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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0133
Clark Kinnaird
As many automotive functions migrate from purely mechanical to electrically-driven, the use of efficient brushless DC motors is becoming prevalent. This paper discusses the design of a BLDC controller, including the technical tradeoffs, hardware implementation, and testing results. Brushless DC motors are well suited to automotive applications due to their reliability and high efficiency. In applications such as oil pumps, water pumps, and turbo blowers where the motor lifetime and power dissipation are key parameters, these motors solve many design challenges. This design example examines the specific requirements for a compact solution for a water pump, but the design methodology and tradeoffs also apply to other motor control applications where efficient control of motor speed is needed. Like many applications, this design uses sensorless commutation algorithms, reducing cost and size.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1150
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Fraile, Juan-Bautista Arroyo, Javier Luesma
This paper is part of the development of electric vehicle racing “Zytel-Zero” which was developed in the laboratories of the I3A (Aragón Institute for Engineering Research) by the research group in Sustainable Transport Systems (SMITS). It is a continuation of an earlier work in which a MACI (reciprocating internal combustion engine) powered vehicle was transformed for a high-performance autonomy electric vehicle. The main objective of the paper is the integration of all systems and components in this electric vehicle, designing and building those subsystems for correct operation, and commissioning and preparation of the control system. It has been working on control systems, especially the batteries and the several sensors of the vehicle itself. Thus, the specific objectives are to overhaul the system power supply vehicle, built into the core functions of the automated vehicle control system of the main variables and preserve all the security system during operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1204
Ji zhang, Zechang Sun
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume,weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications,particularly in electric vehicle and other mobile platforms.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1205
Xiaohe Ma, Shuai Wang, King Jet Tseng, Rong Su, Viswanathan Vaiyapuri, Chandana Gajnayake, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sivakumar Nadarajan
The concept of More Electric Aircraft (MEA) demands a highly optimized airframe power system which is achieved by replacing pneumatic and hydraulic systems with energy efficient electrical systems. The More Electric Engine (MEE) is a key step towards MEA, where more electrical power will be drawn from gas turbine shaft using the conventional gear driven electrical machine, which is known to present inefficiencies and reliability issues. Embedding electrical machine directly at the engine shaft would eliminate the unreliable driveline and gear box along with potentially improving the reliability and efficiency of the whole system. However it presents significant challenges to electrical machine design considering competing requirements and aspirations of more electric aircrafts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel Costinett, Fred Wang
A boost converter is presented in this paper for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Power density of the boost converter is critical to achieving design goals of size reduction, performance increase, and minimization of cost. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. Additionally, a power density-targeted design for the boost inductor is discussed, which allows optimization of weight and power loss across multiple candidate core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. The design procedure demonstrates that an ungapped powder core inductor with high flux density achieves smaller size than the gapped inductor using either amorphous or nanocrystalline material.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1203
Subhashree RAJAGOPAL, Sebastien Desharnais PhD, Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
Eddy-current brakes are contactless magnetic brakes that allow decelerating a vehicle without friction and wear. Electromagnetic brakes are found in variety of applications. However they suffer from a decreasing torque at low and high speed. In this study a novel concept of permanent magnet eddy-current brake is proposed that maintains a flat braking torque profile over a broad speed range. The principle is analytically investigated and numerically validated through finite element simulations using MAXWELL. It is demonstrated that a useably flat braking torque profile can be achieved by altering the path of eddy-currents by magnetic field orientation, thereby, affecting the apparent rotor resistance. Keywords: Eddy-currents, eddy-current brakes, electromagnetic brakes, permanent magnet brakes, MAXWELL
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1208
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja Rahman, Nitin Patel, Peter Savagian
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the secon-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. The second-generation of Volt electric propulsion system is built on two electric machines; both interior permanent magnet type. While hybrid-electric vehicles are gaining in popularity in hopes of addressing cleaner, energy sustainable technology in transportation, materials sustainability and rare earth dependence mitigation has not been the first priority in the hybrids available on the market today.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1206
Manabu Yazaki
