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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Saeed Jahangirian, Ashutosh srivastava, Seyed Hosseini, John Kiedaisch, Steven Ballard
Prediction of engine life cycle often requires accurate modeling of thermal stresses in critical regions such as firedeck area under transient loading conditions. A new methodology has been developed in which temperature distributions on cylinder head and crankcase are found using a Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) model in Ansys Fluent. Gas side boundary conditions are calculated from cycle-averaged heat transfer in a transient in-cylinder simulation. To reduce the simulation turn-around time and dependency to combustion modeling approach, heat release from a 1-D simulation is distributed in combustion chamber as an energy source term. Volume temperatures and surface heat transfer data are subsequently transferred to ANSYS Thermal finite element solver. Steady state solutions are obtained and validated against experimental data. With the goal of emulating an engine test strategy for fatigue under heat up or cool down cycles, a transient engine loading cycle is simulated. Simulated time-varying temperature traces demonstrate good agreement with transient test data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Daofei Li, Huanxiang Xu, Lei Wang, Zhipeng Fan, Wenbo Dou, Xiaoli Yu
Internal combustion engine is expected to be the major power unit to propel vehicles for decades from now on. Therefore, the advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency and to reduce emissions of engine should be continually encouraged and emphasized. For normal driving conditions, nearly half energy of the consumed fuel of engine is wasted, in the form of exhaust heat and coolant heat. In order to recovery the waste heat generated in normal thermodynamic cycle of internal combustion engine, a novel hybrid pneumatic engine concept is proposed, which uses compressed air and fuel as dual energy. During the expansion stroke, additional compressed air is injected, with carefully optimized timing, into the cylinder to absorb the heat released by the fuel, and then the compressed air can do further expansion work. The ideal thermodynamic model of the hybrid pneumatic engine cycle is established and explored, and is used to analyze the influences of the main design parameters on the cycle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Hanlong Yang
Adaptive estimation approach for air-path controls in Turbocharged Diesel Engines Due to more stringent emission regulations as well as the customer requirements on performance improvement, the model-based controls in diesel engines are becoming more and more common and necessary. In fact, as diesel engine systems become more complicated with additional hardware, such as throttle, EGR, VVT, VGT, the dynamics of the systems with more freedom of multiple actuators become much more sophisticated. The advanced model-based and coordinated controls become almost the only effective way to improve the system performance. In most of the model based approaches, feedback controls and estimation methods based on real-time dynamics are the key techniques. However since the system has sensors and actuators which have parts-to-parts variations as well as degradation over useful life, therefore any identification of those slow changes and compensation of the controls over the system life cycle is critical for long term control performance, system reliability and diagnostic monitoring.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Fabien Redon, John Koszewnik, Gerhard Regner
In August 2011, the U.S. announced the first-ever oil savings standards for heavy-duty trucks and buses. These regulations, targeted at 2014-2018 models, are expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 270 million metric tons and oil consumption by 530 million barrels. Just two weeks ago, President Obama revealed the timeline for Phase 2 of those regulations, which will take effect by March 2016 and extend well into the next decade. With mounting pressure to increase efficiency without increasing cost, truck manufacturers are evaluating technologies—including new engine architectures—to achieve future emissions and fuel economy mandates. The opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine was once widely used for on-road applications like the 1950s British Commer truck. But, due to its historic challenges with emissions and oil control, production eventually ceased. However, using computer-aided engineering tools as well as state-of-the-art technologies and engineering practices, Achates Power has developed a modern opposed-piston engine that is clean and delivers better fuel efficiency at lower manufacturing costs when compared to today’s four-stroke engines.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Christopher Atkinson
