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2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1841
Peter R. Hooper
Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.
2016-04-13
Standard
ARP1533C
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact. While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines, the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0295
Sentao Miao, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Boxiao Chen, Xiuli Chao, Erica Klampfl, Michael Tamor
With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol, and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways, provides some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means of achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generating sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the societal cost of GHG reductions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0749
Kelvin Xie, Tadanori Yanai, Zhenyi Yang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1141
Kevin A. Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1176
Karim Hamza, Ken Laberteaux
Abstract This work presents a modeling approach for estimation of the equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for real driving patterns and charging behaviors. In general, modeling of the equivalent GHG for a trip made by a PHEV not only depends on the trip trace in question, but also on the electric range of the vehicle and energy consumption in previous trips since the last charging event. This can significantly increase the necessary computational burden of estimating the GHG emissions using numerical simulation tools, which are already computationally-expensive. The proposed approach allows a trip numerical simulation starting with a fully charged battery to be re-used for GHG estimation of a trip that starts with any initial state of charge by re-allocating the appropriate amount electric energy to an equivalent gas consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1071
Sangchul Lee, SeongMin Park, Changsun Hwang
Abstract A low pressure exhaust gas recirculation system (LP EGR system) enables the expansion of the EGR operating area than that of the widely used high pressure EGR system. As a result, fuel consumption and emissions can be improved. In order to meet the EU 5 emissions regulations, an exhaust throttle LP EGR system was used. The EU5 vehicles developed using this system have greater merits than other vehicles. However, because the exhaust throttle LP EGR valve is installed adjacent to the after-treatment system, the material of the LP EGR valve itself must be stainless steel in order to withstand the thermal stress, consequently, the cost is increased. Therefore, in order to achieve cost rationalization for EU6 vehicles, an intake throttle LP EGR system is developed and applied to replace the exhaust throttle LP EGR system. In order to apply the intake throttle LP EGR system, the EGR valve is installed in front of the turbo charger compressor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1064
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran
Abstract The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate is a critical parameter of turbocharged diesel engines because it determines the trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. On some heavy duty engines the EGR mass flow is directly measured with a Venturibased sensor and a closed loop control system maintains EGR flow. However, on most light duty diesel engines the EGR mass flow must be estimated. This paper compares two methods for estimating EGR mass flow. The first method, referred to as the Speed Density method, serves as a baseline for comparison and uses sensors for engine speed, intake manifold pressure and temperature, as well as fresh air flow (MAF). The new, second method adds turbo speed to this sensor set, and includes additional engine modelling equations, such as the EGR valve equation and the turbine equation. Special measures are taken to allow the additional equations to execute without issue on production ECMs (Electronics Controls Modules).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1090
Kwang Hee Yoo, John Hoard, Andre Boehman, Matthew Gegich
Abstract Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1052
Adwitiya Dube, A Ramesh
Abstract Direct injection of fuel has been seen as a potential method to reduce fuel short circuiting in two stroke engines. However, most work has been on low pressure injection. In this work, which employed high pressure direct injection in a small two stroke engine (2S-GDI), a detailed study of injection parameters affecting performance and combustion has been presented based on experiments for evaluating its potential. Influences of injection pressure (IP), injection timing (end of injection - EOI) and location of the spark plug at different operating conditions in a 199.3 cm3 automotive two stroke engine using a real time open engine controller were studied. Experiments were conducted at different throttle positions and equivalence ratios at a speed of 3000 rpm with various sets of injection parameters and spark plug locations. The same engine was also run in the manifold injection (2S-MI) mode under similar conditions for comparison.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0871
Sanjoy Biswas, Manish Bakshi, G Shankar, Achintya Mukhopadhyay
Abstract An emissions, combustion noise and performance study were conducted to explore the effects of two different multiple injections strategies on emissions, combustion noise and performances without altering EGR %. The experiments were done on a six cylinder inline CRDI diesel production engine. The aim of this study is to improve performances (brake specific fuel consumption [BSFC], torque) and combustion noise (reduction) using multiple injection strategies without violating emission regulations. The other objective of this carried-out analysis is to examine the influence of different operating parameters (Speed and Load) and main injection timing combined, on same multiple injection strategies (Pilot- main – after {PMA}and Early - pilot- main –after {EPMA}) by means of analyzing emissions/soot, combustion noise and performances data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Biodiesel is a potential alternative to Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD); however, it often suffers from increased fuel consumption in comparison to ULSD when injection timings and/or pressures are similar. To decrease fuel consumption, increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate the issues associated with its relatively high viscosity and lower energy content. When doing so, the literature indicates decreased emissions, albeit with potentially greater nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in contrast to ULSD. In order to better understand the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions, this study explores the influence of fuel injection pressure on ULSD, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) biodiesel, and their blends in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. In particular, fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to attempt to mimic the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation using ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0875
Ludvig Adlercreutz, Andreas Cronhjort, Johannes Andersen, Roy Ogink
Abstract With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0845
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using wellcharacterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0980
Jerzy Merkisz, Jacek Pielecha, Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0981
Susan Collet
