Abstract In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of the BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of a BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with a winding ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in each wire. This model can also be applied when the leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that the S-parameters for dozens of wires clamped in the BCI probe can be generated using the S-parameter measurement results from when one wire is in the BCI probe.
Diagnosing Sources of Automotive System Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Using a Portable RF Detector Instrument
Abstract Automotive systems can generate un-intentional radio frequency energy. The levels of these emissions must be below maximum values set by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for customer satisfaction and/or in order to meet governmental requirements. Due to the complexity of electromagnetic coupling mechanisms that can occur on a vehicle, many times it is difficult to measure and identify the noise source(s) without the use of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) receiver or spectrum analyzer (SA). An efficient and effective diagnostic solution can be to use a low-cost portable, battery powered RF detector with wide dynamic range as an alternative for automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and design engineers to identify, locate, and resolve radio frequency (RF) noise problems. A practical circuit described here can be implemented easily with little RF design knowledge, or experience.
Abstract Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension (AERS) utilizing electromagnetic actuator, this paper investigates the benchmark cars available on the market and summaries the suspension features. Basing on the investigation, a design reference for AERS design is proposed. To determine the parameters of the actuator, a principle is proposed and the parameters of the actuator are designed accordingly. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the AERS. Basing on the suspension structure of the design reference model and utilizing rotary type PMSM, a novel AERS structure is proposed.
Abstract There are such outside door handles called smart handles which have a transmitting antenna, a lock/unlock sensor, and a sensor detection circuit, with which operation of door lock is possible just by "touching" the electrostatic-capacitance type sensor of the handles.As the design of the outside handles, body color painting and Cr plating are adopted. However, if plating is applied over the entire surface of a smart handle, electromagnetic waves transmitted from the antenna will be blocked since plating material is electrically conductive. In addition to this, touching a part other than the sensor may change the electrostatic-capacitance of the sensor, which results in unwanted functioning of the lock/unlock sensor. Because of this, only part of the handle, which does not hinder the transmission of electromagnetic waves and does not cause unwanted functioning, is covered by plating, that is called, "Partially plated specifications" (Figure 1).
Technical Development of Electro Magnetic Compatibility for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / Electric Vehicle Using Wireless Power Transfer System
Abstract In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
Stripline Test Method to Characterize the Shielding Effectiveness of Conductive EMI Gaskets up to 40 GHz
The purpose of this procedure is to establish a technique for reliably and repeatedly measuring the RF shielding characteristics of EMI conductive gasket materials and EMI conductive gaskets. Depending on the materials used for the construction of the measuring setup, the EMI conductive gaskets can be characterized against various joint surfaces. This standard will directly provide shielding effectiveness values up to 40 GHz, and will also be applicable for small samples of conductive EMI gaskets.
The scope of this document is to provide a guidance of the common contamination types and their concentrations in order to size FTIS components and characterize its performance on generic commercial aircraft.
This standard defines the requirements and characteristics of electrical power for spacecraft. This standard also defines analysis, verification, and testing methodologies to be used to ensure that the loads operate when connected to the specified power quality and performance as defined by this standard.
This AIR is intended to provide basic guidance on the features that should be considered for implementation when contemplating the design and development of rechargeable lithium battery systems for utilization onboard aircraft. These guidelines will apply to “installed” equipment which would be part of the original or supplemental type certification or military airframe qualification.
This Aerospace Information Report presents an overview of the application and control of fixed and variable displacement pumps with the emphasis on the controls most commonly used on variable displacement pumps. It describes various options to control the operation of hydraulic pumps in terms of controlling the pump output pressure and/or flow and assisting in the selection of the pump.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for an AC to AC converter power sources in aerospace electric power systems. AC to AC converters are designed and used as a subsystem to deliver various ac voltage levels within power distribution systems for general aviation applications, cockpit lighting and aircraft cabin interiors.
