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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1619
Charles Loucks
The introduction of floating point math in Embedded Application ECU’s has made the implementation of complex math functions less error prone but not error proof. This paper shall focus on raising awareness of the pitfalls that come from the use of the basic floating point arithmetic operations, that is, Divide, Multiply, Add and Subtract. Due to the known pitfalls inherent in these basic math operations, it is proposed that a standard library with common functions appropriate for Powertrain Embedded applications (but not limited to Powertrain) be identified. This paper shall explore what these common functions will look like for both standard C code as well as the equivalent versions in Matlab™ Simulink™ One lesson the author of this paper has learned in his career is that companies are slow to adopt common standardized approaches to the basic functionality discussed here (as well as other possible common functions not discussed here.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0432
Bing Zhu, Zhipeng Liu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC) is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisites is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a real-time driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC system. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established based on the driver-in-the-loop simulator, and the behavior data of different types of drivers were collected under the typical test condition. Then, the driver behavior characteristics factor Ks we proposed, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behaviors, was used to identify the driver behavior characteristics. And an individual safe inter-vehicle distances field (ISIDF) was established according to the identification results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1382
Michelle L. Reyes, Cheryl A. Roe, Ashley B. McDonald, Julia E. Friberg, Daniel V. McGehee
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) show tremendous promise for increasing safety on our roadways. However, while these technologies are rapidly infiltrating the American passenger vehicle market, many consumers have little to no experience or knowledge of them prior to getting behind the wheel. The Technology Demonstration Study was conducted to evaluate how the ways in which drivers learn about ADAS affect their perceptions of the technologies. This paper investigates drivers’ knowledge of the purpose, function, and limitations of the advanced driver assistance technology of adaptive cruise control (ACC), along with ratings of perceived usefulness, apprehension, and effort required to learn to use ACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1616
Scott A. Rush
Abstract Modern automotive manufacturing and after-sale service environments require tailoring of configuration values or “calibrations” within the vehicle’s various electronic control units (ECUs) to that vehicle’s specific option content. Historically, ECU hardware and software limitations have led designers to implement calibratable values using opaque binary blocks tied directly to ECU internal software data structures. Such coupling between calibration data files and ECU software limits traceability and reuse across different software versions and ECU variants. However, more and more automotive ECUs are featuring fast microprocessors, large memories, and preemptive, multi-tasking operating systems that open opportunities to object-oriented approaches. This paper presents the CalDef system for automotive ECU calibration software architecture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0021
Takashi Yasuda, Hideki Goto, Hiroki Keino, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mori, Miyuki Mizoguchi
Abstract In recent years, the demand for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks has been increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution screens and high-performance rear seat entertainment (RSE) systems is expanding. Additionally, it is also due to the higher number of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and the future introduction of autonomous driving systems. High-volume data such as high definition sensor images or obstacle information is necessary to realize these systems. Consequently, automotive Ethernet, which meets the requirements for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication, is attracting a lot of attention. The application of automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks requires that technology developments satisfy EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements consist of two parts: emission and immunity. The emission requirement is to restrict the electromagnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
Abstract The Body Control Module (BCM) is a very large integration site for vehicle features and functions (e.g., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…). Every few years the demand to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the 2013 MY (model year) BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in 3 years of feature/function content was huge number that grew from 150 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper cites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome when Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consultancy Services to help manage and define this new software engineering development methodology. The process of getting from a vague description of a new body module feature to a saleable product, presents several very challenging problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1618
Max Mauro Dias Santos, Victor Ambiel, Mauro Acras, Peter Gliwa
Abstract Modern cars contain more and more safety-relevant features which require addressing safety aspects during all development phases: on the functional level, on the architectural level, during integration as well as throughout the verification. The workflow of designing safe and reliable automotive embedded systems start with appropriate requirements definitions. According to the automotive safety standard ISO 26262, functional as well as non-functional threats need to be addressed. Non-functional aspects of safe software include a sound and safe timing of the software. The right methods, tools and standards enable OEMs and suppliers developing and providing applications which meet their timing requirements and a high level of quality. We present with this paper some important aspects related to timing in automotive embedded systems as well as the major standards such as TIMMO and AUTOSAR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1137
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang, Wei Luo
Abstract For the vehicle equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT) that has a fixed number of gears, gearshift schedule is crucial to improve the comprehensive performance that takes into account power performance, fuel economy, and driver’s performance expectation together. To optimize and individualize the gearshift schedule, an optimization method and an improved performance evaluation approach for multi-performance gearshift schedule were proposed, which are effective in terms of reflecting the driver's expectation on different performance. However, the proposed optimization method does not consider the influence of the road slope on the comprehensive performance. As the road slope changes the load of vehicle that is different from the load when a vehicle runs on a level road, the optimized gearshift schedule without considering road slope is obviously not the optimal solution for a vehicle equipped with SAT when it runs on ramp.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1681
