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2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2122
Fidele Moupfouma, Amadou Ndoye, Mohsen Jalali, William Tse
Abstract Advanced commercial aircraft increasingly use more composite or hybrid (metal and composite) materials in structural elements and, despite technological challenges to be overcome, composites remain the future of the aviation industry. Composite and hybrid aircraft today are equipped with digital systems such as fly by wire for reliable operations no matter what the flying environment is. These systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic energy. During flight, aircraft can face High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), static electricity, or lightning. The coupling of any of these threats with airframe structure induces electromagnetic energy that can impair the operation of avionics and navigation systems. This paper focuses on systems susceptibility in composite aircraft and concludes that the same electromagnetic rules dedicated to all metal aircraft for systems and wiring integration cannot be applied directly as such for composite aircraft.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2157
Puvan Arumugam, Chris Gerada, Serhiy Bozhko, He Zhang, Weeramundage Fernando, Antonino La Rocca, Stephen Pickering
Abstract This paper describes a high-speed electrical machine for an aircraft starter-generator. A surface mounted permanent magnet machine is designed to have minimal rotor losses and a novel cooling system for the stator. An inner stator sleeve is adopted to allow for a flooded stator whilst minimizing rotor windage losses. Different slot-pole combinations are compared in view of attaining an optimal combination that provides minimum losses whilst satisfying the electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0241
Kausalya Bai Sonale
Abstract There are certain products which ask for Isolation requirement to be met. To meet this requirement, we usually make use of Isolated DC - DC converter which is an easy & compact solution. Usually this leads to severe electromagnetic interference issues which badly impact the Certification/Qualification of the product. This is due to the in-built transformer in the Isolated DC - DC converter device, which switches at high frequency, in the range of mega hertz. Considerable amount of time and money is spent in debugging and resolving these issues. This paper is intended to address these issues with solutions, which will help the designer to take care at the Design stage, thereby saving time & money, the important parameters of the project cost. A set of experiments & analysis were conducted to find the root-cause of the issue.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0178
Lawrence Banasky
Abstract In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1875
Chao Chen, Martin Mohr, Franz Diwoky
Abstract This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0222
Jean Razafiarivelo, Youssef Bouri
In the sensitive automotive applications like the safety restraint systems (SRS), twisted lines can be used to link the components of the system because of their property of reduction of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling. Compared to the parallel lines, the twisted lines present the drawback to consume more copper in their manufacturing due to the greater length of their conductors. A parametric study based on the numerical modeling and the measurement of twisted lines is conducted in order to analyze the effect of the twisting pitch and of the untwisted part of these lines on the level of EMI coupling. This study will enable to optimize these two parameters in order to reduce the level of EMI coupling as well as the length of the conductors of the lines.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0198
Juliano F. Mologni, Cesareo L. R. Siqueira, Artur Nogueira, Arnaud Colin, Marco A. R. Alves, Markus Kopp
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is one of the major concerns today in the automotive industry. The main reason is that vehicles are using and depending more on electronic technology. The causes of electromagnetic interference problems are not only related to the ever-increasing number of embedded electronics systems in vehicles, but also to external electronic devices that are brought in to automobiles by drivers and passengers (e.g. cell phone, MP3 players, Bluetooth devices, portable video games). Even though these problems can cause serious issues on safety systems like the airbag, their symptoms are often noticed in a less harm way in the sound system. A very common EMI problem in automotive sound systems is a particular noise caused by devices that uses GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology. Most of the cell phones and vehicle locators rely on GSM technology.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0178
Robert Kado, Jody J. Nelson, William Taylor
The complexity of both hardware and software has increased significantly in automotive over the past decade. This is apparent even in the compact passenger car market segment where the presence of electronic control units (ECU) has nearly tripled. In today's luxury vehicles, software can reach 100 million lines of code and are only projected to increase. Without preventive measures, the risk of safety-related system malfunction becomes unacceptably too high. The functional safety standard ISO 26262, released as first edition in 2011, provides crucial safety-related requirements for passenger vehicles. Although the standard defines the proper development for safety-related systems to ensure the avoidance of a hazard, it's implication for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is not clearly defined. This paper outlines the impact of ISO 26262 for EMC related issues, and discusses the standard's implications for EMC requirements on the present EMC practices for production vehicles.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1233
Sreegururaj Jayachander
The current trend of going “green” in emerging automotive markets is, by the conversion of internal combustion engine based vehicle platforms into electrified vehicle platforms. While this method of electrification reduces the product development life cycle drastically due to the availability of a readymade platform, there are certain areas that are always overlooked. While focus is given on obvious and necessary elements like power train & battery packaging, weight reduction, high voltage safety, thermal management etc., electro-magnetic compatibility is neglected in the conversion process. This paper shall describe, in detail and in particular, the effect of electrical transients created by legacy elements, already existing in the baseline platform. This is an outcome of electro-magnetic compatibility challenges faced during the conversion of an internal combustion engine powered vehicle into an electric vehicle.
