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2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1221
Kiyoshi Ito, Takumi Shibata, Takashi Kawasaki
Drive motors such as for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles require windings that can endure use at high voltages. The winding is the main part for which insulation needs to be assured in the motor operating environment. In addition, consideration should also be given to insulation damage during molding. Conventional motors generally secure insulation by using the two parts of the winding and insulating paper to assure insulation. However, this increases the motor space factor and hinders size reduction. A new high-voltage winding formed by molding extruded resin onto an enamel insulating layer was developed to reduce the number of insulating parts and enhance motor performance. Extrusion molding of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin onto an insulating layer realized a winding that can withstand the molding load during motor manufacture, secures durability for the automobile motor operating environment and can maintain high-voltage characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1235
Johannes Gragger, Alessandro Zanon, Michele De Gennaro, Jonathan Juergens, Antonio Fricassè, Luca Marengo, Igor Olavarria, Jutta Kinder
The widespread of hybrid and battery electric vehicles is vital for the future low-carbon mobility. In this context the delivery of affordable and efficient electric motor technologies together with high energy density storage devices are key aspects to enable the mass market take-off of electrified vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results and design features of an innovative and rare-earth free electric motor technology based on the synchronous reluctance machine concept. This technology is capable to provide sufficient power density and higher driving cycle energy efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machines used for automotive applications. The motor is designed to be integrated within a hatchback rear driving axle vehicle, achieving the maximum energy efficiency in urban operational conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1219
Hua Bai, Matt McAmmond, Juncheng Lu, Qi Tian, Hui Teng, Alan Brown
Most of the present EV on-board chargers utilize three-stage design, e.g., AC/DC rectifier, DC to high-frequency AC inverter, and AC to DC rectifier, which will limit the wall-to-battery efficiency to ~94%. Instead of using the regular three-stage design, the matrix converter could directly convert the grid AC to high-frequency AC thereby saves one stage and potentially increases the system efficiency, however, the control strategy will be more complex. In addition to the efficiency requirement, the demand on high-power density design requires high switching frequency, which challenges the present power electronics design based on Silicon devices. As the new-generation semiconductor switches, wide-bandgap (WBG) devices, such as GaN HEMTs and SiC MOSFETs recently draw much attention. Compared to conventional Si MOSFETs or IGBTs, WBG devices exhibit much shorter turn-on/off time intervals, close-to-zero reverse recovery loss and much smaller conduction loss.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1232
Peng Yi, Zechang Sun, Xinjian Wang
The different choices of IGBTs’ switching frequency of the PMSM inverter used in vehicle lead to different energy loss of the inverter. Meanwhile, they lead to different phase current harmonics, which result in different energy loss of the PMSM. Compared with traditional switching frequency design method, the optimal design method considers the loss of the PMSM as well as the inverter, proposing a switching frequency design method of the minimum system loss. Firstly, by establishing the IGBT model (Hefner Model) and the PMSM analytical model, obtain PMSM phase currents under different conditions and different switching frequencies through simulating. The inverter energy loss under different conditions is obtained at the same time. Then, the phase currents under different conditions are applied to the finite element model thus the distribution of the magnetic field strength H and the magnetic flux density B is obtained, so that the PMSM loss can be calculated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0091
Hikaru Watanabe, Tsutomu Segawa, Takumi Okuhira, Hiroki Mima, Norishige Hoshikawa
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1229
Douglas Cesiel, Charles Zhu
Manufacturers have introduced several types of electric vehicles that utilize on-board charging systems; including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREV), and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). These vehicles include an on-board power conversion system that allows the DC propulsion battery to be charged using energy from the AC power grid. The primary component within the charging system is an AC/DC conversion module known as the On-Board Charger (OBC). The efficiency of the charging system directly effects overall vehicle efficiency. Losses in the charging system correspond to AC grid energy that is consumed but does not contribute to increasing the battery state of charge. Reducing losses also reduces the work required of the cooling system during battery charging, and this further improves overall efficiency. Thus, OBC efficiency improvement was an important objective for GM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1233
Kensuke Sasaki, Apoorva Athavale, Brent Gagas, Takashi Fukushige, Takashi Kato, Robert Lorenz
Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VF-PMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque properties considering magnetization state (MS) manipulation capability. This paper presents a analytical model to estimate speed-torque properties of VF-PMSMs and a process to find preferred magnet dimensions to obtain a specified speed-torque capability requirement in order to accelerate the design process. This model uses an equivalent circuit based analysis to obtain the magnet flux linkage, d-axis inductance (Ld) and demagnetization border in the id-iq plane to maintain a desired MS on the magnet edge, considering VF-PMSM design requirements for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. This model is applied to predict speed-torque properties for several machine designs with a fixed topology, a fixed stator diameter and a fixed stacking length, and varying magnet dimensions, namely, thickness and width.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed step-by-step its control program in binary digital code. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0093
Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Jian Wu, Wenlong Sun, Bing Zhu
With the development of modern vehicle chassis control systems, such as Anti-skid Brake System (ABS) , Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and regenerative braking system(RBS) for EVs, etc., there comes a new requirement for the vehicle brake system, that is the precise control of the wheel brake pressure. The electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which has a ability to adjust four wheels’ brake pressure independently, can be a good match with these systems. However, the tranditional control logic of EHB is based on the PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation), which has a low control accuracy of linear electromagnetic valves. Therefore, this paper will do a research of the linear electro-magnetic valve characteristic analysis, and make a compensation control of linear electro-magnetic valves, at last, achieve the popes of precise pressure control of the EHB system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1230
Takaoki Ogawa, Atsushi Tanida, Toshifumi Yamakawa, Masaki Okamura
The physical property of silicon power semiconductor is approaching limit of material. That is used for motor control of electric motor car, which is Hybrid Vehicle (HV) and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV), Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) and so on. With the aim of real practical use after 2020, new material power semiconductor Silicon Carbide (SiC) is being developed. That is expected as a key technology for further improving fuel efficiency for electric motor car. We made power control unit (PCU) that adopted the Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor experimentally this time. SiC power semiconductors have low power loss caused by low conduction loss and low switching loss when switching on and off as described in our papers. We evaluated the power semiconductors temperature at which the boost converter was operated continuously. The switching frequency was 10 kHz and 20 kHz.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1227
Osamu Kitazawa, Takaji Kikuchi, Masaru Nakashima, Yoshiki Tomita, Hajime Kosugi, Takahisa Kaneko
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle(HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1234
Toshikazu Sugiura, Atsushi Tanida, Kazutaka Tamura
The SiC power semiconductor is expected to improve the fuel efficiency of gasoline-electric hybrids and other vehicles with electric powertrains, such as PHVs, EVs and FCVs. The use of SiC power semiconductors in a wider range of models was considered, and the FC Boost Converter of the FC bus was chosen. The SiC diodes which are called the SiC Schottky Barrier Diodes (SiC-SBDs) were installed in the FC Boost Converter which controls the voltage of electricity from the FC stack for FC bus. In the electric current range and temperature of main use, it was confirmed that the forward characteristics (Vf) of SiC-SBDs were smaller than Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs) of conventional products. In other words, the electric conduction loss is less than Si-PiNDs. In SiC-SBDs, a recovery electric current is largely reduced in comparison with conventional Si-PiNDs. As a result, the recovery loss of SiC-SBDs was reduced 90 percent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1363
Nobuhiro Ide, Jun Hioki, Hiroki Okada
Because of its convenience high equipment ratio of electronic key system can be seen across all car makers. Ensuring performance of low frequency and ultra high frequency electromagnetic wave is a core technique in this system. Among the most important for this system is ensuring communication in the required area, and the tuning process has been a key factor in the development phase. Many man-hours and cost have been used in the past for this tuning process which was a cut-and-try based on technical experience for the convenience of the required specification in low frequency band. We have succeeded in trimming down the development process by applying our low frequency electromagnetic simulation technique described in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0098
Malavika Menon, Sunil Kakaye, Sudharsan Sundaram
The world today is moving more towards convenience and luxury. Auto manufacturers are being constantly challenged to provide innovative additions to a conventional vehicle in terms of attractive features. This paper describes one such invention proposed to add convenience and novelty to the use of two wheelers. The proposed system is called a “Keyless Scooter”. Derived from the idea of keyless entry in four wheelers, this system aims at extending this luxury to a larger band of population in India, i.e. users of two wheeled vehicles. The system eliminates the use of a mechanical lock and key arrangement. All functions carried out by the mechanical arrangement of lock and key are replaced with equivalent electronic systems. A “keyless scooter” is one in which a user can approach it with a key fob in his/her pocket or bag and unlock the handlebar, start the vehicle, open the luggage box, etc. without having to insert a key physically into a lock body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0155
Jaroslav Pekar, Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Anthony D'Amato, Engin Ozatay, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equipped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. Many authors reported application (or simulation only without in-vehicle validation) of linear or nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0127
