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Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
2017-09-28
Video
The 35th Annual SAE Brake Colloquium & Exhibition continues with a look at new advances in brake component design and reducing brake emissions!
2012-06-18
Video
A conceptual project aimed at understanding the fundamental design considerations concerning the implementation of catalyst systems on outboard marine engines was carried out by Mercury Marine, with the support of the California Air Resources Board. In order to keep a reasonable project scope, only electronic fuel injected four-stroke outboards were considered. While they represent a significant portion of the total number of outboard engines sold in the United States, carbureted four-strokes and direct injected two-strokes pose their own sets of design constraints and were considered to be outside the scope of this study. Recently, three-way catalyst based exhaust emissions aftertreatment systems have been introduced into series production on sterndrive and inboard marine spark ignition engines in North America. The integration of catalyst systems on outboards is much more challenging than on these other marine propulsion alternatives.
2012-06-18
Video
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene Diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of Diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.
2012-06-18
Video
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
2012-06-18
Video
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
2012-06-18
Video
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
2012-06-18
Video
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
2012-06-18
Video
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
2012-06-15
Video
The development of PM and NOx reduction system with the combination of DOC included DPF and SCR catalyst in addition to the AOC sub-assembly for NH3 slip protection is described. DPF regeneration strategy and manual regeneration functionality are introduced with using ITH, HCI device on the EUI based EGR, VGT 12.3L diesel engine at the CVS full dilution tunnel test bench. With this system, PM and NOx emission regulation for JPNL was satisfied and DPF regeneration process under steady state condition and transient condition (JE05 mode) were successfully fulfilled. Manual regeneration process was also confirmed and HCI control strategy was validated against the heat loss during transient regeneration mode. Presenter Seung-il Moon
2012-06-05
Video
What will the passenger car fleet look like over the next two decades? As most expected, affordability and convenience are the major drivers of new vehicle technology penetration into the market. Within this scope, vehicle electrification strategy to limit oil dependence and meet the European targets for CO2 emissions should be cost-effective and convenient to the buyer. This paper will focus first, through different economic models, on the penetration of passenger electrified vehicles (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles PHVs and Electric Vehicles EVs) in Europe (EU15: 15 European Union member countries) up to 2030. Economic models are based on real world use behaviors and driving patterns in order to compute fuel and energy consumption and to estimate total cost of the vehicle including incentives. The economic models use household wages in order to later make conclusions on vehicle technology market shares by vehicle classes.
2012-05-10
Video
The benefits of adding variable compression ratio (VCR) capability to a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) has been experimentally explored by AVL to quantify the potential efficiency improvements along with other combustion benefits and challenges. The development process is discussed along with key results showing how the combination of VCR, GDI, external cooled EGR and variable cam phasing was optimized to achieve maximum benefit. The concept demonstrates aggressive downsizing capability with BMEP levels above 40 bar BMEP with a two-stage turbocharging system on 95 RON gasoline. The iso-BSFC sweet spot was also improved with reduced BSFC over a broader operating range. The issues of knock, low speed pre-ignition, particulates and sensitivity to octane level and ambient temperature conditions were also investigated and are discussed. Engine level results are shown translated into predicted NEDU vehicle fuel economy improvements.
2012-05-10
Video
Downsizing and downspeeding are two efficient strategies to reduce vehicles CO2 emission, provided that high BMEP can be achieved at any engine speed under clean, safe, stable and efficient combustion. With a 6:1 minimum compression ratio, the MCE-5 VCRi achieves 40 bar peak BMEP at 1200 rpm with no irregular combustion. If peak BMEP is maintained below 35 bar, fuel enrichment is no longer necessary. When running at part loads, the engine operates at high compression ratios (up to 15:1) to minimize BSFC and maximize the sweet spot area on the map. Next generation MCE-5 VCRi engines will combine VCR and stoichiometric charges, highly diluted with external cooled EGR, in order to improve part loads efficiency by means of both the reduction in heat and pumping losses, and the optimization of compression-expansion ratio. This strategy, added to downsizing-donwspeeding, requires high-energy ignition systems to promote repeatable, stable, rapid and complete combustion.
2012-03-29
Video
Nissan Motor Company has recently released the �Nissan Green Program 2016� which is a six-year action plan embodying the company�s environmental philosophy: Symbiosis of People, Vehicles and Nature. One of the key activities of this Program is the successful penetration of Zero-Emission Vehicles into the market which includes electric vehicle (EV) cumulative sales of 1.5M units with our Alliance partner Renault, introduction of a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) into the market, taking a global leadership in supplying batteries for electric drive and creating zero-emission societies. This presentation will highlight some of these key activities. Presenter Kev Adjemian, Nissan Technical Center NA
2012-02-16
Video
Exhaust Emission Control: DPF Systems. Presenter Shingo Iwasaki, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
2012-01-23
Video
Update on light-duty regulations. Presenter Michael J. McCarthy, California Air Resources Board
2011-12-05
Video
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University
2011-12-05
Video
EGR coolers are used in combustion engines to reduce NOx emissions. However, heat transfer in these coolers also results in thermophoresis-temperature-gradient driven motion of suspended particles towards cooler regions-which leads to significant soot deposition. Presenter Meisam Mehravaran
2011-11-04
Video
Consumers design different PHEVs than expert analysts assume. Experts almost uniformly assume PHEVs that offer true all-electric driving for 10 to 60 miles; consumers are more likely to design PHEVs that do not offer true all-electric driving and have short ranges over which they use grid-electricity. Thus consumers? PHEV designs are less expensive. These consumer PHEV designs do, or don?t, produce lower GHG emissions than experts? PHEVs over the next ten years. The devil is in the details, i.e., which powerplant emissions to assign to new electricity demand: marginal or average. If (based on marginal powerplant emissions) it makes almost no difference whether we sell consumer-designed or expert-assumed PHEVs over the next ten years, yet as the grid continues to de-carbonize all-electric PHEV designs emerge as clearly the better option, there is a trajectory we could be on from blended, ?short range? PHEVs to all-electric ?long range? PHEVs.
Viewing 1 to 18 of 18