2012-10-22
Journal Article
2012-01-2147
Erik Borgstrom
RTCA/DO-160G, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, prepared by RTCA Special Committee 135, was issued on December 8, 2010, superseding the previous version, DO-160F [1]. DO-160G covers standard procedures and environmental test criteria for testing airborne electrical and electronic equipment (avionics). The tests specified in DO-160G are typically performed to meet Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or other international regulations covering electrical or electronic equipment that is installed on commercial aircraft. The tests and test levels/limits (also referred to as “Equipment Categories”) found in DO-160G are applicable to virtually every type of aircraft in use today, including small general aviation aircraft, business jets, helicopters, regional jets, and “Jumbo Jets” such as the newest airliners from Airbus (the A350XWB) and Boeing (the 747-8).
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0302
Rodrigo Barbosa Bronzeri, Ayres P. Andrade Filho, Edson Nascimento, Joao L. de C. Meira
During development of electronic products, several measurements are performed to ensure the electromagnetic disturbances are in such levels permitted by costumer requirements. Normally these tests are performed in certified laboratories. This usually causes high impact on timing plan and development costs. In order to reduce the time and cost involved on pre-compliance EMC tests, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell was used as a tool for fast analysis of proposed design solutions during development of a brushless motor controller. The TEM was used as an Antenna to measure the electromagnetic disturbances (magnetic field) generated by the EUT (Equipment Under Test). A mathematical correlation between the voltage measured using the Antenna (TEM) and results found in a Certified Laboratory are compared and presented.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0133
Marcelo Bender Perotoni, Kenedy Marconi G. Santos, Felipe R. C. Vilasboas, Joao F. Vendramini Ferreira
By using tridimensional full-wave computer simulations three different scenarios involving antenna placement in an automobile model were analyzed. The electromagnetic impact of the vehicle model complexity was taken into account, as well as the relative position of the antenna on its roof. The simulations were run in a moderate equipped computer, and show a powerful alternative to complement and forecast real laboratory evaluations
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0211
Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino, Salvador Pinillos Gimenez
This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0787
Ali Raza, Syed Zeerak ali, Ahmed shafqat, Abid Mushtaq, Umar Usman, Intikhab Hussain, Ahsan azhar, Yasir Iqbal
Hybrid electric vehicles require careful dealing with EMC because in HEV's analog and digital circuitry coexist in the vehicle's enclosed environment. These lead to a requirement of advanced methods for the increased requirements for electromagnetic compatibility and analysis and reduction of EMI [1]. There are many methods to increase EMI resistance of a hybrid car's electronics systems implemented printed circuit board, several of which will be reviewed in the current paper. In this review paper, we explain conducted and radiated emission avoidance methods using isolation amongst several subsystems. Within the harsh EM environment of a modern hybrid car, isolation between systems of differing frequencies is an effective method for reducing EMI/EMC issues. These techniques include usage of filters to hinder conducted emissions and shielding to stop radiated emissions.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1160
Scott W. Piper, James Teune
Whenever a new simulation tool or method is introduced into a product development process, immediately the tool is required to prove its worth before it can be trusted. Typically, this requires a reproduction of results that were originally obtained using physical measurement equipment. Proving out a simulation tool or method has challenges. The challenges include the need to engineer a test representative of the problems that the tool will need to solve but be simple enough for the results to be easily understood. Electromagnetic modeling and simulation tools are able to solve many types of problems, such as determining electromagnetic cross coupling from one conductor to another, the radiation of an electromagnetic field by a conductor, and analyzing impedance of a printed circuit board power distribution network. There are problems that arise in both measurement and modeling techniques but the two used together can overcome the weaknesses of either technique.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0347
Ary Pontes de Miranda, Sebastiao Balani Filho, Rafael Brandao Brasil
The last ten years have experienced a massive integration of consumer electronics devices in vehicles such as mobile phones, audio and video players, USB devices, and internet access capability. Consumers are now demanding the integration of portable and home devices to vehicle systems transforming it to an extension of the home and office thus providing entertainment and connectivity to both short and long trips The integration of devices that were not designed or specified to operate in the vehicle environment has imposed challenges to the engineers designing vehicle electronics systems in particular to the EMC engineers. The need to design the subsystems that are completely integrated with the consumer electronics devices and also compliant with the car makers current specifications has proven to be a major issue due to the fact that one of the components, the consumer electronic devices, cannot be controlled.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0085
Juliano F. Mologni, Markus Kopp, Arnaud Colin, Marco A. R. Alves, Edmundo S. Braga
