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2016-05-26
Standard
J2208_201605
To provide a Recommended Practice for validating the function and integrity of an automatic transmission park mechanism with its associated control system and environment.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
J2901
The intent of the specification is to present a functional set of requirements which define the user and hardware interfaces while providing sufficient capability to meet the misfire patterns for compliance demonstration and engineering development. The misfire generator behaves as a spark-defeat device which induces misfires by inhibiting normal ignition coil discharge. It does so by monitoring the vehicle’s ignition timing signals and suspends ignition coil saturation for selected cylinder firing events. The misfire generator will thereby induce engine misfire in spark ignited gasoline internal combustion engines; including rotary engines. This requirement assumes that the user has a fundamental understanding of misfire diagnostics as well as ignition controls. This requirement is not intended to be an introductory misfire guideline or interpretation of regulatory requirements.
2016-05-17
Magazine
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.
2016-05-05
WIP Standard
J2948
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes guidelines for the operation of automotive keyless ignition systems with the goal of helping to minimize user instigated errors. For the purpose of this Recommended Practice, user instigated errors may include: • the inability to start and stop the vehicle propulsion system, • exiting the vehicle with the automatic transmission in a non-parking gear, • exiting the vehicle while the vehicle propulsion system is enabled, • exiting the vehicle while the vehicle propulsion system is disabled, but the accessory or electrical systems are active. To help minimize these errors, this Recommended Practice contains design recommendations pertaining to uniform labeling, operating logic, indication of vehicle ignition/control status, and physical control characteristics of keyless ignition systems. This Recommended Practice applies to keyless ignition controls permanently mounted in passenger cars, MPVs, and trucks 10 000 GVWR and under.
2016-05-05
Magazine
New dawn at Honda R&D President Yoshiyuki Matsumoto aims to invigorate Honda's technology and product-development organization with 'full soul.' Automated driving meets regulation: NHTSA and the next 50 years The challenges and opportunities on the road to 'zero deaths' demand a new level of federal automotive safety technical standards, and a new safety-defect reporting and recall system. NHTSA and the U.S. Congress must act boldly and quickly to make it happen. Autonomous driving meets regulation: Hands off, eyes off, brain off Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences. Designer yin meets engineer yang Efficient and effective vehicle development means even closer collaboration between the two former sparring partners.
2016-05-02
Magazine
UAV Technology Using SWaP-C Reductions to Improve UAS/UGV Mission Capabilities UGV Technology Designing Rugged Computing Platforms for UGVs UUV & Robotics Technology Bi-manual Dexterous Manipulation for Maritime Explosive Ordnance Disposal UUV Technology Applying UUV Advances to Safeguard Harbors and Littoral Waters Robotics Technology Designing a Robot to Counter Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices
2016-05-01
Book
Richard Walter, Eric Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-04-14
WIP Standard
J1859
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for determining input-output characteristics for those pilot-operated and mechanically actuated, modulating-type valves and through-type valves used in the service brake control system.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1218
Tsuyoshi Iguchi
Abstract Conventionally, it has not been possible to evaluate current and temperature in power control units (PCU) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) during vehicle operation without using an actual permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The research discussed in this paper developed a motor emulator to take the place of an actual motor, making it possible to conduct tests for the evaluation of current and temperature in PCU during vehicle operation without the need to use a motor. The motor emulator is provided with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator that calculates motor models at high speed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The developed system models the motor in detail via the HIL simulator, while a 3-phase current generator accurately reproduces the transient current in the PCU during vehicle operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1220
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja M. Rahman, Peter Savagian, Robert Dawsey
Abstract The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both motors. Induction motor-A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor-B winding is connected in wye. Overall, the choice of induction for motor A and permanent magnet for motor B is well supported by the choice of hybrid system architecture and the relative usage profiles of the machines. This selection criteria along with the design optimization of electric motors, their electrical and thermal performances, as well as the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance are discussed in detail. It is absolutely crucial that high performance electric machines are coupled with high performance control algorithms to enable maximum system efficiency and performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1223
Yukiya Kashimura, Yuki Negoro
Abstract A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1229
Douglas Cesiel, Charles Zhu
Abstract The electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC) is responsible for converting AC grid energy to DC energy to charge the battery pack. This paper describes the development of GM’s second generation OBC used in the 2016 Chevrolet Volt. The second generation OBC provides significant improvements in efficiency, size, and mass compared to the first generation. Reduced component count supports goals of improved reliability and lower cost. Complexity reduction of the hardware and diagnostic software was undertaken to eliminate potential failures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1638