Agish George, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
One of the key premises of the ISO 26262 functional safety standard is the development of an appropriate Technical Safety Concept for the item under development. This is specified in detail in Part 4 of the standard – Product development at the system level. The Technical safety requirements and the technical safety concept form the basis for deriving the hardware and software safety requirements that are then used by engineering teams for developing a safe product. Just like any other form of product development, making multiple revisions of the requirements are highly undesirable. This is primarily due to cost increases, chances of having inconsistencies within work products and its impact on the overall project schedule. Good technical safety requirements are in fact the foundation for an effective functional safety implementation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1228
Faizul Momen, Khwaja M. Rahman, Yochan Son, Peter Savagian
A permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor is used to design the propulsion system of Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). Magnets are buried inside the rotor in two layer ‘V’ arrangement. The double layer magnet arrangement improves rotor saliency resulting in improved motor performance. The double layer arrangement also provides flexibility in the rotor design to lower torque ripple and stator teeth radial force, the major drivers for airborne acoustic noise and vibration. The Chevrolet Bolt electric machine rotor design additionally optimizes the magnet placement between the adjacent poles asymmetrically to further lower torque ripple and radial force. Similar to Gen1 Chevrolet Spark BEV electric motor, a pair of small slot is stamped in each rotor pole near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1218
Tsuyoshi Iguchi
Evaluation testing of current, temperature and so on in the Power Control Unit (PCU) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) under driving conditions had previously been conducted by operating the actual Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) that is the target of control. For this reason, at times when the actual motor was unavailable, it was impractical to perform a PCU evaluation. The goal of this research was to implement testing of PCU current and temperature under driving conditions by constructing test methodologies that utilize a motor emulator instead of an actual motor. In order to construct a motor emulator able to simulate a current equivalent to that of an actual motor, a motor model simulator capable of processing a detailed PMSM Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was developed, together with a 100kW-class phase current controller able to regulate the drive current and regenerative current under driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0126
Philip Daian, Shinichi Shiraishi, Akihito Iwai, Bhargava Manja, Grigore Rosu
The Runtime Verification ECU (RV-ECU) is a new development platform for checking and enforcing the safety of automotive bus communications and software systems. RV-ECU uses runtime verification, a dynamic software analysis subfield geared at validating and verifying software systems as they run, to ensure that all manufacturer and third-party safety specifications are complied with during operation of the vehicle. By compiling mathematically formal safety properties into code using a verified compiler, the RV-ECU runs only provably correct code that can check for and detect safety violations as the system runs, ensuring no safety-critical violations. RV-ECU can also work to recover from violations of these properties, either by itself or together with safe message sending libraries implementable on third-party control units and other hardware on the bus.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1223
Yukiya Kashimura, Yuki NEGORO
A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1224
Yosuke Osanai, Masaki Wasekura, Hideo Yamawaki, Yusuke Shindo
The power loss reduction of power control units (PCUs) for hybrid vehicles (HVs) is essential to improve their fuel economy. The loss of the power devices (IGBTs and diodes) used in the PCU is about 20% of the whole power loss of HV, so it is important to reduce the loss. Also the trade-off between the loss reduction and the voltage surge reduction is one of the issues. The rising speed of the gate voltage of IGBT should be slowed to reduce the voltage surge between the corrector and emitter, while the gate voltage of IGBT should be raised rapidly to reduce the loss. We adopted the two-level turn-on method for the gate voltage of IGBT to improve the trade-off. This idea is already known widely. However it is difficult to realize the control with high accuracy and the high speed. A circuit is designed for the feedback control with high speed operation. The improvement of the trade-off between the loss reduction and the voltage surge reduction was achieved.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0096
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran, Jonathan Tigelaar
By 2019 Honeywell have predicted annual sales of 49 Million turbocharged vehicles, of which less than 5% will be equipped with a physical turbo speed sensor. As Turbo speed is correlated with engine power, OEMs are facing a tradeoff between limiting the maximum turbocharger speed and maximizing the engine power. To ensure safe operation in the field OEMs introduce significant engineering margins to the turbocharger maximum speed limit. The accurate estimation of turbocharger speed can help reduce these margins. To address this Honeywell and Jaquet studied the feasibility of a virtual turbo speed sensor which would provide on-ECU real-time speed estimation using measured data from sets of heterogeneous physical sensors. At first, sources of speed uncertainty are investigated based on a set of sensors. A combination of physical mean value engine modeling with linear optimization techniques are used to calculate the turbo speed estimates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
