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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2093
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0192
Yukihide Niimi, Toshinori Matsui, Naoya Tsuchiya
Vehicle electronics system will continue to become more complex and larger in scale, and because of this the development is conducted without control. As a result, in system development in reality, things are intertwined with each other, like spaghetti. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire electronics system coherently and efficiently from the functional architecture down to physical architecture. So, we have to reform the R&D style of the electronics field to a style which will continuously and efficiently generate high-quality products. This will be achieved by dividing development into functions and components. The development of functions OEMs want to equip in the vehicles, that is, "what to make," and the components development, that is, "how to realize them."  For this activity, it is necessary to promote and accelerate the platform-based development looking down at the entire electronics systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1108
Hongqing Chu, Yong Chen, Lishu Guo, Bingzhao Gao, Hong Chen
Automated Manual Transmission is popularly used in microcars due to its small size, light weight, low cost and high efficiency. The dry clutch engagement is a very important control issue for AMT vehicles. The performance of dry clutch engagement must be guaranteed with the following different and sometimes conflicted goals: the shortest possible lock up time, the smoothest possible lock up process and the smallest friction losses during the slipping phase. A precondition for this complicated control issue is to obtain the information of road slope during the process of hill-start. The rapid development of sensing technology makes many semiconductor companies produced various kinds of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanic System) sensors. Slope sensor is already applied in some ESP (Electronic Stability Program) vehicles which equipped with hill parking aid system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0195
Satishchandra C. Wani
Bonds wires in automotive electronics modules are used to carry current from external harness to components on PCB. They are very thin wires (few µm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads under vehicle operation. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given external boundary conditions without fusing retaining electronic module functionality. While carrying current, wire bond material by nature offers electric resistance that is converted to heat, joule heating, is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance. For constant current flow, electrical resistance is proportional to wire material resistivity, length and inversely proportional to cross sectional area available for current flow. The resistivity of wire increases with temperature thus leading to thermal runaway situation if not handled properly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Shubhranshu Garg, Vipul Kumar, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators so that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator it can be judged that what type it is, whether a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0203
Brian Anderson, Mark Brooks, Ryan Wilson, Purser K. Sturgeon II
There are several wireless interfaces in modern vehicles to include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), and the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS). Each of these could serve as an attack surface where direct physical access may not be needed to gain some influence over a part of the vehicle's operation. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is extremely useful in performing research into new protocols and protocol variations because of its extreme flexibility and configurability. In addition, researchers may use SDR technology to investigate and gain control over portions of the communication process that are typically proprietary. This presentation will review previous and projected uses of SDR technology to investigate wireless security threats on vehicles, including research on DSRC and cellular (3G and LTE) technology that is being carried out by the authors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1204
Ji Zhang, Zhi Liao, Zechang Sun
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume,weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications,particularly in electric vehicle and other mobile platforms.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology. The power MOSFET is built to reliably withstand extreme conditions. Operating the MOSFET beyond specified limits will however reduce is lifetime. In severe cases immediate catastrophic failure is possible. The Safe Operating Area (SOA) diagram included in MOSFET data sheets summarizes the MOSFET capabilities for many operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0269
Andreas Kiep, Marco Puerschel, Chris Spielman
This paper will describe different types of short circuit conditions, how they affect power semiconductor devices, and how to detect and safely mitigate the event. The Safe Operating Area SOA diagram defines a transistor´s boundaries in terms of maximum allowable voltage and maximum allowable current. In normal operation, either the voltage is small, e.g. 1.5 V, (transistor turned ON) or the current is very small, e.g. 1µA (transistor is turned off). Hence, the product of voltage and current, power loss, is relatively small. Unlike during short circuit - one of the severest failure of a power transistor. A short circuit is an electric circuit which allows the electric current to flow through an unintended path. Normally, the resistance of that path is very small, which results in very large short circuit current through the power transistor. In addition, as the resistance is low, a major part of the supply voltage, e.g. battery voltage, may be across the power transistor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1634
Toru Ishino, Shinichi Takai
Transmission and vehicle control technology is advancing, and the shift operation format for the electronic gear selector is currently diverging from typical shifters, such as the shift lever located near the center console. As a result, automobile manufacturers find technical solutions that bridge the gear selection operations desired by drivers and the technical demands arising from control. A pushbutton-type electronic control gear selector device was developed with a differing operation direction for each gear operation. This enables instinctive operation that makes it easy for drivers to master the shift operation for each driving gear, while providing the same operating capability as a typical shift device. This new electronic control gear selector is scheduled for .
