Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
Abstract Certification of vehicle noise emissions for passenger vehicles, motorcycles and light trucks is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by international standards such as ISO362. The current procedure based on a pass-by test during wide-open throttle acceleration is believed far from actual urban traffic conditions. Hence a new standard pass-by noise certification is being evaluated for implementation. It will put testing departments through their paces with requirements for additional testing under multiple ‘real world’ conditions. The new standard, together with the fact that most governments are imposing lower noise emission levels, make that most of the current models do not meet the new levels which will be imposed in the future. Therefor automotive manufacturers are looking for new tools which are giving them a better insight in the Pass-by Noise contributors.
Feasibility of Using Half Useful Life Mileage Accumulation for Motorcycle Certification Durability Tests in Taiwan
Since the exhaust emissions of an in-use motorcycle usually increases along its age, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) started to adopt useful life and deterioration factors requirements for the emission type approval certification in 1991. Considering the actual travel mileages for most motorcycles in Taiwan, it is necessary to extend the useful life period and mileage requirements for the future emission standards. This change of requirement will increase certification time and costs of new models for manufacturers. To evaluate the feasibility of shortening the accumulated useful life mileage for the regulatory durability test requirement; this study surveyed 105 sets of durability test results to explore the effects of deterioration factors on durability test result calculations.
Pending reductions in light duty vehicle PM emissions standards from 10 to 3 mg/mi and below will push the limits of the gravimetric measurement method. At these levels the PM mass collected approaches the mass of non-particle gaseous species that adsorb onto the filter from exhaust and ambient air. This introduces an intrinsic lower limit to filter based measurement that is independent of improvements achieved in weighing metrology. The statistical variability of back-up filter measurements at these levels makes them an ineffective means for correcting the adsorption artifact. The proposed subtraction of a facility based estimate of the artifact will partially alleviate the mass bias from adsorption, but its impact on weighing variability remains a problem that can reach a significant fraction of the upcoming 3 and future 1 mg/mi standards. This paper proposes an improved PM mass method that combines the gravimetric filter approach with real time aerosol measurement.
Certification Procedures for Advanced Technology Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Evaluating Test Methods and Opportunities for Global Alignment
Advanced technology heavy-duty vehicles such as hybrids present unique regulatory challenges. Hybrids employ an additional energy source in conjunction with an internal combustion engine for motive power, and the interactions between the engine and the hybrid components affect criteria pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. Often, an engine installed in a hybrid vehicle will operate very differently from the same engine installed in a conventional vehicle driven over the same route. One of the difficulties in integrating vehicles such as hybrids into regulatory programs is developing the proper certification test procedures for criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions so that these advanced technologies and vehicles are evaluated fairly and consistently as compared to their conventional counterparts.
In August of 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued new Green House Gas (GHG) emissions regulations for heavy duty vehicles. These regulations included new procedures for the evaluation of hybrid powertrains and vehicles. One of the hybrid options allows for the evaluation of an engine plus a hybrid transmission (a powertrain). For this type of testing, EPA has proposed simulating a vehicle following the hybrid vehicle test procedures, including the use of the vehicle cycles and the A to B comparison testing - as required for the full vehicle evaluation option. This paper proposes an alternative approach by defining a powertrain cycle. The powertrain cycle is based on the heavy duty engine emissions cycle - the transient FTP cycle. Simulation and test results are presented showing similar performance over the engine and vehicle cycles. This approach offers several advantages as compared to the procedure described in EPA's GHG rule.
Several emission performance tests like Butane Working Capacity (BWC), Cycle Life, and ORVR load tests are required for the certification of a vehicle; these tests are both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents a test process based upon analytical simulation of BWC of an automotive carbon canister in order to greatly reduce the cost incurred in physical tests. The computational model for the fixed-bed system of a carbon canister is based upon non-equilibrium, non-Isothermal, and non-adiabatic algorithm to simulate the real life loading/purging of hydrocarbon vapors from this device.
This paper describes the development vehicle cycles based on heavy duty engine test cycles for emissions certification. In the commercial vehicle and industrial equipment markets, emissions are evaluated using engine test cycles. For the on-highway market in the United States, these cycles include the transient heavy duty engine FTP test, and the steady state heavy duty engine SET test. Evaluation of engine only emissions is a practical approach given the diversity of applications, small volumes, and lack of vertical integration in the commercial vehicle market. However certain vehicle and powertrain characteristics can contribute significantly to fuel consumption and emissions. A number of approaches have been proposed to evaluate vehicle performance, and all of these vehicle evaluation methodologies require the selection of a vehicle cycle.
