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2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2425
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
Abstract On two wheelers, magneto/alternator generates either single/three phase AC power and Regulator Rectifier Unit (RRU) does regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like electronic fuel injection (EFI), anti-lock braking system (ABS), automatic headlamp on (AHO) in emerging markets like India; vehicles demand more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from alternator and consequently from RRU. Requirement of higher output power presents challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper, improved performance of MOSFET based RRU is discussed in comparison to Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based RRU. The motivation/benefits of MOSFET based design is described along with the thermal behavior and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2453
Shuang Liu, Lina Pan, Xin Jiang, Yujiao Wang, Kun Liu, Yang Xia
Abstract Quick drop battery system was the core components of the electric vehicles, the reliability and compatibility of quick drop battery system was directly related to the popularization and application of electric vehicles. In this article, a split type battery management system and a split type high voltage architecture was used to achieve better charging compatibility. Meanwhile the number of fast switching connector’s pin is reduced and the plug life was prolonged to more than 10000 times by using floating structure. For battery management system (BMS), the state of charge (SOC) estimation was based on dynamic voltage correction, and make estimation accuracy reach to less than 5%. Rotary slot limit and fast locking mechanism had been designed for the first time and the precision of battery system assembling could control within 3mm, hence the floating structure’s damage could be reduced and the mechanical life could be enhanced.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2452
Kingsley Joel Berry, Abdrahamane Traore, Aravind Krishna, Pavankumar Gangadhar, Allan Taylor
This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. This paper emphasized the vehicle model and control strategy as a result of three (3) graduate student research projects. The vehicle was fabricated and tested but did not participate in the race competition since the race organization folded. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 14 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2454
Yiqi Jia, Gangfeng Tan, Cenyi Liu, Shengguang Xiong, Zehao Yang, Xingmang Zheng
Abstract In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2459
Liu Xiaojun, Yu Jinpeng, Yang Xia, Wu Daoming, Jie Zhu
Abstract In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20°C), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, at a low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger (OFC) has been considered to supply power for PTC in this paper. In order to control the current charging into the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control schemes of battery management system (BMS) are proposed and compared. Scheme 1: BMS controls the value of charging current request close to the working current of PTC. Scheme 2: BMS controls the value of charging voltage request to reach a state of relative balance. Scheme 3: BMS disconnects the pack from the charger and keeps the connection between PTC and charger.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2142
Brandon Mahoney, Jamie Marshall, Thomas Black, Dennis Moxley
The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
2017-06-22
Technical Paper
2017-36-0047
Felipe Lima dos Reis Marques, Sender Rocha dos Santos, Mauro Fernando Basquera Junior, Thiago Chiachio do Nascimento, Raul Fernando Beck, Maria de Fátima Negreli Campos Rosolem, Ricardo Souza Figueiredo, Rogério Valentim Pereira
Abstract One main feature of the power demand profile is it varies time to time and its price changes accordingly. During the peak the less cost-effective and flexible power supplies must complement the base-load power plants in order to supply the power demand. Conversely, during the off-peak period when less electricity is consumed, those costly power plants can be stopped. This is a scenario which Energy Storage System (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV) generation plants could add flexibility and cost reduction to the customers and utilities. These aspects are only achieved due to the ESS, which enables the optimal use of energy produced by the photovoltaic modules through load management and discharge of the battery in the most convenient times.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9078
Dong Gao, MiaoHua Huang, Jiangang Xie
In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1734
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Guo-Shun Chuang
Abstract An accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is necessary not only for optimal energy management but also for protecting the lithium-ion batteries (LIB) from being deeply discharged or overcharged. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is established to simulate the dynamic behavior of LIB. Parameters of internal resistance, diffusion resistance and diffusion capacitance are identified using the recursive least square method. Because open circuit voltage (OCV) and SOC have an obviously nonlinear relationship, an extended Kalman filter is proposed to estimate the SOC based on the ECM model. Local linearization is employed to approximate the nonlinear SOC-OCV curve by a straight line with the slope and intersection around the operating point. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed algorithm is less than 5% for the test patterns.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1180
