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Viewing 1 to 30 of 20125
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulation for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulation the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic WMTC will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different relations and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing Euro 3 catalytic formulation for a 690cc motorcycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective The motorcycle sales have improved consistently during the last decade mostly in developing and BRICS countries. There are many reasons for it such as their low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars, associated to the economic growth on those cited countries. New emissions limits have been reduced and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Additionally Flex Fuel motorcycles have been offered to the market and a combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends and their effect on the emissions still an open issue to be fully understood. The objective of the paper is to present recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends. Methodology One motorcycle was fuelled with gasoline blended with 22, 61 and 85% ethanol. Additionally a 100% ethanol fuel was used. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) have been measured with 7000 series Horiba benches.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, the authors want to demonstrate the possible achievements by the application of state of the art technology to a standard small capacity two-wheeler engine being representative for the current market situation. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations. Thus, the possibility for investigations on the optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment was given.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Many two stroke engines for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce exhaust gas emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight , dimensions and temperature . One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter .
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry (PM), granulometry SMPS (PN) and differential analysis of filter residue. In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best material were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be considerably influenced by the lube oil quality and reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine. Operating the engines on standard gasoline in a laboratory, emission gases were transferred via a heated line to be analyzed by an FTIR.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
The small gasoline engines are widely used as prime movers in the urban areas. For this reason great efforts have been paid to improve their efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions because of the non-uniform mixture preparation and piston wetting. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. In this sense, ethanol is becoming even more attractive for spark ignition fuels as more resistant to knock phenomena due to its higher octane number. Moreover, ethanol is also expected to play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. It was investigated two operating condition representative of the typical EUDC.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
With environmental issues such as global warming getting acute, the demand of engine exhaust gas emission reduction is increasing. The purpose of this study is the reduction of exhaust gas emissions for small size generators by using after-treatment device. The requirement of small size generators are portability, so they must be lightweight and compact. After-treatment device should be housed in the compact package. And sometimes generators are used near a house, so CO discharge amount should be a little under the condition of fuel rich mixture for high specific power. To meet these conditions, a catalytic converter with secondary air induction is adopted. Secondary air is used for oxidization of CO. However before this study, sufficient amount of secondary air couldn’t be inducted because of the shortage of minus pressure in exhaust pipe which caused by high-load operating and the shortness of an exhaust pipe. But high-load operating is inevitable in generator and adoption of a long exhaust pipe is impossible to compact casing.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
S. Reifarth, V. Rajagopal, K. Gritzun, H.-E. Angstrom
The distribution of EGR between the cylinders of an internal combustion engine has been shown to have large impact on the engine emissions. Especially at high EGR, the combustion reacts sensibly to variations in the EGR-rate. A cylinder that receives excessive EGR produces soot particles while a cylinder with too little EGR has increased NOx-emission. It is therefore important to have knowledge about the mixing in an engine. This study compares two different EGR-mixing measurement methods. The first is based on CO2 measurement with standard probes, placed at 36 different locations in the intake manifold of the engine. The second method uses a laser beam and a detector to gain information about the mixing with a high time-resolution, placed at six positions of the intake manifold. Additionally, 1-D simulations are used to gain information about the mixing process. To vary the mixing process on the engine, two different air/EGR mixers are used and their mixing performance is evaluated.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
In many countries fuel standards permit the limited addition of FAME to diesel fuel. For example, in Europe, diesel fuel complying with the EN590:2009 regulation may contain up to 7% FAME, and the low carbon fuel standards being considered in many regions encourage the consideration of even higher levels of FAME addition. Standards organisations such as CEN, ASTM, and CARB are also contemplating standards for paraffinic diesel fuels such as GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) diesel and HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil), an example being CEN Technical Standard 15940:2012. Since these standards may also allow the addition of FAME, it was decided to perform an extensive evaluation of the properties and performance of blends of GTL diesel and FAME, including emissions performance which is reported on in this paper. Fuels that were variously considered in the study were blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 vol% of SME and RME (Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester). Part of the study focussed on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 4 passenger vehicle and engine, and a Euro V heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Bhimrao Patil, Vighnesha Nayak, Mohanan Padmanabha