Diesel engines are highly reliable, durable and are used for a wide range of applications with low fuel usage owing to its higher thermal efficiency compared to other mobile power sources. Heavy-duty diesel engines are used for both on-road and off-road applications and dominate the heavy-duty engine segment of the United States transportation market. Due to their high reliability, there are considerable numbers of on-road legacy heavy-duty diesel engine fleets still in use in the United States. These engines are relatively higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) producers than post 2007 model year diesel engines. There have been various emission certification or verification programs which are carried out in states like California and Texas for different aftermarket retrofit devices, fuels and additive technologies for reducing NOx and PM emissions from these legacy diesel engines.
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Vehicle Emission Compliance Using Regional Inspection and Maintenance Program Data
In-use vehicle regional inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs in the United States (US) and Canada generate a tremendous volume of data that provides a means for evaluating vehicle emissions compliance in actual consumer use. In this study, IM240 test data for several 1996 to 2001 vehicle models are analyzed from different regional programs in the US and Canada to confirm the suitability of using these data for evaluation of vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technology and to examine the various potential factors responsible for emissions noncompliance. Relative comparisons between US and Canadian program data are made for vehicle models used in the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM) MMT® Test Program to examine the potential impact of differences in fuel properties on consumer experience and vehicle compliance.
The Texas Project: Part 3 - Off-Cycle Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on CNG, LPG, Federal Phase 1 Reformulated Gasoline, and/or Low Sulfur Certification Gasoline
Off-cycle emissions from seven different types of 1994 light-duty vehicles were examined The test fleet consisted of 19 individual vehicles including a passenger car, two makes of light light-duty trucks, and five types of heavy light-duty trucks The driving cycles used for these tests were the US06(hard acceleration, high speed) cycle and the 20 °F FTP (the “Cold FTP”) Conventional FTPs were done for comparison Each vehicle was usually operated on at least two of the following CNG, LPG, Federal Phase 1 reformulated gasoline (FP1 RFG), and a low sulfur certification gasoline For both the conventional FTP and the US06 cycles, the alternative fuels produce statistically significant benefits in Ozone Forming Potential and exhaust toxics but the NOx emissions are not statistically different from those when operating on FP1 RFG with at least 90% confidence During Cold FTP tests, the emissions of CO and of toxics when operating on FP1 RFG are not statistically different from those when operating on a low sulfur certification gasoline In contrast the alternative fuels produce statistically significant benefits in the emissions of both CO and toxics compared to either of the gasolines during Cold FTP tests The Reactivity Adjustment Factor calculated from the present conventional FTP results for CNG agrees closely with the CARB value However, the present RAF for LPG is about half CARB s value, which is believed to be a consequence of the low propene in Texas LPG compared to the high propene in California LPG The effects of the test type on the emissions are also discussed
Repair Effectiveness Indices for the British Columbia Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Program
The British Columbia vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance, I/M, program, AirCare, has monitored the performance of technicians and repair centres since program inception. The purpose of performance monitoring is to oversee the effectiveness of technicians who are certified to perform emissions related repairs after a vehicle has failed the initial I/M inspection. Since June, 1995, the Program Administration Office, PAO, has been working on refining the parameters used to assess repair effectiveness. This paper describes the development and implementation of Repair Effectiveness Indices to monitor the effectiveness of repairs performed by the certified automotive repair industry with respect to the AirCare Program. Repair Effectiveness Indices, REIs, apply to certified repair technicians and repair centres and are provided to the technicians and repair centres on a regular basis.
The Development of Advanced Technician Training to Meet the Demands of Enhanced Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Program Implementation
In December 1995, the Province of British Columbia announced the introduction of more stringent automobile emissions standards for vehicles sold in the province commencing with the 1998 model year. The emissions standards are based on the model utilized by the State of California as outlined in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations. In addition, the Federal Government of Canada has announced that the British Columbia standards may be adopted on a national basis. This announcement, coupled with other initiatives outlined by the Province of British Columbia in its Clean Air Strategy has provided the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) with the opportunity to develop an advanced training program on automobile emissions to ensure a knowledge base needed to meet the demands of implementation of enhanced inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs in the North America. This paper will discuss the outline of the proposed course.