In recent years, the application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies to a wide range of vehicles, from small to large vehicles and sedans to SUVs, has been expanding rapidly. Market demand for quiet drive is strong, and HEV systems are able to operate using motor drive alone, eliminating engine vibration and noise. To reduce torque fluctuation in order to reduce vibration and noise, distributed winding is used in the stators of the drive motors employed in many existing electric vehicles (EV) including HEV. However, because the coil ends of distributed windings are large, space for fitting is restricted. Concentrated winding is one method of reducing the size of the motor, because the coil ends can be made smaller. As winding resistance is lower in concentrated winding than in distributed winding copper loss is reduced, and the coils are effective under high-torque conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1207
Makarand Kane, Swanand Kulkarni
Hybrid and electric vehicles are being explored as future transportation alternatives to curb emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In small car segment, as far as hybridization is concerned, the space and safety constraint demands use of lower voltage viz. 48 V as compared to >100-volt-systems used for vehicles in other segments. 48 V systems also have advantage of reduced copper weight due to reduced current. As 48 V systems become prevalent and replace conventional 12 V systems, the auxiliary 12 V loads would necessitate implementation of several DC-DC converters. As this is redundant design, it is better to re-design at least some of the 12 V auxiliary systems to 48 V such as the radiator fan motor. However, the issues faced in the existing PMDC Motor with regard to efficiency and sizing has generated interest to investigate better alternatives for the motor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1200
Guiyuan Li, Changfu Zong
One of key problem in electric vehicle research is the performence of motor control, which has a direct impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, a model of vector control of asynchronous motor for drive system in electric vehicles was established based on matlab/simulink, a fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller was designed and the implementation methods of feedback decoupling and voltage space vector pulse width modulation were given. Finally, a comparison between the system with fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller and the system with normal PID controller was carried out. The simulation results show that the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter for vector control induction motor drive system with fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller is effective to improve steady-state and dynamic performance of drive system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1201
Mohammad anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0313
Francesco Braghin, Ugo Rosolia, Edoardo Sabbioni, Andrew Alleyne
This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Because all the actuators in a full drive-by-wire vehicle are using X-by-wire technology, autonomous driving will be realized just by introducing the exteroceptive sensors and by re-programming the electronic control unit (ECU). The control objective is to follow a desired path, while keeping the longitudinal velocity as close as possible to a given reference. Model predictive control (MPC) or receding horizon control (RHC) is effective in solving the combined motion control problem under the state and input constraints, which predicts the evolution of the plant model over a finite horizon based on a sequence of future inputs in order to optimize a performance index by using the preview information. This makes it an attractive method for use in the automated lane-keeping tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, Jose Corcega, James Johnson
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, and eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The body of vehicle was exhibited during Tokyo Motor Show 2013 for the first time. xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV that has three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. Rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and an electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed in Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Motion control systems for xEV have been developed on the basis of our proprietary original motor control technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0179
Ralph Mader, Armin Graf, Gerd Winkler
The combustion engine will be the dominant drive for motor vehicles despite all the advances in the electrification of the drive train, for many years. The greater are the challenges for the automotive industry, especially in fuel consumption (CO2) and the environmental impacts of other emissions. From the fuel supply to the engine, up to the exhaust after treatment, new or improved functions are needed, which are integrated into increasingly powerful control electronics. This modern electronic engine management and powertrain controller will remain key components in the vehicle. As most of the microcontrollers for future applications will be in a multi-core topology, this article gives an overview about how PowerSAR® supports this architectures. It shows the concepts applied in the basic software as well as for the application software designed for maximum throughput.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
The capability of heat dissipation in electric machine has great influence on its output performance. Under high output rating the temperature in the machine can raise rapidly due to losses generated in components. To ensure the lifetime and prevent machine failure, power output must be limited as soon as the temperature reaches a certain critical level. The electric machine continuous power density is restricted by this thermal effect. To increase power density and reduce machine size, studies on machine cooling have been intensively conducted over the last decades. This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in the stator slots with oil flows. In this approach the machine stator slots are sealed to air gap after the coils are mounted.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1400
