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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit board. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Hence it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each of the manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. For the traction inverter systems in today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), silicon IGBTs and power diodes are the main control devices. These mature components are reliable and cost-effective, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC wide bandgap semiconductor, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs are significantly improved in terms of conduction and switching losses. However, reliability concerns and high prices still place a limit on their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with major semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for the HEV inverter system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
A new IGBT has been developed for Toyota’s 4th generation HV’s. The power loss reduction of power control units (PCUs) for hybrid vehicles (HVs) is essential to improve their fuel efficiency. It is important to reduce the loss of the power devices (IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCUs, because of being about 20% of the whole power loss of the HVs. Also the trade-off between the power device downsizing and the heat dissipation feasibility is the important technical issues. In order to achieve the 4th generation PCU design goal, the IGBT development goal is to improve 19.8% of the losses, 30% of downsizing, 14% of the breakdown-voltage than the previous generation. For the loss reduction goal, SBL (Super-Body-Layer) structure is installed to improve the trade-off characteristic between the switching loss and the steady-state loss. The goal is achieved by optimizing the SBL impurity concentration which is an important parameter for trade-off characteristic improvement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Motor vehicle industry is expected to reduce CO2 emission more and more for protecting the environment. Alternator, which supplies electric energy to battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. That’s because actual one is greatly affected by electrical loads, and improving alternator efficiecy is effective to enhance actual one. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with MOSFET instead of rectifier diode because on voltage of MOSFET is much lower than diode drop, which results in improving alternator efficiency. Control circuit is required to drive MOSFET because it is an active element. It is important to turn MOSFET ON and OFF during rectification period “synchronous control”. It is turned ON while a rectifier current flows through MOSFET as alternator output, and turned OFF while the current doesn’t flow to avoid drawing in a reverse current from battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0014
Takashi Nomura, Kazuma Kawai
The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of the automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by the mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, the component test result is sometimes different from the automobile test result. In this case, the component has to be designed again. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1202
Ben Tabatowski-Bush
The Battery Monitoring Integrated Circuit (BMIC) is a key technology for Battery Electronics in the electrification of vehicles. Generally speaking, every production hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicle uses some type of BMIC to monitor the voltage of each lithium battery cell. In order to achieve Functional Safety for the traction battery packs for these electrified vehicles, most designs require higher ASIL ratings for the BMIC such as C or D. For the entire market of available BMIC’s, there is a generic feature set that can be found on almost every IC on the market, such as a front end multiplexer, one or more precision references, one or more Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, a power supply, communications circuits, and window comparators. There is also a fairly consistent suite of self-diagnostics, available on just about every available BMIC, to detect failures and enable achievement of the appropriate ASIL rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) was developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, an FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell stack (FCSTK) to the driving motor.The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size and loss of passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced to approximately 30% compared to the conventional VCU inductor. The heat generated by the smoothing capacitor increases together with the current.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1667
Scott Piper, Mark Steffka, Vipul Patel
With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1693
John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan, An Ji, Francois Charette, Scott Amman, Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte richardson
In-Vehicle speech recognition robustness is a challenge to the automotive industry. Factors such as background noise level and microphone placement affect how well the system performs. Live hardware validation using on-road testing with subjects of varying accent and cultural background can be both costly and time consuming. In addition, it is arguably impractical to collect a statistically significant amount of data to draw proper conclusions on the results. This paper describes a method to validate in-vehicle speech recognition by combining synthetically mixed speech and noise samples with batch speech recognition. Vehicle cabin noises are pre-recorded along with the impulse response from the driver's mouth location to the cabin microphone location. These signals are combined with a catalog of speech utterances to generate a noisy speech corpus. Speech scaling to simulate the Lombard effect of raising ones voice in a noisy environment is a critical piece.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1696
John F. Locke, Stephen Schmidt
This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. This antenna design provides horizontal polarization and omni directional coverage along the horizon provided by an electrically small loop but with superior efficiencies. In addition, the design allows for relatively low profile mounting desired by automotive styling. Ideal for remote keyless entry application this antenna design can also be used as part of a diversity system for WiFi, V2V, V2X, cellular or Bluetooth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1691
Aseim Elfrgani, C. J. Reddy
A simple low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost and ease of fabrication. One of the disadvantages of patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. There are several techniques to improve the directivity of the patch antenna; among these, the use of stacked patch, the use of fractal boundary, incorporating metamaterials in the substrate, and optimizing the shape of the patch. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, EMI limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1692
Scott Amman, John Huber, Francois Charette, Brigitte richardson, Joshua Wheeler
