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Viewing 1 to 30 of 20429
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the heterogeneous catalyst is used instead of homogeneous catalyst. This is because to overcome the problems faced viz; Catalyst recovery, Thermal stability and excessive use of water. This paper are shows the use of heterogeneous catalyst and optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the heterogeneous transesterification for the production of Mahua oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Heterogeneous catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst such as ZnO, MgO and CaO. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1678
Akshay Kumar, Dhruv Gupta
Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today’s on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. In it liquefied form propane is highly compactable and therefore extremely economical to store and transport. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the most viable alternative fuel in the world known as Propane Autogas. While thousands of LPG fueled vehicles such as buses, taxis, delivery and other fleet vehicles are on the road few comprehensive studies on LPG as alternative fuel in mass transportation are documented. In this paper, a comprehensive commercial study for LPG as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel is conducted. The study includes the required infrastructure for fueling, the fuel supply, the fueling station, and the conversion of the fleet vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1680
David H. Myszka, Andrew Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum
Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries, and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a primarily mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that mainly rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with only an internal combustion engine where the electrical systems of hybrid vehicles are not available. Governing performance equations are formulated and design parameters are selected based on an optimization of the vehicle operation over a simulated urban driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1631
Michinori Tani, Atsuhiro Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Matsuzono
Stringent emission regulations for passenger vehicles are demanded. Reducing costs of high-grade exhaust gas after-treatment systems is necessary. The demand for high-precision engine air-fuel ratio control remains high. Higher efficiency in development and shortening of the development period are required, and control system construction that is accomplished in a short period regardless of the developer's technical skills and can harness the hardware potential has become essential. To achieve high-precision control, there is a trial-and-error element in configuration such as feedback-gain settings, and the tradeoff between high-precision air-fuel ratio control and shortening of the development period. We investigated a system based on a control method that constantly performs optimum air-fuel ratio feedback control to suit air-fuel ratio sensor responsiveness that changes with vehicle driving conditions, and eliminates the trial-and-error element.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive in economic and environmental terms. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emission and few of them are regulated worldwide, while several other species are not regulated as yet. New research is indicating that these unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is very popular in several Asian countries and various governments are considering its wide scale implementation. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at rated engine speeds for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using Karanja biodiesel blends (KB20 and KB40) in a state-of-the-art common rail direct injection (CRDI) SUV transportation engine (Tata, Safari DICOR 2.2L). This engine has a maximum fuel injection pressure of 1600 bar.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0993
Timothy Johnson
This paper will discuss the current state of the industry; where it needs to go and how to get there.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0987
Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Increasingly more stringent emissions standards for Diesel engines have accounted for an increase in the end-user cost of a modern diesel by over 40% over the last 10 years, most of which is due to complex and expensive emissions after treatment devices such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which relies on a second tank of Urea to be injected into a catalyst bed to remove Nitrogen Oxide emissions from the engine exhaust. Prior to the current emissions standards the Diesel industry had been able to meet NOx levels by reducing the combustion temperature in the engine via charge gas dilution, through cooled EGR. Although successful in reducing emissions, large levels of EGR have serious undesirable effects on oil quality, engine longevity, overall efficiency and warranty returns. There is also a limit to the efficacy of EGR in lowering NOx emissions such that at the current EPA mandated 0.2g/kWh, it is no longer sufficient.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1050
Prateek Tayal, Keqin Zhou, Peter Meckl
According to the latest EPA emission regulations, the NOx (Nitrogen oxide compounds) emissions from heavy duty compression ignition engines need to see a dramatic reduction. The current technology used for this purpose is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, which achieves NOx reduction of around 90% [9]. This involves urea injection which is influenced by the NO: NO2 ratio at the inlet to the SCR. Thus, the role of the DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) where most of the oxidation of the NOx compounds takes place, comes to fore. The focus is also on the effectiveness of the catalyst as it thermally ages. Therefore, the aim of this research project is to correlate the aging in the DOC with the light off temperature of the catalyst and subsequent variation in the NO and NO2 concentration at the outlet of the DOC. This shall be achieved through means of a model developed after extensive experimental procedures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1028
Paul Gaynor, Benjamin Reid, Graham Hargrave, Thomas Lockyer, Jonathan Wilson
In recent years urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become the principal method of NOx abatement within heavy duty (HD) diesel exhaust systems; however, with upcoming applications demanding NOx reduction efficiencies of above 96 % on engines producing upwards of 10 g•kWh-1 NOx, future diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing systems will be required to operate stably at significantly increased dosing rates. Developing a dosing system capable of meeting the increased performance requirements demands a full understanding of how DEF sprays interact with changing exhaust flows. This study has investigated four production systems representing a diverse range of dosing strategies in order to determine how performance is influenced by spray structure and identify promising strategies for further development. The construction of an optically accessible hot-air flow rig has enabled visualisation of DEF injection into flows representative of HD diesel exhaust conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
