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Viewing 1 to 30 of 21945
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0057
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy
A model-based control of BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed for a Euro VI 3.0L diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The control is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque, exhaust gas temperatures, NOx and soot engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. The chemical energy release has been simulated using the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure was estimated on the basis of a single-zone heat release model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was obtained starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0066
Maria Cristina Cameretti, Roberta De Robbio, Raffaele Tuccillo
The present study deals with the simulation of a Diesel engine fuelled by natural gas/diesel in dual fuel mode to optimize the engine behaviour in terms of performance and emissions. In dual fuel mode, the natural gas is introduced into the engine’s intake system. Near the end of the compression stroke, diesel fuel is injected and ignites, causing the natural gas to burn. The engine itself is virtually unaltered, but for the addition of a gas injection system. The CO2 emissions are considerably reduced because of the lower carbon content of the fuel. Furthermore, potential advantages of dual-fuel engines include diesel-like efficiency and brake mean effective pressure with much lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. In previous papers [1, 2, 3], the authors have presented some CFD results obtained by the KIVA 3V and Fluent codes by varying the diesel/NG ratio and the diesel pilot injection timing at different loads.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0046
Richard Stone, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions. With PLIF, very careful in-situ calibration is needed, and for temperature this can be provided by Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0052
Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo, Andrea Businaro, Alessandro Brusa, Enrico Corti, Matteo De Cesare
The paper presents simulation and experimental results of the effects of intake water injection on the main combustion parameters of a turbo-charged, direct injection spark ignition engine. Water injection is more and more considered as a viable technology to further increase specific output power of modern spark ignition engines, enabling extreme downsizing concepts and the associated efficiency increase benefits. The paper initially presents the main results of a one-dimensional simulation analysis carried out to highlight the key parameters (injection position and phasing, water-to-fuel ratio, water temperature and pressure) and their effects on combustion (in-cylinder and exhaust temperature reduction, knock tendency suppression, …).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0048
Jose V. Pastor, Jose M. Garcia-Oliver, Antonio Garcia, Mattia Pinotti
In the past few years various studies have shown how the application of a highly premixed dual fuel combustion for CI engines leads a strong reduction for both pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. In particular a drastic soot and NOx reduction were achieved. In spite of the most common strategy for dual fueling has been represented by using two different injection systems, various authors are considering the advantages of using a single injection system to directly inject blends in the chamber. In this scenario, a characterization of the behavior of such dual-fuel blend spray became necessary, both in terms of inert and reactive ambient conditions. In this work, a light extinction imaging (LEI) has been performed in order to obtain two-dimensional soot distribution information within a spray flame of different diesel/gasoline commercial fuel blends. All the measurements were conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0051
Ferdinando Taglialatela, Mario Lavorgna, Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Real time estimation of particle size distribution has a great importance for advanced control strategies that can allow diesel engines to comply with future emission standards. Moreover, knowledge of real time particulate size distribution allows the optimization of the functioning of after-treatment systems. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of particulate emissions from a Diesel engine. The model has as inputs some engine parameters such as engine speed, engine load, EGR ratio, etc., and, as output, the particle size distribution. Preliminary results indicated that the model shows, for every engine operating condition, a satisfactory capability of estimating the concentrations of particulate particles with prefixed diameters.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0027
Nearchos Stylianidis, Ulugbek Azimov, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Eiji Tomita
A chemical kinetics and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed to evaluate the combustion of syngas derived from biomass and coke-oven solid feedstock in a micro-pilot ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine under lean conditions. For this analysis, a new reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism was constructed and validated by comparing the ignition delay and laminar flame speed data with those obtained from experiments and other detail chemical kinetics analysis available in the literature. The reaction sensitivity analysis was conducted for ignition delay at elevated pressures in order to identify important chemical reactions that govern the combustion process. We found that HO2+OH=H2O+O2 and H2O2+H=H2+HO2 reactions showed very high sensitivity during high-pressure ignition delay times and had considerable uncertainty.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0022
Alessio Dulbecco, Gregory Font