This paper describes two case studies in which multiple microphone processing (beamforming) and microphone location were evaluated to determine their impact on improving embedded automatic speech recognition (ASR) in a vehicle hands-free environment. While each of these case studies was performed using slightly different evaluation set-ups, some specific and general conclusions can be drawn to help guide engineers in selecting the proper microphone location and configuration in a vehicle for the improvement of ASR. There were some outcomes that were common to both dual microphone solutions. When considering both solutions, neither was equally effective across all background noise sources. Both systems appear to be far more effective for noise conditions in which higher frequency energy is present, such as that due to high levels of wind noise and/or HVAC blower noise. Microphone location was also shown to have a substantial effect on the performance of the ASR system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1243
Yan Zhou, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang, Fan Xu, Mohammed Khorshed Alam
Abstract: The gate driver design in traction inverter application needs to consider worst case scenarios which adversely limit the semiconductor devices’ switching speed in its most frequent operation regions. Specifically, when selecting the gate resistors, the IGBT/Diode peak surge voltage induced by fast di/dt and stray inductance must be limited below the device rated voltage under any conditions. The worst cases that have to be considered include both highest dc bus voltage and peak load current. However, the traction inverter operates mainly in low current regions and at bus voltage much lower than the worst case voltage. This paper proposes a low-cost and simple gate driver circuit that can actively adjust the turn-off switching speed based on IGBT current levels. The proposed circuit utilizes the IGBT mirror current sensing pin which is widely used in current generation traction inverters. When the current is low, the switching is speeded up to minimize loss.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0350
Swaminathan Viswanathan, Kesav Kumar Sridharan
Abstract Automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) has semiconductor devices performing various time dependent functions. It is essential to understand the transient thermal behavior of these devices for designing a reliable system. Detailed thermal model (DTM) is the need of the hour to understand the characteristics by performing a transient system level simulation. The information to build DTM is not readily available in the public domain due to intellectual property protection from the device suppliers. To overcome this, the present work showcases the procedure to develop Transient Thermal Network Model (TTNM) using resistance and capacitance values extracted from the impedance curve provided by the semiconductor manufacturer. TTNM model is developed for a typical DPAK and D2PAK device and validated by comparing impedance curve derived from simulation with datasheet.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0351
Ameya Gambhir, Dhananjay Yadav, Ganesh Pawar
Abstract Evolution in Radio Frequency (RF) semiconductor technology has led to highly power efficient devices. A typical automobile key fob for remote lock-unlock operations operates on 3V lithium coin cell battery having 200 mAh capacity and can last up to 75,000 key press events or two to three years. The typical transmission currents are less than 10 mA while sleep currents are less than 0.1 uA. As the lithium coin cell batteries are not rechargeable, they need to be replaced and safely disposed. Improper disposal of lithium batteries impose risk to the environment as lithium is highly poisonous and reactive. This paper proposes to replace the coin cell battery with a RF energy harvesting circuit involving voltage multiplier circuit consisting of zero bias schottky detector diodes and a hybrid energy storage capacitor. Authors have conducted experiments as well as simulation to evaluate the feasibility of the RF energy harvester replacing conventional coin cell battery.
CURRENT
2017-01-04
Standard
GEIASTD0003A
This document provides an industry standard for Long Term Storage (LTS) of electronic devices by drawing from the best long term storage practices currently known. LTS is defined as any device storage for more than 12 months but typically allows for much longer (years). While intended to address the storage of unpackaged semiconductors and packaged electronic devices, nothing in this standard precludes the storage of other items under the storage levels defined herein. This standard is not intended to address built-in failure mechanisms (e.g., tin whiskers, plating diffusion, and intermetallics) that would take place regardless of storage conditions
2017-01-03
WIP Standard
AS6294/2
This standard documents and establishes common industry practices, and screening and qualification testing, of Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) for use in military and avionics application environments.
2016-12-08
WIP Standard
AS6294/1
1. Review existing standards for PEM qualification & screening  NASA: PEM-INST-001, MSFC-STD-3012  QML Class N, Class Y (non-hermetic microcircuits)  QML Class F, Class L (non-hermetic hybrids)  etc. 2. Provide recommendations for unification  Address concerns for Space & terrestrial applications  Address possible holes in current documents  Make recommendations to improve QML Class N and Class Y 3. Be resource to industry when questions come up that are not being addressed by current PEM flows
2016-12-01
Magazine
Additive Manufacturing How 3D Printing Will Transform the A&D Support Chain Advances in Lightweight Electronics Protection Conformal Coatings Increase Reliability of Aerospace and Military Assemblies Powering Outer Space An In-Depth Look at Aerospace Battery Technology Using High Bandwidth Oscilloscopes to Analyze Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems Bio-inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration (BioAIR) EMI Analysis Software Helps Telescope Group Simulate RFI Mitigation Epitaxial Growth of Rhenium with Sputtering Processing and Characterization of Polycrystalline YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) Core-Clad Fibers Multi-Scale Analysis of Deformation and Failure in Polycrystalline Titanium Alloys Under High Strain Rates Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials Spectrum Fatigue of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy under Overloading and Underloading
CURRENT
2016-11-30
Standard
USCAR17-5
1.0 SCOPE 1. This document contains procedures for testing performance of SMB-style electrical terminals, connectors and components for coaxial cable connection systems intended for road vehicle applications. These are often called FAKRA II designs. This specification does not apply to the Non RF portion of a Hybrid RF connection system. 2. The intent of this specification is to qualify sealed and unsealed RF connectors that operate at frequencies from DC to 6 GHz. The characteristic impedance of the SMB/FAKRA connection system is 50 ohms however this specification does not exclude the use of these RF connectors on non-50 ohm cables or systems. 3. This specification does not apply to single conductor wire or twisted pair connection systems. 4. This specification (along with SAE/USCAR 18) is designed to provide the mechanical and electrical data required to insure that assemblies from various manufacturers will perform reliably in actual conditions.
