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Viewing 271 to 300 of 22026
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Abstract The CO2 advantage coupled with the low NOX and PM potential of natural gas (NG) makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, because NG is mostly methane, reduced combustion efficiency associated with traditional NG fueling strategies can result in significant levels of methane emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to reduced efficiency and the high global warming potential of methane. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was found to improve thermal and combustion efficiencies over fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Abstract Over half of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. To analyze the potential impact of cross-sector cooperation in reducing these emissions, we formulate a bi-level optimization model where the transportation sector can purchase renewable energy certificates (REC) from the electricity generation sector. These RECs are used to offset emissions from transportation in lieu of deploying high-cost fuel efficient technologies. The electricity generation sector creates RECs by producing additional energy from renewable sources. This additional renewable capacity is financed by the transportation sector and it does not impose additional cost on the electricity generation sector. Our results show that such a REC purchasing regime significantly reduces the cost to society of reducing GHG emissions. Additionally, our results indicate that a REC purchasing policy can create electricity beyond actual demand.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1639
Gerard W. Malaczynski, Gregory Roth
Abstract Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0923
Ed Szczepanski, Akinori Koda, Daniel Sweeney, Nick Polcyn, Mitsunori Ota
Tightening global emissions standards are driving automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer’s (OEM’s) to utilize Three Way Catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment systems that can perform with greater efficiency and greater measured control of Precious Group Metals (PGM) use. At the same time, TWC aftertreatment systems minimize exhaust system pressure drops. This study will determine the influence of catalyst substrate cell geometry on emission and PGM usage. Additionally, a study of lightoff and backpressure comparisons will be conducted. The two substrate configurations used are hex/750cpsi and square/750cpsi.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0683
Michael Fischer, Philipp Kreutziger, Yong Sun, Adam Kotrba
Abstract External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Abstract Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1009
Yajun Wang, Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Xiuxiu Sun, Hanzhengnan Yu, Xikai Liu
In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0929
Satoru Inoda, Yasutaka Nomura, Hirotaka Ori, Yuji Yabuzaki
Abstract In the near future, particulate number (PN) regulations, including the Euro 6 regulations, will be going into effective and becoming more stringent around the world targeted at gasoline engine vehicles. There is a type of particulate filter that has used for diesel engine vehicles, as a means to satisfy PN regulations. There are two types of particulate filters. One is a “bare” or “adding-type” GPF that is uncoated with catalyst, and the other is a replaceable-type GPF that is coated with catalyst. The replaceable-type GPF (coated GPF) has advantages in terms of cost-performance, installation space, and lower level of pressure drop, compared to the uncoated GPF. The three main functions required for a coated GPF are, an improvement of three-way catalytic performance, lowering of pressure drop, and PN filtration efficiency improvement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor, Allen Aradi
Abstract The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0604
Christian Friedrich, Yves Compera, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima, Hideki Tanaka, Takeo Fukuda, Yoshimi Nakasato, Wataru Noguchi, Yoshikazu Katsumasa, Tomohisa Aruga
Abstract The use of electric vehicles (EV) is becoming more widespread as a response to global warming. The major issues associated with EV are the annoyance represented by charging the vehicles and their limited cruising range. In an attempt to remove the restrictions on the cruising range of EV, the research discussed in this paper developed a dynamic charging EV and low-cost infrastructure that would make it possible for the vehicles to charge by receiving power directly from infrastructure while in motion. Based on considerations of the effect of electromagnetic waves, charging power, and the amount of power able to be supplied by the system, this development focused on a contact-type charging system. The use of a wireless charging system would produce concerns over danger due to the infiltration of foreign matter into the primary and secondary coils and the health effects of leakage flux.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0773
Dan DelVescovo, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf Reitz
Abstract Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0747
John Storey, Samuel Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Raynella Connatser, Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey, Mark Sellnau
Abstract Low temperature combustion engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited by the fuel properties. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON 92 E10) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80 E0), were compared on Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEPg) to medium load conditions (1500 rpm/6 bar and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEPg). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts, between which was located the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet. Samples were taken at engine-out, between the catalysts, and at tailpipe locations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0743
Kukwon Cho, Eric Latimer, Matthew Lorey, David J. Cleary, Mark Sellnau
Abstract Fuel efficiency and emission performance sensitivity to fuel reactivity was examined using Delphi’s second-generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The study was designed to compare a US market gasoline (RON 92 E10) to a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) at four operating conditions ranging from light load of 800 rpm / 2.0 bar gross indicated-mean-effective pressure (IMEPg) to medium load of 2000 rpm / 10.0 bar IMEPg. The experimental assessment indicated that both gasolines could achieve good performance and Tier 3 emission targets at each of the four operating conditions. Relative to the RON 92 E10 gasoline, better fuel consumption and engine-out emissions performance was achieved when using RON 80 gasoline; consistent with our previously reported single-cylinder engine research [1].
