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2017-04-10
WIP Standard
J1752/3
This measurement procedure defines a method for measuring the electromagnetic radiation from an integrated circuit (IC). The IC being evaluated is mounted on an IC test printed circuit board (PCB) that is clamped to a mating port (referred to as a wall port) cut in the top or bottom of a TEM or wideband TEM (GTEM) cell. The test board is not in the cell as in the conventional usage but becomes a part of the cell wall. This method is applicable to any TEM or GTEM cell modified to incorporate the wall port; however, the measured RF voltage is affected by the septum to test board (wall) spacing. This procedure was developed using a 1 GHz TEM cell with a septum to wall spacing of 45 mm and a GTEM cell with average septum to wall spacing of 45 mm over the port area. Other cells may not produce identical spectral output but may be used for comparative measurements, subject to their frequency and sensitivity limitations.
2017-04-06
Magazine
Connectivity continues its advance More OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are focusing on embedded telematic systems, hoping to displace aftermarket hardware. Tailoring fuel injection to control NOx The next big step to help heavy-duty diesel engines meet stricter emissions regulations involves adapting the fuel-injection system to the combustion needs. Active on safety Crash-avoidance technologies are vital "building blocks" to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents. Engineering with simulation and data Companies are discovering new simulation techniques, especially optimization; the next step is to combine simulation with sensor data and predictive analytics to create even more robust off-highway equipment.
CURRENT
2017-03-30
Standard
J2403DA_201703
This document is intended to supplement SAE J2403 by providing the content of Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 from SAE J2403 in a form that can be sorted and searched for easier use. It is NOT intended as a substitute for the actual document, and any discrepancies between this Digital Annex and the published SAE J2403 document must be resolved in favor of the published document. This document provides the content of Table 1 and Table 2 published in SAE J2403 into the single table in the 'Term' tab, while the 'Recommended Term Definitions' tab provides the content of Table 3 in SAE J2403 and the 'Glossary' tab provides the content of Table 4 in SAE J2403.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1202
Ben Tabatowski-Bush
Abstract The Battery Monitoring Integrated Circuit (BMIC) is a key technology for Battery Electronics in the electrification of vehicles. Generally speaking, every production hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicle uses some type of BMIC to monitor the voltage of each lithium battery cell. In order to achieve Functional Safety for the traction battery packs for these electrified vehicles, most designs require higher ASIL ratings for the BMIC such as C or D. For the entire market of available BMIC’s, there is a generic feature set that can be found on almost every IC on the market, such as a front end multiplexer, one or more precision references, one or more Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, a power supply, communications circuits, and window comparators. There is also a fairly consistent suite of self-diagnostics, available on just about every available BMIC, to detect failures and enable achievement of the appropriate ASIL rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1405
Tzu-Sung Wu
Abstract Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) usually contain radar, (stereo) camera and/or LiDAR-based technology to identify potential collision partners ahead of the car, such that to warn the driver or automatically brake to avoid or mitigate a crash. The advantage of camera is less cost: however, is inevitable to face the defects of cameras in AEBS, that is, the image recognition cannot perform good accuracy in the poor or over-exposure light condition. Therefore, the compensation of other sensors is of importance. Motivated by the improvement of false detection, we propose a Pedestrian-and-Vehicle Recognition (PVR) algorithm based on radar to apply to AEBS. The PVR employs the radar cross section (RCS) and standard deviation of width of obstacle to determine whether a threshold value of RCS and standard deviation of width of the pedestrian and vehicle is crossed, and to identity that the objective is a pedestrian or vehicle, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Abstract Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1667
Scott Piper, Mark Steffka, Vipul Patel
Abstract With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Abstract Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Abstract Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. Silicon IGBTs and power diodes used in today’s HEV inverter systems are mature and reliable components, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs have improved significantly in performance. However, reliability concerns and high prices still limit their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for automotive applications. In this study, 900V SiC MOSFET modules from Wolfspeed are tested and compared with an 800V silicon IGBT module of similar power handling capability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Abstract Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1692
Scott Amman, John Huber, Francois Charette, Brigitte richardson, Joshua Wheeler
Abstract This paper describes two case studies in which multiple microphone processing (beamforming) and microphone location were evaluated to determine their impact on improving embedded automatic speech recognition (ASR) in a vehicle hands-free environment. While each of these case studies was performed using slightly different evaluation set-ups, some specific and general conclusions can be drawn to help guide engineers in selecting the proper microphone location and configuration in a vehicle for the improvement of ASR. There were some outcomes that were common to both dual microphone solutions. When considering both solutions, neither was equally effective across all background noise sources. Both systems appear to be far more effective for noise conditions in which higher frequency energy is present, such as that due to high levels of wind noise and/or HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) blower noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
Abstract A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0014
Takashi Nomura, Kazuma Kawai
Abstract The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of an automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by a mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, components sometimes fail the automobile test even if its passed the component test due to the difference of the method. In this case, the component has to be designed again to pass the automobile test. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for a fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1691
Aseim Elfrgani, C. J. Reddy
Abstract A low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost, and ease of fabrication. One disadvantage of the patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE). Numerical simulations are done using Method of Moments (MoM) technique in the commercially available tool, FEKO. We use global response surface method (GRSM) for double objectives topology optimization. Numerical results show a promising use of topology optimization and DoE techniques for the systematic design of high directivity of low profile single element patch antennas.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1693
John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan, An Ji, Francois Charette, Scott Amman, Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson
Abstract This paper describes a method to validate in-vehicle speech recognition by combining synthetically mixed speech and noise samples with batch speech recognition. Vehicle cabin noises are prerecorded along with the impulse response from the driver's mouth location to the cabin microphone location. These signals are combined with a catalog of speech utterances to generate a noisy speech corpus. Several factors were examined to measure their relative importance on speech recognition robustness. These include road surface and vehicle speed, climate control blower noise, and driver's seat position. A summary of the main effects from these experiments are provided with the most significant factors coming from climate control noise. Additionally, a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) experiment was conducted highlighting the inverse relationship with speech recognition performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1696
John F. Locke, Stephen Schmidt
Abstract This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. The antenna design combines a resonant Alford loop with folded dipole elements to allow for efficiencies that are higher than electrically small loop antenna designs. The Alford loop provides the horizontal polarization and omnidirectional pattern coverage on the horizon which is desired for remote keyless entry and other narrowband automotive applications. With the use of folded dipole elements, the design allows for low profile mounting desired by automotive styling.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0077
Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc, Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
Abstract This paper provides an analysis of how communication performance between vehicles using Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies by antenna mounting, vehicle relative positions and orientations, and between receiving devices. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices installed onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
Abstract One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1243
Yan Zhou, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang, Fan Xu, Mohammed Khorshed Alam
Abstract The IGBTs are dominantly used in traction inverters for automotive applications. Because the Si-based device technology is being pushed to its theoretical performance limit in such applications during recent years, the gate driver design is playing a more prominent role to further improve the traction inverter loss performance. The conventional gate driver design in traction inverter application needs to consider worst case scenarios which adversely limit the semiconductor devices' switching speed in its most frequent operation regions. Specifically, when selecting the gate resistors, the IGBT peak surge voltage induced by fast di/dt and stray inductance must be limited below the device rated voltage rating under any conditions. The worst cases considered include both highest dc bus voltage and maximum load current. However, the traction inverter operates mainly in low current regions and at bus voltage much lower than the worst case voltage.
CURRENT
2017-03-17
Standard
J3083_201703
This document should be used as guidance for non-handbook based reliability predictions conducted on automotive electronics products. It presents a method that utilizes warranty and field repair data to calculate the failure rates of individual electronic components and predict the reliability of the entire electronic system. It assumes that the user has access to a database containing field return data with classification of components, times to failure, and a total number of components operating in the field.
CURRENT
2017-03-17
Standard
J1455_201703
The scope of this Recommended Practice encompasses the range of environments which influence the performance and reliability of the electronic equipment designed for heavy duty on and off road vehicles, as well as any appropriate stationary applications which also use these vehicle derived components. A few examples of such vehicles are on and off highway trucks, trailers, buses, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment including implements.
CURRENT
2017-03-07
Standard
J1930DA_201703
This Digital Annex contains all of the information previously found within the SAE J1930 tables, including diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic systems and related mechanical terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
CURRENT
2017-03-07
Standard
J1930_201703
This SAE Recommended Practice supersedes SAE J1930 OCT2008, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-2. This document is applicable to all light-duty gasoline and diesel passenger vehicles and trucks, and to heavy-duty gasoline vehicles. Specific applications of this document include diagnostic, service and repair manuals, bulletins and updates, training manuals, repair databases, underhood emission labels, and emission certification applications. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J1930DA Digital Annexes, which contains all of the information previously contained within the SAE J1930 tables. These documents focus on diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic systems, and therefore also contains related mechanical terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
2017-03-03
WIP Standard
J180
This SAE document describes alternator physical, performance and application requirements for heavy-duty electrical charging systems for off road work machines including those defined in SAE J1116. The purpose of this SAE document is to provide information on which to base machine and component design and to establish minimum requirements which will result in the most satisfactory operation of charging systems in construction, agricultural, and industrial machinery environments.
2017-03-02
Magazine
Thought leadership at WCX17 Lucid Motors’ David Moseley: EV or ICE, “It is all physics” New eye on the road One of the industry’s hottest tech suppliers is blazing the autonomy trail by crowd-sourcing safe routes and using AI to learn to negotiate the road. Mobileye’s co-founder and CTO explains. Hard, slick and ready to roll A tough, self-renewing catalyst coating developed at Argonne National Laboratory provides unprecedented friction and wear protection for vehicle powertrains, the inventors claim. Sensor ICs, semiconductors and safety To achieve ISO 26262 compliance, engineering practices must be taken to a higher level. The following insights may prove valuable for getting there. New VCR targets 40% BTE Variable-compression ratio with VVA from France’s MCE-5.
CURRENT
2017-02-21
Standard
AS6023
The scope of this document is to: Provide a requirements document for RFID Tag Manufacturers to produce active RFID tags for the Aerospace industry. Identify the minimum performance requirements for active RFID tags to be used on or in close proximity to aircraft. Specify the test requirements specific to active RFID tags for aircraft use, in addition to RTCA DO-160 compliance requirements separately called out in this document. Identify existing standards applicable to active RFID Tag. Provide a certification standard for RFID tags which will use permanently-affixed installation on aircraft and aircraft parts. Battery standards are separately captured and not included in this document.
2017-02-21
WIP Standard
J1939DA
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
2017-02-16
WIP Standard
J3138
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to provide a Data Link Connector to support communication of diagnostic information to off-board devices. Legislated diagnostic information is also required to be communicated in a timely fashion to the off-board devices. Many vehicle manufacturers also provide access to enhanced diagnostic information and vehicle systems/subsystems via this connector. Generally, there are two forms of communication methodologies used in current vehicles: a. Open access to communication busses b. Communication busses isolated via a gateway This document provides guidelines for securing communications with any off-board device for vehicles utilizing either methodology.
CURRENT
2017-02-09
Standard
J1939DA_201702
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
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