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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2745
Florian Bauer, Jan Fleischhacker
A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system for Electronic Control Units (ECU) of electro-pneumatic brake systems is presented. The HiL system runs a real-time capable vehicle model comprising of both the vehicle dynamics and the electro-pneumatic brake system. The dynamic behaviour of the vehicle can be simulated either by a real-time multi-body vehicle model or by a simpler system dynamic (double-track) model. To assess the quality of the system dynamic vehicle model, it was compared to the multi-body vehicle model which was validated with comprehensive experimental results. Discrepancies can be seen for highly unsteady manoeuvres. Reasons for these discrepancies caused by the modelling topology of the system dynamic vehicle model will be given. In order to simulate the electro-pneumatic brake system, a real-time model has been developed and validated. The different topologies of brake systems can be assembled from components and integrated into the vehicle model.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2840
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
ADAS applications are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing ECU networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) assistants directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior reliably with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage, to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extrememly diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras and maps are simulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2875
Olof Lindgärde, Lei Feng, Anders Tenstam, Mikael Soderman
CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that both supports optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller denoted “Predictive Energy Buffer Control” controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way. Another focus is the communication between the driver and the control system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2796
Tobias Gutjahr, Holger Kleinegraeber, Thorsten Huber, Thomas Kruse
Abstract The use of design of experiment (DoE) and data-driven simulation has become state-of-the-art in engine development and base calibration to cope with the drastically increased complexity of today's engine ECUs (electronic control units). Based on the representation of the engine behavior with a virtual plant model, offline optimizers can be used to find the optimal calibration settings for the engine controller, e.g. with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This increases the efficiency of the calibration process and reduces the need for expensive test stand runs. The present paper describes the application of Gaussian process regression, a statistical modeling approach with practical benefits in terms of achievable model accuracy and usability. The implementation of the algorithm in a commercial tool framework enables a broad use in series engine calibration.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0001
Shashikiran HK, Bhupesh Agrawal, Neal Clements, Richard Wainwright
Bus bars are very critical components for power distribution in Electric Drive systems. The increase of power electronic components on vehicles, and their interaction, has increased the possibility of noticeable and destructive amplitude harmonics at resonant frequencies to exist in the power distribution network. The presence of stray inductance of bus bars along with the capacitance of the inverters creates a resonant circuit, which in turn can create instability in the system, so it is very critical to understand the performance and placement of Busbars in the system. As impedance is very much influenced by the geometry, shape, and materials of the bus bars, simulation tools can be utilized to accurately predict the impedance and this can be utilized to study the performance of the complete system and further optimize the busbar geometry as per system needs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0002
Abhijit Kulkarni, Vinod John
Second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) based phase-locked loops (PLLs) are used for grid voltage synchronization in single-phase grid-connected power converters. SOGI-PLLs are attractive because of the simple structure and the suitability for implementation in low-end digital controllers. In this paper, a cascaded SOGI-PLL structure is discussed, with full offset rejection capability. A systematic design procedure is proposed for this PLL minimizing the response time and unit vector harmonic distortion. This design achieves minimum settling time for a given level of frequency deviation of the grid voltage. The PLL designed using the proposed method has sufficient harmonic attenuation capability. The analytical predictions are verified experimentally.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0003
Arun Karuppaswamy Balasubramanian, Srinivas Gulur, Vinod John
With the increasing use of grid-connected inverters, any improvement in its reliability is desirable. Usual inverter tests focus primarily on thermal testing of semiconductor devices. However, the passive components are also sensitive to temperature. The life of dc bus electrolytic capacitors and output ac filter capacitors are temperature-dependent. Continuous operation of output filter inductors at high temperatures can cause their insulation to fail. Semiconductor thermal test procedures available in literature can be used for thermal testing of passive components also. But, the methods available in literature are regenerative and require the use of additional converters or passive systems of similar rating as the inverter under test for regeneration. A novel thermal test method is proposed for testing of passive components associated with a three-phase two-level grid-connected inverter.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0004
Ritesh Kumar Keshri, Prabhat Ranjan Tripathi
Estimation of motor torque requires information of motor parameters and becomes crucial to the cases where phase inductance varies with the rotor position. Present paper proposes a simple instantaneous torque estimator for a permanent-magnet brushless dc (PM BLDC) motor drive. Proposed estimator requires information of phase currents from the current sensors and duty ratio applied to the individual phase legs of the VSI. Information of phase inductance is not required. Negligence of phase resistance reduces this estimator to a simplified one with considerable error. Applicability of this estimator even for the sinusoidal phase current supply makes it a general solution for the estimation of instantaneous motor torque for a PM BLDC motor drive. For the validation of the estimator, torque from the Simulink model of PMSM motor with trapezoidal back-emf is considered as a reference.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0005
Sankar Selvakumar