HILS is a proven and essential part of embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which believes that it is sitting inside the real vehicle and there by intended functionalities implemented in the same can be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. Inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which leads to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which makes sure that the test system designed is robust and catering to the actual requirement. Main agenda of the paper is to design a test system which itself is more robust than the expected device under test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0085
Patrick Shelly
More options in automotive hardware along with the arrival of powerful multicore SoC platforms have changed the playing field in designing automotive systems today. The flexibility of open Linux operating systems has also allowed vehicle systems designers to consider hosting multiple complex functions in a single ECU. This paper examines a "proof-of-concept" platform that has integrated a variety of consumer-demanded functions in a secure automotive-grade package. Platform capabilities include: a driver information module (DIM), vehicle infotainment, smartphone and tablet integration, advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) features, and an AUTOSAR-based communication capability that works with existing in-vehicle networks (CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet). This type of reference design allows shorter time-to-market performance with consumer-ready features to address immediate market demands.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0013
Sujit S. Phatak, Heming Chen, Yuan Xiao, Can Wang, Donald McCune, Simon Schliecker, Maurice Sebastian, Victor Reyes, David Balland
Automotive vehicles today consist of very complex network of electronic control units (ECU) connected with each other using different network implementations such as Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, etc. There are several ECUs inside a vehicle targeting specific applications such as engine, transmission, body, steering, brakes, infotainment/navigation, etc. comprising on an average more than 50 ECUs executing more than 50 million lines of software code. It is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Such complex electric/electronic (E/E) architecture and software calls for a comprehensive, flexible and systematic development and validation environment especially for a system level or vehicle level development. To achieve this goal, we have built a virtual multi-ECU high fidelity cyber-physical multi-rate co-simulation that closely resembles a realistic hardware based automotive embedded system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0015
Eldad Palachi, Fariz Saracevic, Amit Fisher
Connected vehicles provide suppliers and OEMs new opportunities to improve their customer experience and offer new services. Yet, in this new era of Internet of Things (IoT), OEMs and suppliers are expected to expand their engineering efforts beyond the vehicle itself. We present a new Rapid Application Development (RAD) service offered by IBM, called IBM Internet of Things Workbench. This is a visual tool, currently offered as IBM Bluemix service that allows engineers to design the overall architecture and interactions between the various IoT entities such as devices, cloud applications and services, mobile clients and asset management systems. IoT Workbench abstracts the messaging details and generates code skeletons for the cloud applications as well as for simulating devices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0058
Jihas Khan
Network Management protocols are implemented in ECUs to provide start-up of the network, node monitoring, to ensure that they go to proper sleep mode when they don’t need the network, , coordination among ECUs, support of diagnosis, reading and setting of network specific parameters and proper wake up of the network. OSEK/VDX based network management protocol is the most widely used among OEMs and the validation of the same has proved to be of utmost importance these days. This paper is proposing a scalable validation framework using model based architecture and relevant hardware to test the conformance of ECUs to specifications of OSEK/VDX NM. OSEK/VDX works mainly through the exchange of network management CAN messages between the ECUs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of the Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to control the electric motor to provide assist while steering. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation will help identify early safety issues in the development phase of a project. The intent of this paper is to focus on vehicle dynamics simulation of the EPS using the HiL system. The EPS plant model, dSPACE Vehicle Dynamics model and dSPACE Motor Model interact with a dSPACE hardware platform and a real ECU. This paper includes the design of the EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors & actuators, the function of Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with the EPS model. The offline simulation of the integrated model is performed and the simulation results of different driving maneuvers are presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0041
Florin Maticu, Paul Pop, Christian Axbrink, Mafijul Islam
The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU, to integrated architectures, where several functions share resources on a single ECU. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better cost, power consumption, size, fault-tolerance and performance. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic software functionality assignment to AUTOSAR multicore distributed architectures, composed of ECUs (Electronic Control Units) interconnected in a network. The functionality is modeled as a set of software components made up of subtasks, called runnables, in AUTOSAR terminology.
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