Pending GHG emissions reduction legislation for medium and heavy duty vehicles will require the development of engines and powertrains with significantly increased mechanical and electronic complexity. Increasing powertrain efficiency will require the simulation, control and calibration of an expanding number of highly interdependent air, fuel, exhaust, combustion and energy transfer subsystems. As a result, engine and powertrain control is becoming significantly more sophisticated to develop and difficult to optimize. The high cost of developing engines and powertrain systems that demonstrate greater fuel efficiency and emissions benefits than the engines of today, is undeniable. The increased calibration burden and the complexity of optimization require the development and adoption of entirely new methods for transient engine calibration and optimization to achieve maximum vehicle fuel efficiency and lowest regulated emissions. Model-based rapid transient calibration offers significant advantages over traditional testing-intensive methods of calibration.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Yves Provencher
The objective of this project proposed was to compare the fuel consumption and traction performances of 6 × 2 and 6 × 4 tractors. Two approaches have been considered: evaluation of 6 × 2 tractors, modified from 6 × 4 tractors, and evaluation of OEM 6 × 2 tractors. Compared to the 6 × 4 tractors, which are equipped with a rear tandem with both drive axles, the 6 × 2 tractors have a rear tandem axle with one drive axle, and one non-drive axle, also called dead axle. The 6 x 2 tractor configurations are available from the majority of tractor manufacturers. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) and Type III (J1526) were used for fuel consumption track test evaluations. Traction performances were assessed using pull sled tests to compare pulling distance, maximum speed, and acceleration when pulling the same set sled on similar surface. Fuel consumption tests showed that 6 × 2 tractors consume up to 3.5% less than the similar 6 × 4 tractors, whilst pull sled tests showed shorter distance, lower maximum speed, and lower acceleration for the 6 × 2 tractors, when compared to similar 6 × 4 tractors.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Philipp Scherer, Marcus Geimer
It was investigated how the energy efficiency of heavy equipment can be determined and evaluated. The wide range of applicability of heavy equipment, as well as the existence of one or more power take-offs require, a special approach for evaluating the energy efficiency of these machines. Therefore, different types of heavy equipment vehicles were equipped with sensors and measurement instrumentation throughout the whole powertrain. With these vehicles, field tests were realised in order to receive perception about the life cycles and the exact kinematic paths of these vehicles as well as to observe the power- and energy flows throughout the powertrain. Parameters were varied in order to receive information about the impact of environmental effects on the energetic- and temporal shares of the kinematic paths. For the analyzation of these measurements a software package has been developed. This package provides features to analyze the kinematic paths of the performed field tests. Furthermore it is possible to show the energy flows within the powertrain for selected time periods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ilya A. Kulikov, Elena E. Baulina, Andrey I. Filonov
The paper gives a short description of the University’s developments in the field of hybrid electric powertrains and vehicles, and a survey of theoretical instruments utilized in these developments regarding powertrains control strategies. For the moment, two units fitted with hybrid powertrains are in operation. These are the four-wheel-drive SUV and the powertrain test rig. Both allow to test different powertrain configurations. Prior to implementing a certain configuration in the rig, an extensive theoretical research of powertrain is conducted to reveal its properties and find a way to control it optimally. The basic tool adopted for that purpose is R. Bellman’s dynamic programming (DP). The paper gives an example of applying DP to explore a potential of decreasing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of van-type vehicle by converting its powertrain into hybrid one. During this study, a contradiction has emerged between minimizing fuel consumption and emissions of NOx. An example shows the way to resolve this contradiction by tuning the cost function.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Matt Zwick
The base design of Commercial Vehicle wheel end systems has changed very little over the past fifty years. Current bearings for R-Drive and trailer wheel end systems were designed from the 1920’s through the 1960’s and have essentially remained the same. Over this same period of time, considerable gains have been made in bearing design, manufacturing capabilities and materials science. These gains allow for the opportunity to significantly increase bearing load capacity and improve efficiency. Government emissions regulations and the need for fuel efficiency improvements in truck fleets are driving the opportunity for re-designed wheel end systems. The EPA and NHTSA standard requires up to twenty three percent reduction in emissions and fuel consumption by 2017 relative to the 2010 baseline for heavy duty tractor combinations. This paper summarizes the history of current wheel end bearing designs and the opportunity for change to lighter weight, cooler running and more fuel efficient wheel bearing designs to help meet the new industry standards.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Harry Dwyer, Seungju Yoon PhD, David Quiros, Mark Burnitzki, Roelof Riemersma, Donald Chernich, John Collins, Jorn Herner
