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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0063
Marc Cyrill Besch, April Nicole Covington, Derek Johnson, Nathan Fowler, Robert Heltzel
The aim of this investigation was to improve understanding and quantify the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as an emissions control measure onto cyclic variability of a small-bore, single-cylinder, diesel-fueled compression-ignition (CI) power generation unit. Of special interest were how cycle-to-cycle variations of the CI engine affect steady-state voltage deviations and frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the study strived to elucidate the impact of EGR addition onto combustion parameters, as well as gaseous and particle phase emissions along with fuel consumption. The power generation unit was operated over five discrete steady-state test modes, representative of nominal 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% engine load (i.e. 0-484kPa BMEP), by absorbing electrical power via a resistive load bank. The engine was equipped with a passive EGR system that directly connected the exhaust and intake runners through a 4mm diameter passage.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0009
Yuki Takamura, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keito Agui, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0012
Zhimin Lin, Kotaro Takeda, Yuki Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion have attracted much attention as a high efficiency and clean combustion system. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing because there are no a physical means of ignition. In addition, it is difficult to expand the operating range due to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and the occurrence of rapid combustion (HCCI knocking) accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads. Therefore, it is important to reduce the pressure oscillations of HCCI combustion knocking for expanding the operating range to the high load region. This study focused on the rapid combustion in HCCI. A primary reference fuel (0 RON) was used as the test fuel. The influence of external exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR) on HCCI knocking was investigated. HCCI combustion flame behavior with pressure oscillations were visualized by using a two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0068
Joel Prince Lobo, James Howard Lee, Eric Oswald, Spenser Lionetti, Robert Garrick
The performance and exhaust emissions of a commercially available, propane fueled, air cooled engine with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) were investigated by varying relative Air to Fuel Ratio (λ), spark timing, and Compression Ratio (CR). Varying λ and spark timing was accomplished by modifying the EFI system using TechniCAL Industries’ engine development software. The CR was varied through using pistons with different bowl sizes. Strong relationships were recorded between λ and spark timing and the resulting effect these parameters have on engine performance and emissions. Lean operation (λ > 1) has the potential to significantly reduce NOx production (3,000 PPM down to 300 PPM). Unfortunately, it also reduces engine performance by up to an order of magnitude (31 Nm down to 3 Nm).
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0069
Indranil Brahma, Cristobal Manzanares, Rob Jennings, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Abishek Raghavan, Daniel Johnson, Peter Stryker
Non-volatile particle number distributions from a single cylinder industrial diesel engine were measured at several operating conditions spanning the torque curve. The effect of increasing the air-fuel ratio by injecting compressed shop air at various boost pressures was also investigated. A bi-modal distribution separated at approximately 20 nm was observed for most operating conditions. Depending on operating condition, the engine produced between 1014 to 1015 particles per kW-hr. Energy specific particle number emissions (per kW-hr) were seen to be strongly dependent on speed and load. Minimum emissions occurred at intermediate speeds and loads. Particles below 20 nm increased with increasing air-fuel ratio, while the opposite trend was observed for particles greater than 20 nm. Variation in total particle surface and total particle volume followed the same trends as the particles from the larger mode.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0075
Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam, Rahul Sharma
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder Closed Loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0065
Yoshinori Nakao, Yota Sakurai, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Masahide Kazari, Takahito Murase, Kozo Suzuki
Euro5 is a new regulation on exhaust gases from motorcycles and will be implemented in 2020. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) is among the regulated exhaust gases. This paper is focused on the emission behavior of THC. In the transient state at engine start, port injection from the upstream makes it difficult to control the amount of cylinder fuel supply for each cycle. This is one of the main reasons for THC emission. In this study, changing the fuel injection specifications could lead to THC emission reduction. The THC emission behavior was investigated. A change in the position of injection from upstream to downstream could determine the amount of the cylinder fuel supply at the engine start. This change could eliminate misfire, thereby reducing THC emission. However, the diameters of the sprayed particles that flow directly into the cylinders are large. Hence, only changing the injection position to downstream could have a negative effect at engine start.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0071
Koji Ueno, Hiroyuki Horimura, Akiko Iwasa, Yuji Kurasawa, Pascaline Tran, Ye Liu
Motorcycles are one of the major modes of transportation globally, and further expansion of motorcycle demand and usage is expected to continue because of population growth and individual income increase, in particular in emerging countries. At the same time, approach to critical environmental issues, such as escalation of air pollution, becomes more important challenge and this trend accelerates tightening of motorcycle emission regulation globally. In accordance with this, responding to social needs and minimizing the impact on air pollution while enhancing features of motorcycles, such as drive performance, convenience, and price attractiveness are our mission as a manufacture. Platinum group metals (PGMs) such as platinum, palladium and rhodium are commonly used for automotive and motorcycle catalysts. One of catalyst researchers’ dream is ultimately to develop catalyst without using such PGMs that are precious and costly resources.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0067
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukie Ishizawa, Manami Sato, Rei Komuro, Masashi Sato, Ryo Sato, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Masanori Hariyama