Diesel engine pollutant emissions legislation is becoming more and more stringent. New driving cycles, including increasingly more severe transient engine operating conditions and low temperature ambient conditions, extend considerably the engine operating domain to be optimized to attain the expected engine performance. Technological innovations, such as high pressure injection systems, EGR loops and intake pressure boosting systems allow significant improvement of engine performance. Nevertheless, because of the high number of calibration parameters, combustion optimization becomes expensive in terms of resources. System simulation is a promising tool to perform virtual experiments and consequently to reduce costs, but for this models must be able to account for relevant in-cylinder physics to be sensitive to the impact of technology on combustion and pollutant formation.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0034
Michele Battistoni, Carlo N. Grimaldi, Valentino Cruccolini, Gabriele Discepoli, Matteo De Cesare
Water injection in highly boosted GDI engines has become an attractive area over the last few years as a way of increasing efficiency, enhancing performance and reducing emissions. The technology and its effects are not new, but current gasoline engine trends for passenger vehicles have several motivations for adopting this technology today. Water injection enables higher compression ratios, optimal spark timing and elimination of fuel enrichment at high load, and possibly replacement of EGR. Physically, water reduces charge temperature by evaporation, dilutes combustion, and varies the specific heat ratio of the working fluid, with complex effects. Several of these mutually intertwined aspects are investigated in this paper through CFD simulations, focusing on a turbo-charged GDI engine with port water injection. Different strategies for water injection timing, pressure and spray targeting are investigated.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0036
S Krishna Addepalli, Om Prakash Saw, J M Mallikarjuna
Mixture distribution in the combustion chamber of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines significantly affects the combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The mixture distribution in the engine cylinder in turn depends on many parameters viz., fuel injector hole diameter and orientation, fuel injection pressure, start of fuel injection, in-cylinder fluid dynamics etc. In these engines, the mixture distribution is broadly classified as homogeneous and stratified. However, with the currently available engine parameters it is difficult to objectively classify the type of mixture distribution. In this study, an attempt is made to objectively classify the mixture distribution in GDI engines using a parameter called the “stratification index”. The analysis is carried out on a four-stroke wall-guided GDI engine using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0033
Priyanka Dnyaneshwar Jadhav, J M Mallikarjuna
Future stringent emission norms are impelling researchers to look for new emission control techniques. Today, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are becoming more popular because of high potential to reduce emissions over a wide operating load range, unlike conventional port fuel injection (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines. Also, turbocharged GDI engines allow engine downsizing with certain restriction on compression ratio due to knocking tendency, thereby limiting the fuel economy. However, use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) delays combustion and lowers the knocking tendency which will aid in improving the fuel economy. The present computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation is aimed to evaluate the effect of EGR rate on the performance and emission characteristics of a two-liter turbocharged four stroke GDI engine. The compression ratio of 9.3 and the engine speed of 1000 rev/min., are selected for the analysis.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0011
Giulio Boccardo, Federico Millo, Andrea Piano, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Cristian Capiluppi
Nowadays stringent emission regulations are fostering the diffusion of air management strategies like LowPressure-EGR and HighPressure/ LowPressure mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration with Kohler Engines, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies to meet the TIER IV and beyond emission standard, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake lambda sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0009
Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Andrea Piano, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Giuseppe Tutore, Andrea Marinoni
To comply with TIER IV emission standard, Kohler Engines has developed the 100kW rated KDI 3.4 liters diesel engine, equipped with DOC and SCR. Based on this engine, a research project in collaboration between Kohler Engines and Politecnico di Torino has been carried out to exploit the potential of new technologies to meet the TIER IV and beyond emission standards. The prototype engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR system, two stage turbocharger, high pressure fuel injection system capable of very high injection pressure and DOC+DPF aftertreatment system. Since the TIER IV emission standard sets a 0.4g/kWh NOx limit for the NRSC steady state test cycle, that includes full load operating conditions, the engine must be operated with very high EGR rates (above 30%) at very high load. As a consequence, the low air to fuel ratio and the risk of high soot emissions must be handled by means of high fuel injection pressure and proper injection patterns.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0018
Nikiforos Zacharof, Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Dimitrios Savvidis, Oscar Delgado, J. Felipe Rodriguez
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various factors on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (12 t and 18 t) and two tractor trailers (30 t and 40 t), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0163
Apostolos Pesiridis, Angelo Saccomanno, Raffaele Tuccillo, Alfredo Capobianco
