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Viewing 181 to 210 of 22071
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1950
J Suresh Kumar, Sakthivel B, Srinivasan B, Ramalingam Sivanantham
The automotive industry in world is facing the problem of reduction of emissions coming out of the engine. Also, the stringent emission norms imposed by the regulating body for transition from BS IV to BS VI urges the auto makers to concentrate on new technologies to reduce the emissions. One of the major emissions coming out of the diesel engine is oxides of nitrogen (NOx) which is detrimental to human health. This NOx emission is formed when the combustion temperature of engine exceeds the threshold limit. There are several methods available to reduce these NOx emissions formed in-cylinder. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one such system, which reduces the NOx emission formed inside the engine by supplying a portion of the exhaust gases. By re-circulating exhaust gases, the air admitted to the engine is diluted. Further, due to the high latent heat of vaporization of water, water vapor tends to absorb more amount of heat that is generated during combustion.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1981
Sakthinathan Ganapathy, Anand Kumar Appancheal, Raja Velusamy
Abstract Heat energy produced in the combustion chamber of an IC engine cannot be completely converted into useful work due to heat transfer losses. This leads to a fall in the performance of the engine. To overcome this, pistons have been coated with different materials like molybdenum disulphide, chromium nitrides and other materials. These thermal barrier coatings have improved the performance of the engine by preventing heat loss. In this experiment, the performance and emission characteristics of a tungsten carbide coated piston was investigated. WC was coated on the piston surface by EB-PVD Process. The WC coated piston was tested in an MK20 engine using an eddy current dynamometer. The performance of uncoated and WC coated pistons were compared and analyzed. An increase in combustion chamber temperature was obtained while using WC coated piston, which was observed by increased exhaust gas temperature.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1945
Jyotirmoy Barman, Himanshu Gambhir, Rizwan Khan
Abstract During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the mass is not necessarily correct, because it might well be that not the mass but the number of particles and the characteristics of them (size, composition) have a higher impact on health. During the diesel engine combustion process, soot particles are produced which is very harmful for the atmosphere. Particulate matter is composed of much organic and inorganic composition which was analyzed after the optimization of SCR and EGR engine out.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1954
Premkumarr Santhanamm, K. Sreejith, Avinash Anandan
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9281
Nuria Garrido Gonzalez, Roland Baar, Jens Drueckhammer, Christoph Kaeppner
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
2017-06-26
White Paper
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1782
Jobin Puthuparampil, Henry Pong, Pierre Sullivan
Abstract Large-scale emergency or off-grid power generation is typically achieved through diesel or natural gas generators. To meet governmental emission requirements, emission control systems (ECS) are required. In operation, effective control over the generator’s acoustic emission is also necessary, and can be accomplished within the ECS system. Plug flow mufflers are commonly used, as they provide a sufficient level of noise attenuation in a compact structure. The key design parameter is the transmission loss of the muffler, as this dictates the level of attenuation at a given frequency. This work implements an analytically decoupled solution, using multiple perforate impedance models, through the transfer matrix method (TMM) to predict the transmission loss based on the muffler geometry. An equivalent finite element model is implemented for numerical simulation. The analytical results and numerical results are then evaluated against experimental data from literature.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1798
Jiri Navratil, Warren Seeley, Peng Wang, Shriram Siravara
Abstract The ability to accurately predict exhaust system acoustics, including transmission loss (TL) and tailpipe noise, based on CAD geometry has long been a requirement of most OEM’s and Tier 1 exhaust suppliers. Correlation to measurement data has been problematic under various operating conditions, including flow. This study was undertaken to develop robust modelling technique, ensuring sensible correlation between the 1-D models and test data. Ford use Ricardo WAVE as one of their 1-D NVH tools, which was chosen for the purpose of this benchmark study. The most commonly used metrics for evaluating the acoustical performance of mufflers are insertion loss (IL), TL, and noise reduction (NR). TL is often the first step of analysis, since it represents the inherent capability of the muffler to attenuate sound if both the source and termination are assumed to be anechoic. It can also be reliably measured and numerically simulated without having to connect to an engine.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1933
Werner Seifried
Concerning the limitation of greenhouse gases, the Kyoto protocol in 1997defined the first hard facts. A steady increase in the number of participating states as well as a rigorous focus on emission limits - even if some important countries did not sign or withdraw from the protocol - led to high pressure on existing technologies. The presentation therefore will start by discussing the four pillars of possible CO2 reduction options and will lead to the question why there is a correlation to assistance systems on hydraulic excavators. Finally innovative excavator assistance systems and their support to the objectives on CO2 reduction will be presented.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1936
Ulrich Fass, Jenny Elfsberg
Abstract No abstract available.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1925
Lukas Walter, Attila Toth, Gernot Hasenbichler, Helmut Theissl, Russ Truemner, Gregory Heimann, Praveen Rastogi
With the implementation of EURO VI and similar emission legislation, the industry assumed the pace and stringency of new legislation would be reduced in the future. The latest announcements of proposed and implemented legislation steps show that future legislation will be even more stringent. The currently leading announced legislation, which concerns a large number of global manufacturers, is the legislation from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Both announced new legislation for CO2, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Phase II. CARB is also planning additional Ultra Low NOx regulations. Both regulations are significant and will require a number of technologies to be used in order to achieve the challenging limits. AVL published some engine related measures to address these legislation steps.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1929