This work aims study on the method of NOx reduction and performance enhancement by analysis of MPFI multi-cylinder gasoline engine running on LPG using gas injection system and vaporized water methanol induction to the intake manifold. For the generation of vaporized water methanol, heat from the exhaust gas has been used. Different percentages of water methanol by mass basis were used with variable engine speed ranging from 2000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that as the percentage water methanol induction level to the engine increased, there is slight increase in percentage of useful work, while the NOx decreased drastically about 47%. Additionally, the engine brake thermal efficiency increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for a 20% water methanol with LPG is approximately 1.5% over the use of LPG without water methanol induction.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kohei Yoshida, Yusuke Nozaki, Toshihiro Mori, Yuki Bisaiji, Yuki Haba, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Takao Fukuma
To fulfill upcoming stringent worldwide CO2 emission target, engine thermal efficiency should further be increased and diesel engine is one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless to ensure good air quality, NOx emission should be reduced using a specific catalyst. In order to reduce NOx from a diesel engine operation in lean condition, Urea-Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) systems have been widely adopted in the European market. The NSR system is most efficient for small/mid vehicle size since it requires less packaging space and it is less expensive than a urea SCR system. However, its NOx reduction performance is currently limited under high temperature and high space velocity conditions since the NOx storage ability as nitrate is insufficient under such conditions. For future NSR usage, it is therefore necessary to improve the NOx reduction performance of NSR. DiAir (Diesel NOx After-treatment by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants) has been introduced as one of the measures to improve NOx conversion performance under high space velocity (SV) and temperature conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Woods, Roy Douglas, Richard O’Shaughnessy
With emission legislation becoming ever more stringent, automotive companies are forced to invest heavily in solutions to meet the targets set. To date, the most effective way of treating emissions is through the use of catalytic converters. Since the introduction of these converters as the main method of reducing automotive emissions, catalyst performance testing has become a major part of automotive research and development. One of the most critical aspects of the performance testing process is catalyst ageing. Legislation has been introduced stating that catalytic converters must meet the set emissions standards legislation up to a lifetime of 150,000 miles (LEV 2014-2022). The catalytic converter will deactivate over its lifetime due to a number of different factors, such as, thermal deactivation, poisoning, fouling and structural breakdown of the catalyst. It is therefore of the utmost importance for automotive companies to evaluate the performance of the catalytic converters under these conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kotaro Tanaka, Masatoshi Takano, Shuji Iimura, Kai Miyamura, Mitsuru Konno
 Ammonia (NH3) contributes to the production of secondary particulate matter (PM) as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Recent studies have indicated that NH3 emission from automobiles may increase as a result of using a system for the urea selective catalytic reduction of NOx. In addition, the operating condition of the automobile plays an important role in the formation of NH3 in automobile exhaust. Therefore, it is very important to perform real-time measurements of the NH3 concentration in automobile exhaust.  Recently, highly sensitive near-IR laser absorption spectrometer has been employed to obtain measurement of NH3. This instrument allows in-situ measurements of highly time-resolved NH3 emission levels in automobile exhaust. However, the effect of the CO2 included in automobile exhaust on the measurement of NH3 has not been evaluated in detail. Because the CO2 concentration in automobile exhaust has been 2 or 3 orders of magnitude higher than the NH3 concentration, there is a possibility that spectral overlap by CO2 lines and/or the spectral broadening of NH3 by CO2 could have an influence on the measurement of the NH3 concentration.  
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Barouch Giechaskiel, Urbano Manfredi, Giorgio Martini
In the current diesel vehicle exhaust emissions legislation Particle Number (PN) limits for solid particles >23 nm are prescribed. The legislation was extended to include Gasoline Direct Injection (G-DI) vehicles since September 2014. Target of this paper was to investigate whether smaller than 23 nm solid particles are emitted from engines in considerable concentration focusing on G-DI engines. The literature survey and the experimental investigation of >15 vehicles showed that engines emit solid sub-23 nm particles. The average percentage over a test cycle for G-DIs (30-40%) is similar to diesel engines. These percentages are relatively low considering the emission limit levels (6×1011 p/km) and the repeatability (10-20%) of the particle number method. These percentages are slightly higher compared to the percentages expected theoretically not to be counted due to the 23 nm cut-off size (5-15%). Higher fraction can be measured with high ethanol content fuels, at sub-zero ambient temperatures and when additives are added in the fuel or lubricant.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andrew Smallbone, Amit Bhave, Peter Man
In this paper we combine experimental data, physics-based models and advanced numerical techniques to investigate 1) sources of friction losses in heavy-duty IC engines and, 2) fuel efficiency losses (and CO2 sources) in an engine and vehicle model over 160 ‘real-world’ and legislated drive cycles. These two applications are both typical examples where a multi-dimensional design space means that it is challenging to interpret and communicate the influence of each design parameter effectively and identify those of most importance for your chosen objective. In this paper, the authors present new methods to support a) the parameter estimation (model calibration) with respect to experimental data and, b) advanced global sensitivity analysis using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR).