The automotive industry is under increasing pressure to reduce emissions in order to comply with regulations emanating from the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the principal technologies being implemented to achieve this goal is engine downsizing. Engine downsizing by definition requires some form of boosting and turbocharging is widely adopted as it is a cost effective method to achieve the downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and practically maintaining prior performance targets. For these reasons, turbocharging is becoming an increasingly popular technology with automotive engine manufacturers. Despite the wide spread of this technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0149
Fabian Hoppe, Matthias Thewes, Joerg Seibel, Andreas Balazs, Johannes Scharf
Gasoline engine powertrain development for 2025 and beyond is focusing on finding cost optimal solutions by balancing electrification and combustion engine efficiency measures. Besides Miller cycle application, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and variable compression ratio, the injection of water has recently gained increased attention as a promising technology for significant CO2 reduction. This paper gives deep insight into the fuel consumption reduction potential of direct water injection. Single cylinder investigations were performed in order to investigate the influence of water injection in the entire engine map. In addition, different engine configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the altering compression ratios and Miller timings on the fuel consumption reduction potential with water injection.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0148
Srinivas Padala, Shashank Nagaraja, Yuji Ikeda, Minh Khoi Le
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proven to be very beneficial for fuel economy improvement as well as knock and emissions reduction. Combining with lean burning, it can help modern gasoline engines to become cleaner, more efficient and meeting the stringent emissions limit. However, there is a practical limit for lean mixture and EGR percentage for current engine due to many constraints, one of which being the ignition source. The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), which generates, enhances and sustains plasma discharge using microwave (MW) resonance was tested to assess its ability in extending these limits. A combination of high-speed Schlieren imaging and pressure measurements were performed for propane-air mixture combustion inside a constant volume chamber to compare the dilution and lean limit between MDI and traditional spark plug. Nitrogen addition was carried out during mixture preparation to simulate the dilution condition of EGR.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0146
Vincent Raimbault, Jerome Migaud, David Chalet, Michael Bargende, Emmanuel Revol, Quentin Montaigne
Upcoming regulations and new technologies are challenging the internal combustion engine and increase the pressure on car manufacturers to further reduce powertrain emissions. Indeed, RDE pushes engineering to keep low emissions not only at the bottom left of the engine map but in the complete range of load and engine speeds. This means for gasoline engines that the strategy used to increase the low end torque and power while moving out of lambda one conditions is no longer sustainable. For instance scavenging, which helps to increase the enthalpy at the turbine at low engine speed cannot be applied and thus leads to a reduction in low-end torque. Similarly, enrichment to keep the exhaust temperature sustainable in the exhaust tract components cannot be applied any more. The proposed study aims to provide a solution to keep the low end torque while maintaining lambda at 1. The tuning of the air intake system helps to improve the volumetric efficiency using resonance charging effects.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0145
Marco Piumetti, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Samir Bensaid, Melodj Dosa
A set of CeO2 nanocatalysts with different structural properties (nanocubes, nanorods, high-surface area CeO2) was prepared to investigate the shape-dependency activity for two oxidation reactions: the soot combustion under different soot-catalyst contact conditions (namely, in “loose” and “tight” conditions) and the CO oxidation. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared materials were investigated by complementary techniques (XRD, N2-physisorption at -196 °C, H2-TPR, FESEM, TEM, micro-Raman, FT-IR, XPS). As a whole, the best performances in terms of soot combustion have been achieved for the CeO2-nanocubes (SBET = 4 m2g-1), due to the abundance of highly reactive (100) and (110) exposed surfaces. On the other hand, better results in terms of the onset of soot oxidation (T10%) have been obtained for high-surface-area materials (SBET = 75 m2g-1), thus reflecting the key role of the surface area at low reaction temperature.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0143
Sathaporn Chuepeng, Kampanart Theinnoi, Manida Tongroon
The combustion in reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) mode of diesel engine have been gained more attention as one among other strategies to increase operating range for premixed combustion and to improve fuel economy. A low reactivity fuel such as high octane number fuel, alcohol blends for example, is early fumigated (or injected) and premixed with air prior to induction to the combustion chamber. Later on adjacent to the end of the compression stroke, the diesel fuel as a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the homogeneous pre-mixture and ignited. This can also promote lower nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. The main aim of this work is to characterize the combustion phenomena and particulate matter in nano-size from the RCCI engine using neat hydrous ethanol as the low reactivity fuel.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0141
Riccardo Amirante, Elia Distaso, Silvana Di Iorio, Davide Pettinicchio, Paolo Sementa, Paolo Tamburrano, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
It is common knowledge that of all the regulated automotive emissions, particulate emissions are most difficult to quantify as they comprise a complex mixture of particles of varying size and composition, each of which may be influenced by many external factors including engine technology, fuel composition, air-to-fuel ratio, lubricant oil, after-treatment and the act of measurement itself. The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of such emissions in spark-ignition engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0139
