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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2795
Jayesh Mutyal, Sourabh Shrivastava, Rana Faltsi, Markus Braun
Stringent diesel emissions standards forcing a constant reduction in discharges of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Current state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions are falling short of achieving these limits. Engine manufacturers are looking at different ways to meet the emission norms. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is emerging as preferred technology for meeting stringent NOx emission standards across the world. SCR system designers face several technical challenges, such as avoiding ammonia slip, urea crystallization, low temperature deposits and other potential pitfalls. Simulation can help to develop a deep understanding of these technical challenges and issues, identify root causes and help develop better designs to overcome them. This paper describes the modeling approach for Urea-Water-Solution spray and its interaction with canister walls and exhaust gases.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2814
Rakhesh Bharathan
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
Saravana Venkatesh R, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions. Critical to such EGR fitted engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper EGR gas mixing with intake air. The variation in EGR mass fraction at each intake ports should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/- 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. EGR homogeneity for various intake configurations were studied using 3D CFD for a 4 cylinder 3.8 L diesel fuel, common rail system, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before EGR mixing till all the four intake ports. EGR mass fraction variation at each intake port was calculated from this analysis after carrying out an experimental validation of the CFD model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2810
Piotr Lijewski, Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski
The paper describes the measurement of PM emission from an excavator engine under actual operating conditions. The exploration of the relations between the engine operating parameters and its emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of engine operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated when, beside the PM mass, we also need to obtain the PM size distribution and particle number (PN). An important technical issue is the difficulty in fitting the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. excavator), which is why the presented investigations were carried out in a laboratory under simulated operation. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through the excavator hydraulic system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2771
Kevin A. Newman, Paul Dekraker, Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Prashanth Gururaja
In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dyno test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2772
Amy Kopin, Steven Musselman
For decades, the heavy-duty (“HD”) commercial vehicle industry has focused on improving fuel economy in order to lower the total operating cost for its customers. Most recently, there has been a revolution in the HD industry which means no longer do OEMs focus on discreet components but instead look at the entire vehicle and operations to improve efficiency; it is likely future gains will come through an integrated approach to optimizing the entire vehicle. The path forward is not sufficiently clear looking into the next decade, nor will one solution work for all manufacturers or all vehicle applications. Therefore, the regulations must be sufficiently adaptive. This paper explores further the ideas presented in other SAE papers that have focused on regulation of engine-only emissions as an approach for the HD commercial vehicle market.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2777
Gary Salemme, Erik Dykes, Daniel Kieffer, Michael Howenstein, Matthew Hunkler, Manik Narula
Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
The diesel exhaust aftertreatment using injection, such as urea – SCR and lean NOx trap systems, could effectively reduce the emission NOx level, and has been commonly used in various industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and simulation tools are playing an important role in virtual design, which could evaluate performance and optimize the design. The virtual test methodology using CFD that is able to capture the fluid dynamics of injector internal nozzle flow has been developed to sever for this purpose to quantify the water or urea dosing rate of the test injector, and the computational results were validated with the test data measured in the Tenneco Injector Flow Lab. Later, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to quantify the spray angle of the test injector with test fluid of water or urea.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2797
Meichun Peng, Yue Zheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Jiahao Wang
This paper studies the characteristics of fuel consumption and emission of city transit buses,and analyzes the fuel conservation and emission reduction rate of LPG-HEV buses relative to LPG bases. The run speed, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission,etc. of 3 LPG-HEV buses and 2 LPG buses were tested by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under real driving world of city transit buses at Guangzhou in China. The test data was analyzed, and the test results were compared between LPG-HEV buses and LPG buses. The study results show the buses run below than 35 km/h and in acceleration region of -0.5~0.5 m/s2 mainly, the average speed is 18 km/h. The average fuel consumption of LPG-HEV buses is 51.02 l/100km with a drop of 6.23% compared with LPG buses, and the fuel saving appears below than 25 km/h, the lower the speed, the more obvious the effect of fuel saving.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2803
Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance has been decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2778
Joe Steiber, Coralie Cooper, John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
A study was funded by NHTSA to help inform the Phase 2 GHG and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles. The goal of the study was to review technologies that could be used by Class 2b through Class 8 trucks to comply with possible future regulatory requirements, and determine their potential performance. The vehicles and engines selected for the study had extensive experimental data available from earlier work. The four trucks were a Kenworth T700 tractor, a Kenworth T270 box delivery truck, a Ford F-650 tow truck, and a Ram 2500 / 3500 pickup. For the long haul tractor, a Detroit DD15 engine was used. The pickup and medium-duty trucks used two different ratings of the Cummins ISB diesel, as well as a 6.2 liter naturally-aspirated gasoline V-8 and a turbocharged, direct-injected 3.5 liter gasoline V-6. All engine simulations were performed with GT-POWER.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2874
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
Lift axles increase the load capacity of a vehicle, allowing it to carry the extra load without the need for multiple vehicles, hence reducing operational costs. Furthermore, additional axles help to distribute the truck’s load across the road surface, reducing the chances of damage to the infrastructure. Lift axles can be raised when the vehicle has lighter load to save fuel and reduce wear and tear to the tires and axles. They can be deployed to improve traction especially in icy off-road applications. The main objective of this project was to assess the fuel-saving potential of lifting axles on unloaded semi-trailers. Part of the mandate was to identify and analyze regulations of various jurisdictions with respect to lift/loadable axles and studies leading to the setting up of these regulations. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) was used for fuel consumption track test evaluations.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2819
Vasu Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Aksh Nagpal
To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. On the other hand, the growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. The use of oxygenated fuels like alcohols showed tendency to decrease internal combustion engine emissions. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2880
Fabio Luz Almeida, Philip Zoldak, Marcos de Mattos Pimenta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables us to predict premature failures and to study new promising and valuable concepts. In industry, numerical simulation usually has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests before spending huge amount of resources on alternatives with less chance to succeed. In the context of an economically committed country, the matter of cargo transportation is of great importance, since it affects the trading of consumer goods between cities, states and their flow towards exportation. Thus, the internal combustion (ICE) Diesel cycle engines play an important role in Brazil, since they are extensively used in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2477
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
A number of initiatives are aiming at assessing and reducing the impact of air transport on the environment. This extensive endeavour is soliciting a substantial evolution in the measurement of the environmental impacts and on the assessment of the effective gains attained by the R&D outcomes. Legislation is already being progressively extended in several countries to limit or penalise noise emissions, and analogous regulatory actions can be foreseen with respect to atmospheric pollutants. This research activity is developing laser-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems for characterisation of gaseous pollutants and particulate concentrations in high space and time resolutions. The employed measurement principle is based on Differential Absorption LIDAR technique, in a bistatic layout. After the initial feasibility study, two candidate bistatic system layouts have been proposed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2426
Anupam Kumari, Tushar Choudhary, Y Sanjay, Pilaka Murty, Mithilesh Sahu
In comparison to other thermal power cycles, gas turbine based energy conversion cycles exhibit superior thermodynamic performance as well as reduced emission. Modification in basic gas turbine cycle are intended to improve the basic gas turbine cycle thermodynamic performance and reduced pollutant emission are currently being investigated by gas turbine manufacturers and Research and Development (R&D) organizations. Though natural gas fired gas turbine cycles are thermodynamically and environmentally superior to coal based power utilities, there is still a need to investigate the environmental effects of gas turbine based electric utility cycles especially with increase in their popularity. In this paper various parameters such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), combustor-primary-zone-temperature, equivalence-ratio, and residence time of GT based cycles has been examined.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2562
