Electronic parts are used throughout industry to run everyday products, such as cell phones, and also highly technical products, such as aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. Unlike cell phones, which are often replaced every year, the highly technical products may remain in service from 20 to more than 80 years. But what happens if the original electronic part, with a life cycle of 18 months, is no longer available? Some manufacturers have discovered that they have unwittingly purchased counterfeit ones. Counterfeit Electronic Parts and Their Impact on Supply Chains examines how these items are negatively affecting the aviation, spacecraft, and defense sectors and what can be done about it. As the inflow of counterfeit electronic parts does not appear to be slowing down, Counterfeit Electronic Parts and Their Impact on Supply Chains investigates the possible solutions to combat the issue, including legislation and standards, and other solutions that are government driven but that may be impacted by continuing budget cuts.
Best Practices for the Detection, Identification and Prevention of Malicoius Electronic Parts and Software into Microelectronic Devices
The document will provide industry best practicies to detect, identify and prevent malicious electronic parts and embedded firmware / software for entering the DoD Supply Chain. The best practices will assist the DoD contractors to meet the requirements of DoD D 5000.02, DoD I 5200.39 and DoD I 5200.44 to ensure the integrity and trust of microelectronic components and software being designed and built into DoD systems.
Propulsion: Energy Sources Flying on vegetation Avionics/Electronics Avionics heat up, in a good way Unmanned Vehicles Reaching the benchmark in secure unmanned vehicle software Thermal Management Submersion and directed flow cooling technology for military applications RF & Microwave Technology Airborne antenna considerations for C-Band telemetry systems Software-designed system improves wireless test speed and coverage
This SAE Standard establishes the minimum performance requirements for electrical distribution systems for use in dollies and trailers in single or multiple configurations.
Abstract For more than 40 years, Gordon Moore's experimental law has been predicting the evolution of the number of transistors in integrated circuits, thereby guiding electronics developments. Until last years, this evolution did not have any measurable impact on components' quality; but the trend is beginning to reverse. This paper is addressing the impact of scaling on the reliability of integrated circuits. It is analyzing - from both qualitative and quantitative point of view - the behavior of Deep Sub-Micron technologies in terms of robustness and reliability. It is particularly focusing on three basics of safety analyses for aeronautical systems: failure rates, lifetimes and atmospheric radiations' susceptibility.
Abstract “Today's electronic components rely on principles of physics and science with no manufacturing precedence and little data on long term stability and reliability.”  Yet many are counting on their reliable performance years if not decades into the future, sometimes after being literally abandoned in barns or stored neatly in tightly sealed bags. What makes sense? To toss everything away, or use it as is and hope for the best? Surely there must be a middle ground! With an unprecedented number of missions in its future and an ever-tightening budget, NASA faces the daunting task of doing more with less. One proven way for a project to save money is to use already screened and qualified devices from the spares of its predecessors. But what is the risk in doing so? How can a project reliably count on the value of spare devices if the risk of using them is not, in itself, defined? With hundreds of thousands of devices left over from previous missions, the parts bins of NASA hold a wealth of electronic components, (possibly) ready for use many years after their production.
Counterfeiting, Supply Chain Security, and the Cyber Threat; Why Defending Against Counterfeit Electronics is No Longer Enough
Abstract Counterfeit items can be viewed as the by-product of a supply chain which has been compromised. While many industries are impacted, certain types of products can mean the difference between life and death. Electronics are of special interest, however, mechanical parts can also have dire consequences. The point is that the counterfeiting community is very diverse. The business model is fluid and unrestricted. Electronics today…hardware tomorrow. All of this leads to the need for an authentication platform that is agnostic to product. Most supply chains would benefit from a technical way to have assurance of authenticity - a benefit that could be shared by all. A comprehensive marking program, such as SigNature DNA, offers value to all supply chain participants as outlined below: Manufacturers will have the ability to effectively monitor their legacy components Authorized distributors will have an absolute way to verify and accept returns Defense contractors and agencies will have forensically authentic and traceable inventory at their disposal End users will have the power to authenticate stock to the component level
Abstract This paper summarizes the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This paper covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies' to exchange messages and to perform audio tests of both inbound and outbound channels. This paper describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.
