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Viewing 121 to 150 of 22048
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Abstract 1 Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOX emissions would allow to eliminate the NOX sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric oxide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbulence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0125
Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Jessica Settino, Teresa Castiglione, Sergio Bova
Abstract The aim of the present work is to analyse and compare the energetic performances and the emissions conversion capability of active and passive aftertreatment systems for lean burn engines. To this purpose, a computational one-dimensional transient model has been developed and validated. The code permits to assess the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas, to evaluate the conversion of the main engine pollutants, and to estimate the energy effectiveness. The response of the systems to variations in engine operating conditions have been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis highlighted that the active flow control tends to increase the thermal inertia of the apparatus and then it appears more suitable to maintain higher temperature level and to guarantee higher pollutants conversion at low engine loads after long full load operation.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0131
Sergio Mario Camporeale, Patrizia D. Ciliberti, Antonio Carlucci, Daniela Ingrosso
Abstract The incoming RDE regulation and the on-board diagnostics -OBD- pushes the research activity towards the set-up of a more and more efficient after treatment system. Nowadays, the most common after treatment system for NOx reduction is the selective catalytic reduction -SCR- . This system requires as an input the value of engine out NOx emission -raw- in order to control the Urea dosing strategy. In this work, an already existing grey box NOx raw emission model based on in-cylinder pressure signal (ICPS) is validated on two standard cycles: MNEDC and WLTC using an EU6 engine at the test bench. The overall results show a maximum relative error of the integrated cumulative value of 12.8% and 17.4% for MNEDC and WLTC respectively. In particular, the instantaneous value of relative error is included in the range of ± 10% in the steady state conditions while during transient conditions is less than 20% mainly.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0136
Kurtis James Irwin, Roy Douglas, Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker, Andrew Woods
Abstract With emission legislations becoming ever more stringent there is an increased pressure on the after-treatment systems, and more specifically the three-way catalysts. With recent developments in emission legislations, there is requirement for more complex after-treatment systems and understanding of the aging process. With future legislation introducing independent inspection of emissions at any time under real world driving conditions throughout a vehicle life cycle this is going to increase the focus on understanding catalyst behavior during any likely conditions throughout its lifetime and not just at the beginning and end. In recent years it has become a popular approach to use accelerated aging of the automotive catalysts for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of new vehicle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
Abstract During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions like soot - the main fraction of particular matter (PM) - which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controlled. While Diesel particulate filters are normally able to block them, preventing their occurrence would of course be more important. In order to achieve this goal, however, they must be measurable. While for most emissions commercial sensors of sufficient speed and performance are available, the same is not true for PMs, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years the possible use of a full stream 50Hz sensor based on Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) was investigated, and the results were very encouraging, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like the AVL Opacimeter) but confirmed by the analysis of combustion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0141
Riccardo Amirante, Elia Distaso, Silvana Di Iorio, Davide Pettinicchio, Paolo Sementa, Paolo Tamburrano, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of soot emissions in Spark-Ignition SI engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions. This because the common thought is that particulate emerging from the engine derives mainly from fuel, otherwise the contribute of lubricant oil cannot be neglected or underestimated, especially when the fuel itself produces low levels of soot emissions, such as in the case of premixed natural gas. The fuel-derived contribution was studied by analyzing the influence that natural gas composition has on soot emitted from a single cylinder Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this purpose, methane/propane mixtures were realized and injected into the intake manifold of a Single-Cylinder SI engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0138
Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione
Abstract In the context of a transport sustainability, some solutions could be proposed from the integration of many disciplines, architects, environmentalists, policy makers, and consequently it may be addressed with different approaches. These solutions would be applied at different geographical levels, i.e. national, regional or urban scale. Moreover, the assessment of cars emissions in real use plays a fundamental role for their reductions. This is also the direction of the new harmonized test procedures (WLTP). Furthermore, it is fundamental to keep in mind that the new WLTC cycle will reproduce a situation closer to the reality comparing to the EUDC/NEDC driving cycle. In this paper, we will be focused on vehicle kinematic evaluation aimed at valuation of traffic situation and emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0163
Apostolos Pesiridis, Angelo Saccomanno, Raffaele Tuccillo, Alfredo Capobianco
