This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information to guide in the selection of electromechanical relays to be used in electrical/electronic circuits for application in aerospace, ground, and shipboard systems to achieve proper performance.
Today, 99% of the two wheelers in India operate with carburetor based fuel delivery system. But with implementation of Bharath Stage VI emission norms, compliance to emission limits along with monitoring of components in the system that contributes towards tail pipe emissions would be challenging. With the introduction of the OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and emission durability, mass migration to electronically controlled fuel delivery system is very much expected. The new emission norms also call for precise metering of the injected fuel and therefore demands extended calibration effort. The calibration of engine management system starts with the generation of pre-calibration dataset capable of operating the engine at all operating points followed by base calibration of the main parameters such as air charge estimation, fuel injection quantity, injection timing and ignition angles relative to the piston position.
This specification covers the detail requirements for control transformer synchro, type 16CTB4b, 90 volt, 400 cycle.
Abstract Fuel consumption (FC) has always been an important factor in vehicle cost. With the advent of electronically controlled engines, the controller area network (CAN) broadcasts information about engine and vehicle performance, including fuel use. However, the accuracy of the FC estimates is uncertain. In this study, the researchers first compared CAN-broadcasted FC against physically measured fuel use for three different types of trucks, which revealed the inaccuracies of CAN-broadcast fueling estimates. To match precise gravimetric fuel-scale measurements, polynomial models were developed to correct the CAN-broadcasted FC. Lastly, the robustness testing of the correction models was performed. The training cycles in this section included a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. The mean relative differences were reduced noticeably.
This Technical Information Report defines the proprietary diagnostic communication protocol for ABS or VSA ECU (Electronic Control Unit) implemented on some Honda vehicles. This protocol does not apply to all Honda vehicles. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface.
Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
Using Thermal Simulation to Model the Effects of Wind on the Mars Curiosity Rover Quality and Validation of Digital Designs for Aerospace and Defense Scaling LiDAR Optical Payloads from Drones to Miniature UAVs Using Sintered Fiber Metal Composites for Aircraft Acoustic Attenuation GaN Breaks Barriers RF Power Amplifiers Go Wide and High Test System Ensures Flawless Performance of Military RF Devices The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography Remote physiological measurement technique leverages digital cameras to recover the blood volume pulse from the human body. Sensitivity Simulation of Compressed Sensing Based Electronic Warfare Receiver Using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit Algorithm Calculate the sensitivity of a CS based EW receiver using two modulation schemes.
Circuit Breaker - Aircraft, Trip-Free, Blade Terminal, 3 Phase, 1 Thru 25 Amp, Type I -55°C Thru +71°C
This detail specification defines the dimensional and performance requirements for a three phase aircraft circuit breaker with flat blat style terminals.
This detail specification defines the dimensional and performance requirements for single phase aircraft circuit breaker with blade terminals.
Longitudinal Planning and Control Method for Autonomous Vehicles Based on A New Potential Field Model
Abstract An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key components of an autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and efficiency. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
Autonomous Key Management (AKM) Security Architecture for Air (and Defense) Vehicles and IoT Applications
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing Electronic Module to Electronic Module (i.e. ECUs, FCC, REUs, etc.) communication within air (and defense) vehicles and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge Electronic Module sensors connected to Electronic Modules within the air (and defense) vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
Framework for Modelling and Simulation of Multi-Physics Aircraft Systems with Distributed Electronic Controllers
Abstract Multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, or hydraulic components and the high level of system integration, characteristic of new aircraft designs, is increasing the complexity of both design and verification processes. Therefore the availability of tools, supporting integrated modelling, simulation, optimization and testing across all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge. This paper presents some results of the project MISSION (Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft). It is a collaborative task being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, which is a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The first levels of integration of different models and tools proposed in the MISSION framework will be presented, along with simulation results.
Abstract In new aircraft programs, systems’ functionality is increasingly becoming integrated into modular avionics. Controllers may not be delivered by the systems supplier so this trend creates a new interface between systems and controllers. A functional software specification is therefore needed to facilitate the building of the software by the controller supplier. In the case of an ECS system controller, the hardware was obtained from different suppliers and a software functional specification was needed for the controller supplier. To be able to design and verify the system functionality, an integrated ECS simulation model was created which coupled the thermodynamics of the aircraft and ECS system to the controller actions. The model also included functionality to simulate sensor noise and component failures. The thermodynamic model was created in Matlab/Simulink and consisted of a combination of direct programming as well as data on a Flowmaster model for the bleed system.
Abstract BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
Application Guidelines for Electronically Driven and/or Controlled Exterior Automotive Lighting Equipment
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document establishes performance requirements, design requirements and design guidelines for electronic devices.
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers are now available which support the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format (known as “CAN FD”). These controllers, when used on SAE J1939-15 networks, must be restricted to use only the Classical Frame format compliant to ISO 11898-1 (2003). These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
Active Muffler for Single Cylinder Engine, Using Electronic Throttle Control for Formula Student Cars
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book , ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
The intention of this standard is to establish a framework to measure the efficiency of PWM HVAC Blower Controllers and Brushless DC Motor Controllers and define a usage based overall efficiency. This result can then be used by vehicle OEMs to demonstrate compliance towards requirements or benchmarks established by regulatory agencies.
This report sets forth guidance for IP-based onboard networks and systems residing in the Airline Information Services (AIS) and Passenger Information and Entertainment Services (PIES) Domains by establishing a common set of security related data elements and format(s) that are produced by aircraft systems, suitable for use by airline IT and/or avionic supplier analytical ground tools.
Executive Viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Alternative power and connectivity top of mind Using power dense flywheel hybrid technology to cut fuel consumption of OH equipment IoT connections transform manufacturing, vehicle validation Annual Product Guide Supplier Directory Complete listing of industry suppliers categorized by technology area.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to motor vehicle Forward Illumination Devices which incorporate limited adaptive beam pattern capabilities. This document is to be used in conjunction with other forward lighting standards and/or recommended practices which define the base beam procedures, requirements, and guidelines.
Obtaining Desired Vehicle Dynamics Characteristics with Independently Controlled In-Wheel Motors: State of Art Review
Abstract In recent times, electric vehicles (EV) are gaining a lot of attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. Recent advances in the applications of integrating control systems in automotive vehicles have made it practicable to accomplish improvement in vehicle's longitudinal and lateral dynamics. This paper deals with a brief overview of current state of art vehicle technologies like direct yaw moment control, traction control and side slip control of EV. There are various controller algorithms available in literature with different torque vectoring strategies. As EV can be precisely controlled because of quick in hub wheel motor response times, therefore various torque vectoring strategies can be comfortably used for enhancing vehicle dynamics. Moreover, by using four independent in-wheel motors, several types of motion controls can be performed.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents an overview of the application and control of fixed and variable displacement pumps with the emphasis on the controls most commonly used on variable displacement pumps. It describes various options to control the operation of hydraulic pumps in terms of controlling the pump output pressure and/or flow and assisting in the selection of the pump.
Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Braked- Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways. This document provides a method to determine the air consumption of highway vehicles when the brake system must maintain performance when the service brake control is applied for long periods of time.