The finite element method (FEM) can be used as an analysis tool in automotive electromagnetic engineering and recently new technologies such as Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) were employed to simulate very large field structures such as a whole vehicle. A FEM solver offers numerous advantages over other numerical methods, such as method of moments (MoM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD), because it has the ability to handle complex heterogeneous and anisotropic materials which is often used inside vehicles, also providing a very precise representation of complex geometries via high order tetrahedral elements. Nevertheless, for large field problems such as the scenario of the ISO 11451-2 where an antenna radiates a vehicle in an anechoic chamber, FEM solvers requires an interface between an infinite domain to a finite domain through the use of radiating boundary conditions on artificial truncation surfaces. This causes the solver to model a great quantity of air regio.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0742
Vipul M. Patel, Donald Seyerle
With the advent of vehicle manufacturer driven on-board charging systems for plug-in and extended range electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, important considerations need to be comprehended in both the requirements specified as well as the test methodologies and setups for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Typical automotive EMC standards (such as the SAE J551 and SAE J1113 series) that cover 12 volt systems have existed for many years. Additionally, there has been some development in recent years for high voltage EMC for automotive applications. However, on-board charging for vehicles presents yet another challenge in adopting requirements that have typically been in the consumer industry realm and merging those with both the traditional 12 V based system requirements as well as high voltage based systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0756
Mark Steffka
The engineering of electric propulsion systems requires time and cost efficient methodologies to determine system characteristics as well as potential component integration issues. A significant part of this analysis is the identification of the electromagnetic fields present in the propulsion system. Understanding of the electromagnetic fields during system operation is a significant design consideration due to the use of components that require large current(s) and high voltage(s) in the proximity of other control system items (such as sensors) that operate with low current(s) and voltage(s). Therefore, it is critical to quantify the electromagnetic fields produced by these components within the design and how they may interact with other system components. Often overlooked (and also extremely important) is an evaluation of how the overall system architecture can generate or react to electromagnetic fields (which may be a direct result of packaging approaches).
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0037
Juliano Fujioka Mologni, Mateus Bonadiman, Antonio Carlos Guimaraes, Leonardo Alvarenga, Arnaud Colin, Jose Osvaldo S. Paulino
Since the majority of the innovative trends in automotive industry today are based in advanced electronics technology, mastering the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) between embedded electronic subsystem and the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) features of a vehicle in its early design phase becomes one of the crucial technical challenges faced by all automotive manufacturers. Even if all electronic subsystems in a vehicle are validated under the EMC standards, the integration between them may create numerous points of potential hazards that affects the total electromagnetic behavior of the entire system, hazards that can be detected only once the first complete prototype is available, and whose resolution at this phase of the process is very time consuming and expensive.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0475
Humberto Araújo, Luiz C. Kretly
This work describes the design and simulation of a GTEM - Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic chamber. The GTEM is intended to be used for EMC-EMI/EMS pre-compliance tests on automotive electronic boards and integrated circuits. The physical conception chamber is shown for a range from 500 MHz - 18 GHz. As a crucial step in the design, the APEX (match between RF excitation and the body of the chamber) is minutely shown. The structure designed has significant advantages over the conventional available, mainly in economic terms and on the operational frequency range.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0190
Carlos Verre Junior
The electromagnetic compatibility has been evaluated in vehicle components and systems, both individually and in the vehicle as a whole, already assembled with its numerous electrical and electronic equipment. The reason for this growing concern is the ever-increasing use of on-board electronics in cars. With the increasing speed of the processor in the modules and the demand for increasingly complex interfaces, it is necessary to develop more sophisticated control units, so the modules become ever more susceptible to electromagnetic fields. Therefore, the internal hardware of the control unit is designed to provide higher robustness of these components to comply in regards to EMC. The objective of this paper is to support the basic concepts that should be considered in building a printed circuit board (PCB) module for automotive application, and the correct component design distribution and ground strategy to avoid EMC issues.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2339
Courtney Matzkind, William A. Seidler, William J. Atkinson
Electrical disturbances caused by charging of cables in spacecraft can impair electrical systems for long periods of time. The charging originates primarily from electrons trapped in the radiation belts of the earth. The model Space Electrons Electromagnetic Effects (SEEE) is applied in computing the transient charge and electric fields in cables on spacecraft at low to middle earth altitudes. The analysis indicated that fields exceeding dielectric breakdown strengths of common dielectric materials are possible in intense magnetic storms for systems with inadequate shielding. SEEE also computes the minimal shielding needed to keep the electric fields below that for dielectric breakdown.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2188
Ahmed A. A. Saad