Eunhyek Joa, Kyongsu Yi, Kilsoo Kim
Abstract This paper presents the integrated chassis control(ICC) of four-wheel drive(4WD), electronic stability control(ESC), electronic control suspension(ECS), and active roll stabilizer(ARS) for limit handling. The ICC consists of three layers: 1) a supervisor determines target vehicle states; 2) upper level controller calculates generalized forces; 3) lower level controller, which is contributed in this paper, optimally allocates the generalized force to chassis modules. The lower level controller consists of two integrated parts, 1) longitudinal force control part (4WD/ESC) and 2) vertical force control part (ECS/ARS). The principal concept of both algorithms is optimally utilizing the capability of the each tire by monitoring tire saturation, with tire combined slip. By monitoring tire saturation, 4WD/ESC integrated system minimizes the sum of the tire saturation, and ECS/ARS integrated system minimizes the variance of the tire saturation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1653
Zhenhai Gao, Jun Wang, Hongyu Hu, Dazhi Wang
Abstract Vehicle Longitudinal Control (VLC) algorithm is the basis function of automotive Cruise Control system. The main task of VLC is to achieve a longitudinal acceleration tracking controller, performance requirements of which include fast response and high tracking accuracy. At present, many control methods are used to implement vehicle longitudinal control. However, the existing methods are need to be improved because these methods need a high accurate vehicle dynamic model or a number of experiments to calibrate the parameters of controller, which are time consuming and costly. To overcome the difficulties of controller parameters calibration and accurate vehicle dynamic modeling, a vehicle longitudinal control algorithm based on iterative learning control (ILC) is proposed in this paper. The algorithm works based on the information of input and output of the system, so the method does not require a vehicle dynamics model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0093
Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Jian Wu, Wenlong Sun, Bing Zhu
Abstract With the development of modern vehicle chassis control systems, such as Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Regenerative Braking System (RBS) for EVs, etc., there comes a new requirement for the vehicle brake system that is the precise control of the wheel brake pressure. The Electro-Hydraulic Brake system (EHB), which owns an ability to adjust four wheels’ brake pressure independently, can be a good match with these systems. However, the traditional control logic of EHB is based on the PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation), which has a low control accuracy of linear electromagnetic valves. Therefore, this paper presents a research of the linear electro-magnetic valve characteristic analysis, and proposes a precise pressure control algorithm of the EHB system with a feed forward and a PID control of linear electro-magnetic valves.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0108
Jihas Khan
Abstract Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries. This is because of the promising results received in reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming too difficult considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence the simulation of RADAR sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs. Furthermore, Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where the real RADAR sensor is bypassed. This paper discusses such issues which include the validation of the most modern Electronic Scanning RADARs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0126
Philip Daian, Shinichi Shiraishi, Akihito Iwai, Bhargava Manja, Grigore Rosu
The Runtime Verification ECU (RV-ECU) is a new development platform for checking and enforcing the safety of automotive bus communications and software systems. RV-ECU uses runtime verification, a formal analysis subfield geared at validating and verifying systems as they run, to ensure that all manufacturer and third-party safety specifications are complied with during the operation of the vehicle. By compiling formal safety properties into code using a certifying compiler, the RV-ECU executes only provably correct code that checks for safety violations as the system runs. RV-ECU can also recover from violations of these properties, either by itself in simple cases or together with safe message-sending libraries implementable on third-party control units on the bus. RV-ECU can be updated with new specifications after a vehicle is released, enhancing the safety of vehicles that have already been sold and deployed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0266
Greg K. Caswell, James McLeish
The use of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for measuring accelerations, pressure, gyroscopic yaw rate and humidity in engine controls, inflatable restraint, braking, stability and other safety critical vehicle systems is increasing. Their use in these safety critical systems in high stress automotive environments makes ensuring their reliability and durability essential tasks, especially as the Vehicle System Functional Safety requirements of ISO-26262 are being implemented across the industry. A Design for Reliability (DfR) approach that applies Physics of Failure methods to evaluate and eliminate or mitigate susceptibilities to failure modes of a device during the design of a product is the most effective and efficient way to achieve Functional Safety levels of reliability-durability. MEMS packages exhibit several failure modes that can be predicted as a device is designed using modern Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0611
Dejan Kihas, Daniel Pachner, Lubomir Baramov, Michael Uchanski, Priya Naik, Nassim Khaled
Abstract The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0614
Donald V. Johnson, Gregory Roth, Andrew Fedewa, Jeremy Kraenzlein, Xiaojian Yang
Abstract Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0155
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Pekar, Jaroslav Beran, Anthony D'Amato, Engin Ozatay, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate an Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equiped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. The authors reported simulations and application of linear and nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1363