British Columbia Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Program: Certification of the Repair Industry
- This paper describes the certification of the automotive repair industry with respect to the British Columbia Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program, more commonly referred to as the AirCare Program. A training program has been developed to ensure that technicians have the knowledge, and can develop the necessary expertise, to repair emissions systems on vehicles that have failed inspection. A performance monitoring system allows detailed review of individual technicians performance.
- The British Columbia emissions inspection and maintenance program is briefly described. An analysis of repairs and inspection reports has shown a very high proportion of repairs to be effective in reducing emissions. The imposition of a NOx standard has meant that HC and CO reductions have been achieved without increasing NOx emissions. The NOx emissions of vehicles that fail the inspection because of the NOx standard have usually been reduced by appropriate repairs. Emission repairs have also resulted in fuel ecomony gains typically around 7%.
British Columbia Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Program Experience of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions
Basing its conclusions on over one million gasoline vehicle inspections and over 30,000 alternative fuelled vehicle inspections, this paper examines the pass/fail records for each fuel; the problems most common to failing vehicles; and repair strategies used to correct those problems. The paper specifically describes the relationship between the level of technology used in alternative fuel systems and their emissions performance. It is shown that alternative fuelled vehicles are not inherently clean, and that to meet the same emissions standards as gasoline vehicles the alternative fuel system should employ the same level of technology as used in the original gasoline vehicle.
“Evaluation of the Drift of vehicle Inspection/Maintenance Emission Analyzers in use- A California Case Study”
Quality assurance (QA) in motor vehicle emissions inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs is a continuing concern, especially in decentralized programs with hundreds or even thousands of licensed stations. The emissions analyzers used in such stations are an important focus of governmental QA efforts because of the central role of analyzers in determining which vehicles need to be repaired. Therefore, the In-use performance of I/M emission analyzers has a large impact on the quality of 1/M programs as a whole. This paper reports on the results of an investigation in California designed to determine in-use performance of emission analyzers in the field. The investigation was designed to evaluate both drift rates and the ability of analyzer systems with automatic gas calibration capability to correct analyzer responses outside of accepted tolerances.
Periodic Inspection of Exhaust Emissions from Low Pollutive Otto Engine Vehicles and Diesel Engine Vehicles
The practical qualification of two short test procedures developed for periodic measurements of in use Otto and Diesel vehicles with high emission levels has been proven. From the test results of these vehicles showing outlying emission levels it becomes evident that excessive pollutant concentrations or smoke emissions originate from defective engine components, or incorrect adjustments, respectively, which are relevant to the emission behaviour. Automation of the test procedures contributed to achieve a good reproducibility of the test readings and to keep the measuring time within reasonable limits.
Demonstration inspection and maintenance programs in major cities across Canada have indicated that the full effectiveness of emission control equipment installed on new cars is not being achieved as a result of improper vehicle maintenance or tampering with the control devices. Environment Canada has recognized this phenomema as being both a technical and a social problem. In order to implement an effective solution while avoiding negative public response, a different type of program is proposed in which the mandatory annual inspection will apply initially to new vehicles only such that the fleet subject to inspection and maintenance will be “phased-in” gradually. The methodology of such an approach is explained in this paper.
During the first four years of operation, the Arizona Vehicular Emissions Inspection Maintenance Program has been effective in reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon concentrations at the tailpipe of in-use vehicles. Repairs to those vehicles failing the inspection result in significant reductions in average tailpipe emissions. The magnitude of the reductions is sensitive to cutpoint selection and the requirement for maintenance.
This paper presents an approach to modeling the emission benefits of an inspection/maintenance (I/M) program. Emission benefits derived from an I/M program can be expected to be a function of many variables. The model considers the following variables: the level of the standard under which the vehicles were certified and their emission levels at the time of inspection, the vehicle deterioration rate characteristic of both the applied emission control technology and consumer maintenance practices, specifics of the particular I/M program (short test selected along with short test standards), and the quality of repairs made by the service industry. The major advantage of such a simulation model is that a wide variety of scenarios can be evaluated and the evaluations can examine time trends as inspection programs stabilize.