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Technical Paper
2014-09-16
David Gras, Christophe Pautrel, Amir Fanaei, Gregory Thepaut, Maxime Chabert, Fabien Laplace, Gonzalo Picun
Power systems are continuously looking for high efficiency systems especially for high temperature applications where self-heating margin is very small. In applications such as Intelligent Power Modules (IPM), Motor Drives, and Power Inverters, high efficiency, high voltage and high temperature Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) power transistors are being used in several industries including aeronautics & aerospace, automotive, and down-hole. In this paper, we present a highly integrated, high-temperature solution for driving such power transistor. The solution is composed of the XTR26010 (High-Temperature Intelligent Gate Driver) with the XTR40010 (High-Temperature Isolated Two Channel Transceiver) for isolated gate drive, and XTR30010 (High-Temperature PWM Controller) with XTR2N0825 (High-Temperature 80V N-Channel Power MOSFET) for isolated power supply. XTR26010 is a high-temperature, high reliability isolated power transistor driver integrated circuit, designed with a high focus on offering a robust, reliable, compact and efficient solution for driving a large variety of high-temperature, high-voltage, and high efficiency power transistors.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Shweta Sanjeev, Goutham Selvaraj, Patrick Franks, Kaushik Rajashekara
In a More Electric Aircraft, there is a need to integrate power electronics with the starter generator system. The power electronics operates in the hostile engine environment. This requires use of power devices and passive components that are capable of operating at high temperatures (200-250 C). Wide band gap materials such as Silicon-Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) are used as power devices to provide the power conversion at high temperature. In this project, a 50 kVA high temperature bi-directional converter provides the power conversion for starter generator system at 200 C, which can be directly mounted on the engine compartment. The converter is a three phase PWM active rectifier, based on SiC MOSFET. During starter mode, the converter acts as an inverter providing AC voltage to the motor to start the engine During generator mode it functions as an active rectifier converting the AC voltage to 540V DC (+/-270V DC). The DC output of the converter provides power to the platform’s HVDC loads, DC-AC inverter fed AC loads and 28V DC loads.
Standard
2014-07-24
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the use of generally available leak detection methods to service motor vehicle passenger compartment air conditioning systems.
Standard
2014-07-09
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements for maintenance of design voltage in snowmobile electrical systems. It pertains to both battery-equipped and battery-less systems.
WIP Standard
2014-07-08
These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light and heavy duty vehicles used on or off road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e. g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to on and off highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements. The purpose of these documents is to provide an open interconnect system for electronic systems. It is the intention of these documents to allow Electronic Control Units to communicate with each other by providing a standard architecture. Network management in the SAE J1939 network is concerned with the management of source addresses and the association of those addresses with an actual function and with the detection and reporting of network related errors. Due to the nature of management of source addresses, network management also specifies initialization processes, requirements for reaction to brief power outages and minimum requirements for ECUs on the network.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Michael Klanner, Mathias Mair, Franz Diwoky, Oszkar Biro, Katrin Ellermann
Abstract The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT. After the coupling with MPCs, forces are only acting on the newly defined coupling nodes.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Matthias Frank, Franz Zotter, Alois Sontacchi, Stephan Brandl, Christian Kranzler
Abstract When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique. According to the measurements, the shape of the sound field produced by the shaker is more balanced than one produced by the loudspeakers, albeit the shaker's frequency response is limited to low frequencies.
WIP Standard
2014-06-10
SAE ARP to provide guidance and best practices for demonstrating civil aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Incorporate EMC guidance for large transport airplanes, business airplanes, small airplanes, small helicopters, and transport helicopters. Provide guidance that considers compliance with aircraft safety requirements, and also considers intended performance of non-required and non-essential aircraft systems. Provide guidance on aircraft equipment EMC qualification, aircraft system and wiring installation, and aircraft EMC tests.
Standard
2014-06-05
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the minimum interface compatibility requirements for electric vehicle (EV) inductively coupled charging for North America. This part of the specification is applicable to manually connected inductive charging for Levels 1 and 2 power transfer. Requirements for Level 3 compatibility are contained in Appendix B. Recommended software interface messaging requirements are contained in Appendix A. This type of inductively coupled charging is generally intended for transferring power at frequencies significantly higher than power line frequencies. This part of the specification is not applicable to inductive coupling schemes that employ automatic connection methods or that are intended for transferring power at power line frequencies. in the charge coupler). The charge controller signals the charger to stop charging when it determines that the batteries are completely charged or a fault is detected during the charging process. The following steps correspond with the diagram in Figure 1, and describe the closed-loop charging system.