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) effectively convert exhaust heat into electrical energy, which gradually improve utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, a newly heat exchanger with the shape of regular-octagon cylinder box in TEG is designed. Through building three-dimensional models of different TEGs , it is available to calculate thermal stress field distribution of them separately in ANSYS software and test the reliability of expected TEG .By conducting multi -ordered temperature - fluid - solid coupling of heat exchanger in FLUENT software , adopting different heat exchanger structures, setting different parameters of length, width, height, thickness of the distributing fins, guiding fins, converging fins in the heat exchanger, and installing different distribution angles and spacing of these fins, the temperature field, pressure field and flow field simulation results are gained to explore the influence of air current resistance and the thermal performance of TEG caused by diverse heat exchanger structures and various physical-dimension and distribution of the fins.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Hu Li, Laura Campbell, Seyed Hadavi, Job Gava
Abstract Direct use of straight vegetable oil based biofuels in diesel engines without trans-esterification can deliver more carbon reductions compared to its counterpart biodiesel. However, the use of high blends of straight vegetable oils especially used cooking oil based fuels in diesel engines needs to ensure compatible fuel economy with PD (Petroleum Diesel) and satisfactory operational performance. There are two ways to use high blends of SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines: fixed blending ratio feeding to the engine and variable blending ratio feeding to the engine. This paper employed the latter using an on-board blending system-Bioltec system, which is capable of heating the vegetable oils and feeding the engine with neat PD or different blends of vegetable oils depending on engine load and temperature. A used cooking oil derived SVO type of biofuel, the C2G Ultra Biofuel (C2G: Convert to Green), which is a fully renewable fuel made as a diesel replacement from processed used cooking oil, used directly in diesel engines specifically modified for this purpose, has been investigated in this research.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions and reducing operating cost by improving the engine's fuel economy. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that heavy duty diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim. The only way to create a lubricant that carries both an API C and S claim for mixed fleet or municipality application, is to formulate at less than 0.08% phosphorus, a limit that was adopted in API S specifications because there are indications that phosphorus may foul three-way catalysts used with gasoline engines to control tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Headen, Stephen Bennington
Abstract Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The 0.1 % sodium borohydride diglyme solution and pure diglyme exhibited durations of ignition delay shorter than that of the reference fossil diesel, while testing of the 2 % sodium borohydride solution resulted in failure of the fuel injector.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Romaeo Dallanegra, Rinaldo Caprotti
Abstract Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDIDs) have been known for some time. With the latest powertrains becoming ever more sophisticated and reliant on efficient fuel delivery, the necessity for a continued focus on limiting their formation remains. Initial studies probed both carbonaceous based/ashless polymeric and sodium salt based IDIDs. The reported occurrence of the latter variety of IDID has declined in recent years as a result of the removal of certain additives from the diesel distribution system. Conversely, ashless polymeric based deposits remain problematic and a regular occurrence in the field. The body of work presented in this contribution is an extension to that reported in SAE paper 2014-01-1401 which showed how a particular Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) additive has the ability to significantly reduce the formation of ashless polymeric deposits formed from the reaction of Poly-isobutylene Succinic Imides (PIBSI) with fatty acid and the ability for the same additive to also be neutral towards the formation of sodium salt based deposits.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Arjun Prakash, Edward Nelson, Aaron Jones, James Macias, Matthew Hinojosa, Eugene Jimenez
Abstract Particulate mass (PM) emissions from DISI engines can be reduced via fuels additive technology that facilitates injector deposit clean-up. A significant drawback of DISI engines is that they can have higher particulate matter emissions than PFI gasoline engines. Soot formation in general is dependent on the air-fuel ratio, combustion chamber temperature and the chemical structure and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this regard, PM emissions and DISI injector deposit clean-up were studied in three identical high sales-volume vehicles. The tests compared the effects of a fuel (Fuel A) containing a market generic additive at lowest additive concentration (LAC) against a fuel formulated with a novel additive technology (Fuel B). The fuels compared had an anti-knock index value of 87 containing up to 10% ethanol. The vehicles were run on Fuel A for 20,000 miles followed by 5,000 miles on Fuel B using a chassis dynamometer. It was observed that Fuel A gave rise to an increase in PM emissions indicative of DISI injector deposit build-up.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jinyoung Jang, Young-Jae Lee, Ohseok Kwon, Minseob Lee, Jeonghwan Kim
The emissions from vehicle are affected by engine type, fuel and engine oil making particulate matter (PM) 13% of total PM. In this study, engine oil is focused to show the effect of engine oils on PM and other emission. Group III base oil, Group III base oil with additives and poly alpha olefins (PAO’s) with additives are tested and have identical SAE grad for same vehicle. Gasoline vehicle, which has direct injection system, and diesel vehicle, which has no PM trap, were selected because those vehicles clearly emit PM more than port fuel type gasoline and diesel with PM trap vehicle. Combined mode test, consisting of FTP 75 and highway drive mode, are used to assess exhaust emission and fuel economy. The number of PM was counted using PPM-S, which is based on the measurement of electrical charge carried by particles. Regulated emissions and fuel economy for gasoline vehicle were analyzed by HORIBA gas analyzer with sampling bags. Diesel vehicle’s emissions and fuel economy were analyzed by PIERBURG gas analyzer.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Christophe Barro, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in the NOx emissions. However, an accurate and general rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not understood thoroughly. In earlier research it was observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly based on two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. A third effect of heat addition during the soot oxidation is debated in the literature. The experimental investigation presented in the current work provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of soot formation and reduction using post injections under different operating conditions. The measurements aim to provide additional understanding in the sources of PM reduction, which will allow the optimization of post injection settings.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juan J. Hernández, Rosario Ballesteros, Javier Barba, José Guillén-Flores
