Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
Longitudinal Planning and Control Method for Autonomous Vehicles Based on A New Potential Field Model
Abstract An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key components of an autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and efficiency. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
In new aircraft programs, systems’ functionality is increasingly becoming integrated into modular avionics. Controllers may not be delivered by the systems supplier so this trend creates a new interface between systems and controllers. A functional software specification is therefore needed to facilitate the building of the software by the controller supplier. In the case of an ECS system controller, the hardware was obtained from different suppliers and a software functional specification was needed for the controller supplier. To be able to design and verify the system functionality, an integrated ECS simulation model was created which coupled the thermodynamics of the aircraft and ECS system to the controller actions. The model also included functionality to simulate sensor noise and component failures. The thermodynamic model was created in Matlab/Simulink and consisted of a combination of direct programming as well as data on a Flowmaster model for the bleed system.
Autonomous Key Management (AKM) Security Architecture for Air (and Defense) Vehicles and IoT Applications
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing Electronic Module to Electronic Module (i.e. ECUs, FCC, REUs, etc.) communication within air (and defense) vehicles and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge Electronic Module sensors connected to Electronic Modules within the air (and defense) vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
Framework for Modelling and Simulation of Multi-physics Aircraft Systems with Distributed Electronic Controllers
This paper presents a demonstrator implemented in the project MISSION (Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft). This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
Abstract BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers are now available which support the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format (known as “CAN FD”). These controllers, when used on SAE J1939-15 networks, must be restricted to use only the Classical Frame format compliant to ISO 11898-1 (2003). These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
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This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
The intention of this standard is to establish a framework to measure the efficiency of PWM HVAC Blower Controllers and Brushless DC Motor Controllers and define a usage based overall efficiency. This result can then be used by vehicle OEMs to demonstrate compliance towards requirements or benchmarks established by regulatory agencies.
Active Muffler for Single Cylinder Engine, Using Electronic Throttle Control for Formula Student Cars
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book , ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
Executive Viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Alternative power and connectivity top of mind Using power dense flywheel hybrid technology to cut fuel consumption of OH equipment IoT connections transform manufacturing, vehicle validation Annual Product Guide Supplier Directory Complete listing of industry suppliers categorized by technology area.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to motor vehicle Forward Illumination Devices which incorporate limited adaptive beam pattern capabilities. This document is to be used in conjunction with other forward lighting standards and/or recommended practices which define the base beam procedures, requirements, and guidelines.
Obtaining Desired Vehicle Dynamics Characteristics with Independently Controlled In-Wheel Motors: State of Art Review
Abstract In recent times, electric vehicles (EV) are gaining a lot of attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. Recent advances in the applications of integrating control systems in automotive vehicles have made it practicable to accomplish improvement in vehicle's longitudinal and lateral dynamics. This paper deals with a brief overview of current state of art vehicle technologies like direct yaw moment control, traction control and side slip control of EV. There are various controller algorithms available in literature with different torque vectoring strategies. As EV can be precisely controlled because of quick in hub wheel motor response times, therefore various torque vectoring strategies can be comfortably used for enhancing vehicle dynamics. Moreover, by using four independent in-wheel motors, several types of motion controls can be performed.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents an overview of the application and control of fixed and variable displacement pumps with the emphasis on the controls most commonly used on variable displacement pumps. It describes various options to control the operation of hydraulic pumps in terms of controlling the pump output pressure and/or flow and assisting in the selection of the pump.
Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Braked- Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways. This document provides a method to determine the air consumption of highway vehicles when the brake system must maintain performance when the service brake control is applied for long periods of time.
Interoperability Standards Pave the Way for Modular Robotic Manipulators Solar Powering UAVs Deploying COTS Subsystems in UUVs Developing a Multi-Modal UGV Robot Control Interface Fast-Tracking Autonomous Vehicles with Simulation Gesture-Based Controls for Robots: Overview and Implications for Use by Soldiers Identifying the Flow Physics and Modeling Transient Forces on Two-Dimensional Wings Experimental Confirmation of an Aquatic Swimming Motion Theoretically of Very Low Drag and High Efficiency The Scaling of Loss Pathways and Heat Transfer in Small Scale Internal Combustion Engines A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation
This document covers the tests to be performed on all SAE J2602-1 defined Master and Slave nodes. Tests described in this document will ensure a minimum standard level of performance to which all compatible Electronic Control Unit (ECUs) and media shall be designed. This will assure full serial data communication among all connected devices regardless of supplier. The goal of SAE J2602-2 is to improve the interoperability and interchangeability of LIN devices within a network by verifying the devices pass a minimum set of tests. To allow for easy cross-reference, this document is arranged such that the conformance test for a given section in SAE J2602-1 is in the same section in SAE J2602-2. This document is to be referenced by the particular vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) component technical specification that describes any given ECU in which the LIN data link controller and physical layer interface is located.
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All about electronics UniBo Motorsport of the University of Bologna in Italy details its self-developed electronic control units and strategy for use in its Formula SAE cars. Golden Bear strong A dispatch from the coalfields of West Virginia describes the unique set of challenges faced by the Baja SAE team at West Virginia University Institute of Technology. And the SAE Collegiate Cup for best communicators goes to… The Kettering University's snowmobile team for its outstanding presentation to the SAE Mid-Michigan Section.
Designing Electronic Warfare to Regain Airborne Military Dominance Certifying Composite Designs for Aerospace and Defense Electric Rockets and the Future of Satellite Propulsion Flat Cable Technology for Aerospace Applications XPONENTIAL 2017 – An AUVSI Experience Pulse Analysis Techniques for Radar and Electronic Warfare Reconfigurable Radio Tracks Flights Worldwide Development of an Optically Modulated Scatterer Probe for a Near-Field Measurement System Using Dempster-Shafer Fusion for Personnel Intrusion Detection Angular Random Walk Estimation of a Time-Domain Switching Micromachined Gyroscope Using Fisher Information Criteria for Chemical Sensor Selection via Convex Optimization Methods Luminescence Materials as Nanoparticle Thermal Sensors
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is an advanced combustion technique, which has the potential to be operated by alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and results thermal efficiency similar to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines. Due to extremely high heat release rate (HRR), PCCI combustion cannot be used at higher engine loads, which make it difficult to be employed in production grade engines. This study focused on development of an advanced combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. This Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open engine control unit (ECU), which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes.
Abstract In an unavoidable event of a suspect being chased by police, there is high probability for the criminal to evade the police while driving his vehicle. At many instances, criminal escapes without leaving a trail behind and becomes untraceable. A new concept of Vigilance Assistance System Network (VASN) has been developed, which is spread across the city and helps in catching the escaping criminals. At every junction, the traffic-signals are installed with a microcontroller chip and these connected traffic signals form a network with distinct city areas demarcated on the map. The vehicle is installed with GPS and a RFID module on their ECU when it approaches any intersection or junction; they receive wireless signals from traffic-signals and transmit another registering signal to the traffic-light wirelessly through RFID.
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.