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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2745
Florian Bauer, Jan Fleischhacker
A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system for Electronic Control Units (ECU) of electro-pneumatic brake systems is presented. The HiL system runs a real-time capable vehicle model comprising of both the vehicle dynamics and the electro-pneumatic brake system. The dynamic behaviour of the vehicle can be simulated either by a real-time multi-body vehicle model or by a simpler system dynamic (double-track) model. To assess the quality of the system dynamic vehicle model, it was compared to the multi-body vehicle model which was validated with comprehensive experimental results. Discrepancies can be seen for highly unsteady manoeuvres. Reasons for these discrepancies caused by the modelling topology of the system dynamic vehicle model will be given. In order to simulate the electro-pneumatic brake system, a real-time model has been developed and validated. The different topologies of brake systems can be assembled from components and integrated into the vehicle model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2840
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich PhD, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
ADAS applications are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing ECU networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) assistants directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior reliably with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage, to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extrememly diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras and maps are simulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2796
Tobias Gutjahr, Holger Kleinegraeber, Thorsten Huber, Thomas Kruse
The use of design of experiment (DoE) and data-driven simulation has become state-of-the-art in engine development and calibration to cope with the drastically increased complexity of today’s engine ECUs (electronic control units). Based on the representation of the engine behavior with a virtual plant model, offline optimizers can be used to find optimal settings for calibrating the engine controller’s calibration, e.g. with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This increases the efficiency of the calibration process and reduces the need for expensive test stand runs. The present paper describes the application of Gaussian process regression, a statistical modeling approach that outperforms previous solutions based on polynomial models and artificial neural networks in terms of achievable model accuracy and usability. The implementation of the algorithms in a commercial tool framework allows for a broad use in series engine calibration.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2875
Olof Lindgärde, Lei Feng, Anders Tenstam, Mikael Soderman PhD
CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that both supports optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller denoted “Predictive Energy Buffer Control” controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way. Another focus is the communication between the driver and the control system.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2669
Bernhard Schmittner
Electric parking Brake was introduced in 2000 with an actuator integrated into the caliper, controlled by a standalone ECU. Then a variety of actuator technologies were realized. Cable pullers, motor on caliper, actuator in drum in hat with different control concepts. In 2012 the boom started - with a concentration on caliper integrated systems and with an integration of the ECU into the ESC system. New developments are requiring EPB out of different aspects - comfort and controllable standstill are requested. So EPB systems have to be adapted to the upcoming situation. Under the influence of the commercial situation the EPB systems and actuators have to be updated with a focus on standardization, modular boxes and simplification. A look on system and actutor principles and solutions shows a way to fullfill these requirements.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2520
Thabet Kacem, Jeronymo Carvalho, Duminda Wijesekera, Paulo Costa, Márcio Monteiro, Alexandre Barreto
Since its emergence, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) has been considered as a major contribution to air traffic control (ATC) surveillance. However, despite the several benefits that this promising technology has to offer, it suffers from a major security flaw since ADS-B packets are sent in clear text without enforcing any kind of security property. In this paper, we enhance a security framework, which we describe in a previous paper, aiming at detecting and mitigating attacks targeting ADS-B protocol, with a cognitive engine. First, this would facilitate the physical risk assessment of the ADS-B attacks based on the collected data describing the aircraft and its surrounding. Second, it would be beneficial to the ATC controllers who would have a better idea about the best ways to optimize the aircraft taking off and touching down without any disruptions from possible attacks targeting this technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2412
Tao Yang, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher
The more-electric aircraft (MEA) is the developing trend for the next generation airplanes. Recent advances in power electronics, electrical drives and modern control techniques make it possible to replace many functions which are conventionally managed by hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical power, with electrical power driven devices. Such replacement would increase reliability, capability, maintainability, reduced weight and volume, and provide higher survivability in aircraft operations. The use of MEA technology will result in a large number of AC/DC converters supplying power for functions as fuel pumps, cabin pressurization, air conditioning, engine start and flight control. There are two alternative ways to convert the AC power to the DC power: the pulse-width modulation (PWM) active front-ends and passive multi-pulse converters. The former approach seemingly needs considerable development to meet the reliability requirement for aircraft applications.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2549
Marc-André Léonard, Jean-François Boland, Christophe Jégo, Claude Thibeault
Nowadays, growing complexity in digital systems forces electronic hardware designers to adopt Electronic System Level (ESL) design and verification approach from a high-level perspective. To assess the reliability of a digital hardware design towards cosmic rays effects, this paper proposes a verification methodology based on high abstraction level fault injection simulation using a library of primitives characterized at lower levels. Once created, the designer can reuse this library in order to obtain a reliability report. The novelty of this research resides in the capacity of using an accurate fault injection model in a highly abstracted system description. Combining this accuracy with the use of error pattern classification at low-level, brings a new perspective to the simulation-based fault injection field.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0002
