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Viewing 181 to 210 of 21945
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0584
Haksu Kim, Jaewook Shin, Myoungho Sunwoo
Abstract With fuel efficiency becoming an increasingly critical aspect of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, the necessity for research on efficient generation of electric energy has been growing. An energy management (EM) system controls the generation of electric energy using an alternator. This paper presents a strategy for the EM using a control mode switch (CMS) of the alternator for the (ICE) vehicles. This EM recovers the vehicle’s residual kinetic energy to improve the fuel efficiency. The residual kinetic energy occurs when a driver manipulates a vehicle to decelerate. The residual energy is commonly wasted as heat energy of the brake. In such circumstances, the wasted energy can be converted to electric energy by operating an alternator. This conversion can reduce additional fuel consumption. For extended application of the energy conversion, the future duration time of the residual power is exploited.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0540
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance. In a second stage, the considered engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, includes user defined procedures for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. Computed results are compared with collected data for all the considered operating conditions, in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles, burn rate profiles, and knock propensity, as well.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0535
Chih-Kuang Kuan, Daniel Styles, Mitchell Bieniek, John Hoard
Abstract Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0531
Rani Kiwan, Anna Stefanopoulou, Jason Martz, Gopichandra Surnilla, Imtiaz Ali, Daniel Styles
Abstract Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) promises fuel economy benefits at high loads in turbocharged SI engines as it allows better combustion phasing and reduces the need for fuel enrichment. Precise estimation and control of in-cylinder EGR concentration is crucial to avoiding misfire. Unfortunately, EGR flow rate estimation using an orifice model based on the EGR valve ΔP measurement can be challenging given pressure pulsations, flow reversal and the inherently low pressure differentials across the EGR valve. Using a GT-Power model of a 1.6 L GDI turbocharged engine with LP-EGR, this study investigates the effects of the ΔP sensor gauge-line lengths and measurement noise on LP-EGR estimation accuracy. Gauge-lines can be necessary to protect the ΔP sensor from high exhaust temperatures, but unfortunately can produce acoustic resonance and distort the ΔP signal measured by the sensor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0524
Lei Liang, Huaqi Ge, Haiwen Ge, Peng Zhao
Abstract The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is an upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.0 < ϕ < 2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane, as the representative component for gasoline.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Opposed-Piston Engine (OP Engine) has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results are presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder two-stroke OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 55% brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying emission targets for tail pipe emissions. The two-stroke OP Engines are inherently more cost effective due to less engine parts. The OP Engine architecture presented in this paper can meet this performance without the use of waste heat recovery systems or turbo-compounding and hence is the most cost effective technology to deliver this level of fuel efficiency.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0643
Thompson Lanzanova, Macklini Dalla Nora, Hua Zhao
Abstract The more strict CO2 emission legislation for internal combustion engines demands higher spark ignition (SI)engine efficiencies. The use of renewable fuels, such as bioethanol, may play a vital role to reduce not only CO2 emissions but also petroleum dependency. An option to increase SI four stroke engine efficiency is to use the so called over-expanded cycle concepts by variation of the valve events. The use of an early or late intake valve closure reduces pumping losses (the main cause of the low part load efficiency in SI engines) but decreases the effective compression ratio. The higher expansion to compression ratio leads to better use of the produced work and also increases engine efficiency. This paper investigates the effects of early and late intake valve closure strategies in the gas exchange process, combustion, emissions and engine efficiency at unthrottled stoichiometric operation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0644
Michael Pontoppidan, Adm José baeta
Abstract In a torch ignition engine system the combustion starts in a prechamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main combustion chamber. The paper presents the layout of the prototype engine and the developed fuel injection system. It continues with a detailed description of the performance of the torch ignition engine running on a gasoline/ethanol blend for different mixture stratification levels as well as engine speeds and loads. Also detailed analyses of specific fuel consumption, thermal and combustion efficiency, specific emissions of CO2 and the main combustion parameters are carried out. A supplementary decrease in NOX emissions was obtained by use of Brazilian pure hydrated fuel. The paper concludes presenting the main results obtained in this work, which show significant increase of the torch ignition engine performance in comparison with the commercial baseline engine.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0647
Bradley Denton, Christopher Chadwell, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger
Abstract The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0648
Dennis Robertson, Christopher Chadwell, Terrence Alger, Jacob Zuehl, Raphael Gukelberger, Bradley Denton, Ian Smith
Abstract Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is an EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders are run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit and just outside the Tier 3 Bin 30 limit (30 mg/mile).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0636
Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Nhut Lam, Arne Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0645
Jeremy Galpin, Thierry Colliou, Olivier Laget, Fabien Rabeau, Gaetano De Paola, Pascal Rahir