Ambarish Goswami
The number of seniors will rise rapidly. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility , improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers. Such a controller "locks in" with the gait and helps the subject walk faster. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion. This helps in more general activities. Specifically, it can also help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0189
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Dominik Juergens
A permanent challenge for the development of automotive electronic control units is the steadily rising demand for computing power. One well known reason is surely the trend for co-hosting of functions on a shared hardware platform. But what is also heavily propelling this demand is the raising complexity of innovative functions meant to make the car brand specific driving experience even more unique, extraordinary and/or comfortable. The underlying complex algorithms often accompanied with high safety requirements thirst for faster CPUs. Meanwhile also for the automotive domain silicon vendors try to satisfy those resource demands with new microcontrollers incorporating multiple independent computing cores on one single chip as it is already common for personal computers, server installations, communication infrastructure and even consumer electronics like smartphones or flat TVs for quite some years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei huang, Jinfeng Gong
Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle forms to meet the increasing stringent requirements in energy saving and environment protection. The vehicle control unit(VCU) of pure electric vehicle is situated in the top-level of control architecture and decides the overall vehicle performance in a great degree. Vehicle control unit will be challenged more and more in the future to improve performance, reduce costs and the time need for match different pure electric vehicles. To meet these demands, the China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop a advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles which has well structure on hardware and software level and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. The paper introduces VCP development. The VCP hardware is development based on Infineon 32bit microcontroller TC1782 which uses the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Vipul Kumar, Shubhranshu Garg, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators so that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator it can be judged that what type it is, whether a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU) or pair of ECUs need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics’ high speed dynamics of with PWM signals frequently in the 10-20kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor co-located with analog and digital input and output, FPGAs make it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of 1 microsecond.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
The method of analyzing the best thin-wall-tubed cross-sectional shape of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed in this study by ways of simulation and validation in any case following SAE rules. We performed using ANSYS-Explicit Dynamics method for simulation and compared the result like energy absorption among six cross-sectional shaped circle, square, hexagon, cone, square pyramid and hexagonal pyramid. The results show that at the certain deformation, the circle-shaped absorbs energy higher than others. Cone, square pyramid, hexagonal pyramid, hexagon and square can absorb the energy compare to circle as 68.5%, 53.9%, 47.8%, 30% and 1.8% respectively. We compared the result of circle cross sectional case to the quasi static experiment and found that it was in the same trend.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
J2284/3
This SAE Recommended Practice will define the Physical Layer and portions of the Data Link Layer of the ISO model for a 500 KBPS High-Speed CAN (HSC) protocol implementation. Both ECU and media design requirements for networks will be specified. Requirements will primarily address the CAN physical layer implementation. Requirements will focus on a minimum standard level of performance from the High-Speed CAN (HSC) implementation. All ECUs and media shall be designed to meet certain component level requirements in order to ensure the HSC implementation system level performance at 500 KBPS. The minimum performance level shall be specified by system level performance requirements or characteristics described in detail in Section 6 of this document. This document is designed such that if the Electronic Control Unit requirements defined in Section 6 are met, then the system level attributes should be obtainable.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
J1939/75
SAE J1939-75 Generator Sets and Industrial Applications defines the set of data parameters (SPNs) and messages (PGNs) for information predominantly associated with monitoring and control generators and driven equipment in electric power generation and industrial applications. Applications using the SAE J1939-75 document may need to reference SAE J1939-71 for the SAE J1939 parameters and messages for monitoring and controlling the power units, e.g. engines and turbines, that power the generators and driven industrial equipment.
2015-01-15
Standard
J2610_201501
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding “pass-thru programming” of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
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