Francesco Barba, Alberto Vassallo, Vincenzo Greco
The aim of the present study is to improve the effectiveness of the engine and aftertreatment calibration process through the critical evaluation of several methodologies available to estimate the soot mass flow produced by diesel engines and filtered by Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). In particular, the focus of the present study has been the development of a reliable simulation method for the accurate prediction of the engine-out soot mass flow starting from Filter Smoke Number (FSN) measurements executed in steady state conditions, in order to predict the DPF loading considering different engine working conditions corresponding to NEDC and WLTP cycles. In order to achieve this goal, the study was split into two parts: - Correlation between ‘wet soot’ (measured by soot filter weighing) and the ‘dry soot’ (measured by the Micro Soot Sensor MSS).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0140
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte, Luis Sousa
Due to the need to properly quantify vehicle emissions in real world operation, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures will be used for measuring gaseous emissions on new EURO 6 vehicles.at the RDE 1 & 2: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles. Updated regulations have been enhanced to define RDE tests boundaries and data analysis procedures, in order to provide an accurate way to obtain representative results. The boundary conditions defined for vehicle testing include external atmospheric temperature, which can range from 0ºC to around 30ºC, for moderate conditions and -7oC up to 35oC for extended conditions in RDE tests. As a result of this range of possible test ambient temperature, pollutant emissions and energy consumption can vary considerably.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controller. To this end, they must be measurable in an adequate time scale. While for most emissions there are commercially available sensors of sufficient speed and performance, the same is not true for soot, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years we have investigated together with a supplier of measurement systems the possible use of a 50Hz sensor based on LII and of the same size of a standard oxygen probe, and the results were very positive, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like AVL Opacimenter or Microsoot) but confirmed e.g. by incylinder 2 color spectroscopy. The higher speed is also due to the position, as the sensor can be mounted above or below the turbine in a turbocharged CI engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0138
Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione
In the context of a transport sustainability, some solutions could be proposed from the integration of many disciplines, architects, environmentalists, policy makers, and consequently it may be addressed with different approaches. These solutions would be apply at different geographical levels, i.e. national, regional or urban scale. Moreover, the assessment of cars emissions in real use plays a fundamental role for their reductions. This is also the direction of the new harmonized test procedures (WLTP). Furthermore, it is fundamental to keep in mind that the new WLTC cycle will reproduce a situation closer to the reality respect to the EUDC/NEDC driving cycle. In this paper, we will be focused on vehicle kinematic evaluation aimed at valuation of traffic situation and emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0135
Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6b, in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively, the PN limit is set to be 6×10e11 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well. In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0136
Kurtis James Irwin, Roy Douglas, Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker, Andrew Woods
With emission legislations becoming ever more stringent there is an increased pressure on the after treatment systems and more specifically the three-way catalysts. With more recent developments in emission legislations, there is requirement for more complex after-treatment systems and understanding of the ageing process. With future legislation introducing independent inspection of emissions at any time under real world driving conditions throughout a vehicle life cycle this is going to increase the focus on understanding catalyst behaviour during any likely conditions throughout its lifetime and not just at the beginning and end. In recent years it has become a popular approach to use accelerated aging of the automotive catalysts for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of new vehicle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0132
Martin Großbichler, Zhen Zhang, Philipp Polterauer, Harald Waschl
To meet current legislation limits, modern diesel engines already achieve very low raw emission levels and utilize additional components for aftertreatment. However, during fast transients still undesired emission peaks can occur for both soot and NOx. These are caused by differences in the in-cylinder conditions between the quasi steady state engine calibration and the transient engine operation, e.g. during tip-ins. These effects become more and more important in view of future RDE emission test cycles. In this work a case study is performed to analyze the potential reduction of transient soot emissions during a specified engine maneuver. An additional target is to investigate potential benefits of a novel in-situ soot sensor based on the Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) principle which offers a high temporal resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets imposed by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a significant number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for 2021. Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV fuel consumption is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 21945