Tak W. Chan, Wajid Chishty, Craig Davison, David Buote
Black carbon is known to be a major component in gas turbine particulate matter exhaust emissions. Black carbon particles are relatively inert in atmosphere and the main removal mechanisms are dry and wet deposition. Current research suggests that BC particles have an overall positive climate forcing second to gas phase carbon dioxide. Recently, many studies have also suggested that ultrafine particle emissions can also be significant from gas turbine emissions. In addition, studies also suggested that the gas turbine emitted semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds are highly sensitive to ambient atmospheric conditions and can undergo gas-particle conversion to form new particles in the atmosphere.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2511
Theodoros Grigoratos, Georgios Fontaras, Giorgio Martini, Cesare Pelleto
Gas operated Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) powered by Natural Gas (NG) are seen as a possible option for curbing CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and operating costs of goods transport. Initiatives have been adopted by various organizations worldwide in order to introduce NG fueled HDVs in their fleets. In this study, an advanced newly designed CNG prototype engine, which was developed in the framework of the FP7 research project “CO2 Reduction for long distance transport” (CO2RE), is benchmarked against its parent Euro V compliant CNG engine (reference) in terms of emissions and fuel consumption. The main technological innovation includes a new cylinder head equipped with a Variable Valve Actuation system designed to provide on the intake side a continuous fully flexible variation of the valve lift and timing. The newly developed engine was optimized for urban emission profiles and operation such as garbage collection purposes.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2517
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
The particulates in vehicular exhaust are now under great scrutiny and are subject to legislative limits in many cases. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DI SI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. It is widely acknowledged that current legislative laboratory test procedures in many ways represent a best-case scenario – more aggressive driving cycles and less favourable ambient conditions can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Cold start events are challenging for internal combustion engines for various reasons, with multiple emissions impacts for all types of automotive engines.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2510
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Martin Güdel, Andreas Mayer, Jacques Lemaire, Felix Reutimann, Adm Heinz Berger
As a result of increased use of catalytic exhaust aftertreatment systems of vehicles and the low-Sulfur Diesel fuels there is an increasing share of NO2 in the ambient air of several cities. This is in spite of lowering NOx. NO2 is much more toxic than NO and it will be specially considered in the next legal testing procedures. There are doubts about the accuracy of analyzing the reactive substances from diluted gas and this project has the objective to show how NO2 is are changing along the gas way of the exhaust- and the CVS systems. For legal measurements of NO2 a WLTP-DTP subgroup proposed different combinations of NOx-analyzers and analysis of NO and NOx. Some of these setups were tested in this work. The investigated WLTP – NO2-measuring methods have been found as useful tools to estimate the NO2-levels and there were no indications of reactivity at these low concentration levels.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2433
Anders N. Johansson, Petter Dahlander
Among many techniques used for increasing fuel efficiency of a modern Gasoline Direct-Injected (GDI) engine are boosting and stratified operation. In modern downsized GDI engines, boosting is standard in order to achieve a high power output. Boosted GDI-engines have however mostly been operated in homogenous mode and little is known on the effects of operating a boosted GDI-engine in stratified mode. This paper presents the influence on combustion, standard emissions and particulate size distribution in a Spray-Guided, Gasoline, Direct-Injected (SGDI), single cylinder, research engine operated with various levels of boost. The engine was operated in steady state mode at five engine operating points of various load and speed. The engine was boosted with a Roots blower and operated at four levels of boost as well as atmospheric pressure for comparison. The engine was fueled with market gasoline (95 RON) blended with 10% ethanol.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2483
Thangaraja Jeyaseelan, Pramod S Mehta
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2388
Jordan Rudloff, Alessio Dulbecco, Gregory Font
New generation Diesel engine becoming increasingly complex to be able to satisfy the always severer constraints on pollutant emissions, during the calibration phase of the engine, manufacturers have to account for a large number of variables to reach their targets expressed in terms of drivability, fuel consumption, in-cylinder pollutant emissions. Furthermore, due to the increasingly synergy between engine combustion chamber and exhaust after-treatment technologies, it is essential to consider global optimization approaches to obtain optimum conditions to meet high conversion efficiencies in after-treatment systems. In that context, engine system simulation approaches are very flexible tools that allow to create virtual innovative powertrains and perform, in a quite short time and with reduced cost, a large number of tests over a wide range of operating conditions. Moreover, they give access to detailed physical information, which is not easily available from experiments.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2391
