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2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0042
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0055
Yota Sakurai, Yoshinori Nakao, Astushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kunihiro Tanaka
In this study on the motorcycle engine, we investigated the geometry of the newly developed intake port with an objective of improving the fuel consumption and the torque in practical range. Herein we present the results obtained. We believe that an effective measure for achieving the stated objective is to improve the combustion speed and combustion stability. To realize that, it is necessary to increase the turbulence during combustion and improve the homogeneity of air-fuel mixture. To investigate the feasible shape of the port, the CFD simulation (including fuel spray analysis) was performed and a geometry that improved the turbulent kinetic energy and mixture homogeneity at the time of ignition was selected. For confirming the combustion improvement effect achieved by tumble strengthening, an engine test was conducted with the same amount of intake air as that used in.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0086
Shinji Takayanagi, Kiyotaka Sakai, Takashi Iwasa, Tomoyuki Matsumura, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kenji Tanaka
A low fuel consumption tire with an affordable price that is applicable for small motorcycles marketed mainly for India and Southeast Asian countries was developed. Two contradicting requirements, which are reduction of the rolling resistance and retention of the wet grip performance, were satisfied by applying a method based on viscoelastic properties of the tread rubber. Regarding the composition of compound of the tread rubber, the amounts of carbon black and oil were reduced instead of using silica. In addition, a polymer having a high glass transition temperature was employed. Moreover, response to the roll motion, which is unique in motorcycles, was made satisfactory to the requirement by modifying the dynamic modulus E* of the tread rubber. With those measures, the rolling resistance was reduced by more than 15% to conventional tires while maintaining the basic performances such as tire grip and stability in maneuvering.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2361
David R. Lancaster
Abstract Virtually all developed countries regulate light-duty vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Those regulations rely on different procedures and driving cycles in testing to different standards in different countries. As a result, it is often very difficult to compare the standards imposed by different countries. This paper utilizes publicly available data to compare the energy requirements of the chassis dynamometer driving cycles in common use throughout the world. It also examines the relative severity of the currently existing light duty vehicle CO2 standards, some of which are mass-based with a targeted fleet average, and some of which are individual vehicle targets based on footprint.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2353
Bernardo Tormos, Leonardo Ramirez, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Abstract One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2037
Daniel Schlabe, Dirk Zimmer, Alexander Pollok
Abstract The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. By allowing a temperature band of ± 2 K instead of a fixed temperature, it is possible to use this thermal dynamic of the cabin as energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of the ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power, or reduce engine offtake if it is costly or not sufficiently available. In the same way, also the aircraft galleys can be exploited. Since ECS and galleys are among the largest consumers of electrical power or bleed air, there is a large potential on improving energy efficiency or reducing system mass to reduce fuel consumption of aircraft. This paper investigates different exploitation strategies of cabin and galley dynamics using modelling and simulation.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9002
Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah, Stephen Morse, James Goddin, Gary Moore, Kevin M Morris, Jayne Rogers, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Andrew Clifton, Jacquetta Lee
Abstract Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0893
Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0155
Yongbing Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Xianyao Ping
Abstract The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0156
Olaf Erik Herrmann, Matteo Biglia, Takashi YASUDA, Sebastian Visser
Abstract The coming Diesel powertrains will remain as key technology in Europe to achieve the stringent 2025 CO2 emission targets. Especially for applications which are unlikely to be powered by pure EV technology like Light Duty vehicles and C/D segment vehicles which require a long driving range this is the case. To cope with these low CO2 targets the amount of electrification e.g. in form of 48V Belt-driven integrated Starter Generator (BSG) systems will increase. On the other hand the efficiency of the Diesel engine will increase which will result in lower exhaust gas temperatures resulting in a challenge to keep the required NOx reduction system efficiencies under Real Drive Emissions (RDE) driving conditions. In order to comply with the RDE legislation down to -7 °C ambient an efficient thermal management is one potential approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0192
Antti Lajunen
Abstract The energy used for cabin cooling and heating can drastically reduce the operating range of electric vehicles. The energy efficiency and performance of the cabin heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system depend on the system configuration and ambient conditions. The presented research investigates the energy efficiency and performance of cabin thermal management in electric vehicles. A simulation model of cabin heating and cooling systems was developed in the AMESim software. Simulations were carried out in the standard test cycles and one real-world driving cycle to take into account different driving behaviors and environments. The cabin thermal management performance was analyzed in relation to ambient temperature, system efficiency and cabin thermal balance. The simulation results showed that the driving range can shorten more than 50% in extreme cold conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0896
Philip Griefnow, Jakob Andert, Dejan Jolovic
Abstract The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible. Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0898
Jongwon Lee, Sedoo Oh, Kyung Sub Joo, Seyoung Yi, Kyoung-Pyo Ha, Seongbaek Joo
Abstract The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9277
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari
Abstract The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0203
Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Felipe Magazoni, Flavio Koiti Maruyama, Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Leonardo José Della Volpe, Alexandre Faraco Holl
Abstract Automakers are seeking more efficient and green vehicles projects in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Several factors are directly related to the performance and one of the most important is the aerodynamics. Cars with smooth geometries and transitions are expected to have a better aerodynamic behavior compared with the ones with rough geometries. Regardless the vehicle geometry changes, another way to improve the aerodynamics is by adding new parts, in order to improve the drag coefficient of the car. Most of the time, these parts are added but the functionality is not well defined. The main objective of this work is to identify, explain the way it should work and some applications of additional aeroparts. Those parts could be assembled in a vehicle in order to improve the drag coefficient, have a better fuel economy and lower emissions rate.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2219