2016-11-28
WIP Standard
J1939DA
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
CURRENT
2016-11-18
Standard
ARP6379
This document describes a process for use by ADHP integrators of EEE parts and sub-assemblies (items) that have been targeted for other applications. This document does not describe specific tests to be conducted, sample sizes to be used, nor results to be obtained; instead, it describes a process to define and accomplish application-specific qualification; that provides confidence to both the ADHP integrators, and the integrators’ customers, that the item will performs its function(s) reliably in the ADHP application.
CURRENT
2016-11-03
Standard
J1939DA_201611
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
CURRENT
2016-10-30
Standard
AS6171
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) standardizes inspection and test procedures, workmanship criteria, and minimum training and certification requirements to detect Suspect/Counterfeit (SC) Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. The requirements of this document apply once a decision is made to use parts with unknown chain of custody that do not have pedigree back to the original component manufacturer, or have been acquired from a broker or independent distributor, or when there are other known risk elements that result in the User/Requester to have concerns about potential SC EEE parts. The tests specified by this standard may also detect occurrences of malicious tampering, although the current version of this standard is not designed specifically for this purpose. This standard ensures consistency across the supply chain for test techniques and requirements based on assessed risk associated with the application, component, supplier, and other relevant risk factors.
CURRENT
2016-10-30
Standard
AS6171/11
This method outlines the requirements, capabilities, and limitations associated with the application of Design Recovery for the detection of counterfeit electronic parts including: Operator training; Sample preparation; Imaging techniques; Data interpretation; Design/functional matching; Equipment maintenance and; Reporting of data. The method is primarily aimed at analyses performed by circuit delayering and imaging with a scanning electron microscope or optical microscope; however, many of the concepts are applicable to other microscope and probing techniques to recover design data. The method is not intended for the purpose of manufacturing copies of a device, but rather to compare images or recover the design for determination of authenticity. If AS6171/11 is invoked in the contract, the base document, AS6171 General Requirements shall also apply.
CURRENT
2016-10-30
Standard
AS6171/2
This document describes the requirements of the following test methods for counterfeit detection of electronic components: a. Method A: General External Visual Inspection (EVI), Sample Selection, and Handling b. Method B: Detailed EVI c. Method C: Testing for Remarking and Resurfacing d. Method D: Surface Texture Analysis by SEM NOTE: The scope of this document was focused on leaded electronic components, microcircuits, multi-chip modules (MCMs), and hybrids. Other electronic components may require evaluations not specified in this procedure. Where applicable this document can be used as a guide but additional inspections or criteria would need to be developed and documented to thoroughly evaluate these additional part types.
CURRENT
2016-10-30
Standard
AS6171/3
XRF technique for counterfeit detection is applicable to electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts as listed in AS6171 General Requirements. In general, the detection technique is meant for use on piece parts prior to assembly on a circuit board or on the parts that are removed from a circuit board. The applicability spans a large swath of active, passive and electromechanical parts. If AS6171/3 is invoked in the contract, the base document, AS6171 General Requirements shall also apply.
CURRENT
2016-10-30
Standard
AS6171/4
This method standardizes inspection, test procedures and minimum training and certification requirements to detect Suspect/Counterfeit (SC) Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) components or parts utilizing Delid/Decapsulation Physical Analysis. The methods described in this document are employed to either delid or remove the cover from a hermetically sealed package or to remove the encapsulation or coating of an EEE part, in order to examine the internal structure and to determine if the part is suspect counterfeit. Information obtained from this inspection and analysis may be used to: a. prevent inclusion of counterfeit parts in the assembly b. identify defective parts c. aid in disposition of parts that exhibit anomalies This test method should not be confused with Destructive Physical Analysis as defined in MIL-STD-1580. MIL-STD-1580 describes destructive physical analysis procedures for inspection and interpretation of quality issues.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2269

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