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2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0187
Vamberto Filho, Fabio Miyazaki, Marcus Lane
Abstract The security of a vehicle against is evaluated through of a classification denominated Thatcham, in order to obtain better insurances prices. The methods of theft have been improved over time, and therefore, the design of Mechanical Steering Column Lock (MSCL) also requires technological improvements. This work presents a design modification in the Mechanical Steering Column Lock (MSCL), with the objective to have a better security classification. This is a device that acts on the locking of the steering column, to protect against car thefts, called Deadlock. The timeline of the project and new design were discussed and defined between the Supplier and Product Development team, where was revised all the FMEA, Design Verification Plan (DVP) and Test Specification. Through this design, in addition to the decrease in the price of insurance, it was also possible to improve ergonomic comfort by ensuring a rotation in the position of the key mounted on the ignition cylinder.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0038
Rose Mary Simon Palackal, Balagovind Nandakumar Kartha, Karthikeyan Ramachandran, Srikanth Vijaykumar, Pramod Reddemreddy
Today, 99% of the two wheelers in India operate with carburetor based fuel delivery system. But with implementation of Bharath Stage VI emission norms, compliance to emission limits along with monitoring of components in the system that contributes towards tail pipe emissions would be challenging. With the introduction of the OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and emission durability, mass migration to electronically controlled fuel delivery system is very much expected. The new emission norms also call for precise metering of the injected fuel and therefore demands extended calibration effort. The calibration of engine management system starts with the generation of pre-calibration dataset capable of operating the engine at all operating points followed by base calibration of the main parameters such as air charge estimation, fuel injection quantity, injection timing and ignition angles relative to the piston position.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-7005
Lijuan Wang, Jeffrey Gonder, Eric Wood, Adam Ragatz
Abstract Fuel consumption (FC) has always been an important factor in vehicle cost. With the advent of electronically controlled engines, the controller area network (CAN) broadcasts information about engine and vehicle performance, including fuel use. However, the accuracy of the FC estimates is uncertain. In this study, the researchers first compared CAN-broadcasted FC against physically measured fuel use for three different types of trucks, which revealed the inaccuracies of CAN-broadcast fueling estimates. To match precise gravimetric fuel-scale measurements, polynomial models were developed to correct the CAN-broadcasted FC. Lastly, the robustness testing of the correction models was performed. The training cycles in this section included a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. The mean relative differences were reduced noticeably.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2301
Hongli Gao, Fujun Zhang, Wenwen Zeng, Tianpu Dong, Zhengkai Wang
Abstract The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1963
Yuande Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Shun Yang, Shanshan Wang, Ning Bian
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1955
Yandong Ruan, Hui Chen, Jiancong Li
Abstract An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key components of an autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and efficiency. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2160
Ferdinand Spek, Maarten Weehuizen, Ilja Achterberg
Abstract In new aircraft programs, systems’ functionality is increasingly becoming integrated into modular avionics. Controllers may not be delivered by the systems supplier so this trend creates a new interface between systems and controllers. A functional software specification is therefore needed to facilitate the building of the software by the controller supplier. In the case of an ECS system controller, the hardware was obtained from different suppliers and a software functional specification was needed for the controller supplier. To be able to design and verify the system functionality, an integrated ECS simulation model was created which coupled the thermodynamics of the aircraft and ECS system to the controller actions. The model also included functionality to simulate sensor noise and component failures. The thermodynamic model was created in Matlab/Simulink and consisted of a combination of direct programming as well as data on a Flowmaster model for the bleed system.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2101
Jon Barton Shields, Brian Peirce Barker
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing Electronic Module to Electronic Module (i.e. ECUs, FCC, REUs, etc.) communication within air (and defense) vehicles and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge Electronic Module sensors connected to Electronic Modules within the air (and defense) vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2115
Gilberto Burgio, Leonardo Mangeruca, Alberto Ferrari, Marco Carloni, Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Laura Albiol-Tendillo, Parithi Govindaraju, Marcel Gottschall, Olaf Oelsner, Sören Reglitz, Jann-Eve Stavesand, Andreas Himmler, Lionel Yapi
Abstract Multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, or hydraulic components and the high level of system integration, characteristic of new aircraft designs, is increasing the complexity of both design and verification processes. Therefore the availability of tools, supporting integrated modelling, simulation, optimization and testing across all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge. This paper presents some results of the project MISSION (Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft). It is a collaborative task being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, which is a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The first levels of integration of different models and tools proposed in the MISSION framework will be presented, along with simulation results.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2514
Wei Han, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Haocheng Li
Abstract BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1935