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. This paper chooses laser radars as sensors to obtain relevant information, and then presents a algorithm to detect and track vehicles in front. The algorithm determine radar’s ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the obstacles can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the obstacles are vehicles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
FM radio receiver characteristics raised a question of reproducibility and objectivity. To solve this, we developed a method to generate a virtual radio environment to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). We developed the incoming wave estimation method which accurately estimates radio wave environment. MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method using array antennas is a method which estimates direction of arrival and delay time; however, it was difficult to apply this method on FM for following reasons: (1) Number of antennas increases, increases the size of array antenna, (2) With narrower antenna interval, electromagnetic coupling between antennas becomes stronger, (3) Estimation of delay time is difficult since FM broadcast wave has frequency property, (4) Separation of direct wave and multipath wave is difficult and it is hard to estimate accurate incoming waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
We solved the problem of FM broadcast wave reception reproducibility and objectivity by developing a method to generate a virtual radio environment and to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). A significant technical issue in the Two-stage method is to understand the radio wave characteristics using FM broadcast waves. We developed the incoming wave estimation technique which accurately estimates radio wave parameters. We developed MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) using virtual array antennas, and estimated the FM radio. Evaluation of in-vehicle FM compatibility was realized using the Two-stage method by generating radio environment parameter. Multipath distortion rate was defined as an index to evaluate reception performances of FM broadcast waves, and in-vehicle compatibility of single receiver and diversity receiver was evaluated under the same vehicle and radio environment conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0223
Michael David Johas Teener
With the explosion of demand for connectivity and multimedia in the automobile, the need for standards-based A/V networking that can be easily deployed is now well-established. The IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) task group has developed a series of network enhancements that provide the components for highly reliable audio and video applications. This paper and presentation outlines these new technologies and their benefits when used for in-vehicle applications. Over the last ten years, consumer demand had driven a large increase in audio and video features and options in the automobile. Once only found in luxury cars, features such as DVD playback, backup cameras, and navigation have become commonplace options in many mainstream automobiles. Rear Seat Entertainment (RSE) units are growing in sophistication with more sources and choices at your fingertips. Each of these options has added to the need and desire for a common networking architecture in the automobile.
2015-02-26
Standard
J1113/13_201502
This SAE Standard specifies the test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electrical components intended for automotive use to the threat of Electrostatic Discharges (ESDs). It describes test procedures for evaluating electrical components on the bench in the powered mode and for the packaging and handling non-powered mode. A procedure for calibrating the simulator that is used for electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. An example of how to calculate the RC Time Constant is given in Appendix B Functional Performance Status Classifications for immunity to ESD and Sensitivity classificatins for ESD sensitive devices are given in Appendix C. Sensitivity classifications for ESD sensitive devices are given in Appendix B.
2015-02-12
WIP Standard
J1979
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2015-01-23
WIP Standard
AIR6236
The standard will apply to (but not necessarily be limited to) cables, line impedance stabilization networks, pre-amplifiers, attenuators, current probes, etc.
2015-01-06
Magazine
Hard to answer Technical and personal issues make it challenging to link smartphones to vehicles. New OGeco hybrid transmission is a space-saver Finding space for an electric motor, battery, and all the controls that go with them while still providing sufficient 5-passenger cabin room and trunk/luggage capacity is a challenge. Mazda enters subcompact crossover segment Mazda dove into the burgeoning market for subcompact crossover SUVs with the 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show introduction of the CX-3, a stylish new tall wagon built on the platform of the new Mazda2/Demio.
