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2017-04-11
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Problem Already in the initial design failure mode analysis of this relatively young feature it became clear that an accurate sensor reading is critical to the performance of the heated steering wheel system. As the temperature reception capability of the human palm is very distinct, small deviations [≤0.1°??/??] from the targeted wheel temperature may be registered as "getting too hot" or "remaining too cold". As per industry standard, heated wheels only utilize a single sensor input to the temperature control circuitry, making it even more important for the sensor to reflect the current surface temperature. Certainly the sensor must be placed where it neither can be seen nor felt, decoupling surface from the sensor's temperature. Production tolerances for sensor placement on the heater mat along with heater mat placement tolerances relative to the armature's position add to the decoupling issue, causing unacceptably high or low steering wheel surface temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N Khalid Ahmed
While excluding component changes, it is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. One strategy to improve EV range could be to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper investigates how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile data was used to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on evolving driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1257
Haotian Wu
Previous studies have investigated various hybrid and electric powertrain architectures to balance concerns about the energy consumption and drivability. However, present architectures have some intrinsic drawbacks on the powertrain torque winding up, weight, packaging and energy harvest. This study proposed an electric powertrain that is powered by four independent motor drive. In order to investigate the drivability and regeneration braking performance, physics-based models of vehicle, motor and battery were developed; meanwhile, the dual-loop feed-forward motor control and hybrid sliding mode control were presented. The Physics model-based evaluation was conducted by using the co-simulation technology of LMS AMESim and Simulink. The results show that the proposed four-wheel independent electric powertrain can achieve better drivability and regeneration braking performance. The proposed hybrid sliding mode control can converge faster than the bang-bang control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1679
Felix Martin, Michael Deubzer
The increasing complexity of automotive real-time applications, and the challenges arising with the change to multi-core processors put higher demands on the tools which are involved in the development of such systems. With tracing it is possible to record the dynamic behavior of time-critical applications and use the data to monitor safety-critical requirements. However, not all trace techniques are sufficient for this use-case. Several factors like the available hardware, bandwidth, timing accuracy, and number of traceable objects must be considered. Additionally, traces are usually not recorded on a level that is suitable for timing analysis. Hence, a transformation of the trace may be necessary. In this paper we give an overview of existing trace techniques and discuss their applicability for the timing analysis of embedded systems. We also take limitations which may be caused by existing hardware platforms into consideration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1601
Max Maurodias Santos
This paper outlines the modeling process in SysML (Systems Modeling Language) in context of MBSE (Model Based Software Engineering) as well as the MBD (Model-Based Design) in Simulink and we compare the models to get useful information into software. For this goal, we propose the use of a RM/SM tool and Simulink to model the system, do the system validations and finally to embed the generated code. MBSE is a methodology that can lead to reduced costs of OEM’s new products, since it can predict project errors and weaknesses. If the model is running as expected and providing good results, it is possible to go to a next step and implement the project in real applications, in order to observe the behavior of the new product, for example, by embedding software codes directly into hardware or building a new hardware. Due to the complexity of integration of new electrical and electronic systems, MBSE use is justified.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1677
Bharathi Krishnamoorthy, Jacob Eapen, Santosh kshirsagar, Giri Nammalwar, Torsten Wulf, Miguel Mancilla
Automotive industry is witnessing a significant growth in the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) and its features owing to the focused inclination towards customer preference, comfort, safety, environmental friendliness and governmental regulations. The software components are booming as the pivotal to cater to the technology-driven trends such as diverse mobility, autonomous driving, electrification, and connectivity. This necessitates exhaustive testing to ensure quality of the system as any unpredictable failures may impose severe financial and market risk on the OEM. The industry has largely supplemented Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing to manual testing considering the testing constraints posed by the latter. Automation trends complement the demand for quick yet exhaustive testing prior to the market launch.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1668
Amin Emrani, Steve Spadoni
In this paper, Smart Step-Down Convertor is introduced as a power supply to power a device which operates at a voltage below the power net voltage while protecting the power net and the device against faults as well. In the proposed architecture, each Smart Step-Down Converter is connected to the battery or the power source with the nominal voltage (e.g. 48V) and it provides a programmable output voltage that can be set to the rated voltage of the electric load coupled to it. The rated voltage of electric loads can be equal or lower than the nominal voltage. The proposed system with Smart Step-Down Converters has several advantages compared to other multi-voltage system architectures. First, the 12V battery and 12V power distribution box are eliminated, resulting in not only material savings but also solving some packaging challenges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1683
Adit Joshi
