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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2296
Seunghyun Lee, Sungmoon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min, Insoo Jung
The diesel engine noise is classified into mechanical noise, flow dynamic noise and combustion noise. Among of them, the combustion noise is higher than the others due to diesel combustion high compression ratio and auto ignition. The injected fuel is mixed with air in ignition delay process, followed by simultaneous ignition of premixed mixture. This process results in rapid pressure rise which is the main source of the combustion noise. The amount of fuel burned during premixed combustion is mainly affected by the ignition delay. The EGR rate has impact on the ignition delay, and thus it influences combustion noise characteristics. Therefore, during the transient state, combustion noise characteristics changes as the EGR rate deviates from the target value. Therefore, in this study, the effect of EGR rate deviation during transient state the combustion noise is studied. The 1.6 L diesel engine with a VGT was used for the experiment.
2015-05-26
Standard
AMS2641C
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids.
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9016
Jean-Baptiste Gallo, Christopher Weaver
Abstract In-service emissions measurements were conducted on two package delivery trucks: one model year 2008 FCCC MT-55 conventional diesel and one model year 2012 FCCC MT-55 hydraulic hybrid (HHV). Mass emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, PM, and THC from the HHV and the conventional diesel test vehicle were each measured under conditions closely simulating normal package delivery operation. The HHV demonstrated a 29.4% improvement in fuel economy and a 17.4% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the conventional diesel vehicle. The HHV showed its best potential in operating areas characterized by low driving speeds and high number of stops (“pick-up and delivery”) with a 40.5% improvement in fuel economy and a 21.2% reduction in CO2 emissions.
2015-04-23
Standard
J2992_201504
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as "EPA Part 1065") on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J1115
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1083
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Patrick P. Chen, Jasna Tomic, Richard Parish
Abstract Emissions, fuel economy, and performance are determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles are 2010 class 8 Freightliner tractor trucks equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The hybrid has lower carbon dioxide emissions, better fuel economy, and nitrogen oxide emissions statistically the same as the conventional. The CO emissions are well below the standards for both vehicles, but they are higher from the hybrid. The higher CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the standard 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid are negative.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0503
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Haobo Xu, Xin Li, Zhaohua Wang, Can Wang
Abstract Plenty of dust particles which are generated when a sweeping vehicle is dumping harm to workers' health. In the study, the designed vacuum dust control system could effectively capture easily raised dust particles in the air in the premise of not impacting the dumping process so as to improve the unloading work environment. Firstly, longitudinal motion trajectory model of dust particles in the dumping process is established. Based on the side collision probability model of dust particles, lateral velocity distribution of dust particles is obtained. What's more, the scope of lateral dust particles is determined. Taking into account coupling of the dust control system and the working state of the vehicle, the suction mouth is arranged at the edge on the outside of hatch cover. Centrifugal horizontal dust removal system designed in the research is fixed in the middle of the filter cover part and discharging hatch cover area.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
Abstract The depletion of resources, increased cost of fossil fuel and increased environmental awareness reaching the critical condition. Development of viable alternative fuels from renewable resources is gaining the international attention and acceptance. The vegetable oils have the potential of alternative fuel for compression ignition engines by converting it into biodiesel. The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1221
Jamie Knapp, Adam Chapman, Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram D. Jadhav, Madhukar S Tandale
Abstract The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In present study, the transesterification processes with heterogeneous catalyst. The various input parameters like methanol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO), catalyst concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) were studied by applying the orthogonal experimental array L9.ANOVA (F-test at P=0.05 contribution of each signal to noise factor) technique was used for optimization with the objective of maximizing the yield of high quality mangifera indica oil biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Abstract This article experimentally characterizes the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The experiments have been conducted for different engine speeds at various throttle positions. The experimental results demonstrated that engine brake power and brake thermal efficiency increased to certain extent and then decreases with the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel blend. The experimental results revealed that heat release and cylinder pressure increased with addition of hydrogen fraction till 20%. It also showed the reduction in HC and CO emissions in comparison with pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1730