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J551/15
This SAE Standard specifies the ESD test methods and procedures necessary to evaluate electronic modules intended for vehicle use. It describes test procedures for evaluating electronic modules in complete vehicles. A procedure for verifying the simulator that is used to generate the electrostatic discharges is given in Appendix A. Functional status classifications for immunity to ESD are given in Appendix B.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
J2111
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedres, performance requirements, and guidelines for headlamp cleaners intended for use on motor vehicles. It includes informatino from European regulations and International Standards. It is applicable for all types of headlamp cleaners available and in use.
2014-12-08
WIP Standard
AS12500
Establish minimum requirements for procedures, materials and systems for protecting electronic components and assemblies from adverse environments in commercial and government applications.
2014-12-02
Magazine
2015 Hot Technologies Our annual year-end review of new and significant technology applications for the upcoming model year's vehicles. Can Toyota's Mirai be the next Prius? Toyota's first fuel-cell car has a range of 300 miles, fills up in 5 minutes, and accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in about 9 seconds. Integrated automotive gateway can enable connected cars One of the biggest challenges connected cars pose is the integration of information and consumer electronics into the car and ensuring connectivity among them.
2014-11-07
WIP Standard
J1938
The following subjects reflect the automotive environment and are based on good engineering practices and past ("lessons learned") experiences. Since it is impossible to be all inclusive and cover every aspect of quality and reliability, this document should be used as a basis for preparation of a more comprehensive and detailed checklist that reflects the accumulated "lessons learned" at a particular Company. It is not the intent of this document to give a lot of detail, only to point out the type of subjects that need to be investigated and acted upon.
2014-11-04
Magazine
2015 engines ride a technology tidal wave Powertrain engineers are diving deeper to find new ways to make light-duty power units more efficient without compromising performance. Connectivity for comfort Seat suppliers such as Continental, Johnson Controls, and Faurecia pursue 'networked' seats to enhance safety, personalization, and comfort. Assembling aluminum vehicles in volume Ford's 2015 F-150 pickup pioneers high-volume mass-production of lightweight aluminum car and truck structures.
2014-10-20
Book
Kirsten M. Koepsel
Electronic parts are used throughout industry to run everyday products, such as cell phones, and also highly technical products, such as aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. Unlike cell phones, which are often replaced every year, the highly technical products may remain in service from 20 to more than 80 years. But what happens if the original electronic part, with a life cycle of 18 months, is no longer available? Some manufacturers have discovered that they have unwittingly purchased counterfeit ones. Counterfeit Electronic Parts and Their Impact on Supply Chains examines how these items are negatively affecting the aviation, spacecraft, and defense sectors and what can be done about it.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
ARP6335
The document will provide industry best practicies to detect, identify and prevent malicious electronic parts and embedded firmware / software for entering the DoD Supply Chain. The best practices will assist the DoD contractors to meet the requirements of DoD D 5000.02, DoD I 5200.39 and DoD I 5200.44 to ensure the integrity and trust of microelectronic components and software being designed and built into DoD systems.
2014-10-01
Magazine
Propulsion: Energy Sources Flying on vegetation Avionics/Electronics Avionics heat up, in a good way Unmanned Vehicles Reaching the benchmark in secure unmanned vehicle software Thermal Management Submersion and directed flow cooling technology for military applications RF & Microwave Technology Airborne antenna considerations for C-Band telemetry systems Software-designed system improves wireless test speed and coverage
2014-10-01
Standard
GEIAGEB0002
This Bulletin provides a brief description of tin whisker formation and describes various methods recommended by government and industry to reduce the risk of tin whisker-induced failures in electronic hardware. It is not a mandate nor does it contain any requirements.
2014-09-22
WIP Standard
J2174
This SAE Standard establishes the minimum performance requirements for electrical distribution systems for use in dollies and trailers in single or multiple configurations.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2125
Janice Meraglia, Mitchell Miller
Abstract Counterfeit items can be viewed as the by-product of a supply chain which has been compromised. While many industries are impacted, certain types of products can mean the difference between life and death. Electronics are of special interest, however, mechanical parts can also have dire consequences. The point is that the counterfeiting community is very diverse. The business model is fluid and unrestricted. Electronics today…hardware tomorrow. All of this leads to the need for an authentication platform that is agnostic to product. Most supply chains would benefit from a technical way to have assurance of authenticity - a benefit that could be shared by all.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2093

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