A novel ambient dilution wind tunnel has been designed, tested and used to measure the emissions from “Active Parked Regenerations” of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The HDDT exhaust was routed to the wind tunnel entrance, and a mixing plate was employed to induce rapid mixing with the ambient air inflow. The tunnel geometry consisted of a 4’ by 4’ cross-section, and the tunnel length was 30’. An induction fan created a flow of 9000 ft3/min (CFM), and velocity and temperature traverses indicated that the mixture of exhaust gases and ambient air was homogeneous at the emission sampling location. The sampling probe was located near the exit of the tunnel, and withdrew 6 CFM from the tunnel centerline for PM measurements. A wide variety of emissions measurements and instrumentation was used in the investigation, which included the following: (1) Engine out On-board diagnostics; (2) Exhaust flow PEMS; (3) Tunnel temperature, CO2, mixture dilution ratio, and relative humidity; (4) Real-time PM instrumentation: EEPS, SMPS, DustTrak, and Dekati Mass Monitor; and (5) Gravimetric filter media.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Yang Li, JianWei Zhang, Konghui Guo, Dongmei wu
The driving and braking torque distribution method between front and rear axles for the four-wheel-drive electric vehicles is comparative flexible, and the reasonable distribution method is very significant for improving the vehicle dynamics stability and the energy efficiency. This paper presents from the perspective of improving the vehicle dynamics stability, without regard to the energy efficiency and optimization for the present. In the paper the target of the ideal driving and braking torque distribution, which is gained according to the friction circle of tyre force, is to make the front and rear axles reach at the adhesion limit at the same time when the vehicles operate at various conditions. At first, gain the ideal driving and braking torque distribution when the electric vehicles operate at straight motion condition and the lateral acceleration is zero. Secondly, the ideal driving and braking torque distribution is expanded into the various conditions with the lateral stability demand, which can enhance the limit of lateral stability of the vehicle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Yang Li, JianWei Zhang, Konghui Guo, Dongmei wu
It is also very important to save energy and improve the energy efficiency of the electric vehicle. For the 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, the motor drive system is the main energy transmission link. If the efficiency of the motor drive system can be improved, the energy efficiency of the vehicle can also be enhanced, the better performance of motors can be gained and the thermal condition of each hub motor can be improved. As a result, it is very significant to study the torque distribution algorithm between front and rear hub motors in 4WD electric vehicle systems with independently driven wheels to improve the energy efficiency of the vehicle. This paper presents an optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model of multi-motors drive system for the 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, which operate at straight line condition. The main content include: develop a comparative accurate mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous in-wheel motor considering the iron loss and gain the loss model of single motor, which include copper loss, iron loss and mechanical loss ; when the electric vehicle operates at straight line condition, realize the loss model of front and rear motors, which operate at the same speed and torque condition; realize the on-line identification of motor parameters based on the MARS, which is important for updating the efficiency model of the motor drive system when the motor parameters are changing; realize the optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model of the multi-motors drive system to improve the energy efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jennifer Wheeler, Joshua Stein, Gary Hunter
Recent advances in natural gas recovery technologies and availability have sparked a renewed interest in using natural gas as a fuel for commercial vehicles. Natural gas can potentially provide for both reduced operating cost and reductions in CO2 emissions. Commercial natural gas vehicles, depending on application and region, will have different performance and fuel consumption targets and are subject to various emissions regulations. Therefore, different applications may require different combustion strategies to achieve specific targets and regulations. This paper summarizes an evaluation of combustion strategies and parameters available to meet these requirements while using natural gas. One combustion strategy that was evaluated was stoichiometric combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the other strategy tested was based on lean-burn combustion. Testing consisted of parametric variations to quantify the effects of swirl ratio, compression ratio, and dilution ratio, either via EGR or excess air, on the operating limits, engine out emissions, and fuel efficiency of spark-ignited natural engines operating in conditions typical for heavy-duty vehicle applications.