Abstract The attributes of and challenges in the recently suggested probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) concept, and the role of its major constituents - failure oriented accelerated testing (FOAT) and physically meaningful predictive modeling (PM) - are addressed, advanced and discussed. The emphasis is on the application of the powerful and flexible Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, and particularly on its multi-parametric aspect. The model can be effectively used to analyze and design optoelectronic (OE) devices and systems with the predicted, quantified, assured, and, if appropriate and cost-effective, even maintained probability of failure in the field. The numerical example is carried out for an OE system subjected to the combined action of the ionizing radiation and elevated voltage as the major stimuli (stressors). The measured leakage current is used as a suitable characteristic of the degree of degradation. It is concluded that the suggested methodology can be accepted as an effective means for the evaluation of the operational reliability of the aerospace electronics and OE systems and that the next generation of qualification testing (QT) specifications and best practices for such systems could be viewed and conducted as a “quasi-FOAT,” a sort of an “initial stage of FOAT” that adequately replicates the initial non-destructive segment of the previously conducted comprehensive “full-scale” FOAT.
Highly Integrated Intelligent Power Transistor Driver, Isolated Data Transceiver, and Versatile PWM Controller Circuits for High Temperature and High Reliability Power Applications
Abstract In this paper we present a set of integrated circuits specifically designed for high temperature power applications such as isolated power transistor drivers and high efficiency power supplies. The XTR26010 is the key circuit for the isolated power gate drive application. The XTR26010 circuit has been designed with a high focus in offering a robust, reliable and efficient solution for driving a large variety of high-temperature, high-voltage, and high-efficiency power transistors (SiC, GaN, Si) existing in the market. The XTR40010 is used for isolated data communication between a microcontroller or a PWM controller and the power driver (XTR26010). The isolated power transistor driver features a dual turn-on channel, a turn-off channel and a Miller Clamp channel with more than 3A peak current drive strength for each channel. The dV/dt immunity between XTR26010 and XTR40010 exceeds 50kV/μs. To demonstrate the performance and reliability at system level, a half-bridge driver test-board has been developed for driving SiC MOSFETs.
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
This SAE Information Report defines a procedure for indicating the severity of narrowband emissions from an electronic system-component.
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
3-D manufacturing of titanium components takes off MRO providers are discovering ways to innovate their procedures while remaining viable and profitable through the current downturn in government spending. Commercial programs are flying high With economic regeneration underway this year, the rate of ordering new aircraft has been at an all-time high, with the result that backlogs for undelivered new production stretch well into the next decade for some popular models.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the use of generally available leak detection methods to service motor vehicle passenger compartment air conditioning systems.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements for maintenance of design voltage in snowmobile electrical systems. It pertains to both battery-equipped and battery-less systems.
These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light and heavy duty vehicles used on or off road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e. g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to on and off highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements. The purpose of these documents is to provide an open interconnect system for electronic systems. It is the intention of these documents to allow Electronic Control Units to communicate with each other by providing a standard architecture. Network management in the SAE J1939 network is concerned with the management of source addresses and the association of those addresses with an actual function and with the detection and reporting of network related errors. Due to the nature of management of source addresses, network management also specifies initialization processes, requirements for reaction to brief power outages and minimum requirements for ECUs on the network.
Abstract The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT. After the coupling with MPCs, forces are only acting on the newly defined coupling nodes.
Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control
Abstract When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique. According to the measurements, the shape of the sound field produced by the shaker is more balanced than one produced by the loudspeakers, albeit the shaker's frequency response is limited to low frequencies.
SAE ARP to provide guidance and best practices for demonstrating civil aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Incorporate EMC guidance for large transport airplanes, business airplanes, small airplanes, small helicopters, and transport helicopters. Provide guidance that considers compliance with aircraft safety requirements, and also considers intended performance of non-required and non-essential aircraft systems. Provide guidance on aircraft equipment EMC qualification, aircraft system and wiring installation, and aircraft EMC tests.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the minimum interface compatibility requirements for electric vehicle (EV) inductively coupled charging for North America. This part of the specification is applicable to manually connected inductive charging for Levels 1 and 2 power transfer. Requirements for Level 3 compatibility are contained in Appendix B. Recommended software interface messaging requirements are contained in Appendix A. This type of inductively coupled charging is generally intended for transferring power at frequencies significantly higher than power line frequencies. This part of the specification is not applicable to inductive coupling schemes that employ automatic connection methods or that are intended for transferring power at power line frequencies. in the charge coupler). The charge controller signals the charger to stop charging when it determines that the batteries are completely charged or a fault is detected during the charging process. The following steps correspond with the diagram in Figure 1, and describe the closed-loop charging system.