Accelerating Automotive EMC Tests - A Comparison between Numerical Simulations and Experimental Data
Abstract The effects of specific parts inside the vehicle body in a radiated immunity numerical simulation is addressed. The benefits of numerical simulations for electromagnetic compatibility analysis is well known and reported in the literature, nevertheless, the accuracy of the results depends on the mathematical models that is being considered. Numerous simulations were performed, detailing how specific parts of a vehicle can affect the electric field inside a vehicle. The commercial package ANSYS HFSS™ was used due to the extremely fast and accurate simulations since it uses the finite element method technique, which includes hybridizations with the method of moments. This allows full simulations to be performed in a few minutes with controlled convergence, allowing a more extensive investigation. Simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from experiments performed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais showing a good agreement.
This SAE Standard specifies the ESD test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electronic modules intended for vehicle use. It describes test procedures for evaluating electronic modules in complete vehicles. A procedure for verifying the simulator that is used to generate the electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. Functional status classifications for immunity to ESD are given in Appendix B.
Abstract Projected capacitive touchscreen (PCAP) became popular thanks to the introduction of the Apple iPhone, iPad and iPod. Electrical field generated for touch detection is known to be impaired by external fields, for example Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp, USB charger or AMLCD driving. Commercial product shall live with this issue, but the high intensity radiated field required for avionics application is several orders of magnitude higher than required for commercial product. In such an environment, standard touchscreens could have hazardous behavior. Thanks to the unique 20 years' experience on projected capacitive technology (Aircraft fighter), we designed a new projected capacitive touchscreen, based on a ruggedized touch controller and dedicated ASIC, able to operate in extreme electromagnetic environment.
This AIR is intended to provide basic guidance on the methodologies that should be utilized when contemplating the design and development of rechargeable lithium battery systems for utilization onboard aircraft. These guidelines will apply to “installed” equipment which would be part of the original or supplemental type certification or military airframe qualification.
This SAE Standard specifies the test methods and procedures for testing passenger cars and commercial vehicles to magnetic fields generated by power transmission lines and generating stations. SAE J551-1 specifies general information, definitions, practical use, and basic principles of the test procedure.
This document shall provide the fundamental safety considerations in pursuing the design of a 48/60 VDC aircraft electrical system. This departure from the current standard of 28 VDC will provide the benefits of reducing the operational weight and fuel consumption of the aircraft by increasing the DC system voltage level.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the verification and certification of a “commercial” fixed wing aircraft fuel tank inerting system (FTIS) and will provide technical references and data regarding ground and flight testing of an FTIS. The intent of this ARP is to address issues associated with the verification requirements based on current regulatory guidance per AC25.981-2C
Measurement of Radiated Emissions from Integrated Circuits -- Surface Scan Method (Loop Probe Method) 10 MHz to 3 GHz
This SAE Recommended Practice defines a method for evaluating the near field electric or magnetic component of the electromagnetic field at the surface of an integrated circuit (IC). This technique is capable of providing a detailed pattern of the RF sources internal to the IC. The resolution of the pattern is determined by the characteristics of the probes used and the precision of the mechanical probe positioner. The method is usable over the 10 MHz to 3 GHz frequency range with existing probe technology. The probe is mechanically scanned according to a programmed pattern in a plane parallel or perpendicular to the IC surface and the data is computer processed to provide a color-enhanced representation of field strength at the scan frequency. This procedure is applicable to measurements from an IC mounted on any circuit board that is accessible to the scan probe. For comparisons, the standardized test board shall be used.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the general requirements for the design, manufacture, and test of Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs) of both dc and ac ratings for use in electrical power systems. SSPCs conforming to this standard are intended for use in controlling the making and breaking of power circuits for electrically operated equipment and devices, and for providing overload and short-circuit protection.
Abstract Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume, weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications, particularly in airborne and other mobile platforms.