Ludger Frerichs, Steffen Hanke, Sebastian Steinhaus, Lennart Trösken
Along with the European Union’s objective of further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, manufacturers of agricultural machines want to make their contribution and highlight potential fuel savings. The research project “EKoTech - Efficient fuel use in agricultural technology”, funded by the German Ministry of Agriculture, involves well-known manufacturers and research facilities. The essential objective of this project is to identify savings realized since 1990 and savings potentials until 2030. Further aims are the development of a method and a tool for the evaluation of efficiency measures in process chains and the formulation of recommendations for manufacturers, operators and research facilities. A comprehensive search of fuel consumption and power requirement data of relevant machines and processes provides the database. Additionally typical region-specific operational structures, machine equipment and process chains define model farms.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1921
Ron Borsboom
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities in the truck industry and especially the efforts of DAF Trucks N.V. in improving traffic safety and the environmental impact related to trucks. Proposals regarding legislation, new technologies and the approach to be followed, in order to reach the desired goals, are presented. Various new technologies investigated in DAF Trucks N.V., like platooning are explained, to show the open perspective of the company towards finding solutions and the commitment to invest in this effort. As a significant message this paper wants to convey, is the need for all the stakeholders to work together in an joint effort to achieve the best possible results.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1922
Wolfgang Burget
Highly diversified market needs, non-harmonized regulations and new technological trends in future construction machinery industry will challenge OEMs in defining their appropriate development strategies. Main trends like “efficiency”, “safety/security” as well as “connectivity” are considered as important driving forces in future product - and customer service - developments. Some examples are given for the above mentioned trends. Chances and related risks of such development trends are considered as well.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1934
Takashi Sasaki
In Japan, environmentally-friendly vehicles, such as HV, PHV, EV, and FCV, have been researched and developed as solutions to the energy and environmental problems, but none of these vehicles have been fully satisfactory in all respects, such as environmental performance, vehicle performance, and adaptability to existing infrastructure. Hino Motors, Ltd. launched a hybrid bus in 1992 as a pioneer in hybrid commercial vehicles and has sold more than 10,000 hybrid buses and trucks. An electric-powered minibus designed under the concept of short travel distance and high charging frequency was developed to make use of Hino’s abundant experience in the development of HV and the past market results it has achieved. Since 2012, these buses have operated in three areas as community buses.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1937
Heimo Schreier, Burak Aliefendioglu, Roger Perthen, Jürgen Tochtermann
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1928
David Mumford, Dale Goudie, James Saunders
Globally, many jurisdictions are working toward greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that will take effect in the next decade and require GHG reductions of up to 25% from 2017 legislated levels. While diesel engines will require increasingly complex improvements, high pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas can provide GHG reductions of approximately 20% (75% or more with renewable natural gas / bio-methane) while preserving the same power density, torque and performance as diesel. This paper will provide an overview of the improvements in the Westport™ HPDI 2.0 components as well as performance and emissions results demonstrated to-date. The potential and challenges of higher injection pressures will be explored while also investigating sources of and methods to eliminate methane venting on the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0382
Oscar Hernandez Cervantes, Antonio Espiritu Santo Rincon
Abstract The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics circuit boards, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI) achieved through an open source platform. The purpose of this platform is to have a low cost system that allows further function development, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop and automated tests integrated with PCM data for engine calibration. It is projected to be part of a flexible calibration system with direct communication to the interfaces used during development (ATI, ETAS), which will be used to achieve lean test and development schedules.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0447
Zhe Li, Mike Dong, Dennis Harrigan, Michael Gardner
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Renjie Zhou, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Abstract Downhill mountain roads are the accident prone sections because of their complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to the negligence or the judgment failure. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, having subjecting to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environments. To enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill, this study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and the geographic information. Thus, through which the drivers could obtain the safety speed specified for his/her vehicle in the given downhill terrains and operate in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's judgment failure and avoid the brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0986
Mohd Azman Abas, Shaiful Fadzil Zainal Abidin, Srithar Rajoo, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, Muhammad Izzal Ismail
Abstract Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation are increasingly in use to improve fuel consumption of internal combustion engine in passenger cars. The stop/start technology switches off the engine to whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly-congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia, with tropical climate such as Malaysia, is the constant demand for the air-conditioning system. This inevitably reduces the duration of engine switch-off when the vehicle at stop and consequently nullifying the benefit of the stop/start system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speeds, when the engine is at part load operation only.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0984