On the basis of extensive experimental works about heterogeneous catalysts, the authors have tried to develop a variety of software for the design of automotive catalysts such as ultra-accelerated quantum molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) which is 10,000,000 times faster than the conventional first principles molecular dynamics(1-3), mesoscopic modeling software for supported catalysts(POCO2), and mesoscopic sintering simulator SINTA(4,5) to calculate sintering behavior of both precious metal such as Pt, Pd, Rh and support such as Al2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, or CeO2-ZrO2 We also have integrated these softwares to develop multiscale, multiphysics simulator for the design of automotive catalysts. The method was confirmed to be effective for a variety of important catalytic reactions in the automotive emission control.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0070
Toyofumi Tsuda, Kazuya Miura, Akio Hikasa, Keiji Hosoi, Fumikazu Kimata
Automotive catalyst has to have good durability, i.e. has to keep sufficient catalytic performance even after thermal degradation, therefore large amounts of PGMs such as Pt, Pd, and Rh, should be loaded on the catalyst substrate. Exhaust gas heat deteriorates catalyst due to sintering of the PGM particles and decrease of the active surface area. It is important to reduce PGM load, therefore many researchers have investigated to satisfy both PGM  load reduction and enough durability by using metal / support interactions, or controlling the nano-structure of metal particles. We found that Pt ions form platinum-hydrate cluster in hexahydroxyplatinate(IV) (Pt(OH)6・H2O) nitric acid solution, and the Pt-hydrate cluster size can be controlled by Pt and nitric acid concentration, and solution temperature.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0093
Denis Neher, Fino Scholl, Maurice Kettner, Danny Schwarz, Markus Klaissle, Blanca Giménez Olavarria
Combustion temperature represents the driving parameter for NOx emissions. Lean burn operation allows engines to reduce combustion temperature due to relatively high heat capacity of the excess air. Lean operating cogeneration engines, however, need additionally to retard ignition timing to meet NOx emission standards. The late combustion phasing leads to a further deviation from the ideal Otto cycle, causing losses in engine efficiency. When substituting a part of the excess air with exhaust gas, heat capacity increases. Combustion phasing can be advanced, resulting in a thermodynamically more favourable heat release. As a result, engine efficiency improves without increasing NOx emissions. In this work, the effect of replacing a part of excess air with exhaust gas was investigated first in a constant volume combustion chamber. It enabled to analyse the influence of the exhaust gas under steady initial conditions for several relative air-fuel ratios (λ = 1.3…1.7).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2284
Yuan Wen, Yinhui Wang, Chenling Fu, Wei Deng, Zhangsong Zhan, Yuhang Tang, Xuefei Li, Haichun Ding, Shijin Shuai
Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) engine developed rapidly in recent years driven by the requirements of higher fuel efficiency and lower fuel consumption, but faces the challenges of injector deposit and emissions especially particulate emission compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine. However it has not been revealed through system approach that the qualitative and quantitative impact of injector deposit formation on particulate emission of DIG vehicle through vehicle emission testing and injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a DIG vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to investigate the impact of injector deposit on spray and particulate emissions. The DIG car accumulated with 13,000 km mileage was subject to emissions testing including gaseous emissions, particulate mass (PM) and fuel economy on a chassis dynamometer, then replaced all coking injectors with new injectors and tested emissions again.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2300
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, Joakim Pagels
In order to reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower UHC and CO emissions; however, on the other hand, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas due to increased fuel stratifications. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC). Combustion phasing was fixed by adjusting inlet temperature at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2314
Wanyu Sun, Shufen Wang, Yue Huang, Lei Guo, Hongzhen Li, Zhangtao Yao
The possible NOx and soot limits that a conventional diesel engine could meet without the assistance of after-treatment system were investigated on an engineering application level. A methodology combining both experiment and CFD simulation was used to judge favorable and unfavorable effects of various in-cylinder strategies quantitatively. These strategies or factors include exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), fuel injection timing and duration, intake valve closure (IVC) timing, combustion chamber and turbocharger, etc. Interactions among these strategies were paid special attention. Two steps were proposed based on the analysis. The first step would shift the NOx-soot trade-off curve closer to low emission level regions via optimization of injection strategy and combustion chamber geometry. As a result, soot could be reduced by 20% ~ 30% while NOx could be maintained at the same level.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2264
Mrinmoy Kalita, M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, M Sithananthan, Anil Yadav, Vivekanand Kagdiyal, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh
World energy consumption has increased continuously for decades and expected to grow very fast with rapid economic growth in developing countries. In the current scenario of growing demand for petroleum fuels and highly volatile crude prices, the current usage of petroleum fuel must be curbed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution. It is imperative to find an alternative renewable fuel particularly for transportation purpose. Butanol is one of the potential alternative fuels that can be burned in IC engines in the same way as gasoline.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2319
Kihong Kim, Rahul Mital, Takehiro Higuchi
In the previous research1), the authors discovered that the sudden pressure increase phenomenon in diesel particulate filter (DPF) was a result of soot collapse inside DPF channels. The proposed hypothesize for soot collapse was a combination of factors such as passive regeneration, high humidity, extended soak period, high soot loading and high exhaust flow rate. The passive regeneration due to in-situ NO2 and high humidity caused the straw like soot deposited inside DPF channels to take a concave shape making the collapse easier during high vehicle acceleration. It was shown that even if one of these factor was missing, the undesirable soot collapse and subsequent back pressure increase did not occur. Currently, one of the very popular NOx reduction technologies is the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on Filter which does not have any precious group metal (PGM) in the washcoat.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2320