Simulating lightweight vehicles operating on discrete terrain Researchers characterize the mobility of autonomous reconnaissance vehicles on terrain considered to be deformable, and represented as a collection of bodies of spherical shape.
This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to electrical systems of motorcycles both with and without batteries. Purpose This document provides minimum illumination voltage values for all motorcycle classifications as specified in SAE J213 describes test procedures to determine that these voltages are maintained.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Measurement Procedure for Vehicle Components - Immunity to AC Power Line Electric Fields
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the recommended testing techniques for the determination of electric field immunity of an automotive electronic device when the device and its wiring harness is exposed to a power line electric field. This technique uses a parallel plate field generator and a high voltage, low current voltage source to produce the field.
Abstract With the development of car electronics, increasing numbers of ECUs are mounted in vehicles and “function integration” and “unification of mechanical and electronic” are moving forward. In order for DENSO to supply customers with the optimum of these increasingly complex products, we use simulations from upstream processes, where there is a lack of design information, and are proceeding with the construction of virtual development environments in order to create products. This paper discusses these development techniques.
Abstract This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds. First, given the large amount of data delivered by 360° range scanners, the most efficient method to date is reducing scale, so the valid district can be extracted and the point cloud is compressed.
Abstract “Historically and to this day, software has been leading the way in defining metrics, methods and practices towards estimation of size and calculation of productivity. This is mostly due to the inherent need of the software industry to manage large volumes of code and the related large development efforts involved. Relatively, Hardware or Electronics design is a small effort compared to its Software counterparts, sometimes by a factor of 10 or more. There has never been a serious attempt made to create a model for Hardware size estimation and therefore a productivity model\. This paper describes a novel method of size estimation and quantitative productivity measurement for Electronic Hardware Design. As a first step, the paper explains the purpose of productivity calculation; describes the various methods of software estimation; draws a parallel to the electronic size estimation; justifies productivity measurement needs for Electronic Design and finally describes the unique size estimation method.
Creating a Unified Runtime Platform: Considerations in Designing Automotive Electronic Systems Using Multiple Operating System Domains
Abstract With several automotive OEMs recently embracing AUTOSAR as a mandate for electronic modules throughout the vehicle, and with the established legacy around implementations of Infotainment, Instrument Cluster and Telematics systems, we see some questions and uncertainty around the best way forward. This is further complicated by the desire of many OEMs to enable the use of mobile applications and other aspects of the mobile operating systems available from Google, Apple and others, and the desire to leverage content residing on connected mobile devices. And it seems inevitable that more powerful silicon devices will enable a reduction in the number of electronic control modules in the vehicle architecture, through module consolidation.
Abstract There are certain products which ask for Isolation requirement to be met. To meet this requirement, we usually make use of Isolated DC - DC converter which is an easy & compact solution. Usually this leads to severe electromagnetic interference issues which badly impact the Certification/Qualification of the product. This is due to the in-built transformer in the Isolated DC - DC converter device, which switches at high frequency, in the range of mega hertz. Considerable amount of time and money is spent in debugging and resolving these issues. This paper is intended to address these issues with solutions, which will help the designer to take care at the Design stage, thereby saving time & money, the important parameters of the project cost. A set of experiments & analysis were conducted to find the root-cause of the issue. Some of the trials that were experimented to find the root cause is as follows: 1 Disable the Microcontroller2 Disable the forward DC-DC converter3 Disable the Isolated DC - DC converter and provide external DC supply.
Abstract Automotive Audio Signaling system is very vital and is controlled by local regulatory requirements. In India, usage of horn is very frequent due to highly congested traffic conditions, and is in the order of 10 to 12 times per kilometer. This results in the deterioration of the “contact”, which enables the functioning of the device. Hence the device requires premature replacement or frequent tuning, which are time consuming and results an increase in warranty costs and cost of service as well. Thus, to overcome this problem a unique and novel approach is proposed in this paper which enhances the life of the automobile horn, by implementing an additional pair of Contacts on circuit breakers, providing a parallel path for the power supply. This effort ensures that the life of the horn is increased by 5 times than the existing design. In addition, this approach completely eliminates the problems of premature failure or frequent tuning, yet without any change in the physical dimensions of the device, thus ensuring that no additional engineering efforts are required for its implementation.