In order to reduce the pollutant emissions (mainly NOx and PM) of diesel engines, the addition of small gaseous fuel amounts (such as natural gas, biogas, reforming gas, LPG) or dual mode operation (in which a pilot injection of diesel fuel promotes the gaseous fuel combustion) have been proved as potential techniques. This paper is focused on a detailed characterization of the particles emitted from a single cylinder diesel engine when part of the reference diesel fuel (10 and 20% by energy) is replaced by a gaseous fuel (producer gas, mainly composed by H2, CO and CH4) coming from biomass steam gasification (renewable fuel which has not been previously analyzed when used in diesel engines). The engine was operated at constant speed and torque, varying the EGR rate (0 and 15%). Particle samples were collected by means of fiber glass filters placed in a dilution mini-tunnel for both to determine the particle mass and for further characterization. Simultaneously, during tests, part of the exhaust gas was conducted to a system formed by two diluters and a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) to obtain the particle size distribution.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jing Qin, Xiang Li, Yiqiang Pei
Abstract The aim of this detailed research is to experimentally investigate the effects of ignition timings, injection timings, excess air ratio (λ) and lubricating oil on particulate matter (PM) emissions from a 2.0 L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (T-GDI) engine fueled with gasoline, methanol/gasoline blends and pure methanol. The results of this paper show that the PM number concentration mostly presents a typical bimodal or trimodal distribution in figures. The particle number concentration mainly concentrates in the nucleation mode. With the increase of methanol volume fraction in the blended fuel, the PM emissions decrease significantly. Furthermore, there are few particles when the engine fueled with pure methanol. As advancing ignition timing, the total PM number rises by over about 200%. Under the pre-ignition condition, the higher in-cylinder temperature may also accelerate the formation of the nucleation mode particles. As advancing injection timing, PM emissions decrease first, and then increase.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Particulate emissions are of growing concern due their negative health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent have been under investigation at MAHLE Powertrain, with this paper focussing on the improvement potential of the injection equipment. This investigation is part of MAHLE’s ongoing particulate research and method development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process. As part of this work, a spark eroded and a laser drilled injector were fully characterised in a spray vessel under key engine running conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianye Su, Min Xu, Peng Yin, Yi Gao, David Hung
Spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine, especially in downsized boosted engine platform, has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy, and are increasing their market share relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines in U.S., European and Chinese vehicles. However, higher particle number emission associated with operating the engine at higher loads provide additional challenges for meeting future stringent emission regulations. In this study, the potential of using multiple injection strategies (double injection and triple injection strategy during the intake stroke in homogeneous combustion mode) to reduce particle number emission was investigated using Horiba Mexa SPCS1000 in a 2.0 liter boosted SIDI gasoline engine at 1000 rpm, 11 bar BMEP condition. To clarify the mechanism for the particle emission benefit by multiple injection strategies, three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the in-cylinder process was realized using CONVERGE software with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Matthias Stark, Richard Mittler
Tribodynamic Effects on Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Exhaust Gas of Large Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines Upcoming emission regulations and power demands for large two stroke marine diesel engines call for a detailed investigation focusing on cylinder lubrication impacts on the exhaust gas composition. The content of the foreseen paper focuses on recent developments towards the design of an emission optimized lubrication concept, helping to significantly reduce lube oil consumption and related particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas. The described approach involves the application of substantially modified engine components in a full scale engine test, as well as the application of dedicated measurement technologies combined with intensive simulation activities in order to derive the desired correlation between lubrication system parameters and the exhaust gas composition. The foreseen paper highlights measures to enhance lubrication system performance considering key components of the tribosystem.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bernhard Lüers, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Koerfer, Stefan Pischinger, Markku Honkanen
The present work is a continuation to the earlier published results on the investigation of the Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System. These results suggest a significant reduction of engine out carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), particulate matter (PM) and engine noise emissions using HVO as compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (SAE Technical Paper: 2013-01-1677). The test program was further extended to analyze the impact of HVO fuel properties on the soot physico-chemical characteristics and its consequences on the oxidation behavior in DPF. The initial study regarding the soot structure and oxidation behavior indicates a higher oxidative reactivity for HVO soot as published in Part-1 (JSAE Technical Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot structure and oxidation behavior, the test program was further extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, microstructure and physical properties on the oxidation behavior.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 20125