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2017-04-11
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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1668
Amin Emrani, Steve Spadoni
In this paper, Smart Step-Down Convertor is introduced as a power supply to power a device which operates at a voltage below the power net voltage while protecting the power net and the device against faults as well. In the proposed architecture, each Smart Step-Down Converter is connected to the battery or the power source with the nominal voltage (e.g. 48V) and it provides a programmable output voltage that can be set to the rated voltage of the electric load coupled to it. The rated voltage of electric loads can be equal or lower than the nominal voltage. The proposed system with Smart Step-Down Converters has several advantages compared to other multi-voltage system architectures. First, the 12V battery and 12V power distribution box are eliminated, resulting in not only material savings but also solving some packaging challenges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1251
Bin Zhou, Jeffrey Burl, Amir Rezaei
This paper introduced Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), and presents simulation results on how the ECMS penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging based on Matlab simulations. The vehicles simulated are the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Michigan Technological University developed Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MTU-HEV). The battery data was used from A123 systems 20Ah Prismatic Pouch Cell for MTU-HEV, and A123 systems ANR26650 for Honda Civic Hybrid. Both vehicles are simulated using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using the semiempirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
The Body Control Module (BCM) is a huge integration site for vehicle features and functions.(i.e., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…) . Every few years the demands to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the model year 2013 BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in feature/function content grew from 140 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the current software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper sites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome. Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consulting services to help manage and define this new software engineering development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) was developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, an FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell stack (FCSTK) to the driving motor.The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size and loss of passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced to approximately 30% compared to the conventional VCU inductor. The heat generated by the smoothing capacitor increases together with the current.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1616
Scott A. Rush
Modern automotive manufacturing and after-sale vehicle service environments require tailoring of configuration values or “calibrations” within vehicle electronic control units (ECUs) to a specific vehicle’s option content. Historically, ECU hardware and software limitations have led software designers to implement calibrateable values using opaque binary blocks tied directly to internal ECU software data structures. Such coupling between calibration data files and ECU software limits traceability and reuse across different software versions and ECU variants. However, more and more automotive ECUs are featuring fast microprocessors, large memories, and preemptive, multi-tasking operating systems that open opportunities to object-oriented approaches. This paper presents just such an object-oriented solution to the automotive calibration problem.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually deemed rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicle's metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, have wide opening of windows, and plastic body parts are becoming popular. Lightning can run into the cabin of vehicles through radio antennas and hit the driver, as it happened in Japan last year. As the shark-fin antenna, which has wiring above the heads of occupants, becomes more popular, it may pose an increased risk of lightning attack to the passengers. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid as people ponder about the smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts. Even today electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are being charged at home or in parking lots.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1681
Kyaw Soe
This paper describes a test system for improving the completeness, representativeness (hence usage and effectiveness) of automotive E/E test benches (enables more testing). A proportion of testing for automotive electrical and electronics systems and components is conducted using E/E testing boards (“testboards”). These are table like rigs consisting of most or all electrical and electronic parts connected together as per a car/truck/van. A major problem is that the testing is conducted on the equivalent of a static vehicle: testboards lack basic dynamic elements such as a running engine, vehicle motion, environmental, component and fluid temperatures, etc. This limits the testing that can be carried out on such a testboard. One solution is to provide one (or more) facilities to simulate and stimulate the electrical/electronic signals needed to effectively replace these missing dynamic elements (such as engine speed, vehicle speed and power supply voltage fluctuations).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary and secondary coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. Additionally, coupling coefficient is required to be utilized in real time optimization algorithms, such as impedance matching to improve the stability and transient response of this wireless charger. Furthermore, maintaining a minimum coupling coefficient is a prerequisite for starting charging process in these hands free chargers in order to prevent excessive stresses on electronic components. Estimation of the coupling coefficient can be determined by using a mathematical model of the resonant network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1618
Max Mauro Dias Santos, Victor Ambiel, Mauro Acras, Peter Gliwa
Automotive embedded systems are composed by sensors, ECUs, busses and actuators that in some applications are sensible of timing. This provide an another aspect of timing analysis and verification that demands for new methods and tools at level of code, RTOS (Real-Time Operating Systems) and network. This becomes a top level (= network-level) end-to-end timing requirement for the system. This timing requirement then gets decomposed, i.e. it gets sliced into smaller portions, one portion for each component of the system. The Network level deals with inter ECU communication aspects and end-to-end-timing. Most Network level timing experts are found at the OEMs; they integrate several ECUs connected to various networks in one E/E platform for on vehicle. The RTOS level considers only one scheduling entity (e.g. an ECU with one single core processor) and focuses on scheduling effects.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1619