Dimitris Tsokolis, Stefanos Tsiakmakis, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Anastasios Kontses, Zisis Toumasatos, Georgios Fontaras, Athanasios Dimaratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Marotta, Zissis Samaras
The present paper describes the development of a standardized modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of representative segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were chosen. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary validation data for the simulation models which were developed subsequently. A standardized modelling procedure was adopted, in order to minimize the flexibilities and sources of uncertainty, which was based on the development of a reference "template model" to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the abovementioned template model.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2390
Shashi Aithal, Stefan Wild
Design and optimization of automotive engines present unique challenges on account of the large design space and conflicting constraints. Optimizing the fuel consumption and reducing emissions over a driving cycle is a good example. Inlet pressure, equivalence ratio, humidity, EGR fraction, inlet air temperature, ignition timing, engine load, engine speed (RPM) etc. each impact fuel consumption and emissions and thus represent a vast parametric space to conduct de sign and global optimization studies. This large parametric space is further increased when one has to consider newer fuels and fuel-blends (varying ratios of fuel-additive mixtures) further complicating the design-optimization problem. The large design parameter space precludes the use of detailed numerical or experimental investigations. Physics-based reduced-order models (quasi-dimensional models) can be used effectively in the design and global optimization of such problems.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2389
Mirko Baratta, Roberto Finesso, Daniela Misul, Ezio Spessa
The potential of internal EGR (iEGR) and external EGR (eEGR) in reducing the engine-out NOx emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine has been investigated by means of a refined 1D fluid-dynamic engine model developed in the GT-Power environment. The engine is equipped with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) systems. The activity was carried out in the frame of the CORE (CO2 Reduction for Long Distance Transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The engine model integrates an innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), which is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach, and a multi-zone thermodynamic model for the simulation of the in-cylinder temperatures. NOx emissions are calculated by means of the Zeldovich thermal and prompt mechanisms.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2408
Nicola Giovannoni, Sebastiano Breda, Stefano Paltrinieri, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Francesco Pulvirenti
Abstract In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2396
Philippe Moreau, Patricia Valerio, Alain Brillard, Valerie Tschamber, Jean-Francois Brilhac, Yves Hohl, Regis Vonarb, L. Germanese, B. Courtalon
Abstract We present an experimental and modelling methodology developed at LGRE research laboratory to characterize soot oxidation in the presence of different atmospheres (NO2, NO2/O2), simulating passive regeneration which occur in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Based on this methodology which aims at deriving the kinetic parameters for soot combustion, the thermal reactivity of different soot has been studied and compared. Soot were produced from a prototype Liebherr engine and on an engine dynamometer at R&D Moteurs company, under two engine cycles and for two different fuels. Small soot masses (15-30mg) were deposited on the quartz frit of the reactor and submitted to a gas flow (NO2 or NO2/O2), under different temperatures. The mole fractions of NO2, NO, CO2 and CO at the reactor outflow were measured by infrared analyzers. The soot oxidation rate and the sample remaining mass were deduced from CO/CO2 emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2516
Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Daniel Schreiber
Particulate matter (PM)in diesel exhaust is captured in diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Since increased PM load in the filter and thus increased pressure drop across the filter deteriorates the engine performance, the filter load of the DPF has to be removed during a process referred to as regeneration. Measures for successful regeneration aim at accelerating soot oxidation and increase fuel consumption. Regeneration lay-out and thus fuel consumption increase is strongly depending on the oxidation behavior of soot. The aim of the present study is the investigation of soot oxidation characteristics. Therefore particle filters have been loaded with soot using the exhaust gas of small heavy duty vehicle operated under defined conditions on an engine dynamometer. The particle filters have been then dismantled and fragmented on their constituting segments. Each filter segment has been regenerated individually in a specifically designed test bench.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 15138

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