Standard
2014-07-09
The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semimounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word "industrial" is not to be confused with "in-plant industrial equipment". This document does not apply to: 1. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. 2. Machines designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. 3. Self powered or self propelled mowers or mowing machines. Where other standards are referenced, such reference applies only to the document identified, not revisions thereof. 1.1 Purpose—To establish guidelines for operator and bystander protection for flail mowers and flail power rakes whose intended use falls within the scope of this document.
Standard
2014-07-09
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
WIP Standard
2014-07-01
This document contains three annexes to the SAE AS5506 Standard - the SAE Architecture Analysis and Description Language. The first annex, Annex A Graphical AADL Notation, defines a set of graphical symbols for the graphical AADL notation. These graphical symbols can be used to express relationships between components, features, and connections in an AADL model. Graphical AADL diagrams are legal in accordance with the AADL core standard if the AADL model being presented graphically is legal and if the correct graphical symbols are used. For example, a graphical editor is not permitted to create a connection whose source and destination are not connected. Graphical presentations of AADL models are permitted to show subsets of legal AADL models. For example, property values may be entered through a property sheet or dialog box. The figures in this annex present different views of an AADL model. These views are not prescriptive, but intended to illustrate possible views and layouts. The second annex, Annex C AADL Meta Model and Interchange Formats, defines the AADL meta model and XML-based interchange formats for AADL models.
Standard
2014-06-17
Scope is unavailable.
WIP Standard
2014-05-12
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all liquid-to-air, liquid-to-liquid, air-to-liquid, and air-to-air heat exchangers used in vehicle and industrial cooling systems. This document outlines the tests to determine durability characteristics of the heat exchanger under thermal cycling. This document is to provide a test guideline for determining the durability of a heat exchanger under thermal cycle conditions.
Standard
2014-04-28
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates. This document previously contained the majority of the SAE J1939 data parameters and messages for information exchange between the ECU applications connected to the SAE J1939 communications network.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Christoph Poetsch
Abstract The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Egel, Scott Furry
Abstract A mature process for the development of embedded controls and systems using Model-Based Design relies on libraries of validated models for the physical system components. These models are used throughout the design process and are readily available to the system and controls engineers for design and validation tasks. Models are created at various levels of abstraction to accommodate analysis needs at various stages of the design process. Abstract models are used early in the process for quick assessment of design tradeoffs, while higher fidelity models are used as the design progresses to account for the dynamics that affect system performance. Once acceptable system performance is achieved with desktop simulation, the models are moved to a real-time platform for final verification. Creating real-time capable plant models typically requires making assumptions and compromises to achieve acceptable performance. The end result is successful deployment of the embedded controls system with minimal reliance on expensive prototype hardware during the bulk of the design process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Paul Jennings, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Gerard Lancaster
Abstract Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones. MBPE enables early confirmation of fitness of the embedded system and the detection of software errors during product development, by bringing a more robust and efficient development, verification and validation process across all stakeholder departments within the organisation and supplier base.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Liebetrau, Philip Brockerhoff
Abstract In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface. In most cases, system suppliers have the choice between several electronic partitioning concepts, based on specific technical and economic conditions up to given specific preferences of the supplier.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karsten Schmidt, Jens Harnisch, Denny Marx, Albrecht Mayer, Andre Kohn, Reinhard Deml
Abstract Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources. The current approach for timing analysis, often based on execution times and sequences of executions in Gantt charts, will not scale arbitrarily for high integration scenarios on multi-core systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bjoern Lumpp, Mouham Tanimou, Martin McMackin, Eva Bouillon, Erica Trapel, Micha Muenzenmay, Klaus Zimmermann
Abstract Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail. A virtual (SiL) test bench is realized with which the diesel engine software functions can be calibrated without any special hardware, using industry- standard calibration tools like INCA from ETAS.
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