Software for autonomous vehicles is highly complex and requires enormous amount of vehicle testing to achieve a certain level of confidence in safety, quality and reliability. According to the RAND Corporation, a 100 vehicle fleet running 24 hours a day 365 days a year at a speed of 40 km/hr, would require 17 billion driven kilometers of testing and take 518 years to fully validate the software with 85% confidence [1]. In order to reduce cost and time to accelerate autonomous software development, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used to supplement vehicle testing. For autonomous vehicles, path following and trajectory tracking controls are an integral part for achieving lateral control. Combining the aforementioned concepts, this paper focuses on a real-time implementation of a path-following lateral controller, developed by Freund and Mayr [2].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0111
Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0404
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0081
Majid Majidi, Majid arab, Vahid Tavoosi
In this research, an optimal real-time trajectory planning method is proposed for autonomous ground vehicles in case of overtaking a moving obstacle. The autonomous vehicle decides to overtake the obstacle when detects a moving vehicle in a proper speed and distance ahead it and the braking is not efficient due to the lost of kinematic energy of vehicle. The path for the overtaking maneuver is generated by a two-phase optimal path planning problem. The cost function of the first phase is defined in such a way that the vehicle approaches the obstacle as close as possible. In the second phase, the cost function is defined as sum of the vehicle lateral deviation from the reference path and the rate of steering angle. At the same time, the lateral acceleration of the vehicle must not exceed a specified limit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit board. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Hence it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each of the manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1656
Daehyun kim, Eunho Shin, Jin Seo Park, KyungSu LEE, Kok Cheng Gui, Klaus Scheibert
Vehicle Security means protecting potential threats, unintended malfunction and illegal tuning. In addition, it has become a more important issue on an automotive system as it is directly connected to the driver and pedestrian's life. Automotive industry significantly needs to enhance security policies to prevent attacks from hackers. Nevertheless, in some systems, performance still has to be considered at first when security functions are implemented. Especially, in case of Engine Management System (EMS), fast engine synchronization for starting should be considered as the first priority. This paper is intended to show an approach to design efficient secure boot implementation for EMS. At the beginning of this paper, the concept of secure boot is explained and several use cases are introduced according to execution modes, such as the foreground and background secure boot modes. As a next step, engine starting process by EMS is explained.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1223
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xi Zhao
There are many electronic devices in EV, making electromagnetic environment of EV complex and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem serious. Motor drive system is the main interference source of EV, whose electromagnetic interference (EMI) is much worse than conventional vehicle. In this paper, the motor drive system of the electric vehicle was mainly researched, and a union simulation method was proposed: control system and motor model were established with Matlab, which is good at controlling, and the equivalent circuit model of inverter as well as the cable model was established with Saber, which is good at circuit simulation. By this way, a complete motor drive system model for conducted EMI was obtained. This modeling method can not only accurately establish the electromagnetic interference sources and coupling paths, but can simulate the control strategy and operating condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0427
Yue Shi, Qingwei Liu, Fan Yu
1. Multi-body Dynamics Modelling of EV Prototype An EV prototype, with all the wheels independently driven by 4 in-wheel motors, is developed. In cooperation with Shanghai Motor Vehicle Inspection Center, the prototype undergoes a series of practical measurements and road tests. Based on the obtained vehicle parameters, a multi-body dynamics model is built by using SolidWorks and Adams/Car, and then validated by track test data. The virtual prototype is served as the control plant in simulation. 2. Adaptive FO-PID Controller Design In order to enhance the handling and stability performance of the EV, an adaptive FO-PID controller is designed. Considering the model uncertainties, e.g. changes in body mass and yaw inertial resulted from changed mass distribution, a Parameter Self-Adjusting Differential Evolution (PSA-DE) algorithm is adopted for tuning the controller parameters, i.e. Kp, Ki, Kd, λ and μ.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1251
Bin Zhou, Jeffrey Burl, Amir Rezaei
This paper introduced Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), and presents simulation results on how the ECMS penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging based on Matlab simulations. The vehicles simulated are the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Michigan Technological University developed Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MTU-HEV). The battery data was used from A123 systems 20Ah Prismatic Pouch Cell for MTU-HEV, and A123 systems ANR26650 for Honda Civic Hybrid. Both vehicles are simulated using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using the semiempirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0003
Tetsuya Tohdo
Integrating the concepts of Formal Methods with Testing can be potential solutions for developing critical systems becoming more and more complex in the automotive field. While Formal Methods provide the benefits by their rigorous nature and their capability of automation, it is still in limited cases to be applied because of 2 major issues: modeling and scalability. Integrating Formal Method concepts with testing techniques are potential solutions in practice. Our approach is to define verification criterion that includes: consistency at the abstraction level of models between generic property (like controllability) and underlying assumptions; and coverage criteria of test cases against the models and underlying assumptions. This approach allows using approximated plant models for the purpose of control system verification.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0002