Stefan Brandstätter, Michael Striednig, David Aldrian, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell, Tomas Dehne, Christoph Kügele, Michael Paulweber
Abstract The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0190
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract The range of Plug-In Electric Vehicles (EVs) is highly influenced by the electric power consumed by various sub systems, the major part of the power being used for vehicle climate control strategies in order to ensure an acceptable level of thermal comfort for the passengers. Driving range decreases with low temperatures in particular because cabin heating system requires significant amount of electric power. Range also decreases with high ambient temperatures because of the air conditioning system with electrically-driven compressor. Both thermal systems reduce EV driving range under real life operating cycles, which can be a barrier against market penetration. The structure of a vehicle is capable of absorbing a significant amount of heat when exposed to hot climate conditions. 50-70% of this heat penetrates through the glazing and raises both the internal cabin air temperature and the interior trim surface temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1187
Tatsuya Sugawara, Takuma Kanazawa, Naoki Imai, Yu Tachibana
Abstract This paper describes the motorized turbo compressor, which is a key technology for reducing the size of the fuel cell system for the Clarity Fuel Cell. The oxygen needed for fuel cell power generation is sent into the fuel cell by compressing the air from the atmosphere by a compressor. The conventionally used Lysholm compressor needed numerous sound absorbers, such as silencers and covers, to help achieve quietness when driving. Therefore, changing to a turbo compressor enhanced quietness and helped to eliminate or reduce the size of these auxiliary sound absorbers. Furthermore, a two-stage supercharging structure was used and the air pressure supplied to the fuel cell was increased to 1.7 times the previous air pressure. This increased the fuel cell power, which enabled to reduce the number of cells needed, and reduced the needed humidification amount which enabled to reduce the size of the humidifier. These enhancements helped to reduce the system size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1699
Luting Wang, Bo Chen
Abstract Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1182
Xin Guo, Xu Peng, Sichuan Xu
Abstract Startup from subzero temperature is one of the major challenges for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to realize commercialization. Below the freezing point (0°C), water will freeze easily, which blocks the reactant gases into the reaction sites, thus leading to the start failure and material degradation. Therefore, for PEMFC in vehicle application, finding suitable ways to reach successful startup from subfreezing environment is a prerequisite. As it’s difficult and complex for experimental studies to measure the internal quantities, mathematical models are the effective ways to study the detailed transport process and physical phenomenon, which make it possible to achieve detailed prediction of the inner life of the cell. However, review papers only on cold start numerical models are not available. In this study, an extensive review on cold start models is summarized featuring the states and phase changes of water, heat and mass transfer.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1179
Tatsuya Arai, Ozaki Takashi, Kazuki Amemiya, Tsuyoshi Takahashi
Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1189
Tsuyoshi Maruo, Masashi Toida, Tomohiro Ogawa, Yuji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Nada Mitsuhiro, Yoshihiro Ikogi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0627
Bo Yang, Peter Woyciesjes, Aleksei Gershun
Abstract In this paper, new test results in the use of electrochemical techniques to measure corrosion in extended life engine coolants are presented. Corrosion protection performance of the engine coolants (including both fresh coolants and simulated used coolants) for typical cooling system metals under heat rejecting and heat accepting surface corrosion conditions for both general corrosion and localized corrosion are measured under conditions similar to the ones encountered in vehicle engine cooling systems as a function of immersion time. Fleet tests of the coolants were also conducted. They are used to provide support on the electrochemical test methodologies adopted. The effective use of electrochemical techniques to aid the development of the next generation of extended life coolant technologies with improved corrosion protection performance and a longer service life will be demonstrated and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Abstract Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1206
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Perry Wyatt
Abstract Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery system plays an important balancing role of optimizing the battery design cost, maximizing for power and energy, and protecting the battery from abusive usage to achieve the intended life. The power capability estimation of any given lithium-ion battery system is impacted by the variability of many sources, such as cell and system components resistance, temperature, cell capacity, and real time state of charge and state of health estimation errors. This causes a distribution of power capability among battery packs that are built to the same design specification. We demonstrated that real time power limit estimation can only partially address the system variability due to the errors introduced by itself. Integrating feedback control algorithms with the lithium-ion battery model maximizes the battery power capability, improves the battery robustness to variabilities, and reduces the real time estimation errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1204
