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Viewing 1 to 30 of 15460
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1841
Peter R. Hooper
Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.
2016-05-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9109
Roxanna Moores, Nicholas Cernansky, Gregory Birky, Timothy Suder
Abstract In this study a 1-dimensional computational model of a Fe-Zeolite catalyst, implementing conservation of mass, species and energy for both gas and catalyst surface phases has been developed to simulate emissions conversion performance. It is applied to both a fresh catalyst and one that has been aged through exposure to the exhaust system of a Heavy Duty Diesel engine performing in the field for 376K miles. Details of the chemical kinetics associated with the various NOx reduction reactions in the two Fe-Zeolite configurations have been examined and correlated with data from a synthetic gas rig test bench. It was found that the Standard reaction, (4NH3 + 4NO + O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O), which is one of the main reactions for NOx reduction, degraded significantly at the lower temperatures for the aged system.
2016-05-17
Magazine
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.
2016-05-16
WIP Standard
AS29512C
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-04-13
Standard
ARP1533C
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact. While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines, the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Abstract A low pressure exhaust gas recirculation system (LP EGR system) enables the expansion of the EGR operating area than that of the widely used high pressure EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions can be improved. In order to meet the EU 5 emissions regulations, an exhaust throttle LP EGR system was used. The EU5 vehicles developed using this system have greater merits than other vehicles. However, because the exhaust throttle LP EGR valve is installed adjacent to the after-treatment system, the material of the LP EGR valve itself must be stainless steel in order to withstand the thermal stress, consequently, the cost is increased. Therefore, in order to achieve cost rationalization for EU6 vehicles, an intake throttle LP EGR system is developed and applied to replace the exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In order to apply the intake throttle LP EGR system, the EGR valve is installed in front of the turbo charger compressor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
Abstract The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate is a critical parameter of turbocharged diesel engines because it determines the trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. On some heavy duty engines the EGR mass flow is directly measured with a Venturibased sensor and a closed loop control system maintains EGR flow. However, on most light duty diesel engines the EGR mass flow must be estimated. This paper compares two methods for estimating EGR mass flow. The first method, referred to as the Speed Density method, serves as a baseline for comparison and uses sensors for engine speed, intake manifold pressure and temperature, as well as fresh air flow (MAF). The new, second method adds turbo speed to this sensor set, and includes additional engine modelling equations, such as the EGR valve equation and the turbine equation. Special measures are taken to allow the additional equations to execute without issue on production ECMs (Electronics Controls Modules).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1052
Adwitiya Dube, A Ramesh
Abstract Direct injection of fuel has been seen as a potential method to reduce fuel short circuiting in two stroke engines. However, most work has been on low pressure injection. In this work, which employed high pressure direct injection in a small two stroke engine (2S-GDI), a detailed study of injection parameters affecting performance and combustion has been presented based on experiments for evaluating its potential. Influences of injection pressure (IP), injection timing (end of injection - EOI) and location of the spark plug at different operating conditions in a 199.3 cm3 automotive two stroke engine using a real time open engine controller were studied. Experiments were conducted at different throttle positions and equivalence ratios at a speed of 3000 rpm with various sets of injection parameters and spark plug locations. The same engine was also run in the manifold injection (2S-MI) mode under similar conditions for comparison.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0871
Sanjoy Biswas, Manish Bakshi, G Shankar, Achintya Mukhopadhyay
Abstract An emissions, combustion noise and performance study were conducted to explore the effects of two different multiple injections strategies on emissions, combustion noise and performances without altering EGR %. The experiments were done on a six cylinder inline CRDI diesel production engine. The aim of this study is to improve performances (brake specific fuel consumption [BSFC], torque) and combustion noise (reduction) using multiple injection strategies without violating emission regulations. The other objective of this carried-out analysis is to examine the influence of different operating parameters (Speed and Load) and main injection timing combined, on same multiple injection strategies (Pilot- main – after {PMA}and Early - pilot- main –after {EPMA}) by means of analyzing emissions/soot, combustion noise and performances data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Biodiesel is a potential alternative to Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD); however, it often suffers from increased fuel consumption in comparison to ULSD when injection timings and/or pressures are similar. To decrease fuel consumption, increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate the issues associated with its relatively high viscosity and lower energy content. When doing so, the literature indicates decreased emissions, albeit with potentially greater nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in contrast to ULSD. In order to better understand the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions, this study explores the influence of fuel injection pressure on ULSD, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) biodiesel, and their blends in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. In particular, fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to attempt to mimic the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation using ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0845
