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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-17
WIP Standard
AS24509B
An Amendment corresponding to this standard is available at AS24509_A2
2015-04-14
Collection
Model-Based Design has become a well-accepted development style for embedded control and software. This technical paper collection is designed to cover new processes, methods, and applications of new processes / methods to reduce development time and improve software quality. A particular emphasis will be placed on methods such as executable specification, design through simulation, early verification, automatic code generation, and model-in-the-loop testing.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection covers the control, calibration, and diagnostics of the engine, powertrain, and supporting electromechanical subsystems related to energy management in conventional and hybrid operation, considering the simultaneous optimization of hardware design parameters and control software calibration parameters.
2015-04-14
Collection
Power electronics and electric motors are essential for improving vehicle efficiency through drivetrain electrification. Technologies that support high efficiency, high power density, and low cost motors and power modules are required for the success of vehicle electrification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Abstract Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU), or pair of ECUs, need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics' high-speed dynamics due to PWM signals frequently in the 10-20 kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor colocated with analog and digital input and output, the FPGA makes it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of one microsecond.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract There is an increasing customer demand for adjustable chassis control features which enable adaption of the vehicle comfort and driving characteristics to the customer requirements. One of the most promising vehicle control systems which can be used to change the vehicle characteristics during the drive is the semi-active suspension system. This paper presents a Rule-Optimized Fuzzy Logic controller for semi-active suspension systems which can continuously adjust itself not only according to the road conditions but also to the driver requirements. The proposed controller offers three different control modes (Comfort, Normal and Sport) which can be switched by the driver during driving. The Comfort Mode minimizes the accelerations imposed on the driver and passengers by using a softer damping. On the other hand, the increased damping in Sport Mode provides better road holding capability, which is critical for sporty handling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Abstract Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can nowadays be considered as distributed embedded software systems where independent microprocessor systems communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several microprocessors communicating with each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other Electronic Control Units in a vehicle via communication networks and gather vehicle's surroundings via camera, radar or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market, make the development of such systems challenging.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1400
Umashankar Nagarajan, Ambarish Goswami
Abstract The number of seniors is rising worldwide. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility, thus improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers, which “lock in” with the gait and help the subject walk faster using a phase lead characteristic. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion, not only a gait, and can help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1642
Shrey Aggarwal, Rama Subbu, Sanjay Gilotra
Abstract Testing, validation & evaluation are vital factors in terms of defining vehicle reliability and durability. Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance of the engine. It affects many variables including engine longevity, fuel economy, and engine power. It needs to be measured & controlled such that vehicle performance can be improved. Sparks occurring too soon or late in the engine cycle are often responsible for excessive vibrations and even engine damage. Today's spark-advance controllers are open-loop systems that measure parameters that affect the spark-advance setting and compensate for their effects. A closed-loop scheme instead measures the result of the actual spark advance and maintains an optimal spark-advance setting in the presence of disturbances. Attempt has been made in our endeavor to develop an embedded system device which can be used hands-on to measure the ignition timing with respect to T.D.C.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Abstract Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for (1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, (2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and (3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key. This paper describes several multi-core task design and scheduling design options, including function-to-task mapping, task-to-core allocation (both static and dynamic), and associated scheduling policies such as rate-monotonic, criticality-aware priority assignment, period transformation, hierarchical partition scheduling, and dynamic global scheduling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0198
Hironobu Akita, Nobuaki Matsudaira, Chao Chen, Takasuke Ito, Shigeki Ohtsuka
Abstract With the evolution of automotive features, larger flash program size has been required even at the local electronic control units (ECUs). As the flash programming data rate increases, Ethernet is adopted as a global data port from the external source. However, it can not be applied to the bus type network topology between the domain control unit (DCU) and the local ECUs, because it uses a peer-to-peer type network topology. On the other hand, high speed CAN-FD has been studied recently for this bus topology, but its data rate is limited at the range of several mega bps due to the signal waveform distortion caused by the multiple reflections at the non-terminated stubs. This paper describes a novel distortion cancelling for the bus topology as the pre-emphasis technique, in which the digital signal processing (DSP) compensates the complicated signal distortion caused by the multiple reflections.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0179
Ralph Mader, Armin Graf, Gerd Winkler
Abstract The combustion engine will be the dominant drive for motor vehicles despite all the advances in the electrification of the drive train, for many years. The greater are the challenges for the automotive industry, especially in fuel consumption (CO2) and the environmental impacts of other emissions. From the fuel supply to the engine, up to the exhaust after treatment, new or improved functions are needed, which are integrated into increasingly powerful control electronics. This modern electronic engine management and powertrain controller will remain key components in the vehicle. As most of the micro controllers for future applications will be MultiCores, this paper gives an overview on how PowerSAR® supports this kind of architectures. It shows the concepts applied in the basic software area as well as for the applicative software. Further it will show the impact on the development process as well as the integration support for software delivered by the OEM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0180
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Kai Richter, Konrad Reif, Andreas Schulze, Torsten Flämig
Abstract With the increasing complexity of electronic vehicle systems, one particular “gap” between function development and ECU integration becomes more and more apparent, and critical; albeit not new. The core of the problem is: as more functions are integrated and share the same E/E resources, they increasingly mutually influence and disturb each other in terms of memory, peripherals, and also timing and performance. This has two consequences: The amount of timing-related errors increases (because of the disturbance) and it becomes more difficult to find root causes of timing errors (because of the mutual influences). This calls for more systematic methods to deal with timing requirements in general and their transformation from function timing requirements to software architecture timing requirements in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0184