Abstract In spite of the increasingly stringent emission standards, the constant growth of road traffic contributes to climate change and induces detrimental effects on the environment. The European REWARD project (REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines) aims to develop a new generation of Diesel engines complying with stricter post Euro 6 legislation and with lower CO2 emissions. Among the different technologies developed, a fuel-efficient two-stroke Diesel engine suited for C-segment passenger cars will be designed and experimentally evaluated. One major challenge for two-stroke engines is the achievement of an efficient scavenging. As the emptying of the in-cylinder burnt gases and the filling by fresh gases is performed at the same time, the challenge consists in removing as much burnt gases as possible while avoiding the by-pass of fresh air toward the exhaust line.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Abstract Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0704
Noriyuki Takada, Takeshi Hashizume, Terutoshi Tomoda, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Kiyomi Kawamura
Abstract Generally, soot emissions increase in diesel engines with smaller bore sizes due to larger spray impingement on the cavity wall at a constant specific output power. The objective of this study is to clarify the constraints for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. The first report applied the geometrical similarity concept to two engines with different bore sizes and similar piston cavity shapes. The smaller engine emitted more smoke because air entrainment decreases due to the narrower spray angle. A new spray design method called spray characteristics similarity was proposed to suppress soot emissions. However, a smaller nozzle diameter and a larger number of nozzle holes are required to maintain the same spray characteristics (such as specific air-entrainment and penetration) when the bore size decreases.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0691
Louis-Marie Malbec, Julian Kashdan
Abstract Previous experimental data obtained in constant volume combustion vessels have shown that soot-free diffusive flames can be achieved in a Diesel spray if the equivalence ratio at the flame lift-off location is below 2. The so-called Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy is a promising approach to limit the levels of in-cylinder soot produced in Diesel engines. However, implementing such strategies in light-duty engines is not straightforward due to the effects of charge confinement , non-steady boundary conditions and spray-spray interactions compared to the simplified configuration of a free-jet in a constant-volume combustion vessel. The present study aims at trying to gain a better understanding of the requirements in terms of injector and engine settings in order to reach the LLFC regime in a light-duty engine. Experiments were performed on a 0.5L single-cylinder optical engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Abstract The CO2 advantage coupled with the low NOX and PM potential of natural gas (NG) makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, because NG is mostly methane, reduced combustion efficiency associated with traditional NG fueling strategies can result in significant levels of methane emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to reduced efficiency and the high global warming potential of methane. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was found to improve thermal and combustion efficiencies over fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
Abstract High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0938
Gillis Hommen, Frank Kupper, Xander Seykens
Abstract This article describes a NOx sensor based urea dosing control strategy for heavy-duty diesel aftertreatment systems using Selective Catalytic Reduction. The dosing control strategy comprises of a fast-response, model-based ammonia storage control system in combination with a long-timescale tailpipe-feedback module that adjusts the dosing quantity according to current aftertreatment conditions. This results in a control system that is robust to system disturbances such as biased NOx sensors and variations in AdBlue concentrations. The cross-sensitivity of the tailpipe NOx sensor to ammonia is handled by a novel, smart signal filter that can reliably identify the contributions of NOx and NH3 in the tailpipe sensor signal, without requiring an artificial perturbation of the dosing signal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran Zhang
Abstract The paper provides an overview of a developed methodology and a toolchain for modeling and control of a complex aftertreatment system for passenger cars. The primary objective of this work is to show how the use of this methodology allows to streamline the development process and to reduce the development time thanks to a model based semi-automatic control design methodology combined with piece-wise optimal control. Major improvements in passenger car tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts with an Ammonia Oxidation Catalysts, known also as Ammonia Clean-Up Catalyst (CUC), are proposed to cover operation over a wide temperature range. However, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to lack of available sensors in the production configurations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0942
Joseph R. Theis, Christine Lambert
Abstract Model low temperature NOx adsorbers (LTNA) consisting of Pd on a ceria/zirconia washcoat on monoliths were evaluated for low temperature NOx storage under lean conditions to assess their potential for adsorbing the cold-start NOx emissions on a diesel engine during the period before the urea/SCR system becomes operational. A reactor-based transient test was performed with and without C2H4, CO/H2, and H2O to assess the effects of these species on the NOx storage performance. In the absence of C2H4 or CO/H2, H2O severely suppressed the NOx storage of these model LTNAs at temperatures below 100°C, presumably by blocking the storage sites. When C2H4 was included in the feedgas, H2O still suppressed the NOx storage below 100°C. However, the C2H4 significantly increased the NOx storage efficiency above 100°C, attributable to the formation of alkyl nitrites or alkyl nitrates on the catalyst.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0939
Ashok Kumar, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Copper- and Iron- based metal-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel aftertreatment systems to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emission. These catalysts are highly selective to N2 under wide range of operating conditions. Nevertheless, the type of transition metal has a significant impact on the key performance and durability parameters such as NOx conversion, selectivity towards N2O, hydrothermal stability, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur content. In this study, we explained the differences in the performance characteristics of these catalysts based on their relative acidic-basic nature of transition metal present in these catalysts using practically relevant gas species present in diesel exhaust such as NO2, SOx, and NH3. These experiments show that Fe-zeolite has relatively acidic nature as compared to Cu-zeolite that causes NH3 inhibition and hence explains low NOx conversion on Fe-zeolite at low temperature under standard SCR conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0946