In the design of recreational vehicle alternators, a particular challenge arises from marketing and engineering teams' desire to ensure that their products meet “best in class” sound quality characteristics. Furthermore, it is desirable to know these characteristics in measurable engineering terms in the product design stage, preferably before prototypes are built and tested. However, the aim of this paper is to investigate experimentally the electromagnetic sound quality characteristics of a vehicle alternator with the view of determination. For this reason, a special test rig was designed to simulate the alternator electromagnetic noise source. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained for this source. This can be an effective way to control this generated noise and consequently improve the vehicle alternator sound quality and look promising.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1143
Charles S. Voeltzel
One of the challenges of automotive designs which utilize heat reflecting glazing is the conductivity of the reflective coating. Significant attenuation of electromagnetic energy occurs when devices which send or receive signal through the glazing are mounted on or very near heat reflecting windows. A number of methods are available to maintain electromagnetic compatibility and the function of these and other devices in the passenger compartment which communicate with devices outside of the vehicle.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2878
Kaz Furmanczyk, Mark Stefanich
1 ABSTRACT Aircraft electrical power is generated in the form of three-phase alternating current. Most electrical loads require DC power to operate; therefore the conversion from AC to DC power is required. The direct rectification of 3-phase AC power into DC power is simple and straightforward; however, it creates unacceptable levels of current distortion. Multiphase power conversion is one of several technologies capable of AC to DC power conversion with low distortion levels that meet aerospace power quality standards. A typical autotransformer based multiphase converter contains two major functional blocks: a multiphase autotransformer and rectifier. Autotransformer rectifier units (ATRUs) have a low part count, and are highly reliable. There are only a few low frequency switching components with this topology, so EMI emissions are relatively low when compared to high frequency switching techniques.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0303
Fabrício Braga Soares de Carvalho
The automotive market is absorbing many technological innovations into its products. Mobile phones, pen drives, iPods, memory sticks and other electronic equipment and portable devices that provide entertainment and connectivity are dominating new vehicle features. Infotainment expansion in the automotive market is facing new challenges to provide usability and comfort to customers inside cars. The storage of digital files and its application into new cars is the major issue; besides, the offering of entertainment, navigation, telemetry and connectivity to customers exceeds the current vehicle's electrical structure designed by OEM's engineering. This article evaluates the current vehicle infotainment scenario, as well as the alternatives and new trends that may be applied to the automotive market in the next product generations.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0046
Juliano Fujioka Mologni, Jose Pissolato Filho, Frank Kenji Goto, Didimo Neto, Marcelo Machado Fernandes, Antonio Cesar Rosati, Helio Maciel
Reduce the overall cost of the vehicle and at the same time introduce innovative features to meet the growing costumer demand is one of the challenges noticed on most automotive companies. Due to the falling price of electronics, multimedia and audio features are becoming popular even on A and B entry vehicles. The introduction of multiplex techniques to reduce wiring content is becoming unavoidable and automotive standards like Local Interconnect Network (LIN) and Controller Area Network (CAN) will eventually be introduced on emerging market vehicles. Besides the cost reduction factor, electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints rises and must be considered during the design of the electrical / electronic architecture (EEA). One of the most common failure mode observed on network systems regarding EMI is the effect known as crosstalk. The crosstalk phenomenon is the undesirable coupling of energy of one line to another, and causes degradation on the data network.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0045
Juliano Fujioka Mologni, Frank Kenji Goto, Didimo Garcia Neto, Marco Antonio Robert Alves, Edmundo da Silva Braga, Douglas de Freitas Takeuti, Ricardo da Silva Braga
The Nanotechnology has become one of the most promising fields of research for the past few decades. The ability to control matter and systems on nanoscale (having at least one dimension smaller than 100nm) was enabled by the invention of advanced technologies like the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) that allowed the atomic size resolution possible. The link between the micro and atomic-scales creates the capability to produce nanoelectrical-mechanical systems (NEMS) that presents unique properties never seen on the macro world before. The automotive industry is already investigating these new properties and their benefits, and future automotive applications are already being projected.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0050
Marcelo Perotoni, Daniel Vitor Faria Cardia, Carlos Antonio França Sartori
RESUMO Nowadays, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has taken an important role in automotive development. This is because the effects that EMC can cause in a vehicle or on the environment. All systems contained in a vehicle emit EMC, and can be influenced by it also. During the vehicle design phase some variables have to be considered and improved to make the vehicle to be electromagnetic compatible. We can list the vehicle systems as electromagnetic generators or victims, as below: Generators: Ignition GPS transmission system Mobile phone transmission system Electrical motors Radars Power modules Victims: Sensors Cables Control modules (BCM, ECM, etc.) An example of a complete system subject to the EM effects is the X-by-wire (or drive-by-wire) system, where mechanical systems are substituted by modules, cables, sensors, actuators. This system has to be designed considering electromagnetic compatibility.
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