Vellavedu Velumani Praveen, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book [1], ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9680
Husain Kanchwala, Pablo Luque Rodriguez, Daniel Alvarez Mantaras, Johan Wideberg, Sagar Bendre
Abstract In recent times, electric vehicles (EV) are gaining a lot of attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. Recent advances in the applications of integrating control systems in automotive vehicles have made it practicable to accomplish improvement in vehicle's longitudinal and lateral dynamics. This paper deals with a brief overview of current state of art vehicle technologies like direct yaw moment control, traction control and side slip control of EV. There are various controller algorithms available in literature with different torque vectoring strategies. As EV can be precisely controlled because of quick in hub wheel motor response times, therefore various torque vectoring strategies can be comfortably used for enhancing vehicle dynamics. Moreover, by using four independent in-wheel motors, several types of motion controls can be performed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Abstract Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0021
Takashi Yasuda, Hideki Goto, Hiroki Keino, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mori, Miyuki Mizoguchi
Abstract In recent years, the demand for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks has been increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution screens and high-performance rear seat entertainment (RSE) systems is expanding. Additionally, it is also due to the higher number of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and the future introduction of autonomous driving systems. High-volume data such as high definition sensor images or obstacle information is necessary to realize these systems. Consequently, automotive Ethernet, which meets the requirements for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication, is attracting a lot of attention. The application of automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks requires that technology developments satisfy EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements consist of two parts: emission and immunity. The emission requirement is to restrict the electromagnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Abstract Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0002
Nate Rolfes
Abstract Driver assistance features are increasingly dependent upon system architectures that distribute and share responsibilities across various function-based ECUs to minimize cost and redundancy while maximizing engineering efficiency. Clear and accurate system requirements are critical to success, and a robust methodology for validating and testing requirements is essential. Distributed systems are highly sensitive to requirement ambiguity and inaccuracy as they are designed on the assumptions of predictable logical behavior of each functional component. Requirement ambiguity drives variance in implementations which results in system incompatibilities. Errors in requirements lead to faulty implementations that fail not just the component test but also hinder the testing of the entire system of components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is an advanced combustion technique, which has the potential to be operated by alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and results thermal efficiency similar to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines. Due to extremely high heat release rate (HRR), PCCI combustion cannot be used at higher engine loads, which make it difficult to be employed in production grade engines. This study focused on development of an advanced combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. This Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open engine control unit (ECU), which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1656
Daehyun Kim, Eunho Shin, Jin Seo Park, KyungSu LEE, Kok Cheng Gui, Klaus Scheibert
Abstract Vehicle Security means protecting potential threats, unintended malfunction and illegal tuning. In addition, it has become a more important issue on an automotive system as it is directly connected to the driver and pedestrian's life. Automotive industry significantly needs to enhance security policies to prevent attacks from hackers. Nevertheless, in some systems, performance still has to be considered at first when security functions are implemented. Especially, in case of Engine Management System (EMS), fast engine synchronization for starting should be considered as the first priority. This paper is intended to show an approach to design efficient secure boot implementation for EMS. At the beginning of this paper, the concept of secure boot is explained and several use cases are introduced according to execution modes, such as the foreground and background secure boot modes. As a next step, engine starting process by EMS is explained.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
Abstract A variety of vehicle controls, from active safety systems to power management algorithms, can greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust real-time estimates of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation scheme and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration as measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiation of the undriven wheel speeds. Mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1572
Wesley Kerstens
Abstract The detection and diagnosis of sensor faults in real-time is necessary for satisfactory performance of vehicle Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems. This paper presents an observer designed to detect faults of a roll rate sensor that is robust to model uncertainties and disturbances. A reference vehicle roll angle estimate, independent of roll-rate sensor measurement, is formed from available ESC inertial sensor measurements. Residuals are generated by comparing the reference roll angle and roll rate, with the observer outputs. Stopping rules based on the current state of the vehicle and the magnitude of the residuals are then used to determine if a sensor fault is present. The system’s low order allows for efficient implementation in real-time on a fixed-point microprocessor. Modification of the roll rate sensor signal during in vehicle experiments shows the algorithm’s ability to detect faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1614
David Hill, Joel Op de Beeck, Mihai Baja, Issam Djemili, Paul Reuther, Iris Sutra