Abhijit Kulkarni, Vinod John
Second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) based phase-locked loops (PLLs) are used for grid voltage synchronization in single-phase grid-connected power converters. SOGI-PLLs are attractive because of the simple structure and the suitability for implementation in low-end digital controllers. In this paper, a cascaded SOGI-PLL structure is discussed, with full offset rejection capability. A systematic design procedure is proposed for this PLL minimizing the response time and unit vector harmonic distortion. This design achieves minimum settling time for a given level of frequency deviation of the grid voltage. The PLL designed using the proposed method has sufficient harmonic attenuation capability. The analytical predictions are verified experimentally.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0006
V. S. S. Pavan Kumar Hari, Avanish Tripathi, G Narayanan
High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. This paper proposes a method to determine the mechanical parameters, namely the moment of inertia and frictional coefficient of the induction motor drive. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a $5$hp induction motor drive are presented.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0009
Shimin V V, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
In the current world scenario of increasing environmental issues and oil prices, development of electric vehicles (EV) have gained considerable importance and attention. Power electronics will play a key role in making highly efficient electric vehicles which are low in emissions and having better fuel economy. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of power electronics technology in electric vehicles and also discusses the role of power electronics in achieving the vision of Indian Government in the field of EVs by 2020. The paper concludes with a discussion of expected future trends in power electronics technology that will improve the markets for electric vehicles in coming years.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0011
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Riaz Ahamed
Component level validation plays a very important role in an Electric Vehicles during development of a new platform.. Validating the product for their mission life and finding the early failures that can occur in field and correcting the failures at early stages proves to be very helpful in improving product Reliability and confidence. Product durability test is one of the most important tests in validation. Durability testing is the evaluation of duration of time that a product, part, material, or system can meet its performance requirements against its mission life. Durability is conducted on every component, module and also at system and vehicle level. Transmission is commonly used in all the automobile vehicles to transmit power. Transmission in Electric vehicle is a single gear ratio, two stage transmission transmitting power from motor to axle.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0013
Preeti Agarwal, Vineeta Agarwal
For rural or remote areas the single-phase grid has been considered as an alternative especially when compared with the three-phase solution due to its lower cost feature. The loads connected in a three-phase arrangement present some advantages when compared with single-phase loads especially for motors due to their constant torque, constant power, reduced size, etc. High speed machines are used in different applications such as dental drills and medical surgery tools, compressors and turbochargers, blowers, turbo molecular vacuum pumps, compact electrical power suppliers and micro co-generation gas turbines, aircraft electrical starter generator systems, flywheel energy storages and machine tool spindles and electric propulsion systems. This paper proposes a single-phase to three-phase Cycloinverter capable of generating high frequency three-phase output using self-commutated semiconductor devices.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0012
Dheeraj Narang, Subhash Chavadaki
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and now number more than a billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles. This document gives information about the usage of powered bicycles based on renewable energy systems. The renewable energy which is discussed in this paper is using solar energy. Solar panels are an effective and efficient way of using solar energy. The bicycle uses the solar panels to charge the batteries which intern are used to power a motor, driving the bicycles. It also gives a report on the efficiency of batteries and solar panels. Explanatory material is followed by a worked example.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0017
Jiten Chavda, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande, Rakeshkumar Shankar
This paper presents the speed control of sensored BLDC motor using PWM techniques. The BLDC motor with EV or HEV application uses the position sensor for the operation and speed control of motor. In this paper the simulation of BLDC motor is done using soft commutating technique (Proteus Design Suit & Keil uVision3 software). A prototype is implemented to verify the performance of proposed new approach for control of sensored BLDC motor of 48V, 5A, 250W manufactured for E-BIKES. The speed control and real time measurement is obtained and compared and found satisfactory performance.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0020
Abhishek Shah, Sanjay Phegade
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0037
Jiten Kishorbhai Chavda, Varsha Shah
India is developing country with tremendous growth in automobile sector. 8 to 9 million new two wheelers and over a million four wheelers are every year come on the road. Penetration of EVs, HEVs(full forms) and PHEVs has large scope with good environment friendly support and energy saving prospectus. Initial and replacement cost of battery is one of the biggest economic criteria for the same. Hybrid power source for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs gives enhance performance which increase life of battery and reduce overall cost of battery operated vehicles. Accurate parameter estimation for battery used in electrical vehicles is essential for designing the hybrid power source with fuel cell and battery or ultra-capacitor and battery to improve the performance of battery operated EVs, HEVs and PHEVs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0147
Anoop N. N
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2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0149
John G. Arvanitis