There are several bidirectional converters are proposed to integrate batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cell, electric motors, etc., to control the motoring and regenerative breaking effectively in Electrical Vehicle (EV); however, in regenerative breaking the breaking action is much affected because of a) failure of regenerative breaking at lower back emf, and b) discontinuous input current at the motor end. In addition, the traditional BDC are incapable to switch the power flow direction from one to another instantaneously. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed an instantaneous mode switching bidirectional Boost/SEPIC converter to extract maximum power even under low speed and to switch the power flow direction instantaneously from motoring mode to regenerative breaking mode and vice versa. Finally, the computation results of proposed BDC and traditional BDC are compared.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0006
V. S. S. Pavan Kumar Hari, Avanish Tripathi, G Narayanan
High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. This paper proposes a method to determine the mechanical parameters, namely the moment of inertia and frictional coefficient of the induction motor drive. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a $5$hp induction motor drive are presented.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0007
Anirudh Guha, G Narayanan
Volts-per-hertz (V/f) controlled induction motor drives could exhibit small-signal instability in the low and medium speed range, and particularly under light-load conditions. This results in sustained sub-harmonic oscillations in motor current, torque and speed. This instability is accentuated on account of inverter dead-time. This paper examines improving the stability by connecting an external inductor in series with the stator winding. Further, to avoid an actual external three-phase inductor which could be expensive in the case of high-power drives, a simple control scheme which emulates this series inductor is proposed. This also has the advantage that the value of series inductor could be programmable. This inductive emulation scheme, along with V/f control, is implemented on a TMS320F2812 DSP processor platform to control a 100-kW induction motor drive.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0008
Mohammad Hassan Hedayati, Vinod John
Ground leakage current and electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise are important challenges during design of grid-connected power converters. Use of common-mode (CM) choke helps to mitigate these issues. In this paper an integrated CM inductor (ICMI) is proposed. In the proposed ICMI, the LCL filter boost inductor and the CM choke are combined into a single component. This results in size and cost reduction of the overall power converter. The proposed ICMI is fabricated in the laboratory. Experimental test are carried out on a 5kW single-phase grid-connected power converter, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed ICMI.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0010
Amitkumar K. S., G Narayanan
Space vector-based advanced bus-clamping pulse width modulation (ABCWM) techniques for neutral-point clamped three-level converters offer superior performance over conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM) and bus-clamping pulse width modulation (BCPWM) under certain operating conditions. However, the digital implementation of ABCPWM methods is quite resource intensive, compared to carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) methods. This paper presents a computationally efficient digital implementation of an ABCPWM technique. The ABCPWM method is shown to be advantageous in terms of reduced switching loss at high lagging power factors and reduced harmonic distortion in the inverter output at high modulation indexes.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0009
Shimin V V, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
In the current world scenario of increasing environmental issues and oil prices, development of electric vehicles (EV) have gained considerable importance and attention. Power electronics will play a key role in making highly efficient electric vehicles which are low in emissions and having better fuel economy. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of power electronics technology in electric vehicles and also discusses the role of power electronics in achieving the vision of Indian Government in the field of EVs by 2020. The paper concludes with a discussion of expected future trends in power electronics technology that will improve the markets for electric vehicles in coming years.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0011
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Riaz Ahamed
Component level validation plays a very important role in an Electric Vehicles during development of a new platform.. Validating the product for their mission life and finding the early failures that can occur in field and correcting the failures at early stages proves to be very helpful in improving product Reliability and confidence. Product durability test is one of the most important tests in validation. Durability testing is the evaluation of duration of time that a product, part, material, or system can meet its performance requirements against its mission life. Durability is conducted on every component, module and also at system and vehicle level. Transmission is commonly used in all the automobile vehicles to transmit power. Transmission in Electric vehicle is a single gear ratio, two stage transmission transmitting power from motor to axle.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0012
Dheeraj Narang, Subhash Chavadaki
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and now number more than a billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles. This document gives information about the usage of powered bicycles based on renewable energy systems. The renewable energy which is discussed in this paper is using solar energy. Solar panels are an effective and efficient way of using solar energy. The bicycle uses the solar panels to charge the batteries which intern are used to power a motor, driving the bicycles. It also gives a report on the efficiency of batteries and solar panels. Explanatory material is followed by a worked example.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0014
Avi Vyas, Amit Kumar, Trapti Katiyar, J P Joshi, Dinesh Singh, Pratik Jain, Himanshu Shah
In this paper, the design methodology and implementation of a digitally controlled, synchronous gate driven and flexible Electronic Power Conditioner (EPC) have been discussed. With incorporation of an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) as its controller, forward topology with active clamp Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) Technique and synchronous rectification, this dc-dc converter offers flexibility in its output load voltages. Furthermore, each of the output is being sensed and corrected individually through the digital controller in the form of the FPGA. The converter has been designed to cater to the 15W C-band Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) at the transmitting section of communication payloads in satellites. These SSPAs have a nominal input power requirement of 45W though the converter has been designed to deliver output power in the range of 20W to 60W.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0013