Abstract The modern automotive industry is under strict regulations to reduce emissions to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the main methods to achieve this goal is the application of engine downsizing. Turbocharging is a cost-effective method of downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining prior performance outputs. For these reasons, the turbocharging is becoming the most widely adopted technology in the automotive markets. In 2012, 32% of passenger and commercial vehicles sold had a turbocharger installed, and is predicted to be 40% of 2017 [1]. Even if the engine turbocharging is a widespread technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0120
Matthew Keenan
Abstract The earliest public domain reference regarding full engine testing of an automotive catalyst was from January 1959, written by GM and presented at the annual SAE meeting in Detroit. This current publication will review the first public domain paper referencing different aftertreatment technologies (such as TWC, LNT, DPF and SCR, but not limited to these technologies) and compare the technologies to the current state of the art in aftertreatment technology. This historical review using a range of databases, will show how exhaust aftertreatment technologies have significantly enhanced emissions control over the last 60 years for both gasoline and diesel applications. A timeline will be given showing when various technologies were first presented into the public domain. This will indicate how long it has taken certain emissions control technologies to enter the market.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0127
Lauretta Rubino, Dominic Thier, Torsten Schumann, Stefan Guettler, Gerald Russ
Abstract With the increased use of engines utilizing direct fuel injection and the upcoming introduction of more stringent emissions legislation that regulates not only particulate mass (PM) but also particulate number (PN), the emissions from Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines (DISI) are an increasing concern. Gasoline Particle Filters (GPF) represent a potential way to reduce particle number emissions from DISI engines and are particularly effective considering the tough performance requirements during cold start and over RDE operation. Even though some learning from the development and application of particulate filters to diesel engines can be transferred to gasoline engines, the particle composition, mass to number ratio as well as the exhaust gas temperature and composition from gasoline engines are significantly different to diesel engines. Therefore, there is the need to study the application of particulate filters to gasoline engines in more depth.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0033
Priyanka Dnyaneshwar Jadhav, J M Mallikarjuna
Abstract Future stringent emission norms are impelling researchers to look for new emission control techniques. Today, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are becoming more popular because of high potential to reduce exhaust emissions over a wide operating load range, unlike conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Also, turbocharged GDI engines allow engine downsizing with a certain restriction on compression ratio (CR) due to knocking tendency, thereby limiting the fuel economy. However, use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) delays combustion and lowers the knocking tendency which will aid in improving the fuel economy. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the effect of EGR rate on the performance and emission characteristics of a two-liter turbocharged four-stroke GDI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. For the analysis, the CR of 9.3 and the engine speed of 1000 rev/min., are selected.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0070
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Nicolò Salamone, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0018
Nikiforos Zacharof, Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Dimitrios Savvidis, Oscar Delgado, J. Felipe Rodriguez
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0052
Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo, Andrea Businaro, Alessandro Brusa, Enrico Corti, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract This paper presents simulation and experimental results of the effects of intake water injection on the main combustion parameters of a turbo-charged, direct injection spark ignition engine. Water injection is more and more considered as a viable technology to further increase specific output power of modern spark ignition engines, enabling extreme downsizing concepts and the associated efficiency increase benefits. The paper initially presents the main results of a one-dimensional simulation analysis carried out to highlight the key parameters (injection position, water-to-fuel ratio and water temperature) and their effects on combustion (in-cylinder and exhaust temperature reduction and knock tendency suppression). The main results of such study have then been used to design and conduct preliminary experimental tests on a prototype direct-injection, turbocharged spark ignition engine, modified to incorporate a new multi-point water injection system in the intake runners.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0051
Ferdinando Taglialatela, Mario Lavorgna, Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In order to meet the increasingly strict emission regulations, several solutions for NOx and PM emissions reduction have been studied. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology has become one of the more used methods to accomplish the NOx emissions reduction. However, actual control strategies do not consider, in the definition of optimal EGR, its effect on particle size and density. These latter have a great importance both for the optimal functioning of after-treatment systems, but also for the adverse effects that small particles have on human health. Epidemiological studies, in fact, highlighted that the toxicity of particulate particles increases as the particle size decreases. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of exhaust particles emitted by a Diesel engine.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0057