The battery model accuracy is one of the major keys for building high fidelity battery storage energy systems and hybrid energy systems. Any proposed model must account for thermal variations because of the crucial effect of temperature in transport and kinetic phenomena of electrochemical systems. This paper proposes an effective fractional approach method for increasing the accuracy of a model and estimating faster the required parameters using the Matlab Curve Fitting toolbox taking into account of thermal dependence. It is based on existing work on Electrical Circuit Model Layered Technique parameter estimation. The new approach applied on lithium (LiFepo4) cell under different operating conditions revealed dependences of the equivalent circuit elements on state of charge, average current, and temperature. The proposed process is useful for creating a high fidelity model capable of predicting electrical current/voltage performance and estimating run-time state of charge (SOC).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0161
Karthikeyan Ethirajan
Rolling resistance contributes ~8% impact on energy efficiency of an automobile. This paper emphasises on how power consumption in an electric vehicle architecture is minimized by reducing rolling resistance through optimization of design parameters in front axle unitised bearing. Optimum bearing design selection can result upto 10% lesser power consumption hence increasing vehicle efficiency. Suitable testing results and calculations establish the claims in reduction of power consumption. The effect of higher energy losses due to rolling resistance are prominent in Electric-Vehicles as compared to IC-Engine cars due to significantly lower power-train losses which overshadow rolling resistance losses in conventional cars.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0160
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0159
Wei Liu
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used widely, low pollution; quickly replenish energy are acknowledged as the ideal power supply of car. For batteries, however, about 40% ~ 50% of the energy dissipates as heat energy, the current through the single-phase heat transfer of cooling water to cool the fuel cell. In working process, the following disadvantages would appear: uneven distribution of temperature in the fuel cell, if the local temperature is too high, this will worsen the performance of the fuel cell. In order to ensure the fuel cell in the best working temperature range between 80 ℃ ~ 90 ℃ and keep efficient work. Of this study is to design a two phase water cooling system. First of all, the analysis of thermal power characteristics of fuel cell under different road conditions. Then heat transfer model of the heat exchange system is established and the expander features of recovery of waste heat.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0152
Riaz Ahamed, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
The use of 3-Ф Induction Motor with copper rotor for traction applications has been increasing in recent years. Copper die cast rotor has better conductivity than aluminium rotor and its efficiency at higher speeds is almost equivalent to permanent magnet motors. This paper presents the design and analysis of high power density copper rotor electric motor for EV applications. The first step involved in motor design is selection of main dimensions that meet output power requirements. Based on constraints imposed by power and space availability, optimised size of stator frame has been selected for the design. On finalization of main dimensions, stator and rotor slots have been selected; slot dimensions are further optimized to avoid the saturation in tooth and yoke areas of stator and rotor laminations. Higher grade non- oriented steel laminations of lower thickness have been used in stator and rotor to reduce the core losses at higher frequencies.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0166
Fengxiang Zhao
Compared with the traditional vehicles, electric vehicles have the advantages of small pollution to the environment, high energy utilization rate and low noise. But pure electric vehicles have several big problems that battery capacity is limited, the charging time is long, and battery management is complex. The solar cell can provide clean energy, and the quality of it is light, conveniently installed. Installing solar panels in the pure electric vehicles, can reduce the vehicle battery load, improve the vehicle trip .In this paper, we study energy conversion model of solar panels, it is concluded the relationship with the solar photovoltaic capacity and thermal radiation environmental factors, and study the electric power demand of electrical appliances in under different working conditions.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0010
Amitkumar K. S., G Narayanan
Space vector-based advanced bus-clamping pulse width modulation (ABCWM) techniques for neutral-point clamped three-level converters offer superior performance over conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM) and bus-clamping pulse width modulation (BCPWM) under certain operating conditions. However, the digital implementation of ABCPWM methods is quite resource intensive, compared to carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) methods. This paper presents a computationally efficient digital implementation of an ABCPWM technique. The ABCPWM method is shown to be advantageous in terms of reduced switching loss at high lagging power factors and reduced harmonic distortion in the inverter output at high modulation indexes.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0001
Shashikiran HK, Bhupesh Agrawal, Neal Clements, Richard Wainwright
Bus bars are very critical components for power distribution in Electric Drive systems. The increase of power electronic components on vehicles, and their interaction, has increased the possibility of noticeable and destructive amplitude harmonics at resonant frequencies to exist in the power distribution network. The presence of stray inductance of bus bars along with the capacitance of the inverters creates a resonant circuit, which in turn can create instability in the system, so it is very critical to understand the performance and placement of Busbars in the system. As impedance is very much influenced by the geometry, shape, and materials of the bus bars, simulation tools can be utilized to accurately predict the impedance and this can be utilized to study the performance of the complete system and further optimize the busbar geometry as per system needs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0003
Arun Karuppaswamy Balasubramanian, Srinivas Gulur, Vinod John
With the increasing use of grid-connected inverters, any improvement in its reliability is desirable. Usual inverter tests focus primarily on thermal testing of semiconductor devices. However, the passive components are also sensitive to temperature. The life of dc bus electrolytic capacitors and output ac filter capacitors are temperature-dependent. Continuous operation of output filter inductors at high temperatures can cause their insulation to fail. Semiconductor thermal test procedures available in literature can be used for thermal testing of passive components also. But, the methods available in literature are regenerative and require the use of additional converters or passive systems of similar rating as the inverter under test for regeneration. A novel thermal test method is proposed for testing of passive components associated with a three-phase two-level grid-connected inverter.
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