Nobuhiro Ide, Jun Hioki, Hiroki Okada
Abstract Because of its convenience, electronic key systems are adopted by many automakers. Ensuring the performance of low frequency (LF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic waves is a critical part of system development. One of the most important performance aspects of this system is ensuring communication in the required area, and the tuning process is a key factor in the development phase. Conventionally, a large amount of work hours and cost is required for this tuning process, which usually adopts a cut-and-try approach based on technical experience to satisfy the required specifications in the LF band. The development process was successfully shortened by applying the newly developed LF electromagnetic simulation technique described in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0007
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Rajesh Balusu, Subhabrata Gupta, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are essentially first step towards the electrification of the powertrains. They are aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of the conventional gasoline and diesel power trains with conventional 12 V electrical system, and thus reduce the CO2 emissions as well. Various technologies like Engine Stop-Start, Intelligent Alternator Control, and Electrical Energy Management Systems are included in the bracket of micro hybrid systems. These system functions demand a totally different approach for managing the SLI battery, which is a total departure from the conventional approach. Particularly, the Alternator Shutdown function of Intelligent Alternator Control maintains a calibrated average level of State of Charge, which is typically around 80%, to ensure that the battery can accept more current, during the energy recuperation, which indirectly improves fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0020
Eric Woestman, Jeremias Sauceda
Abstract Over the last decade, the automotive industry has embraced model-based development for control systems. Many of these companies have chosen Simulink from MathWorks to design and simulate these models. However, a remaining issue is the fact that many control systems were initially written in C and are still being used. Some companies have attempted to manually convert these C systems to Simulink models but have found this method to be too costly, error-prone, and time consuming. EnSoft decided to tackle this problem by providing a semi-automated conversion using our Atlas for C tool. Atlas is a tool that maps software and creates a relation map for all parts of the program. It then offers the developer tools to query and visualize this graph. We have developed Modelify, a tool built on this framework that performs the necessary queries on a C project and creates equivalent Simulink models and subsystems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0013
Sujit S. Phatak, Heming Chen, Yuan Xiao, Can Wang, Donald McCune, Simon Schliecker, Maurice Sebastian, Victor Reyes, David Balland
Abstract Automotive vehicles today consist of very complex network of electronic control units (ECU) connected with each other using different network implementations such as Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, etc. There are several ECUs inside a vehicle targeting specific applications such as engine, transmission, body, steering, brakes, infotainment/navigation, etc. comprising on an average more than 50 ECUs executing more than 50 million lines of software code. It is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Such complex electric/electronic (E/E) architecture and software calls for a comprehensive, flexible and systematic development and validation environment especially for a system level or vehicle level development. To achieve this goal, we have built a virtual multi-ECU high fidelity cyber-physical multi-rate cosimulation that closely resembles a realistic hardware based automotive embedded system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0015
Eldad Palachi, Fariz Saracevic, Amit Fisher
Abstract Connected vehicles provide suppliers and OEMs new opportunities to improve their customer experience and offer new services. Yet, in this new era of Internet of Things (IoT), OEMs and suppliers are expected to expand their engineering efforts beyond the vehicle itself. We present a new Rapid Application Development (RAD) service offered by IBM, called IBM Internet of Things Workbench. This is a visual tool, offered as an IBM Bluemix service that allows engineers to design and simulate the overall architecture and interactions between the various IoT entities such as devices, cloud applications and services, mobile clients and asset management systems. IoT Workbench abstracts the messaging details and generates code skeletons for the cloud applications as well as for simulating devices. It also provides the device simulation to allow for the application testing before the actual devices are available and the requirements for the various devices are validated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0030
Jungkyum Yu, Geesu Lee, Hyunsung Lee, Jaepoong Lee, Kwangil Kim, Youngsuk Kim, Sangkyong Lee, Sangwoo Jeon, Kyongsu Yi
Abstract As an effective approach for the design, implementation and test of control systems, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test has been used in many research areas. This paper describes a real-time HIL simulation test for an automotive electronic control system. The HIL system proposed in this paper consists of three parts: real-time target hardware, electronic control unit (ECU) of the automotive electronic control systems and a signal-conditioning unit which regulates the voltage levels between real-time target and ECU. The HIL simulation evaluates mechanical and electronic behaviors in real time using off-line simulation models by interfacing real-target with electrical control units via interface box. The model has been developed by MATLAB/Simulink. The model is composed of mechanical part which predicts dynamic behaviors and electronic part to calculate the motor speeds, current and electronic loads under the various conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
Abstract A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
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