Pramit Baul, Courtney Tamaro, Hrusheekesh Warpe, William Baumann, Douglas Nelson
Abstract EcoRouting refers to determining a route that minimizes vehicle energy consumption compared to traditional routing methods, which usually attempt to minimize travel time. EcoRoutes typically increase travel time and in some cases this increase may have to be constrained for the route to be viable. While significant research on EcoRouting exists for conventional vehicles, incorporating the novel aspects of plug-in hybrids opens up new areas to be explored. A prototype EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed and grade. The route with the minimum energy consumption is selected as the EcoRoute unless there is more than an 8% difference between the minimum time route and the EcoRoute.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1955
Liangyao Yu, Xiaohui Liu, Xiaoxue Liu
Abstract The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0527
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Marshall Cleland, Mark Driscoll
Abstract The power demands in terms of kilowatt-hour electrical use were compared for autoclave curing commercial thermosetting carbon fiber pre-pregs with an innovative alternative of high energy X-ray curing. An automotive component, now made with carbon fiber composites, was selected as an illustrative example, an Aston-Martin hood. Temperature resistant polyester molds for these hoods were used and manufacturer recommended autoclave curing conditions were followed. X-rays, which can penetrate about 15 cm (6 inches) in unit density materials (or less into higher density materials as molds), were used to cure pre-pregs made with a specialty matrix material using the same molds, but doing so without adding any heat for curing. High energy X-ray equipment, generated from a 7 MeV, 700 kW electron beam, is in commercial use for medical device sterilization. This same equipment can also be used for composite curing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0314
Larry Michaels, Curtis G. Adams, Michael Juskiewicz
Abstract A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0064
Sandhya Lingadahalli, Sudhakaran Maydiga, Matthew Darin
The need for improved vehicle energy efficiency has increased greatly in recent years along with regulatory fuel economy standards. One key aspect of energy efficiency for both conventional and alternative propulsion vehicles is the energy efficiency of the electrical architecture. In the design of electrical architectures there are several techniques available to increase the energy efficiency. One technique is to manage CAN serial data communication by using Partial Networks. This paper describes a model based approach for simulating the vehicle network behavior when CAN Partial Networking is used as the strategy for need based ECU activation. The simulation results will in turn provide ECU power consumption data to support various electrical architecture design decisions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1258
Tatsuya Iida, Hiroya Mitani, Mamoru Sato
Abstract 1 Inside a paint booth to spray paint on vehicle bodies, bumpers, and other parts (hereinafter referred to as “works”), air whose temperature and humidity are controlled by air-conditioner is supplied by blower fans through filters. Dust-eliminated and regulated air flow is sent downward from top to bottom (hereinafter referred to as “downflow”) in the painting booth. Conventionally, paint which does not adhere to work in spraying (hereinafter referred to as “paint mist”) is collected while flowing at a high speed through a slit opening called venturi scrubber in a mixture of air and water. However, this mist collecting system using venturi scrubber requires a large space with a large amount of pressure loss while consuming substantial energy. By radically changing the mist collecting principle, we developed a new compact system with less pressure loss aiming to reduce energy consumption by 40% in a half-size booth.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1200
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Dong Gao
Abstract Whether the available energy of the on-board battery pack is enough for the driver’s next trip is a major contributor in slowing the growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs). What’s more, the actual capacity of the battery pack depend on so many factors that a real-time estimation of the state of charge of the battery pack is often difficult. We proposed a big-data based algorithm to build a battery pack dynamic model for the online state of charge estimation and a stochastic model for the energy consumption prediction. And the good performance of sensors, high-bandwidth communication systems and cloud servers make it convenient to measure and collect the related data, which are grouped into three categories: standard, historical and real-time data. First a resistance-capacitance ( RC )-equivalent circuit is taken consideration to simplify the battery dynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0259
Kaushal Kumar Jha, Sarveshwar Reddy Mulamalla, Anil Anugu
Abstract The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1626
Hideyuki Kawamata, Satoru Kuroda, Shingo Tanaka, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract Reducing vehicle fuel consumption has become one of the most important issues in recent years in connection with environmental concerns such as global warming. Therefore, in the vehicle development process, attention has been focused on reducing aerodynamic drag as a way of improving fuel economy. When considering environmental issues, the development of vehicle aerodynamics must take into account real-world driving conditions. A crosswind is one of the representative conditions. It is well known that drag changes in a crosswind compared with a condition without a crosswind, and that the change depends on the vehicle shape. It is generally considered that the influence of a crosswind is relatively small since drag accounts for a small proportion of the total running resistance. However, for electric vehicles, the energy loss of the drive train is smaller than that of an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0241
Sina Shojaei, Simon Robinson, Andrew McGordon, James Marco
Abstract The power demand of air conditioning in PHEVs is known to have a significant impact on the vehicle’s fuel economy and performance. Besides the cooling power associated to the passenger cabin, in many PHEVs, the air conditioning system provides power to cool the high voltage battery. Calculating the cooling power demands of the cabin and battery and their impact on the vehicle performance can help with developing optimum system design and energy management strategies. In this paper, a representative vehicle model is used to calculate these cooling requirements over a 24-hour duty cycle. A number of pre-cooling and after-run cooling strategies are studied and effect of each strategy on the performance of the vehicle including, energy efficiency, battery degradation and passenger thermal comfort are calculated. Results show that after-run cooling of the battery should be considered as it can lead to significant reductions in battery degradation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2882
Abhishek Shah, R. R. Karthick, V Aravindan, Sanjay Phegade, Sappani Murugesh
Abstract This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
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