Luca Romani, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Francesco Balduzzi, Paolo Trassi, Jacopo Fiaschi, Federico Tozzi
Abstract High specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are the main drawbacks of the small crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine. The symmetrical port timing combined with a carburetor or an indirect injection system leads to a lower scavenging efficiency than a four-stroke engine and to the short-circuit of fresh air-fuel mixture. The use of fuel supply systems as the indirect injection and the carburetor is the standard solution for small two-stroke engine equipment, due to the necessity of reducing the complexity, weight, overall dimensions and costs. This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the application of an innovative Low Pressure Direct Injection system (LPDI) on an existing 300 cm3 cylinder formerly equipped with a carburetor. The proposed solution is characterized by two injectors working at 5 bar of injection pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
Abstract The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1637
SeungBum Kim, SeongMin Park, DongUk Han
Abstract This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1631
Michinori Tani, Atsuhiro Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Matsuzono
Abstract Recently, automotive emission regulations are being further tightened, such as the Tier III/LEV III in the U.S. As a result, reducing cost of after-treatment systems to meet these strict regulations has become an urgent issue, and then the demand for high-precision air-fuel ratio (A/F) control which can achieve this cost reduction is high [1]. On the other hand, in order to meet rapidly changing market needs, it is becoming difficult to keep enough development periods that enable sufficient calibration by trial-and-error, such as feedback-gain calibration. This leads to an increase in three-way catalytic converter costs in some cases. For these reasons, it is necessary to construct control system that can make full use of hardware capabilities, can shorten development periods regardless of the skill level of engineers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1626
Qingning Zhang, Andrew Pennycott, Richard Burke, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace
Abstract Nitrogen oxides emissions are an important aspect of engine design and calibration due to increasingly strict legislation. As a consequence, accurate modeling of nitrogen oxides emissions from Diesel engines could play a crucial role during the design and development phases of vehicle powertrain systems. A key step in future engine calibration will be the need to capture the nonlinear behavior of the engine with respect to nitrogen oxides emissions within a rapid-calculating mathematical model. These models will then be used in optimization routines or on-board control features. In this paper, an artificial neural network structure incorporating a number of engine variables as inputs including torque, speed, oil temperature and variables related to fuel injection is developed as a method of predicting the production of nitrogen oxides based on measured test data. A multi-layer perceptron model is identified and validated using data from dynamometry tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1639
Indranil Brahma, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Henrique Chiang, Vincent Giralo, Peter Stryker, Daniel Johnson, Aaron Clark
Abstract EGR flow rate measurements on production engines are commonly made using orifices or flow nozzles. These devices increase the exhaust pressure resulting in an increase in fuel consumption. Further, they are accurate and recommended only for steady state flow, and not pulsating flow encountered in engines. In this work measurements made at the EGR cooler, such as the pressure drop across it and the inlet and outlet temperatures, have been examined for their ability to predict mass flow rate through the cooler. Direct measurements of pulsating flow through an EGR cooler were made by routing all of the engine exhaust flow through the cooler while making accurate measurements of the air and fuel flowing into the engine. Based on dimensional arguments, the flow resistance of the EGR cooler was characterized by a loss coefficient within the standard head loss energy equation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0831
Wonah Park, Youngchul Ra, Eric Kurtz, Werner Willems, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The low temperature combustion concept is very attractive for reducing NOx and soot emissions in diesel engines. However, it has potential limitations due to higher combustion noise, CO and HC emissions. A multiple injection strategy is an effective way to reduce unburned emissions and noise in LTC. In this paper, the effect of multiple injection strategies was investigated to reduce combustion noise and unburned emissions in LTC conditions. A hybrid surrogate fuel model was developed and validated, and was used to improve LTC predictions. Triple injection strategies were considered to find the role of each pulse and then optimized. The split ratio of the 1st and 2nd pulses fuel was found to determine the ignition delay. Increasing mass of the 1st pulse reduced unburned emissions and an increase of the 3rd pulse fuel amount reduced noise. It is concluded that the pulse distribution can be used as a control factor for emissions and noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0827
Yan Zhang, Macklini Dalla Nora, Hua Zhao
Abstract Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0389
Zhichao Zhao, Zhengxin Xu, Jingping Liu, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee, Wayne Chang, Jie Hou