Tsuyoshi Asako, Ryuji Kai, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control NOx in diesel engine emission. Most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize Vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) or eliminating DPF from aftertreatment system. For DPF-less system, particulate matter (PM) standard is achievable without DPF depending on engine tuning. Further improvement of Vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2326
Ahmad Khalfan, Gordon Andrews, Hu Li
The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable the engine fully warmed up journeys to occur into congested traffic, typical of the people situation living alongside congested roads in a large city. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic conditions impacts such as traffic and pedestrian lights, grade and turning on emissions, engine thermal efficiency and fuel consumption. Four most congested journeys conducted at rush hours and four least congested journeys conducted at free flow periods were selected for comparison.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2324
Xiaoguo Tang, Dan McBryde
When IC engine (gasoline & diesel) and hybrid powertrain operating off the desired conditions, the combustion process, therefore the exhaust components (chemical / physical info) will be different. A modern motor vehicle has to have well controlled engine feed_gas and very high catalyst efficiency to meet EPA standards, only few percent (x%) engine output emissions allowed to emit. When ECM_Cat emission control failed, vehicle tailpipe will have ((100%)/(x%)) times change (10~50 times), or more (ECM off stoich). If engine emission control system fails or a defeat device existed, the ICE exhaust will show different signatures (on TWC failure, unexpected enrich, less SOC swing in real driving, failed De-NOx…). A simple short piece of exhaust pipe equipped with: a thermocouple, NOx_lambda sensor can pick up the information for pattern recognition analysis.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2327
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Cary Henry
Ideally, complete decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products via thermolysis. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes. Deposits can affect efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow and negatively impact ammonia distribution on the SCR catalyst.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2288
Sam Shamun, Mengqin Shen, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Joakim Pagels, Anders Gudmundsson, Per Tunestal
The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running an engine in PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest mass concentration of particles (Micro Soot Sensor) were gasoline and methanol followed by ethanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2165
Kazuya Miyashita, Takamichi Tsukamoto, Yusei Fukuda, Katsufumi Kondo, Tetsuya Aizawa
For better understanding of in-cylinder soot formation processes of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, visualization via high-speed UV (266nm) and visible (445nm) laser shadowgraphy of piston surface fuel wetting, vaporization and soot formation processes of in-cylinder pool fire was attempted in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (RCEM). A direct-injection, spark-ignition and single-shot combustion event was achieved in the RCEM operated with engine speed 600 rpm, compression ratio 9.0, equivalence ratio 0.9 and natural aspiration. The tested fuel was composed of 70% iso-octane and 30% toluene by volume and the UV absorption by toluene enabled visualization of the in-cylinder fuel distribution. Significant UV absorption was caused also by in-cylinder soot particles, which was reasonably distinguishable from the fuel by comparing the UV shadowgraphs with visible shadowgraphs and direct photographs of soot taken under identical conditions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven Przesmitzki
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Global Fuel Economy Initiative with a goal to make automobiles worldwide 50 percent more efficient by the year 2050, enhanced interest in improvements of fuel economy and emission reduction from vehicles through engine technologies, lubricants and after treatment devices. Low viscosity grade engine oils can improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lower the greenhouse gases. In this study, low viscosity grade oils - 0W-20, 5W-30 and 20W-40 were selected for assessing fuel economy of diesel engines. Effects of viscosity on engine performance with respect to power, fuel economy and emissions were assessed by conducting fuel economy tests on single cylinder Petter AV1 diesel engine. Higher fuel economy and reduced CO, HC, CO2 and NOx emissions were observed with lower viscosity engine oils compared to higher viscosity engine oils.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2329
Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven Rogak
Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are highly sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector instability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of 0.1 millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes, sampled synchronous with engine crankshaft encoder.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2166
Ahfaz Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Eshan Singh, William Roberts, Sukho Chung, Mani Sarathy
Commercial gasoline fuels contain hundreds of different hydrocarbons, yet despite their dissimilarity in composition they often demonstrate similar octane ratings. It is of fundamental interest to study differences arising in combustion performance of such fuels, specifically fuels have varying physical properties. This investigation is needed to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasolines showing similar knocking character in a cooperative fuel research engine, but demonstrating different attributes in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines due to the enhanced effects of fuel properties To investigate this scenario two FACE (Fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G with similar Research and Motor octane but differing physical and chemical properties were studied in a DISI engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2174
Reza Golzari, Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as downsizing combined with single and multistage boosting (turbocharging and/or supercharging), dual injection and fuelling systems, variable valve timing and lift devices, variable compression and expansion ratio using Miller and Atkinson cycles. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture quality and therefore enhance the combustion which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine equipped with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams.
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