As a cheap, clean alternative, neat methanol and methanol gasoline are widely used as vehicle fuel in many provinces in China. Though burning methanol is able to curb carbonaceous pollutants from engine, NOx and carbonyls, in particular formaldehyde, remain concerns over atmospheric environment and public health. In this paper, regulated, carbonyl emissions together with particulate matter from a neat methanol/gasoline dual-fuel passenger car were examined over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results yielded that, CO, HC and NOx from different fuel regimes were very similar. 14 kinds of carbonyl compounds in the exhaust samples were analyzed. In comparison with gasoline baseline, approximately 41.9% more carbonyls, majority of which were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propyl aldehyde and benzaldehyde, were discharged by methanol fuelling. Regarding particulate matter, a remarkable decrease of 63% in mass was obtained by fuelling with methanol.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1055
Apoorv Kalyankar, Achuth Munnannur, Z. Gerald Liu
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising technology for meeting the stringent requirements pertaining to NOx emissions. One of the most important requirements to achieve high DeNOx performance is to have a high uniformity of ammonia to NOx ratio (ANR) at the SCR catalyst inlet. Steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are frequently used for predicting ANR spatial distribution but are not feasible for running a transient cycle like Federal Test Procedure (FTP). On the other hand, 1D kinetic models run in real time and can predict transient SCR performance but do not typically capture the effect of non-axial non-uniformities. In this work, two 3D to 1D coupling methods have been developed to predict transient SCR system performance, taking the effect of ANR non-uniformity into account. First is a probability density function (PDF) based approach and the second is a geometrical sector based approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1081
Axel Maier, Ulrike Klaus, Andreas Dreizler, Hermann Rottengruber
The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the ability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations for gasoline applications. Initial target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were determined. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum volume of LNT/SCR that satisfied the NOx target. Temperature studies were performed to determine the temperature ranges for the TWC and LNT/SCR that satisfied the HC, CO, and NOx targets. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during the rich purge periods through steam reforming was crucial for maintaining the HC slip below the target level. The temperature of the LNT/SCR needed to be maintained between 300 and 350 C to satisfy the NOx slip target during lean/rich cycling while minimizing the slip of NH3, N2O, and HC during the rich purges.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1010
Hongsuk Kim, Hoyeol Lee, Sunyoup Lee, Gyubaek Cho
A Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is an effective technology for reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emitted from diesel engines. In modern light duty diesel engines, DPF is regenerated by the in-cylinder fuel injection method. In this method, the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber during the expansion stroke to produce heat to burn out the PM trapped in the DPF. However, this method causes several problems, such as complicated engine torque control and oil dilution by fuel. Diesel fuel burners have many advantages in DPF regeneration. It enables DPF regeneration at any engine operating conditions with a lower fuel penalty compared with the in-cylinder fuel injection method. However, the combustion efficiencies of conventional diesel fuel burners are low at high load conditions due to the lack of oxygen and high speed of exhaust gas flow.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0999
Jan Schoenhaber, Stephanie Spiess, Marcus Schmidt, Joerg Michael Richter, Martin Roesch, Joel Despres
The new emission regulations in Europe, EU6 will promulgate more realistic driving conditions with more stringent HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This legislation will also include the WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure) cycle for standard for CO2 measurements and a new requirement called “Real-Driving-Emissions” (RDE) as well. The RDE requirement is to ensure modern vehicles comply with the legislation under all conditions of normal driving. More robust aftertreatment solutions are needed to meet these new requirements. This work introduces an improved three-way-catalyst (TWC) for gasoline engines for these new regulations. It is tested under static and dynamic conditions and on several engines and vehicles with various drive cycles. It offers better thermal stability combined with lower backpressure than former TWC generations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0974
Aaron Brooker, Jeffrey Gonder, Sean Lopp, Jacob Ward
The ADOPT model is a light duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The ADOPT model uses a logit function to estimate sales. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The logit function estimates their sales based on key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range, and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. Engine downsizing and balancing net incentives/penalties are used to ensure that the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is met.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1041
Daryao Singh Khatri, Kabir Bhandari
The main concern with diesel engine is NOx and PM reduction. Different countries are adopting different approach to reduce the NOx emission from their diesel engine. In India for light and medium diesel engines EGR (Exhaust Gas Re-circulation) technology is widely used and well accepted. Different types of EGR valve are being used to re-circulate exhaust gases. Appropriate quantity of EGR under different load and speed condition is an important parameter to reduce the NOx and to achieve the optimum performance. To meet this requirement, EGR valve diameter and valve lift are to be optimized so that flow is smooth and can be varied precisely by varying the EGR valve lift. The solenoid is used to open poppet type EGR valve and lift is varied by varying the PWM which is controlled by the ECU. It is observed that exhaust gas back pressure pulses result in fluctuation in EGR valve lift.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1052
Bijesh M. Shakya, Balaji Sukumar, Yaritza M. López-De Jesús, Penelope Markatou
A combined experimental and modeling study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pt:Pd ratio on the performance of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) for heavy-duty applications, with PGM loading <50g/ft3. [Note: Work on light-duty DOC is presented in SAE paper #15PFL-0137]. In the first part of the work, transient light-off and steady-state experiments were performed over a series of hydrothermally aged DOCs with different Pt:Pd and PGM loadings. It was found that n-decane and NO oxidation activity increased monotonically as the Pt:Pd ratio was increased while the oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (HC) (C3 and C7) first increased with an increase in Pt:Pd ratio and then plateaued out at higher Pt content. In contrast, the CO oxidation exhibited an opposite trend with catalyst containing low Pt (high Pd) being more active. The presence of HC lowered the outlet NO2/NOx ratio by reducing the NO2 generated via NO oxidation, back to NO.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1039