Preeti Agarwal, Vineeta Agarwal
For rural or remote areas the single-phase grid has been considered as an alternative especially when compared with the three-phase solution due to its lower cost feature. The loads connected in a three-phase arrangement present some advantages when compared with single-phase loads especially for motors due to their constant torque, constant power, reduced size, etc. High speed machines are used in different applications such as dental drills and medical surgery tools, compressors and turbochargers, blowers, turbo molecular vacuum pumps, compact electrical power suppliers and micro co-generation gas turbines, aircraft electrical starter generator systems, flywheel energy storages and machine tool spindles and electric propulsion systems. This paper proposes a single-phase to three-phase Cycloinverter capable of generating high frequency three-phase output using self-commutated semiconductor devices.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0016
Srinivas Gulur, Arun Karuppaswamy Balasubramanian, Vinod John
Design of a suitable thermal model inclusive of the enclosure or cabinet, is an integral part of power electronic thermal management. This stems from the fact that power losses in an inverter may cause severe temperature rise in the enclosed cabinet, causing damage to the inverter. The work presents a thermal enclosure model for 3φ, back to back inverter topology rated 24 kVA which is kept in an enclosure having dimensions 1.524 ∗ 1.066 ∗ 1.828 cubic metre. Effects of the inclusion of the thermal enclosure model with the inverter thermal model have been investigated for the above mentioned inverter topology.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0015
Sachin Singh, Kanwar Pal, Sanjeev Singh
This paper presents a new control scheme for sensorless starting and running of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) while using single current sensor for control of motor torque. The starting is carried out using pulsed starting technique and control is shifted to back EMF sensing method under running condition. The proposed control scheme uses aligning the rotor of PMBLDCM at a known position and then starting the motor by energizing the three phase stator winding through the three phase voltage source inverter (VSI) in a pre defined pulse width modulated (PWM) switching sequence so that the starting current is also controlled within the desired range. After certain speed where the back-EMF is traceable for control of speed, the control is shifted to back-EMF based sensorless operation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0018
Abhijit Kulkarni, Vinod John
Inverters with high voltage conversion ratio are used in systems with sources such as batteries, photovoltaic (PV) modules or fuel cells. Transformers are often used in such inverters to provide the required voltage conversion ratio and isolation. In this paper, a compact high-frequency (HF) transformer interfaced AC link inverter is discussed. A high performance synchronized modulation scheme is proposed for this inverter. This modulation addresses the issue of over-voltage spikes due to transformer leakage inductance and achieves better input dc voltage utilization. The problem of spurious turn-on in the HF inverter switches is also mitigated. The performance of the inverter is validated experimentally with the proposed modulation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0017
Jiten Chavda, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande, Rakeshkumar Shankar
This paper presents the speed control of sensored BLDC motor using PWM techniques. The BLDC motor with EV or HEV application uses the position sensor for the operation and speed control of motor. In this paper the simulation of BLDC motor is done using soft commutating technique (Proteus Design Suit & Keil uVision3 software). A prototype is implemented to verify the performance of proposed new approach for control of sensored BLDC motor of 48V, 5A, 250W manufactured for E-BIKES. The speed control and real time measurement is obtained and compared and found satisfactory performance.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0020
Abhishek Shah, Sanjay Phegade
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0019
Nimesh Vamanan, Vinod John
Classical control and one cycle control are popular methods to generate gating signals for active device in pwm rectifiers. One cycle control has lower control complexity when compared to classical control. However, in one cycle controlled converters there is a phase lag between fundamental voltage and current, which increases when the converter is loaded. In this paper the reason for phase lag is identified and a novel method to compensate for the same is presented. Effects of grid frequency variation on the degree of compensation is studied. The viability of the proposed compensation is validated using simulation and experimental studies.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0038
V S S Naga Karthik Tunuguntla, Kannan Subramanian, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli, Aravapalli Sriniwas, Ganesh Kumar Ramakrishnan
Designing a new product with a novelty involved in it, is called Product Design. This new product has to be sold by an Original Equipment Manufacturer to its customers. Development of this novel product design (Product Development Process) should be efficient & exhibit reliable operation across its lifetime fulfilling its customer expectations. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) helps in achieving the same by a structured approach for product or process design. This paper demonstrates the DFSS (DMADV) implementation for the design of Thermal architecture to a xEV's energy storage system with unique& appropriate tools for analysis in each phase.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0044
Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Mukund Kulkarni, Vinten Diwakar
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play an important role in sustainable mobility thanks to the efficient energy utilization and zero–emission when in use. The battery has a great impact on the performance of electric vehicles, basically determining the driving range. As a consequence, the choice of the battery technology and its effective utilization is of paramount importance. Li-ion chemistry is very sensitive to overcharge and deep discharge, which may damage the battery, shortening its lifetime, and even causing hazardous situations. This requires the adoption of a proper Battery Management System (BMS) to maintain each cell of the battery within its safe and reliable operating range. In addition to the primary function of battery protection, a BMS should estimate the battery status in order to predict the actual amount of energy that can still be delivered to the load.
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