Abstract Light Duty Vehicle corporate average fuel economy (CAFE), fuel economy label, and greenhouse gas (GHG) requirements are related but are very different. The fundamentals to obtain the data are the same, but to derive the required values, the final formulas have different components. These formulas, how to obtain the values which comprise the formulas, and how to use the test output to obtain the final result necessary to determine compliance with the standards are in regulations, but are not easily located. The information is contained in many documents; such as various sections in the Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance documents, SAE International papers, American Society of Testing and Materials standards, and law suit judgments. This paper compiles the fundamentals of vehicle CAFE, fuel economy label, and GHG information. The intent is to provide a reference to the foundation of these requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0983
Travis C. Malouf, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper presents details of the development of, and experimental results from, an internal combustion engine dynamic cylinder heat transfer control device for use on single-cylinder research engines. This device replicates the varying temperature profile and heat transfer distribution circumferentially around a cylinder in a multicylinder engine. This circumferential temperature distribution varies around a cylinder because of the location of, or lack of coolant passages around the cylinders, and varies from cylinder to cylinder as a result of the flow of the coolant through these passages as it accumulates thermal energy and increases in temperature. This temperature distribution is important because it directly affects the NO emissions from each cylinder, as will be seen in the experimental results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0975
Xander Seykens, Erik van den Tillaart, Velizara Lilova, Shigeru Nakatani
Abstract Since the introduction of Euro IV legislation [1, 2], Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for NOx reduction in many applications. Ammonia (NH3) is the reagent and key element for the SCR system and its control calibration to meet all operational requirements. TNO and Horiba are highly motivated to facilitate a correct interpretation and use of emissions measurement data. Different hypotheses were defined to investigate the impact of temperatures and flow rates on urea decomposition. These parameters are known to strongly affect the urea decomposition process, and thus, the formation of NH3. During a test campaign, different SCR catalyst feed gas conditions (mass flow, temperature, species and dosing quantities) were applied. Three Horiba FTIR gas analyzers were installed to simultaneously sample either all upstream or all downstream of the SCR brick. Both steady-state and dynamic responses were evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0977
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Zbigniew Stepien, Stanislaw Oleksiak
Abstract A well-balanced use of alternative fuels worldwide is an important objective for a sustainable development of individual transportation. Several countries have objectives to substitute a part of the energy of traffic by ethanol as the renewable energy source. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Investigations of limited and unregulated emissions of a flex fuel vehicle with gasoline-ethanol blend fuel have been performed in the present work on the chassis dynamometer according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Network to adequately consider the transient (WLTC) and the stationary operation (SSC). The investigated fuel contained ethanol (E), in the portions of 10% & 85% by volume. The investigated vehicle represented a newer state of technology and an emission level of Euro 5. The engine works with homogenous GDI concept and with 3-W-catalyst (3WC).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0978
Nolan Wright, Dustin Osborne, Nathan Music
Abstract Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
Abstract Catalyst aging is presently one of the most important aspects in aftertreatment development, with legislation stating that these systems must be able to meet the relevant emissions legislation up to a specified mileage on the vehicle, typically 150,000 miles. The current industry approach for controlling aging cycles is based solely on the detailed specification of lambda (air-fuel mixture concentration ratio), flow rate and temperature without any limitations on gas mixture. This is purely based upon the experience of engine-based aging and does not take into account any variation due to different engine operation. Although accurate for comparative testing on the same engine/engine type, inconsistencies can be observed across different aging methods, engine types and engine operators largely driven by the capability of the technology used.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0970
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Viktor Schimik, Klaus Gabel
Abstract In this work we extended the findings from a previous study by the authors on the mechanisms and influence factors of deposit formation in urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) [1]. A broader range of operating conditions was investigated in detail. In order to quantify the boundary conditions of deposition, a representative set of deposits was studied during formation and decomposition. A box of heat resisting glass was equipped with a surrogate mixing element to monitor solidification timescales, temperatures and deposit growth. A chemical analysis of the deposits was performed using thermogravimetry. The depletion timescales of individual deposit components were systematically investigated. A moderate temperature increase to 350 °C was deemed sufficient to trigger fast decomposition of deposits formed below 250 °C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0971
Stefano Sabatini, Irfan Kil, Travis Hamilton, Jeff Wuttke, Luis Del Rio, Michael Smith, Zoran Filipi, Mark A. Hoffman, Simona Onori
Abstract The Three Way Catalyst (TWC) is an effective pollutant conversion system widely used in current production vehicles to satisfy emissions regulations. A TWC’s conversion efficiency degrades over time due to chemical and/or thermal mechanisms causing the catalyst to age. This reduction in conversion efficiency must be accounted for to ensure full useful life emissions compliance. This paper presents an experimental study of the aging impact on TWC performance. Four TWCs differentiated by their age, given in terms of miles driven, were tested. It is shown that the dynamics of oxygen storage are substantially affected by aging of the TWC. A previously developed physics-based oxygen storage model [1] is subsequently used to incorporate the effect of aging on the total Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC). Parameter identification results for the different age catalysts show that total oxygen storage capacity decreases substantially with aging and is insensitive to operating conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0973
Takafumi Yamauchi, Yoshiki Takatori, Koichiro Fukuda, Masatoshi Maruyama
Abstract Urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems are getting a lot of attention as the most promising NOx reduction technology for heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. In order to promote an effective development for an optimal urea-SCR after-treatment system, it is important to clarify the decomposition behavior of the injected urea and a detailed reaction chemistry of the reactants on the catalyst surface in exhaust gases. In this paper we discuss experimental and numerical studies for the development of a numerical simulation model for the urea-SCR catalyst converter. As a first step, in order to clarify the behavior of reductants in an urea-SCR converter, two types of diagnostic technique were developed; one is for measuring the amount of NH3, and the other is for measuring the amount of total reductants including unreacted urea and iso-cyanic acid. These techniques were applied to examine the behavior of reductants at the inlet and inside the SCR converter.
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