James Price
Abstract More than ten years have passed since the establishment of the AUTOSAR consortium. Today, AUTOSAR has become a well-established standard for automotive electronic control unit (ECU) development and network design. In fact, several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) now mandate AUTOSAR when sourcing ECUs. With that being said, the standard is getting more complex as new concepts are added with each new release, making integration an increasingly difficult challenge - let alone a challenge developing it alongside ECU application functionality. This paper addresses the integration of AUTOSAR 4.x basic software stack into an ECU project and offers proposed flows for the integration process starting from the ECU extract to a fully configured AUTOSAR stack.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0189
Rolf Schneider, Dominik Juergens, Andre Kohn
Abstract In the context of the ARAMiS project, AUDI AG contributed the development of a multi-core demonstrator based on car functions already in production. For this demonstrator, these legacy car functions were ported from single-core platforms to a multi-core platform to gain real world close-to-production experience while utilizing the new technology. For complex functions with high demands for computational resources, it may be necessary to distribute computation over several cores. In this context, we investigated the parallelization of a legacy sequential AUTOSAR function. A main contribution of this work is an analysis of mechanisms provided by AUTOSAR, their limitations and, possible remedy. This paper will point out observations and experiences during the development of this demonstrator and show practical solutions for parallelization in an AUTOSAR environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
Abstract End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU's in order to ensure correct functioning of its intended functionality. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. On one hand, faster production demands require these tests and its framework to be designed in a time optimized manner. On the other hand, increase in ECU functionality translates to an increase in test's functional coverage, requiring more time. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production. Availability of multicore microcontrollers with increase in clock speed can increase the performance of end of line tests, but design challenges e.g. synchronization do not guarantee a linear performance increase. Therefore, design of test execution framework is absolutely critical to increase performance of test execution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Abstract Security access feature based on seed-key mechanism is widely used in automotive electronics, mainly for flashing ECU software, writing or reading specific parameter values and running diagnostic routines. There exist a number of techniques to decode the algorithm for key generation from a specific seed. Such techniques can put vehicle network at great risks due to an intruder flashing unauthorized version of ECU software, or changing internal parameters of ECU, or changing a VIN number. A lot more similar malicious attacks can be done by getting control over the ECUs. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to alter the performance from the stock and affect the safety of the passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm to protect the vehicle and ECU from such malicious attacks is explained in this paper. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU to replace the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security guarantying a secure operation of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0279
Fumio Narisawa, Masahiro Matsubara, Masataka Nishi, Tomohito Ebina
Abstract Functions and sizes of electronic control and software systems in automotives are being increased to achieve better controllability and reduce fuel consumption. A higher safety level is also demanded, so functional-safety standards are increasingly being introduced to in-vehicle systems. In safety critical systems, failure must be diagnosed and a system transited to a safe state when hardware failure occurs. Therefore, the failure diagnosis part of the basic software that takes charge of signal inputs and outputs processing must be verified for high accountability and explanations to a third party. To diagnose failure, the hardware and software that originally operate independently need to cooperate in principle. Hardware and software cooperating systems are not straight-forward to verify, because the combinations of conditions are too numerous for testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor's velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Abstract Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort and safety as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical advances and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received significant attention from both research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future velocity of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. In this work a stochastic model of the velocity of a preceding vehicle based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2I, V2V and radar information is presented. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this approach are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0313
Ugo Rosolia, Francesco Braghin, Andrew Alleyne, Edoardo Sabbioni
Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulations show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0176
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Jens Harnisch, Albrecht Mayer, Udo Dannebaum, Herbert Christlbauer
Abstract In recent years, we see more and more ECUs integrating a huge number of application software components. This process mostly results from the increasing amount of so called in-house software in various fields like electric-drive, chassis and driver assistance systems. The software development for these systems is partially moved from the supplier to the car manufacturers. Another important trend is the introduction of new network architectures intending to meet the growing communication requirements. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more quality of service requirements with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered [2]. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional, but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for modern electronic systems [6,7,8,9].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0172
Won Kyung Ham, Sangchul Park, JiMyoung Park, Minsuk Ko, Min-Ho Yoo
Abstract Presented in this research is methodology for modeling the behavior of an automotive ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to verify in a production system. The methodology of this paper is to verify the defects of ECU products during in a real operation, before the defective ECU equipped to an automobile. The performance of an ECU operation is dependent on not only the specification of a hardware device, but also a software program installed in the memory of an ECU. The software program of an ECU is able to be validated before installation, but the validation process is usually executed in a very controllable environment. In order to consider the software program which is frequently changeable in practice, the verification methodology of ECU products as the hardware device and software program integrated is required for detecting defective ECU products caused by inappropriate software program during in manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Abstract Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The vehicle was exhibited during the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show and the 2014 Automotive Engineering Exposition. The xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV with three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. The rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with a built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed by Mitsubishi Electric. Motion control systems for the xEV have been developed based on our proprietary motor control technology.
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