Magazine
2014-05-01
Simulating lightweight vehicles operating on discrete terrain Researchers characterize the mobility of autonomous reconnaissance vehicles on terrain considered to be deformable, and represented as a collection of bodies of spherical shape.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to electrical systems of motorcycles both with and without batteries. Purpose This document provides minimum illumination voltage values for all motorcycle classifications as specified in SAE J213 describes test procedures to determine that these voltages are maintained.
Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the recommended testing techniques for the determination of electric field immunity of an automotive electronic device when the device and its wiring harness is exposed to a power line electric field. This technique uses a parallel plate field generator and a high voltage, low current voltage source to produce the field.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yukihide Niimi, Toshinori Matsui, Naoya Tsuchiya
Abstract With the development of car electronics, increasing numbers of ECUs are mounted in vehicles and “function integration” and “unification of mechanical and electronic” are moving forward. In order for DENSO to supply customers with the optimum of these increasingly complex products, we use simulations from upstream processes, where there is a lack of design information, and are proceeding with the construction of virtual development environments in order to create products. This paper discusses these development techniques.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yong Yu, Zhenhai Gao, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao
Abstract This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds. First, given the large amount of data delivered by 360° range scanners, the most efficient method to date is reducing scale, so the valid district can be extracted and the point cloud is compressed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Uday H. Prabhu
Abstract “Historically and to this day, software has been leading the way in defining metrics, methods and practices towards estimation of size and calculation of productivity. This is mostly due to the inherent need of the software industry to manage large volumes of code and the related large development efforts involved. Relatively, Hardware or Electronics design is a small effort compared to its Software counterparts, sometimes by a factor of 10 or more. There has never been a serious attempt made to create a model for Hardware size estimation and therefore a productivity model\. This paper describes a novel method of size estimation and quantitative productivity measurement for Electronic Hardware Design. As a first step, the paper explains the purpose of productivity calculation; describes the various methods of software estimation; draws a parallel to the electronic size estimation; justifies productivity measurement needs for Electronic Design and finally describes the unique size estimation method.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Patrick Shelly
Abstract With several automotive OEMs recently embracing AUTOSAR as a mandate for electronic modules throughout the vehicle, and with the established legacy around implementations of Infotainment, Instrument Cluster and Telematics systems, we see some questions and uncertainty around the best way forward. This is further complicated by the desire of many OEMs to enable the use of mobile applications and other aspects of the mobile operating systems available from Google, Apple and others, and the desire to leverage content residing on connected mobile devices. And it seems inevitable that more powerful silicon devices will enable a reduction in the number of electronic control modules in the vehicle architecture, through module consolidation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Prasad Rao Yerraguntla, Shashi Kulkarni, Deepak Asthana
Abstract Automotive Audio Signaling system is very vital and is controlled by local regulatory requirements. In India, usage of horn is very frequent due to highly congested traffic conditions, and is in the order of 10 to 12 times per kilometer. This results in the deterioration of the “contact”, which enables the functioning of the device. Hence the device requires premature replacement or frequent tuning, which are time consuming and results an increase in warranty costs and cost of service as well. Thus, to overcome this problem a unique and novel approach is proposed in this paper which enhances the life of the automobile horn, by implementing an additional pair of Contacts on circuit breakers, providing a parallel path for the power supply. This effort ensures that the life of the horn is increased by 5 times than the existing design. In addition, this approach completely eliminates the problems of premature failure or frequent tuning, yet without any change in the physical dimensions of the device, thus ensuring that no additional engineering efforts are required for its implementation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kausalya Bai Sonale
Abstract There are certain products which ask for Isolation requirement to be met. To meet this requirement, we usually make use of Isolated DC - DC converter which is an easy & compact solution. Usually this leads to severe electromagnetic interference issues which badly impact the Certification/Qualification of the product. This is due to the in-built transformer in the Isolated DC - DC converter device, which switches at high frequency, in the range of mega hertz. Considerable amount of time and money is spent in debugging and resolving these issues. This paper is intended to address these issues with solutions, which will help the designer to take care at the Design stage, thereby saving time & money, the important parameters of the project cost. A set of experiments & analysis were conducted to find the root-cause of the issue. Some of the trials that were experimented to find the root cause is as follows: 1 Disable the Microcontroller2 Disable the forward DC-DC converter3 Disable the Isolated DC - DC converter and provide external DC supply.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep
Abstract The electrification of the powertrain is still one of the main challenges and innovation drivers for modern cars. With the introduction of the Toyota Prius, launched in Japan in 1997 the first commercially available hybrid car in mass production, the development continued towards the BMW i3 launched in July 2013. One main component for all kind of hybrid cars is still the power semiconductor, which is used for DC/DC converters and for the inverter to drive the electric motor for the traction control. What makes the selection of the right power semiconductor complex, is the variety of different voltage levels within the car (from standard 12V board net, the new 48V board net all the way up to 400V and above) plus different requirements in terms of switching and conduction performance, or accordingly power losses. The selection of device by application and voltage will be discussed in this paper. By comparing and contrasting the technology differences of MOSFETs and IGBTs, a recommendation for the ideal power device for different applications will be given.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Satoru Komatsu, Yukihiro Serizawa, Akira Nagao, Ken Asami, Yoshio Karasawa
Abstract Traditionally, the suitability of wireless terminals for automotive use has been evaluated by conducting repeated driving tests in actual environments. However, this method of evaluation has long presented issues, and the implementation of the method itself is today becoming increasingly challenging. A method of evaluating the suitability of terminals for onboard use by generating virtual radio wave environments on a PC has therefore been developed by applying a two-stage method to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-over-the-air(OTA) evaluation. The radio wave propagation characteristics necessary for the generation of these virtual radio wave environments are set using the multiple signal classification method incorporating an RF recorder. The research discussed in this paper used these methods to analyze the effect of the multipath distortion rate on sound quality in the reception of FM broadcasts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Prajwal CP, Kishore Ravi Hegde, Shiva Kumar S, Pramod H S
Abstract Every electrical and electronic gadget around us requires charge for its operation. The normal electrical quantity with which they get charged is direct and not alternative. The alternative quantity has to be converted to direct quantity before the devices get charged. The conversion of the alternative current and voltages into the direct quantity is known as rectification. The normal rectification process will result in the output DC voltage in an uncontrolled fashion. Hence in order to obtain the controlled output voltage, we must use a controlled rectifier. This controlled rectifier can be obtained by the use of semiconductor devices like thyristors, IGBTs etc. The gate terminals of these devices require pulses to be given for triggering. But the pulses given must be in such a way that they must trigger the semiconductor devices so that required level of rectified DC output voltage is obtained. In order to obtain these triggering pulses, many pulse modification techniques are available.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David E. Verbitsky
Failure analysis (FA) management is insufficiently described by current standards and literature. Previously proposed three-step systemic FA methodology provides effective and efficient alternative to sporadic FA. Organization, methods and results of the first step of the systemic FA, failure mode analysis (FMA), during product/project life cycle, is described. FMA promptly address ∼80% of all problems and justify/supports further actions using conventional ready techniques and resources. Original subject matter tools (three FMA levels, joint FMA-FMECA-F5 technique, and P5 failure classification) substantiate, facilitate and illustrate FMA. Multiple examples demonstrate FMA strengths and limitations with uniquely broad range of products and applications. Particular attention is paid to rare combination of high quality, reliability and profitability.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bill Whikehart
In a connected vehicle, digital audio content may arrive at the audio system from sources that provide packets of audio samples with no associated sample clock. A common example is streamed internet audio. To process and play these sources, the audio system must first convert the audio stream so that it is compatible with the system's sample clock. Traditional sample-rate conversion methods are typically not capable of doing this. This paper presents and compares approaches for performing the conversion.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yao H. Kuo
The radio frequency (RF) filter is a well-known technique that has been used in communication systems for a long time. It is able to limit the selected band from receiving signals or transmitting signals. The filter can be a low-pass filter, high-pass filter, band-pass filter, and notch-filter or combined filters. This paper presents the unique Multi-Notch Filter (MNF) which takes advantages of the properties of “sinusoid wave” and “linear functions”. Since an automotive receiver is operated in noisy environments, this method is particularly useful to improve an automotive receiver's performance at the input stage when it immediately processes RF signals from an antenna. This type of filer can easily be implemented into an automotive receiver to notch out more unwanted frequency(s), such as harmonic frequencies, motor noise and very low frequencies (power line noise), which will result in better noise immunity for mobile receivers against noisy environments. In the following sections we will discuss; key criteria for good receiver design, the background theory of this unique multi-notch filter, the architecture of this multi-notch filter, and examples of this multi-notch filter's implementation for receiver.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Husein Dakroub, Robert Cadena