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using wellcharacterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0981
Susan Collet
Abstract Light Duty Vehicle corporate average fuel economy (CAFE), fuel economy label, and greenhouse gas (GHG) requirements are related but are very different. The fundamentals to obtain the data are the same, but to derive the required values, the final formulas have different components. These formulas, how to obtain the values which comprise the formulas, and how to use the test output to obtain the final result necessary to determine compliance with the standards are in regulations, but are not easily located. The information is contained in many documents; such as various sections in the Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance documents, SAE International papers, American Society of Testing and Materials standards, and law suit judgments. This paper compiles the fundamentals of vehicle CAFE, fuel economy label, and GHG information. The intent is to provide a reference to the foundation of these requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0983
Travis C. Malouf, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper presents details of the development of, and experimental results from, an internal combustion engine dynamic cylinder heat transfer control device for use on single-cylinder research engines. This device replicates the varying temperature profile and heat transfer distribution circumferentially around a cylinder in a multicylinder engine. This circumferential temperature distribution varies around a cylinder because of the location of, or lack of coolant passages around the cylinders, and varies from cylinder to cylinder as a result of the flow of the coolant through these passages as it accumulates thermal energy and increases in temperature. This temperature distribution is important because it directly affects the NO emissions from each cylinder, as will be seen in the experimental results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0975
Xander Seykens, Erik van den Tillaart, Velizara Lilova, Shigeru Nakatani
Abstract Since the introduction of Euro IV legislation [1, 2], Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for NOx reduction in many applications. Ammonia (NH3) is the reagent and key element for the SCR system and its control calibration to meet all operational requirements. TNO and Horiba are highly motivated to facilitate a correct interpretation and use of emissions measurement data. Different hypotheses were defined to investigate the impact of temperatures and flow rates on urea decomposition. These parameters are known to strongly affect the urea decomposition process, and thus, the formation of NH3. During a test campaign, different SCR catalyst feed gas conditions (mass flow, temperature, species and dosing quantities) were applied. Three Horiba FTIR gas analyzers were installed to simultaneously sample either all upstream or all downstream of the SCR brick. Both steady-state and dynamic responses were evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0977
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Zbigniew Stepien, Stanislaw Oleksiak
Abstract A well-balanced use of alternative fuels worldwide is an important objective for a sustainable development of individual transportation. Several countries have objectives to substitute a part of the energy of traffic by ethanol as the renewable energy source. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Investigations of limited and unregulated emissions of a flex fuel vehicle with gasoline-ethanol blend fuel have been performed in the present work on the chassis dynamometer according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Network to adequately consider the transient (WLTC) and the stationary operation (SSC). The investigated fuel contained ethanol (E), in the portions of 10% & 85% by volume. The investigated vehicle represented a newer state of technology and an emission level of Euro 5. The engine works with homogenous GDI concept and with 3-W-catalyst (3WC).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0978
Nolan Wright, Dustin Osborne, Nathan Music
Abstract Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0970
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Viktor Schimik, Klaus Gabel
Abstract In this work we extended the findings from a previous study by the authors on the mechanisms and influence factors of deposit formation in urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) [1]. A broader range of operating conditions was investigated in detail. In order to quantify the boundary conditions of deposition, a representative set of deposits was studied during formation and decomposition. A box of heat resisting glass was equipped with a surrogate mixing element to monitor solidification timescales, temperatures and deposit growth. A chemical analysis of the deposits was performed using thermogravimetry. The depletion timescales of individual deposit components were systematically investigated. A moderate temperature increase to 350 °C was deemed sufficient to trigger fast decomposition of deposits formed below 250 °C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0973
Takafumi Yamauchi, Yoshiki Takatori, Koichiro Fukuda, Masatoshi Maruyama