Xiao Yang, Ted Miller
Abstract We try to understand the fast recharge capability of automotive lithium-ion batteries and its effect of fast charge on capacity degradation. We find out that 5 Ah prismatic Li-ion cells can be fully recharged in 3 minutes under a constant rate of 20C, or in 2 min (25.5C) from 0% to 85% state of charge (SOC) without undue stresses. We cycle the battery at 16C charge rate from 0 to 100%SOC and do not see any unexpected battery capacity loss in 50 cycles, where half of the cycles are charged at1C-rate as a reference capacity check. We realize that the batteries under the fast charge tests do not experience any negative impacts related to mass transport in either solid electrodes or the electrolyte system. In the paper, we propose a new procedure to measure the ac and dc resistances of the battery under continuous operation. Electrochemical impedance analyses on the whole battery and the individual electrodes are also conducted.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1210
R. Dyche Anderson, Regan Zane, Gregory Plett, Dragan Maksimovic, Kandler Smith, M. Scott Trimboli
Abstract A new cell balancing technology was developed under a Department of Energy contract which merges the DC/DC converter function into cell balancing. Instead of conventional passive cell balancing technology which bypasses current through a resistor, or active cell balancing which moves current from one cell to another, with significant cost and additional inefficiencies, this concept takes variable amount of current from each cell or small group of cells and converts it to current for the low voltage system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1208
Kristin R. Cooney
Abstract This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1200
Vijay Saharan, Kenji Nakai
Abstract Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
Abstract A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1212
Hong Jia Hong, Jesus Ruiz Sevillano, Clemens Kain, Guenter Hofer, Karl Felber, Wai Keung Chan
Abstract The automotive industry is moving from fossil carburant to electric drive trains due to the stringent CO2 reduction policies. In this context, the electric energy storage becomes one of the key parameters of successful rolling out electrified vehicles. Typical battery management systems comprises of battery cells measurement and monitoring, balancing function, temperature monitoring, together with the State of Charge and State of Health estimations based on the given measurements. Together with the functions above, a robust internal IC communication protocol is one of the key parameters to guarantee battery performance as well as safety. This paper focuses on the automotive battery communication system. On one side, the importance of the communication system and its impact in the EDT (electric drive train) is discussed including safety aspects. Later on, the different communication methods up to date are analyzed to further understand their limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1214
Jujun Xia, Haifeng Dai, Zechang Sun, Massimo Venturi
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries have been applied in the new energy vehicles more and more widely. The inconsistency of battery cells imposes a lot of difficulties in parameter and state estimations. This paper proposes a new algorithm which can online identify the parameters of each individual battery cell accurately with limited increase of computational cost. An equivalent circuit battery model is founded and based on the RLS (recursive least squares) algorithm, an optimization algorithm with the construction of weight vectors is proposed which can identify the parameters of lithium battery pack considering inconsistency of single battery cell. Firstly, the average value of the parameters of the battery pack is identified with the traditional RLS algorithm. Then the ratios between the parameters of each battery cell can be deduced from the mathematical model of battery. These ratios are used to determine the weight vector of each parameter of individual battery cells.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0626
LeeAnn Wang, George Garfinkel, Ahteram Khan, Mayur Harsha, Prashanth Rao
Abstract When a driver completes an aggressive drive cycle on a hybrid vehicle, the High Voltage (HV) battery system may be at risk of exceeding the power limit temperature, due to continuous absorption of radiative and convective heat from the environment, such as from exhaust and pavement, even after key-off. In such a case, in the absence of active cooling, the vehicle may not be keyed-on until battery temperatures are reduced below critical values. A transient thermal analysis is conducted on a HV battery system to simulate the key-off operation using an effective Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology. Two stages are considered in this methodology to capture the complexity of the geometry and the multiple phenomena that need to be simulated in the model. The introduced modeling technique can be used for Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FHEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) transient key-off situations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
Abstract The engine compartment of passenger car application contains various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the body temperature of individual component. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the durability or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and its components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECUs, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
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