Abstract Transportation systems use wireless technology to link vehicles and mobile devices to each other, and to the transportation infrastructure. This paper presents an advanced approach supporting and establishing a future testing and certification framework for vehicles and applications that can leverage wireless communications for the transportation environment. Assessing such integrated communication systems performance will realize the full potential of connected vehicles, travelers and infrastructure. To reach this potential, connected vehicle equipment and applications must meet minimum performance requirements, conform to common technical standards, and interoperate with one another. Over-The-Air Testing and Certification method provides formal means of verifying that a vehicle integrating specific communication technology fulfills the End-User's expectations and complies with Standards and Regulations.
Abstract Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is becoming more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of the vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the electronic components for a vehicle are evaluated and validated at a component-level test bench; however, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of the components can be changed in a vehicle-level test due to differences in the vehicle's configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.). In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. The comparison between the simulation and measurement results is also presented and discussed.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Measurement Procedure for Vehicle Components - Part 13: Immunity to Electrostatic Discharge
This SAE Standard specifies the test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electrical components intended for automotive use to the threat of Electrostatic Discharges (ESDs). It describes test procedures for evaluating electrical components on the bench in the powered mode and for the packaging and handling non-powered mode. A procedure for calibrating the simulator that is used for electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. An example of how to calculate the RC Time Constant is given in Appendix B. Functional Performance Status Classifications for immunity to ESD and Sensitivity classificatins for ESD sensitive devices are given in Appendix C.
Performance Levels and Methods of Measurement of Electromagnetic Compatibility of Vehicles, Boats (up to 15 m), and Machines (16.6 Hz to 18 GHz)
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of radio frequency radiated emissions and immunity. Each part details the requirements for a specific type of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the applicable frequency range of the test method. The methods are applicable to a vehicle, boat, machine or device powered by an internal combustion engine or battery powered electric motor. Operation of all engines or motors (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle, boat, machine or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the vehicle, boat, machine or device is in operation is included. Operator controlled equipment is included or excluded as specified in the individual document parts. As a special case, CISPR 12 applies to battery powered floor finishing equipment, but robot carpet sweepers are excluded. By reference, IEC CISPR 12 and CISPR 25 are adopted as the standards for the measurement of vehicle emissions.
This specification covers constant displacement hydraulic motors, generally remotely mounted, using hydraulic fluid under pressure as the energy transfer medium for driving various accessories. Hydraulic motors shall be suitable for use in aircraft hydraulic systems conforming to and as defined in MIL-H-5440 and MIL-H-8891 as applicable.
Abstract This paper describes a high-speed electrical machine for an aircraft starter-generator. A surface mounted permanent magnet machine is designed to have minimal rotor losses and a novel cooling system for the stator. An inner stator sleeve is adopted to allow for a flooded stator whilst minimizing rotor windage losses. Different slot-pole combinations are compared in view of attaining an optimal combination that provides minimum losses whilst satisfying the electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints.
Impact of Cable Bundles and Systems' Integration Rules Dedicated to Metallic Aircraft on the Electromagnetic Immunity of Systems in Composite Aircraft
Abstract Advanced commercial aircraft increasingly use more composite or hybrid (metal and composite) materials in structural elements and, despite technological challenges to be overcome, composites remain the future of the aviation industry. Composite and hybrid aircraft today are equipped with digital systems such as fly by wire for reliable operations no matter what the flying environment is. These systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic energy. During flight, aircraft can face High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), static electricity, or lightning. The coupling of any of these threats with airframe structure induces electromagnetic energy that can impair the operation of avionics and navigation systems. This paper focuses on systems susceptibility in composite aircraft and concludes that the same electromagnetic rules dedicated to all metal aircraft for systems and wiring integration cannot be applied directly as such for composite aircraft.
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is an application guide for fixed and variable displacement hydraulic motors. It provides details of the characteristics of fixed and variable displacement hydraulic motors, architectures, circuit designs, controls, and typical applications. The applications include airborne and defense vehicles with emphasis on high performance applications.