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0909
Zhe Zhang, Mats Abom, Hans Boden, Mikael Karlsson, David Katoshevski
Abstract Air pollution caused by exhaust particulate matter (PM) from vehicular traffic is a major health issue. Increasingly strict regulations of vehicle emission have been introduced and efforts have been put on both the suppression of particulate formation inside the engine cylinders and the development of after-treatment technologies such as filters. With modern direct injected engines that produce a large number of really small sub-micron particles, the focus has increased even further and now also includes a number count. The problem of calculating particle trajectories in flow ducts like vehicle exhaust systems is challenging but important to further improve the technology. The interaction between particles and oscillating flows may lead to the formation of particle groups (regions where the particle concentration is increased), yielding a possibility of realizing particle agglomeration.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0910
Michiel Makkee, Yixiao Wang
Abstract We studied the mechanism of NO reduction as well as its selectivity and reactivity in the presence of excess O2. Results show that fuel injection and/or pretreatment are important for ceria catalyst reduction and carbon deposition on the catalyst surface. Oxygen defects of reduced ceria are the key sites for the reduction of NO into N2. The deposited carbon acts as a buffer reductant, i.e., the oxidation of carbon by lattice oxygen recreates oxygen defects to extend the NO reduction time interval. A small amount of NO showed a full conversion into only N2 both on the reduced Zr-La doped ceria and reduced Pt-Zr-La doped ceria. Only when the catalyst is oxidised NO is converted into NO2.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0795
Changhoon Oh, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine particulate emission sources are assessed under cold start conditions: the fast idle and speed/load combinations representative of the 1st acceleration in the US FTP. The focus is on the accumulation mode particle number (PN) emission. The sources are non-fuel, combustion of the premixed charge, and liquid fuel film. The non-fuel emissions are measured by operating the engine with premixed methane/air or hydrogen/air. Then the PN level is substantially lower than what is obtained with normal GDI operation; thus non-fuel contribution to PN is small. When operating with stoichiometric premixed gasoline/air, the PN level is comparable to the non-fuel level; thus premixed-stoichiometric mixture combustion does not significantly generate particulates. For fuel rich premixed gasoline/air, PN increases dramatically when lambda is less than 0.7 to 0.8.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0796
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0940
Jesus Emmanuel De Abreu Goes, Louise Olsson, Malin Berggrund, Annika Kristoffersson, Lars Gustafson, Mikael Hicks
Abstract Even though substantial improvements have been made for the lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst in recent years, the durability still remains problematic because of the sulfur poisoning and sintering of the precious metals at high operating temperatures. Hence, commercial LNT catalysts were aged and tested in order to investigate their performance and activity degradation compared to the fresh catalyst, and establish a proper correlation between the aging methods used. The target of this study is to provide useful information for regeneration strategies and optimize the catalyst management for better performance and durability. With this goal in mind, two different aging procedures were implemented in this investigation. A catalyst was vehicle-aged in the vehicle chassis dynamometer for 100000 km, thus exposed to real conditions. Whereas, an accelerated aging method was used by subjecting a fresh LNT catalyst at 800 °C for 24 hours in an oven under controlled conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0939
Ashok Kumar, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Abstract Copper- and Iron- based metal-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel aftertreatment systems to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emission. These catalysts are highly selective to N2 under wide range of operating conditions. Nevertheless, the type of transition metal has a significant impact on the key performance and durability parameters such as NOx conversion, selectivity towards N2O, hydrothermal stability, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur content. In this study, we explained the differences in the performance characteristics of these catalysts based on their relative acidic-basic nature of transition metal present in these catalysts using practically relevant gas species present in diesel exhaust such as NO2, SOx, and NH3. These experiments show that Fe-zeolite has relatively acidic nature as compared to Cu-zeolite that causes NH3 inhibition and hence explains low NOx conversion on Fe-zeolite at low temperature under standard SCR conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0930
Christine K. Lambert, Timothy Chanko, Mark Jagner, Jon Hangas, Xin Liu, James Pakko, Carl Justin Kamp
Abstract To meet future particle mass and particle number standards, gasoline vehicles may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. Soot levels for gasoline engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can potentially cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) during rapid aging cycles and at real time low mileages, and compare the filter performances to both fresh and very high mileage filters. Current rapid aging cycles for gasoline exhaust systems are designed to degrade the three-way catalyst washcoat both hydrothermally and chemically to represent full useful life catalysts. The ash generated during rapid aging was low in quantity although similar in quality to real time ash.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0919
Takeru Yoshida, Hiromasa Suzuki, Yuki Aoki, Naohiro Hayashi, Kenichi Ito
Abstract Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0911
Krishna Chilumukuru, Aniket Gupta, Michael Ruth, Michael Cunningham, Govindarajan Kothandaraman, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Howard Hess
Abstract Future light duty vehicles in the United States are required to be certified on the FTP-75 cycle to meet Tier 3 or LEV III emission standards [1, 2]. The cold phase of this cycle is heavily weighted and mitigation of emissions during this phase is crucial to meet the low tail pipe emission targets [3, 4]. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture and controls to improve Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrocarbon (HC) or Non Methane Organic gases (NMOG) conversion efficiencies at low temperatures is proposed. This includes a passive NOx & HC adsorber, termed the diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalyst, followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst on Filter (SCRF®) and an under-floor Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst (SCR). The system utilizes a gaseous ammonia delivery system capable of dosing at two locations to maximize NOx conversion and minimize parasitic ammonia oxidation and ammonia slip.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 22026