Abstract A multi-step acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) phenomenological soot model was proposed and implemented into KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Experiments were conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber to investigate the combustion and soot emission characteristics under the conditions of 1000 K initial temperature with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 11%). Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in conjunction under the same operation conditions. The predicted soot mass traces showed good agreement with experimental data. As ambient oxygen decreased from 21% to 11%, ignition delay retarded and the distribution of temperature became more homogenous. Compared to 21% ambient oxygen, the peak value of total soot mass at 16% oxygen concentration was higher due to the suppressed soot oxidation mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0379
Yongli Qi, Xinyu Ge, Lichun Dong
The hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems, such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. To achieve the goal of increasing tolerance to EGR, this work reports a CFD investigation of high tumble intake port design using STAR-CD. The validations had been performed through the comparison with PIV experimental tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0895
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Venkatesan Kuppusamy, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan
Abstract This paper aims at studying the effect of oxygen enriched combustion on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil (WCO) derived from palm oil as fuel. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine was used. The intake system of the engine was modified to accommodate excess oxygen in the incoming air. Base data was generated using diesel as fuel. Subsequently experiments were repeated with WCO for different oxygen concentrations such as 21% (WCO+21%O2), 23% (WCO+23%O2), 24% (WCO+24%O2) and 25% (WCO+25%O2) by volume. Engine performance, emission and combustion parameters were obtained at different power outputs and analyzed. Results showed reduced brake thermal efficiency, higher smoke, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions with WCO+21%O2 as compared to diesel at all power outputs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0903
Neeraj Mittal, Pradeep Patanwal, M Sithananthan, M Subramanian, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das
Abstract N-butanol is a promising alternative fuel which needs no engine modification when used as a blend with diesel. The miscibility of n-butanol with diesel is excellent in a wide range of blending ratios. N-butanol has high oxygen content and a comparable energy content, specific gravity and viscosity to that of diesel, which makes it attractive for diesel engines as an alternative fuel. An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the performance of a new generation passenger car with respect to power, fuel economy (FE) and mass emission using 5, 10 and 20 percent (by vol.) n-butanol blends with diesel (NB). Computer controlled DC motor driven chassis dynamometer, AVL AMA I60 mass emission measuring system and AVL FSN smoke meter were used for measuring wide open throttle (WOT) power, road load simulation (RLS) fuel economy, mass emissions and smoke in WOT and steady speed driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Jai Gopal Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0905
Seyed Hadavi, Buland Dizayi, Hu Li, Alison Tomlin
Abstract To maximize CO2 reduction, refined straight used cooking oils were used as a fuel in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) in this research. The fuel is called C2G Ultra Biofuel (C2G: Convert to Green Ltd) and is a fully renewable fuel made as a diesel replacement from processed used cooking oil, used directly in diesel engines specifically modified for this purpose. This is part of a large demonstration project involving ten 44-tonne trucks using C2G Ultra Biofuel as a fuel to partially replace standard diesel fuels. A dual fuel tank containing both diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel and an on-board fuel blending system-Bioltec system was installed on each vehicle, which is able to heat the C2G Ultra Biofuel and automatically determine the required blending ratio of diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel according to fuel temperature and engine load. The engine was started with diesel and then switched to C2G Ultra Biofuel under appropriate conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0908
Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Chia-Fon Lee, Shengming Liao
Abstract Butanol has proved to be a very promising alternative fuel in recent years. The production of bio-butanol, typically done using the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is expensive and consumes a lot of energy. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. water-containing ABE as a potential fuel. The combustion and emissions performance of ABE29.5W0.5 (29.5 vol.% ABE, 0.5 vol.% water and gasoline blend), ABE30 (30 vol.% ABE and gasoline blend) and ABE0 (pure gasoline) were investigated in this study. The results showed that ABE29.5W0.5 enhanced engine torque by 9.6%-12.7% and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 5.2%-11.6% compared to pure gasoline, respectively. ABE29.5W0.5 also showed similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) relative to pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0909
Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Li Yuqiang, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, especially n-butanol, have received a lot of attention as potential fuels and have shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. ABE, the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is being studied as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0854
Jeongwoo Lee, Sanghyun Chu, Jaehyuk Cha, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Abstract Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
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