The substantial increase of electronic systems and processors in vehicles is increasing the already remarkable amount of software code, generating thousands of software-related recalls according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), leading to frequent customer updates. Current software updating methods are inconvenient for customers and dealers alike, requiring a significant amount of time and expensive hardware to implement. With Wi-Fi technology and embedded modems entering vehicles, several OEMs have already taken an innovative approach with Over-The-Air (OTA) technology. OTA updating has shown to be a proven method in the telecom industry with tens of millions of phones equipped with OTA capabilities and millions of successful OTA updates performed each year, contributing to a reliable and efficient method of updating. This paper analyzes the different ways OTA is currently being used to successfully achieve in-vehicle software updates. This paper also presents the results of a questionnaire conducted to assess the familiarity and acceptance of software update technologies.
Standard
2014-03-31
This recommended practice outlines a series of performance recommendations, which concern the whole data channel. These recommendations are not subject to any variation and all of them shall be adhered to by any agency conducting tests to this practice. However, the method of demonstrating compliance with the recommendations is flexible and can be adapted to suit the needs of the particular equipment the agency is using. It is not intended that each recommendation be taken in a literal sense, as necessitating a single test to demonstrate that the recommendation is met. Rather, it is intended that any agency proposing to conduct tests to this practice shall be able to demonstrate that if such a single test could be and were carried out, then their equipment would meet the recommendations. This demonstration shall be undertaken on the basis of reasonable deductions from evidence in their possession, such as the results of partial tests. In some systems it may be necessary to divide the whole channel into subsystems, for calibration and checking purposes.
WIP Standard
2014-03-11
This SAE Standard provides the minimum requirements for Primary and Auxiliary jumper cable plug and receptacle for the truck-trailer and converter dolly jumper cable systems. It includes the test procedures, design, and performance requirements.
WIP Standard
2014-03-10
This SAE Standard encompasses connectors between two cables or between a cable and an electrical component and focuses on the connectors external to the electrical component. This document provides environmental test requirements and acceptance criteria for the application of connectors for direct current electrical systems of 50 V or less in the majority of heavy-duty applications typically used in off-highway machinery. Severe applications may require higher test levels, or field-testing on the intended application.
Standard
2014-02-26
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all E/E systems on MD and HD vehicles. The terms defined are largely focused on compression-ignited and spark-ignited engines. Specific applications of this document include diagnostic, service and repair manuals, bulletins and updates, training manuals, repair data bases, under-hood emission labels, and emission certification applications. This document focuses on diagnostic terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms applicable to E/E systems. It also covers mechanical systems which require definition. Nothing in this document should be construed as prohibiting the introduction of a term, abbreviation, or acronym not covered by this document. The use and appropriate updating of this document is strongly encouraged. Certain terms have already been in common use and are readily understood by manufacturers and technicians, but do not follow the methodology of this document. To preserve this understanding, these terms were included and have been identified with the footnote (2), "previous usage," so they will not erroneously serve as a precedent in the construction of new names.
Standard
2014-02-21
This document will primarily address intrinsic reliability of electronic components for use in automotive electronics. Where practical, methods of extrinsic reliability detection and prevention will also be addressed. The current handbook primarily focuses on integrated circuit subjects, but can easily be adapted for use in discrete or passive device qualification with the generation of a list of failure mechanisms relevant to those components. Semiconductor device qualification is the main scope of the current handbook. Other procedures addressing extrinsic defects are particularly mentioned in the monitoring chapter. Striving for the target of Zero Defects in component manufacturing and product use it is strongly recommended to apply this handbook. If it gets adopted as a standard, the term “shall” will represent a binding requirement. This document does not relieve the supplier of the responsibility to assure that a product meets the complete set of its requirements.
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