Charles Loucks
The introduction of floating point math in Embedded Application ECU’s has made the implementation of complex math functions less error prone but not error proof. This paper shall focus on raising awareness of the pitfalls that come from the use of the basic floating point arithmetic operations, that is, Divide, Multiply, Add and Subtract. Due to the known pitfalls inherent in these basic math operations, it is proposed that a standard library with common functions appropriate for Powertrain Embedded applications (but not limited to Powertrain) be identified. This paper shall explore what these common functions will look like for both standard C code as well as the equivalent versions in Matlab™ Simulink™ One lesson the author of this paper has learned in his career is that companies are slow to adopt common standardized approaches to the basic functionality discussed here (as well as other possible common functions not discussed here.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1257
Haotian Wu
Previous studies have investigated various hybrid and electric powertrain architectures to balance concerns about the energy consumption and drivability. However, present architectures have some intrinsic drawbacks on the powertrain torque winding up, weight, packaging and energy harvest. This study proposed an electric powertrain that is powered by four independent motor drive. In order to investigate the drivability and regeneration braking performance, physics-based models of vehicle, motor and battery were developed; meanwhile, the dual-loop feed-forward motor control and hybrid sliding mode control were presented. The Physics model-based evaluation was conducted by using the co-simulation technology of LMS AMESim and Simulink. The results show that the proposed four-wheel independent electric powertrain can achieve better drivability and regeneration braking performance. The proposed hybrid sliding mode control can converge faster than the bang-bang control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1656
Daehyun Kim, Eunho Shin, Jin Seo Park, KyungSu LEE, Kok Cheng Gui, Klaus Scheibert
Vehicle Security means protecting potential threats, unintended malfunction and illegal tuning. In addition, it has become a more important issue on an automotive system as it is directly connected to the driver and pedestrian's life. Automotive industry significantly needs to enhance security policies to prevent attacks from hackers. Nevertheless, in some systems, performance still has to be considered at first when security functions are implemented. Especially, in case of Engine Management System (EMS), fast engine synchronization for starting should be considered as the first priority. This paper is intended to show an approach to design efficient secure boot implementation for EMS. At the beginning of this paper, the concept of secure boot is explained and several use cases are introduced according to execution modes, such as the foreground and background secure boot modes. As a next step, engine starting process by EMS is explained.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1612
Tri P. Doan, Subramaniam Ganesan
At 2012, along with the demand of more and more data communication within ECUs, Bosch has proposed a new version of CAN named as CAN FD which can support data frame up to 64 bytes compared with 8 bytes of CAN. Because CAN data frame is limited at maximum 8 bytes, it is impossible to encrypt and secure CAN data, so it is transmitted through CAN bus in a raw format which makes CAN data is vulnerable to attack. With the of CAN FD over CAN in supporting bigger data frame up to 64 bytes, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chips to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 algorithm and SHA-1 with a symmetric key . AES-128 will provide confidential of CAN message and SHA-1 with symmetric key (called as Key SHA-1) can be considered as HMAC which will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. Moreover, hardware shall provide more security for cipher key, symmetric key, or asymmetric keys over software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for ASIL-D-Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. The ISO 26262 provides the possibility to apply decomposition approach for ASIL-D safety requirements. An appropriate decomposition has the advantage to reduce the ASIL rating of the top events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1601
Max Mauro Santos, Celso Mendes, Taysa Banik, Felipe Franco, João Neme, Wanderley Prado, Fernando Cerri, Lauro Nunes
This paper outlines the modeling process in SysML (Systems Modeling Language) in context of MBSE (Model Based Software Engineering) as well as the MBD (Model-Based Design) in Simulink and we compare the models to get useful information into software. For this goal, we propose the use of a RM/SM tool and Simulink to model the system, do the system validations and finally to embed the generated code. MBSE is a methodology that can lead to reduced costs of OEM’s new products, since it can predict project errors and weaknesses. If the model is running as expected and providing good results, it is possible to go to a next step and implement the project in real applications, in order to observe the behavior of the new product, for example, by embedding software codes directly into hardware or building a new hardware. Due to the complexity of integration of new electrical and electronic systems, MBSE use is justified.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1614
David Hill, Joel Op de Beeck, Mihai Baja, Issam Djemili, Paul Reuther, Iris Sutra
As electronics make their way into the fuel system a shift in problem solving can be seen. Previously high risk items were tackled mainly through proving component durability and decreasing the statistical odds of the problem occurring. With an electronically controlled system however it is possible to define degraded modes in the event that certain components fail, in order to provide at least a limited functionality for the customer. This paper will discuss some different use cases, and how software can be used to improve functionality over a passive fuel system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion has the potential to utilise alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits significantly lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and resulted thermal efficiency similar to conventional CI engines. However, PCCI combustion cannot be used in production grade engines due to its incapability to operate at high engine loads. This study focussed on development of hybrid combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open ECU, which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes. At low-to-medium engine loads, engine was operated in PCCI combustion mode and at higher engine loads ECU automatically switched the engine operation in CI combustion mode.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1679
Felix Martin, Michael Deubzer