Wenran Geng, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Abstract Recently Hybrid Electric Buses (HEBs) have been widely used in China for energy saving and emission reduction. In order to study the real road emission performance of HEBs, the emission tests of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus (DHEB) are evaluated both on chassis dynamometer over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) and on-road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The DHEB is powered by electric motor alone at speed of 0~20km/h. When the speed exceeds 20km/h, engine gets engaged rapidly and then works corporately with the electric motor to drive the bus. For chassis dynamometer test over CCBC, emissions of NOx, particulate number, particulate mass, and THC of the DHEB are 7.68g/km, 5.88E+11#/km, 0.412mg/km, and 0.062g/km, respectively. They have all decreased greatly compared to those of the diesel bus. But the CO emission which is 3.48g/km has increased significantly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0932
Nehemiah S I Alozie, George Fern, David Peirce, Lionel Ganippa
Abstract The use of diesel particulate filter [DPF] has become a standard in modern diesel engine after treatment technology. However pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates and this requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity during operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is needed for design and manufacture of efficient filter traps for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the impact of blending biodiesel on oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection [HSDI] diesel engine, which was operated with 20% [B20] and 40% [B40] blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected from the engine exhaust using a Pall Tissuquartz filter, the oxidation characteristics of the samples were carried out using thermogravimetric analyzer [TGA]. The biodiesel oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel was compared against the fuel blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0933
Yunhua Zhang, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Qian Feng
Abstract Biodiesel as a renewable energy is becoming increasingly attractive due to the growing scarcity of conventional fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the development of after-treatment technologies for the diesel engine brings new insight concerning emissions especially the particulate matter pollutants. In order to study the coupling effects of biodiesel blend and CCRT (Catalyzed Continuously Regeneration Trap) on the particulate matter emissions, the particulate matter emissions from an urban bus with and without CCRT burning BD0 and BD10 respectively was tested and analyzed using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). The operation conditions included steady state conditions and transient conditions. Results showed that the particulate number-size distribution of BD10 and BD0 both had two peaks in nuclei mode and accumulation mode at the conditions of idle, low speed and medium speed while at high speed condition the particulate number-size distribution only had one peak.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0928
Osama M. Ibrahim
Abstract Diesel oxidation catalysts with ultra-low NO2 emissions have been developed based on palladium-tungsten (Pd-W). The catalysts are supported by aluminum-yttrium oxides (Al2O3-Y2O3) nano-washcoat on sintered metal fibers. Elemental composition analysis was performed using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to quantify the distribution of the Al2O3-Y2O3 nano-washcoats and Pd-W catalysts on the surface of the metal fibers. Initially, emissions measurements were conducted to evaluate the performance of Pd-W catalysts using small coated samples of sintered metal fibers. The results show that the catalysts selectively oxidize CO into CO2 and reduce NO2 into NO, resulting in over 90% reduction in CO emissions and up to 85% reduction in NO2 emissions. Scale-up of an Active Diesel Particulate Filter (ADPF) was then tested on a Cummins 5.9L ISB diesel engine using the US-FTP transient test cycle and the ISO 8178 8-mode test cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0778
Vishnu Vijayakumar, P. Sakthivel, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Amardeep Singh, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract In the light of major research work carried out on the detrimental health impacts of ultrafine particles (<50 nm), Euro VI emission standards incorporate a limit on particle number, of which ultrafine particles is the dominant contributor. As Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper and cleaner fuel when compared to diesel, there has been a steady increase in the number of CNG vehicles on road especially in the heavy duty segment. Off late, there has been much focus on the nature of particle emissions emanating from CNG engines as these particles mainly fall under the ultrafine particle size range. The combustion of lubricant is considered to be the dominant source of particle emissions from CNG engines. Particle emission due to lubricant is affected by the oil transport mechanisms into the combustion chamber which in turn vary with engine operating conditions as well as with the physico chemical properties of the lubricant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0875
Valentin Soloiu, Jose Moncada, Martin Muinos, Aliyah Knowles, Remi Gaubert, Thomas Beyerl, Gustavo Molina
Abstract This paper investigates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with Bu25, 75% ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) blended with 25% n-butanol by mass. N-butanol, derivable from biomass feedstock, was used given its availability as an alternative fuel that can supplement the existing limited fossil fuel supply. Combustion and emissions were investigated at 2000 rpm across loads of 4.3-7.2 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Cylinder pressure was collected using Kistler piezoelectric transducers in the precombustion (PC) and main combustion (MC) chambers. Ignition delays ranged from 0.74 - 1.02 ms for both operated fuels. Even though n-butanol has a lower cetane number, the high swirl in the separate combustion chamber would help advance its premixed combustion. The heat release rate of Bu25 became initially 3 J/crank-angle-degree (CAD) higher than that of ULSD#2 as load increased to 7.2 bar IMEP.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 22071