Abstract Urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems are getting a lot of attention as the most promising NOx reduction technology for heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. In order to promote an effective development for an optimal urea-SCR after-treatment system, it is important to clarify the decomposition behavior of the injected urea and a detailed reaction chemistry of the reactants on the catalyst surface in exhaust gases. In this paper we discuss experimental and numerical studies for the development of a numerical simulation model for the urea-SCR catalyst converter. As a first step, in order to clarify the behavior of reductants in an urea-SCR converter, two types of diagnostic technique were developed; one is for measuring the amount of NH3, and the other is for measuring the amount of total reductants including unreacted urea and iso-cyanic acid. These techniques were applied to examine the behavior of reductants at the inlet and inside the SCR converter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0966
Yujun Wang, Carl Kamp
It has been observed that a certain percentage of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle of DPF inlet channels, which can potentially reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50%. As a result, the mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel. This explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. Moreover, the mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective. In the present study, an open source CFD tool is applied to study the 3D flow crossing two representative inlet and outlet DPF channels where the inlet channels have mid-channel ash plugs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0968
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Chrysoula Pagkoura, Souzana Lorentzou, Georgia Kastrinaki
Abstract Catalysts that have been extensively investigated for direct soot oxidation in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are very often based on mixed oxides of ceria with zirconia, materials known to assist soot oxidation by providing oxygen to the soot through an oxidation-reduction catalytic cycle. Besides the catalyst composition that significantly affects soot oxidation, other parameters such as morphological characteristics of the catalyst largely determined by the synthesis technique followed, as well as the reagents used in the synthesis may also contribute to the activity of the catalysts. In the present work, two ceria-zirconia catalyst samples with different zirconia content were subjected to different milling protocols with the aim to shift the catalyst particle size distribution to lower values. The produced catalysts were then evaluated with respect to their soot oxidation activity following established protocols from previous works.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0963
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Giorgio Amati, Elio Jannelli, Giacomo Falcucci
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is perhaps the most efficient process to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in engine exhaust gas. Research efforts are currently devoted to realizing and tuning SCR-reactors for automotive applications to meet the severe future emission standards, such as the European “Euro VI”, in terms of NOx and particulate matter produced by vehicles. In this paper, we apply for the first time the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) as a computational tool to study the performance of a SCR reactor. LBM has been recently adopted for the study of complex phenomena of technical interest, and it is characterized by a detailed reproduction of both the porous structure of SCR reactor and the fluid-dynamic and chemical phenomena that take place in it. The aim of our model is to predict the behavior and performances of SCR reactor by accounting for the physical and chemical interactions between exhaust gas flow and the reactor.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0969
Johann C. Wurzenberger, Sophie Bardubitzki, Susanne Kutschi, Robert Fairbrother, Christoph Poetsch
The present work introduces an extended particulate filter model focusing on capabilities to cover catalytic and surface storage reactions and to serve as a virtual multi-functional reactor/separator. The model can be classified as a transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D two-channel model. The applied modeling framework offers the required modeling depth to investigate arbitrary catalytic reaction schemes and it follows the computational requirement of running in real-time. The trade-off between model complexity and computational speed is scalable. The model is validated with the help of an analytically solved reference and the model parametrization is demonstrated by simulating experimentally given temperatures of a heat-up measurement. The detailed 1D+1D model is demonstrated in a concept study comparing the impact of different spatial washcoat distributions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0962
Sadashiva Prabhu S, Nagaraj S Nayak, N. Kapilan
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a most promising technique for reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from the exhaust of diesel engines. Urea Water Solution (UWS) is injected to hot exhaust gas stream to generate reducing agent ammonia. The droplet evaporation of Urea Water Solution (UWS) is investigated for single droplet in heated environment ranging temperatures 373K-873K theoretically. The theoretical methods which are implemented into CFD code Fire 8.3 from AVL Corp. involve Rapid Mixing model and Diffusion Limit model which consider stationary droplet and variable properties of the UWS. The UWS droplet revealed different evaporation characteristics depending on its ambient temperatures which are numerically predicted by simulated results. The simulated results are validated with experimental values of Wang et al. [9] which are helpful in predicting the evaporation and UWS dosing strategy at different exhaust gas temperatures in real SCR system.
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