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0100
Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Antonio Zivolic, Clemens Brueckner, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Cycle-to-cycle variations in internal combustion engines are known to lead to limitations in engine load and efficiency, as well as increases in emissions. Recent research has led to the identification of the source of cyclic variations of pressure, soot and NO emissions in direct injection common rail diesel engines, when employing a single block injection and operating under long ignition delay conditions. The variations in peak pressure arise from changes in the diffusion combustion rate, caused by randomly occurring in-cylinder pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations result from the excitation of the first radial mode of vibration of the cylinder gases which arises from the rapid premixed combustion after the long ignition delay period. Cycles with high-intensity fluctuations present faster diffusion combustion, resulting in higher cycle peak pressure, as well as higher measured exhaust NO concentrations.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0109
Nic Van Vuuren, Lucio Postrioti, Gabriele Brizi, Federico Picchiotti
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are virtually indispensable to meet NOx emissions limits worldwide. These systems generate the NH3 reductant by injecting aqueous urea solution (AUS-32/AdBlue®/DEF) into the exhaust for the SCR NOx reduction reactions. Understanding the AUS-32 injector spray performance is critical to proper optimization of the SCR system. Specifically, better knowledge is required of urea sprays under operating conditions including those where fluid temperatures exceed the atmospheric fluid boiling point. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray which showed substantial structural differences in the spray between room temperature fluid conditions, and conditions where the fluid temperature approached and exceeded 104° C and “flash boiling” of the fluid was initiated.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0149
Fabian Hoppe, Matthias Thewes, Joerg Seibel, Andreas Balazs, Johannes Scharf
Abstract Gasoline engine powertrain development for 2025 and beyond is focusing on finding cost optimal solutions by balancing electrification and combustion engine efficiency measures. Besides Miller cycle application, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and variable compression ratio, the injection of water has recently gained increased attention as a promising technology for significant CO2 reduction. This paper gives deep insight into the fuel consumption reduction potential of direct water injection. Single cylinder investigations were performed in order to investigate the influence of water injection in the entire engine map. In addition, different engine configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the altering compression ratios and Miller timings on the fuel consumption reduction potential with water injection.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0062
Cinzia Tornatore, Daniela Siano, Luca Marchitto, Arturo Iacobacci, Gerardo Valentino, Fabio Bozza
Abstract Knock occurrence and fuel enrichment, which is required at high engine speed and load to limit the turbine inlet temperature, are the major obstacles to further increase performance and efficiency of down-sized turbocharged spark ignited engines. A technique that has the potential to overcome these restrictions is based on the injection of a precise amount of water within the mixture charge that can allow to achieve important benefits on knock mitigation, engine efficiency, gaseous and noise emissions. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to demonstrate that water injection (WI) could be a reliable solution to advance the spark timing and make the engine run at leaner mixture ratios with strong benefits on knock tendency and important improvement on fuel efficiency.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0061
James P. Szybist, Scott W. Wagnon, Derek Splitter, William J. Pitz, Marco Mehl
Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0067
Yoshiaki Toyama, Nozomi Takahata, Katsufumi Kondo, Tetsuya Aizawa
Abstract In order to better understand in-flame diesel soot oxidation processes, soot particles at the oxidation-dominant periphery of diesel spray flame were sampled by a newly developed “suck” type soot sampler employing a high-speed solenoid valve and their morphology and nanostructure were observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). A single-shot diesel spray flame for the soot sampling experiment was achieved in a constant-volume vessel under a diesel-like condition. The sampler instantaneously sucks out a small portion of soot laden gases from the flame. A TEM grid holds inside the flow passage close to its entrance is immediately exposed to the gas flow induced by the suction at the upstream of the solenoid valve, so that the quick thermophoretic soot deposition onto the grid surface can effectively freeze morphology variation of soot particles during the sampling processes.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0077
Matteo Pelucchi, Mattia Bissoli, Cristina Rizzo, Yingjia Zhang, Kieran Somers, Alessio Frassoldati, Henry Curran, Tiziano Faravelli
Abstract Pursuing a sustainable energy scenario for transportation requires the blending of renewable oxygenated fuels such as alcohols into commercial hydrocarbon fuels. From a chemical kinetic perspective, this requires the accurate description of both hydrocarbon reference fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, etc.) and oxygenated fuels chemistry. A recent systematic investigation of linear C2-C5 alcohols ignition in a rapid compression machine at p = 10-30 bar and T = 650- 900 K has extended the scarcity of fundamental data at such conditions, allowing for a revision of the low temperature chemistry for alcohol fuels in the POLIMI mechanism. Heavier alcohols such as n-butanol and n-pentanol present ignition characteristic of interest for application in HCCI engines, due to the presence of the hydroxyl moiety reducing their low temperature reactivity compared to the parent linear alkanes (i.e. higher octane number).