Nate Rolfes
Automotive technology features are increasingly dependent upon distributed architectures that divide functions amongst multiple subsystem ECU's to avoid redundancy and minimize cost. Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) is one such distributed feature which utilizes the functions of eight ECU's (camera, steering, braking, powertrain, body, instrument cluster, center display, trailer lighting) across four CAN buses to assist the driver in steering a trailer via a rotary control knob while backing up a vehicle. The systems engineer is significantly challenged by such systems to design, validate, and verify software with multiple independent V-Models running in parallel and operating to different priorities of cost, timing, and supplier capability. Incorrect, ambiguous, and changing requirements leads to cascading impacts across the V-Models and is a significant source of software defects in Verification & Validation (V & V) testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0426
Chen Lv, Hong Wang, Bolin Zhao, Dongpu Cao, Wang Huaji, Junzhi Zhang, Yutong Li, Ye Yuan
Human driver behaviors significantly affect the control performance and energy efficiency of a powertrain system. This paper investigates the optimization methodology for intelligent control of an electric powertrain adaptive to driver’s intentions and operation patterns. Plant model, driver intention representations, system requirements, and optimization goals are studied. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for system co-design optimization considering driver intentions. The CPS based performance exploration methodology is presented. Simulation-based system optimizations are carried out. Simulation results show that the overall performance of the electric powertrain is improved with respect to torsional dynamics and energy efficiency, validating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimization methodology.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1253
Somnath Sengupta, Chethan Gururaja, Sushant Hingane, Prajwal A K, Malay Maniar, Ondřej Mikuláš, Jaroslav Pekar
Increasingly strict CO2 and emissions norms are pushing the automotive industry towards increasing adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. HEVs are complex hardware systems which are often controlled by software that is complex to maintain, time-consuming to calibrate, and not always guaranteed to deliver optimal fuel economy. Hence, coordinated, systematic control of the HEVs different subsystems is an attractive proposition. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) based supervisory controller is developed to coordinate the power split between the two prime movers of an HEV – internal combustion engine and electric motor. A cost function has been formulated to improve fuel economy and battery life. A dynamical physics based HEV model has been developed for simulation of the system behavior. The dynamical structure of HEV along with its I/O, constraints, set points, operating points, etc. has been framed into the MPC controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0432
Bing Zhu, Zhipeng Liu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC)is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisite is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC based on a dynamics driver model. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and different types of driver behavior data were collected under the typical test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the dynamics driver model, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behavior. Finally, the proposed identification strategy was verified by the driver-in-the-loop simulator.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
A new IGBT has been developed for Toyota’s 4th generation HV’s. The power loss reduction of power control units (PCUs) for hybrid vehicles (HVs) is essential to improve their fuel efficiency. It is important to reduce the loss of the power devices (IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCUs, because of being about 20% of the whole power loss of the HVs. Also the trade-off between the power device downsizing and the heat dissipation feasibility is the important technical issues. In order to achieve the 4th generation PCU design goal, the IGBT development goal is to improve 19.8% of the losses, 30% of downsizing, 14% of the breakdown-voltage than the previous generation. For the loss reduction goal, SBL (Super-Body-Layer) structure is installed to improve the trade-off characteristic between the switching loss and the steady-state loss. The goal is achieved by optimizing the SBL impurity concentration which is an important parameter for trade-off characteristic improvement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1612
Tri P. DOAN, Subramaniam Ganesan
At 2012, along with the demand of more and more data communication within ECUs, Bosch has proposed a new version of CAN named as CAN FD which can support data frame up to 64 bytes compared with 8 bytes of CAN. Because CAN data frame is limited at maximum 8 bytes, it is impossible to encrypt and secure CAN data, so it is transmitted through CAN bus in a raw format which makes CAN data is vulnerable to attack. With the of CAN FD over CAN in supporting bigger data frame up to 64 bytes, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chips to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 algorithm and SHA-1 with a symmetric key . AES-128 will provide confidential of CAN message and SHA-1 with symmetric key (called as Key SHA-1) can be considered as HMAC which will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. Moreover, hardware shall provide more security for cipher key, symmetric key, or asymmetric keys over software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
The Body Control Module (BCM) is a huge integration site for vehicle features and functions.(i.e., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…) . Every few years the demands to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the model year 2013 BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in feature/function content grew from 140 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the current software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper sites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome. Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consulting services to help manage and define this new software engineering development.
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