Thomas Lockyer, Benjamin Reid, Graham Hargrave, Paul Gaynor, Jonathan Wilson
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have become the accepted exhaust after-treatment approach for combating heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine NOX emissions. Very high efficiency SCR systems are a key enabling technology for the next generation of fuel efficient diesel powertrains, allowing engines to be calibrated for very high NOX output with a resultant gain in BSFC while still maintaining NOX tailpipe emissions compliance. One key to the successful implementation of high efficiency SCR at elevated engine out NOX levels is the ability to introduce significantly more AdBlue into the exhaust flow compared to current dosing rates while still ensuring complete ammonia generation and avoiding the formation of urea based deposits. This paper presents a body of experimental work conducted on an exhaust test bench using optical techniques including high-speed imaging and phase doppler interferometry (PDI).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1073
Yoshitaka Ito, Takehide Shimoda, Takashi Aoki, Kazuya Yuuki, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Dominic Thier, Philipp Kattouah, Etsuji Ohara, Claus Vogt
Starting with Euro 6 there will be a Particle Number (PN) limit for GDI vehicles. In addition further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) is considered. RDE tests require low and stable emissions in a wide range of engine operation, which must be durable for 160,000 km. To achieve such stringent targets a ceramic wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) is one potential novel emission control device. This paper focusses on a catalyzed GPF combining particle trapping and catalytic conversion in one single device. The main parameters to consider when introducing this technology are filtration efficiency, backpressure and catalytic conversion. This paper portraits a detailed study starting from the choice of material recipe, design optimization, engine bench evaluation and final validation inside a standard vehicle from the market during an extensive field test up to 160,000 km on public roads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed for future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. Since EuroIV/US10 legislation, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) has been widely and successfully used in order to reduce NOx emissions from HDD vehicles. There are four main types of SCR catalysts; Vanadia/Titania, Cu zeolite, Fe zeolite and mixed oxides of transition metals; and all of them have different performance characteristics, both positive and negative. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimisation has to be considered. Examples of this could be: catalyst development, optimised thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimised SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1145
Darrell Robinette, Daniel Wehrwein
This investigation utilizes energy analysis and statistical methods to optimize the design parameters of an automatic transmission and assess fuel consumption performance with a prescribed amount of variation in parasitic loss. A generalized factorial experiment is undertaken to determine the optimal combination of transmission design parameters for fuel consumption and acceleration performance across widely varying vehicle platforms and engine types. The design parameters considered are the number of fixed gear ratios, launch gear ratio, top gear ratio and ratio step size progression. For a single vehicle platform with multiple engines and the optimized transmission as determined from the generalized factorial experiment, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to explore the range of fuel consumption to be expected for multiple distributions of parasitic losses that could be typical of various production tolerances.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1083
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Patrick P. Chen, Jasna Tomic, Richard Parish
Emissions and fuel economy were determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles were 2010 Freightliner cabs equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The carbon dioxide emissions for the hybrids were 30 to 36% lower than from the conventional. The hybrid nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 30% higher to 20% lower than the conventional. The CO emissions were below the standards for both vehicles, but the percentage differences ranged from 18% to 2000% higher for the hybrids relative to the conventional. The high CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during the 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid were negative.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1076
Tak W. Chan
Octane number is an indication of the antiknocking strength of gasoline and it is strongly linked to engine performance which has direct influence on vehicle black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particle emissions. In the past, additives such as tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) were used as antiknocking fuel additives, but were phased out due to environmental and human health issues. More recently, other options such as butane, aromatics, and different oxygenates (i.e., alcohols and ethers) have been used to increase the knock resistance of gasoline. Ethanol is one of the most commonly used alcohols to increase the antiknocking resistance of gasoline. When used in internal combustion engines, ethanol-gasoline fuel provides a number of direct advantages such as antiknocking, reduced CO emissions, high Reid vapor pressure, and charge air cooling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1070
Hanzhengnan Yu, Yong Guo, Donghai Li, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, Yuesen Wang, Xiangxiang Wang, lihui dong
Impingement of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall wetting) is one of the main obstacles that must be overcome in order for early injection Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (EI HCCI) combustion to become an advanced alternative to conventional engine combustion systems. In the strategies to reduce or prevent wall wetting explored in the past, limiting the spray cone angle was proved to be a useful approach. This paper is presented to study the effect of the spray cone angle on the mixture formation, particularly the region near the cylinder wall, and CO/Soot emissions of an early injection HCCI diesel engine. Three-dimensional modeling was performed in AVL FIRE code, which includes the spray/wall impingement model and film vaporization model for both gas- and liquid-phase transport processes. The calculation grid was divided into three regions which were defined as the combustion chamber region, the wall wetting region, and other regions.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 20429