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0085
Jesus Benajes, Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Vicente Boronat
Abstract This work investigates the particulates size distribution of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, a dual-fuel concept which combines the port fuel injection of low-reactive/gasoline-like fuels with direct injection of highly reactive/diesel-like fuels. The particulates size distributions from 5-250 nm were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer at six engine speeds, from 950 to 2200 rpm, and 25% engine load. The same procedure was followed for conventional diesel combustion. The study was performed in a single-cylinder engine derived from a stock medium-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine of 15.3:1 compression ratio. The combustion strategy proposed during the tests campaign was limited to accomplish both mechanical and emissions constraints. The results confirms that reactivity controlled compression ignition promotes ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions in the points tested.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0179
Marco Tonetti, Giorgio Rustici, Massimo Buscema, Luca Ferraris
Abstract Final Euro6d emission legislation with the new homologation cycle and Real Driving Emission requirements has set a strong challenge for the ICE Passenger Car applications. Thanks to their well-known low fuel consumption characteristics, Diesel Engines can play a key role for the fulfillment of the European 2020 CO2 fleet target but need to confirm their capability to fully control noxious emissions even in extreme operating conditions, while restraining the overall engine costs and complexity. CO2 and NOx emissions reduction are considered the main drivers for diesel engine evolution. In this perspective, Exhaust Gas After-treatment and Combustion System have been identified as the two main technology aspects to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution paths of these two technologies and the results achieved so far in terms of noxious emissions reduction.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0139
Francesco Barba, Alberto Vassallo, Vincenzo Greco
Abstract The aim of the present study is to improve the effectiveness of automotive diesel engine and aftertreatment calibration process through the critical evaluation of several methodologies to estimate the soot mass flow produced by diesel engines fueled by petroleum fuels and filtered by Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). In particular, its focus has been the development of a reliable simulation method for the accurate prediction of the engine-out soot mass flow starting from Filter Smoke Number (FSN) measurements executed in steady state conditions, in order to predict the DPF loading considering different engine working conditions corresponding to NEDC and WLTP cycles. In order to achieve this goal, the study was split into two main parts: Correlation between ‘wet PM’ (measured by soot filter weighing) and the ‘dry soot’ (measured by the Micro Soot Sensor MSS).
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0140
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte, Luis Sousa
Abstract Due to the need to properly quantify vehicle emissions in real world operation, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures will be used for measuring gaseous emissions on new EURO 6 vehicles.at the RDE 1 & 2: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles. Updated regulations have been enhanced to define RDE tests boundaries and data analysis procedures, in order to provide an accurate way to obtain representative results. The boundary conditions defined for vehicle testing include external atmospheric temperature, which can range from 0°C to around 30°C, for moderate conditions and -7°C up to 35°C for extended conditions in RDE tests. As a result of this range of possible test ambient temperature, pollutant emissions and energy consumption can vary considerably.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0118
Marius Zubel, Stefan Pischinger, Benedikt Heuser
Abstract Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0135
Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6(b), in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively; the PN limit is set to be 6×1011 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well. In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 22048