The increasing complexity of automotive real-time applications, and the challenges arising with the change to multi-core processors put higher demands on the tools which are involved in the development of such systems. With tracing it is possible to record the dynamic behavior of time-critical applications and use the data to monitor safety-critical requirements. However, not all trace techniques are sufficient for this use-case. Several factors like the available hardware, bandwidth, timing accuracy, and number of traceable objects must be considered. Additionally, traces are usually not recorded on a level that is suitable for timing analysis. Hence, a transformation of the trace may be necessary. In this paper we give an overview of existing trace techniques and discuss their applicability for the timing analysis of embedded systems. We also take limitations which may be caused by existing hardware platforms into consideration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0081
Majid Majidi, Majid Arab, Vahid Tavoosi
In this research, an optimal real-time trajectory planning method is proposed for autonomous ground vehicles in case of overtaking a moving obstacle. The autonomous vehicle decides to overtake the obstacle when detects a moving vehicle in a proper speed and distance ahead it and the braking is not efficient due to the lost of kinematic energy of vehicle. The path for the overtaking maneuver is generated by a two-phase optimal path planning problem. The cost function of the first phase is defined in such a way that the vehicle approaches the obstacle as close as possible. In the second phase, the cost function is defined as sum of the vehicle lateral deviation from the reference path and the rate of steering angle. At the same time, the lateral acceleration of the vehicle must not exceed a specified limit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1253
Somnath Sengupta, Chethan Gururaja, Sushant Hingane, Prajwal A K, Malay Maniar, Ondřej Mikuláš, Jaroslav Pekar
Increasingly strict CO2 and emissions norms are pushing the automotive industry towards increasing adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. HEVs are complex hardware systems which are often controlled by software that is complex to maintain, time-consuming to calibrate, and not always guaranteed to deliver optimal fuel economy. Hence, coordinated, systematic control of the HEVs different subsystems is an attractive proposition. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) based supervisory controller is developed to coordinate the power split between the two prime movers of an HEV – internal combustion engine and electric motor. A cost function has been formulated to improve fuel economy and battery life. A dynamical physics based HEV model has been developed for simulation of the system behavior. The dynamical structure of HEV along with its I/O, constraints, set points, operating points, etc. has been framed into the MPC controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving mechanisms and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which, as a result, impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity of the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via bus bars that are electrically welded, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1252
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model of Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model with battery thermal aging features. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1254
Raja Sangili Vadamalu, Christian Beidl
Vehicle connectivity presents opportunities for reduction of energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Potential for efficiency enhancement through predictive measures has been demonstrated in research projects such as simTD and ECOMOVE. Powertrain systems exploiting information from vehicle connectivity have widened the system boundary resulting in additional degrees-of-freedom for predictive trajectory planning. Heuristic methods based on component characteristics are currently widely used for Energy Management (EM) functionality of hybridized powertrains. Despite its better usability, increased calibration effort and sensitivity to synthetic calibration scenarios are drawbacks of such control methods. Availability of predictive data, better computing power and challenges posed by varied scenarios in real driving have led to interest in online-optimizing EM functionality.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0053
Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Friedrich Rasbornig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG DI Mario Motz, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Abstract: Functional safe products fulfilling the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we show a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept on one silicon die, which is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement. This solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As connected trailer tow might change the aerodynamic drag and overall vehicle mass significantly, it might lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshifts conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem which is solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1446
Allen Charles Bosio, Paul Marable, Marcus Ward, Bradley Staines
With the introduction of the new USNCAP protocols, which incorporated assessment of a 5th percentile occupant in the passenger seat, a variety of solutions were introduced to achieve 5 star accreditation using additional restraint solutions such as, but not exclusively, knee airbags, dual pretensioning and adaptive venting . The engineering challenge was to understand and design a passenger airbag system that recognized and adapted itself to the smaller, belted, 5th percentile female, while adequately restraining the larger, unbelted, 50th percentile male. In this paper we describe the development of an airbag restraint which achieves 5 star performance levels, where the design focus from the outset was to achieve minimal head, neck & chest injury risk. This was achieved without the need for active adaptive features. The CAE tools Madymo and Radioss were critical to the design of a new patented airbag which repeatedly demonstrated USNCAP RRS <=0.66.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0427
Yue Shi, Qingwei Liu, Fan Yu
1. Multi-body Dynamics Modelling of EV Prototype An EV prototype, with all the wheels independently driven by 4 in-wheel motors, is developed. In cooperation with Shanghai Motor Vehicle Inspection Center, the prototype undergoes a series of practical measurements and road tests. Based on the obtained vehicle parameters, a multi-body dynamics model is built by using SolidWorks and Adams/Car, and then validated by track test data. The virtual prototype is served as the control plant in simulation. 2. Adaptive FO-PID Controller Design In order to enhance the handling and stability performance of the EV, an adaptive FO-PID controller is designed. Considering the model uncertainties, e.g. changes in body mass and yaw inertial resulted from changed mass distribution, a Parameter Self-Adjusting Differential Evolution (PSA-DE) algorithm is adopted for tuning the controller parameters, i.e. Kp, Ki, Kd, λ and μ.
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