit, but the use of other devices to prevent dilution and to keep the oil free from foreign material is equally desirable. Oil-screens cannot be expected to remove any but the coarsest material, such as lint; hence they should be of fairly coarse mesh and of liberal area, in order to provide a free flow of oil at low temperatures. They should also be self-cleaning.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250007
A H HOFFMAN
Tests to determine the location under the hood of a motor vehicle where the air-intake of the carbureter will be exposed to the least dust were made by the agricultural engineering division of the University of California at Davis, Cal., and the results are given in the hope that they will serve a useful purpose. Of three types of dust-screen devised to catch the dust at different locations so that it could be photographed, and still would present little hindrance to passage of the air from point to point under the hood, the most effective was one of coarse hospital gauze stretched over frames set in transverse vertical positions on either side of and above the engine. The tests were made on two phaetons and a speed truck, run for less than 3 miles and following another car on a dusty road.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240031
A Ludlow Clayden
Describing the three ways in which water may reach the oil-pan, the author says that the danger-point for water accumulation is reached when an emulsion becomes too highly viscous or when an accumulation of free water reaches the pump intake. The effect of using an emulsifying oil is explained and consideration is given the quantities of water actually deposited because of cylinder-wall condensation. An emulsion of oil with water up to 5 or 6 per cent differs hardly at all from the pure oil so far as film-forming and lubricating qualities are concerned. On the other hand, with an oil that is absolutely non-emulsifying, the tendency is for the water to segregate and collect in comparatively large globules. The ability of an oil to absorb a small percentage of water has the advantages of minimizing the danger of complete failure of oil circulation when starting in cold weather and of reducing somewhat the rate of piston-ring and cylinder-wall wear.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240009
L H POMEROY
Very few data seem to be available on the frictional losses in automobile engines caused by the failure of the oil to perform its function as a lubricant. The researches of the Lubrication Inquiry Committee in England indicate that the friction of a flooded bearing is proportional to the speed of the engine, the area of the bearing and the viscosity of the lubricant and is independent of the pressure and of the materials of which the opposing surfaces are composed. The principal sources of friction in an engine are the crankshaft, the camshaft and the connecting-rod bearings, which rotate; the pistons and the valves, which slide; and the auxiliaries, such as the generator, the pump and the distributor.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240058
HUMPHREY F PARKER
Describing how the total weight of an airship becomes less as its flight continues and how its elevators can be used to keep the airship's nose pointed downward, thus balancing the excess lift by “dynamic lift,” the author says that 5 hr. is about the limit of flight for which the too great lightness can be overcome in this fashion safely, explains how different the conditions become on long flights and gives details of the means used to counteract this rising tendency. Valving of gas to overcome airship lightness is wasteful and costly, especially when the craft is inflated with helium gas but, if this is not done, some substance must be collected and stored at the same rate as that at which fuel is consumed in the engines and the most practicable method seems to be to recover water from the exhaust gases.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240005
H W ASIRE
Definite knowledge as to the behavior of gases and liquids in the manifold of an internal-combustion engine being lacking, an attempt is made to answer the questions: (a) How bad is the distribution, (b) how do the different types of manifold compare, (c) why is the liquid distribution in some manifolds poor and (d) how shall we proceed to correct the trouble? The solution of the problem is affected by the facts that, in extremely cold weather, nearly all fuel is delivered to the engine, at the time of starting, as a liquid; that all cars perform poorly under such conditions, some engines, when cold, “hitting” on only one or two cylinders; and that, because of inferior distribution, many multi-cylinder engines are outperformed by single-cylinder engines of similar design.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210006
A C FIELDNER, A. A STRAUB, G W JONES
The data given in this paper were obtained from an investigation by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the New York and New Jersey State Bridge and Tunnel Commissioners to determine the average amount and composition of the exhaust gases from motor vehicles under operating conditions similar to those that will prevail in the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel. A comprehensive set of road tests upon 101 motor vehicles including representative types of passenger cars and trucks was conducted, covering both winter and summer operating conditions. The cars tested were taken at random from those offered by private individuals, corporations and automobile dealers, and the tests were made without any change in carbureter or other adjustments. The results can therefore be taken as representative of motor vehicles as they are actually being operated on the streets at the various speeds and on grades that will prevail in the tunnel.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200017
J G VINCENT
Some of the salient facts regarding the character of the engine fuel marketed within the past few years are shown in accompanying curves. The desirability of operating present-day experimental cars with fuel that is the equivalent of fuel that will probably be generally marketed two years hence is stated and various methods of meeting the fuel problem are then examined. A dry fuel mixture is desired to prevent spark-plug fouling, to improve engine performance in cold weather and to minimize lubricating oil contamination by fuel which passes the pistons. Various methods of obtaining a dry mixture are then discussed, leading to a detailed description of the construction and operation of a device specially designed to accomplish such a result more successfully.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200050
C B DRAKE
In view of the inestimable services in the development of standardized transportation rendered to the Army by the Society of Automotive Engineers, particularly during the war, the author believes it important that the Society be acquainted with the intentions and policies of the War Department regarding the engineering development of motor transportation from the viewpoint of the problems and needs of the American Army. The fundamentals of the policies on motor transportation of February, 1919, as approved by the Chief of Staff, are stated and the subsequent changes discussed in some detail. Standardization of chassis as favored by the Army receives specific and lengthy consideration and the Government standardized trucks are commented upon. The standardization of body design and parts specifications are discussed in some detail. It is the policy of the Motor Transport Corps to maintain a thoroughly adequate and efficient engineering branch, which is now operative.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190009
J G UTZ
THE United States was practically unprepared in the field of military motor-transport at the beginning of the war. Due largely to the cooperation of the Society of Automotive Engineers and its members individually, this handicap was overcome and a position stronger in this respect than that of any of the other belligerents was attained. The early efforts and the cooperation between the Society and the various Government departments are described, especially with reference to the Quartermaster Corps which at that time had charge of all motor transportation. Regarding the Class B truck, it is shown that the Society acted as a point of contact between the various members of the industry and the War Department and, although not fostering any program or plan of its own, it was largely responsible for the success of the standardization program conceived and carried out by the Army.
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180048
EDWARD ORTON
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180031
CHARLES M MANLY
Viewing 22021 to 22050 of 22071