Abstract As electronics make their way into the fuel system, a shift in problem solving can be seen. Previously high risk items were tackled mainly through proving component durability and decreasing the statistical odds of the problem occurring. With an electronically controlled system however it is possible and necessary to define degraded modes, in the event that certain components fail, in order to provide at least a limited functionality for the customer. This paper will discuss some different use cases, and how embedded software can be used to improve functionality over a passive system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1616
Scott A. Rush
Abstract Modern automotive manufacturing and after-sale service environments require tailoring of configuration values or “calibrations” within the vehicle’s various electronic control units (ECUs) to that vehicle’s specific option content. Historically, ECU hardware and software limitations have led designers to implement calibratable values using opaque binary blocks tied directly to ECU internal software data structures. Such coupling between calibration data files and ECU software limits traceability and reuse across different software versions and ECU variants. However, more and more automotive ECUs are featuring fast microprocessors, large memories, and preemptive, multi-tasking operating systems that open opportunities to object-oriented approaches. This paper presents the CalDef system for automotive ECU calibration software architecture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1612
Tri P. Doan, Subramaniam Ganesan
Abstract Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
Abstract The Body Control Module (BCM) is a very large integration site for vehicle features and functions (e.g., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…). Every few years the demand to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the 2013 MY (model year) BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in 3 years of feature/function content was huge number that grew from 150 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper cites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome when Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consultancy Services to help manage and define this new software engineering development methodology. The process of getting from a vague description of a new body module feature to a saleable product, presents several very challenging problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1619
Charles Loucks
Abstract The introduction of floating point math in Embedded Application ECU’s has made the implementation of complex math functions less error prone but not error proof. This paper shall focus on raising awareness of the pitfalls that come from the use of the basic floating point arithmetic operations, that is, Divide, Multiply, Add and Subtract. Due to the known pitfalls inherent in these basic math operations, it is proposed that a standard library with common functions appropriate for Powertrain Embedded applications (but not limited to Powertrain) be identified. This paper shall explore what these common functions will look like for both standard C code as well as the equivalent versions in Matlab™ Simulink™. The particular pitfalls this paper shall discuss are Divide-By-Zero, Overflow, Underflow and Loss-Of-Precision for both single and double precision floating point variables. This paper shall reference the IEEE-754 Floating Point standard used by most Embedded C applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1618
Max Mauro Dias Santos, Victor Ambiel, Mauro Acras, Peter Gliwa
Abstract Modern cars contain more and more safety-relevant features which require addressing safety aspects during all development phases: on the functional level, on the architectural level, during integration as well as throughout the verification. The workflow of designing safe and reliable automotive embedded systems start with appropriate requirements definitions. According to the automotive safety standard ISO 26262, functional as well as non-functional threats need to be addressed. Non-functional aspects of safe software include a sound and safe timing of the software. The right methods, tools and standards enable OEMs and suppliers developing and providing applications which meet their timing requirements and a high level of quality. We present with this paper some important aspects related to timing in automotive embedded systems as well as the major standards such as TIMMO and AUTOSAR.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1621
Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Jochen Decker, Maurice Sebastian, Alexander Züpke, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1601
Max Mauro Santos, Celso Mendes, Taysa Banik, Felipe Franco, João Neme, Wanderley Prado, Fernando Cerri, Lauro Nunes
Abstract This paper outlines the modeling process in SysML (Systems Modeling Language) in context of MBSE (Model Based Software Engineering) as well as the MBD (Model-Based Design) in Simulink and we compare the models to get useful information into software. For this goal, we propose the use of an RM/SM tool (Requirements Management and Systems Modeling) (3SL Cradle) and Matlab/Simulink to model the system, do the system validations, and finally embed the generated code. For automotive systems, the development process is visualized through the V-Model, which leads to the right choice of components, the integration of the system and the project realization. The first step in V-Model handles the requirements management for the development, i.e., the requirements for a project will be collected in respect to the stakeholder’s needs and system limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Abstract Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary (ground side) and secondary (vehicle side) coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. However, despite the requisite need for a plausible estimation algorithm, the lack of a simple, optimal and unsusceptible to noise algorithm is noticeable. In this paper, we introduce a new online optimal prediction method for IPT systems allowing a precise real time estimation of the coupling coefficient in the presence of measurement noises and system uncertainties. Using IPT system dynamics, the estimation scheme is proposed based on Kalman filter algorithm. This algorithm is optimal, tractable and robust and its estimation are promising as simulation results reveal.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4085