Nathan Ottinger, Yuanzhou Xi, Christopher Keturakis, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Low-temperature (T ≤ 200°C) NOx conversion is receiving increasing research attention due to continued potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium nitrate, ammonium (bi)sulfate, etc.) can form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NOx or SOx, respectively. The formation of these salts can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion, block active catalyst sites, and result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the effect of hydrothermal aging on the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize the effect of hydrothermal aging from 600 to 950°C.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0947
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Leonidas Chasapidis, Danis Deloglou, Nickolas Vlachos, Adam Kotrba, Ginette Anderson
Abstract Evolving marine diesel emission regulations drive significant reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. There is, therefore, considerable interest to develop and validate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) converters for marine diesel NOx emission control. Substrates in marine applications need to be robust to survive the high sulfur content of marine fuels and must offer cost and pressure drop benefits. In principle, extruded honeycomb substrates of higher cell density offer benefits on system volume and provide increased catalyst area (in direct trade-off with increased pressure drop). However higher cell densities may become more easily plugged by deposition of soot and/or sulfate particulates, on the inlet face of the monolithic converter, as well as on the channel walls and catalyst coating, eventually leading to unacceptable flow restriction or suppression of catalytic function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0966
Jana Aslanjan, Christian Klauer, Cathleen Perlman, Vivien Günther, Fabian Mauss
Abstract The three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is the most common catalyst for gasoline engine exhaust gas after treatment. The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) is achieved via oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduction of nitrogen oxides. These conversion effects were simulated in previous works using single-channel approaches and detailed kinetic models. In addition to the single-channel model multiple representative catalyst channels are used in this work to take heat transfer between the channels into account. Furthermore, inlet temperature distribution is considered. Each channel is split into a user given number of cells and each cell is treated like a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). The simulation is validated against an experimental four-stroke engine setup with emission outputs fed into a TWC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0968
Anand Srinivasan, Saurabh Joshi, Yadan Tang, Di Wang, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR catalyst can store and subsequently release significant amount of H2O. The process is accompanied by large heat effects. It is critical to model this phenomenon to design aftertreatment systems and to provide robust tuning strategies to meet cold start emissions and low temperature operation. The complex reaction mechanism of water adsorption and desorption over a Cu-exchanged SAPO-34 catalyst at low temperature was studied through steady state and transient experiments. Steady state isotherms were generated using a gravimetric method and then utilized to predict water storage interactions with respect to feed concentration and catalyst temperature. Transient temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments provided the kinetic information required to develop a global kinetic model from the experimental data. The model captures fundamental characteristics of water adsorption and desorption accompanied by the heat effects.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0970
Johann C. Wurzenberger, Christoph Triebl, Susanne Kutschi, Christoph Poetsch
The present work describes an existing transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D particulate filter model to capture the impact of different types of particulate matter (PM) on filtration and regeneration. PM classes of arbitrary characteristics (size, composition etc.) are transported and filtered following standard mechanisms. PM deposit populations of arbitrary composition and contact states are used to describe regeneration on a micro-kinetical level. The transport class and deposit population are linked by introducing a splitting deposit matrix. Filtration and regeneration modes are compared to experimental data from literature and a brief numerical assessment on the filtration model is performed. The filter model as part of an exhaust line is used in a concept study on different coating variants. The same exhaust line model is connected to an engine thermodynamic and vehicle model. This system model is run through a random drive cycle in office simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0971
Uladzimir Budziankou, Thomas Lauer, Xuehai Yu, Brian M Schmidt, Nam Cho
Experimental studies have shown that knitted wiremesh mixers reduce the formation of solid deposits and improve ammonia homogenization in automotive SCR systems. However, their implementation in CFD models remains a major challenge due to the complex WM geometry. It was the aim of the current study to investigate droplet WM interaction. Essential processes, such as secondary droplet generation, wall film formation, and heat exchange, were analyzed in detail and a numerical model was set up. A box with heat resisting glass was used to study urea-water solution spray impingement on a WM under a wide range of operating conditions. High speed videography was used to identify the impingement regimes. Infrared thermography was applied to investigate WM cooling. In order to determine the impact of the WM on the spray characteristics, the droplet spectrum was measured both upstream and downstream of the WM using the laser diffraction method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0953
Jinyong Luo, Yadan Tang, Saurabh Joshi, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 21945