Kyaw Soe
Abstract This paper describes a test system for improving the completeness and representativeness of automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) test benches. This is with the aim to enable more testing and hence increase the usage and effectiveness of these facilities. A proportion of testing for automotive electrical and electronics systems and components is conducted using E/E testing boards (“test-boards”). These are table-like rigs consisting of most or all electrical and electronic parts connected together as per a car/truck/van. A major problem is that the testing is conducted on the equivalent of a static vehicle: test-boards lack basic dynamic elements such as a running engine, vehicle motion, environmental, component and fluid temperatures, etc. This limits the testing that can be carried out on such a test-board.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for ASIL-D-Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. The ISO 26262 provides the possibility to apply decomposition approach for ASIL-D safety requirements. An appropriate decomposition has the advantage to reduce the ASIL rating of the top events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1203
Takashi Inamoto, Lawrence Alger
Abstract Recent electric vehicles use Li-ion batteries to power the main electric motor. To maintain the safety of the main electric motor battery using Li-ion cells, it is necessary to monitor the voltage of each cell. DENSO has developed a battery Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that contributes greatly to the reduction of the cost and the improvement of the reliability of the system. Each manufacturer has been developing a dedicated IC for monitoring the voltages of each cell of a battery. However, since the number of cells that can be monitored is limited, more than one IC is required to measure the voltages of a large number of cells. The increase in the number of ICs and the amount of insulator leads to the rise in system cost. DENSO has developed a dedicated IC that uses a proprietary high-breakdown voltage process, and which enables monitoring up to 24 cells with a single IC chip.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Abstract Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving parts and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a motor driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU (electronic control unit)-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity to the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via electrically welded bus bars, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
Abstract A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1257
Haotian Wu
Abstract Previous studies have investigated various hybrid and electric powertrain architectures to balance concerns about the energy consumption and drivability. However, present architectures have some intrinsic drawbacks on the powertrain torque winding up, weight, packaging and energy harvest. This study proposed an electric powertrain that is powered by four independent motor drive. In order to investigate the drivability and regeneration braking performance, physics-based models of vehicle, motor and battery were developed; meanwhile, the dual-loop feedforward motor control and hybrid sliding mode control were presented. The Physics model-based evaluation was conducted by using the co-simulation technology of LMS AMESim and Simulink. The results show that the proposed four-wheel independent electric powertrain can achieve better drivability and regeneration braking performance. The proposed hybrid sliding mode control can converge faster than the bang-bang control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1251
Bin Zhou, Jeffrey Burl, Amir Rezaei
Abstract This paper presents results on how the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging. The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’. Vehicle simulation using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed. In addition, the results provide insight into how driving behavior affects battery aging. The paper concludes with a discussion of the optimal balance between fuel cost and battery aging.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1254
Raja Sangili Vadamalu, Christian Beidl
Powertrain systems exploiting information from vehicle connectivity have widened the system boundary resulting in additional degrees-of-freedom for predictive trajectory planning. Heuristic methods based on component characteristics are currently widely used for Energy Management (EM) functionality of hybridized powertrains. Despite their better usability, increased calibration effort and sensitivity to synthetic calibration scenarios are drawbacks of such control methods. Availability of predictive data, better computing power and challenges posed by various scenarios in real driving, have led to interest in online-optimizing EM functionality. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) approaches based on Indirect optimal control /Pontryagin Minimum principle have difficulty in handling inequality state constraints. Extensions of ECMS make use of modifications to the equivalence factor/co-state, based on prediction of driving conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1252
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Abstract Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary (ground side) and secondary (vehicle side) coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. However, despite the requisite need for a plausible estimation algorithm, the lack of a simple, optimal and unsusceptible to noise algorithm is noticeable. In this paper, we introduce a new online optimal prediction method for IPT systems allowing a precise real time estimation of the coupling coefficient in the presence of measurement noises and system uncertainties. Using IPT system dynamics, the estimation scheme is proposed based on Kalman filter algorithm. This algorithm is optimal, tractable and robust and its estimation are promising as simulation results reveal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1612
Tri P. Doan, Subramaniam Ganesan
Abstract Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1614
David Hill, Joel Op de Beeck, Mihai Baja, Issam Djemili, Paul Reuther, Iris Sutra
Abstract As electronics make their way into the fuel system, a shift in problem solving can be seen. Previously high risk items were tackled mainly through proving component durability and decreasing the statistical odds of the problem occurring. With an electronically controlled system however it is possible and necessary to define degraded modes, in the event that certain components fail, in order to provide at least a limited functionality for the customer. This paper will discuss some different use cases, and how embedded software can be used to improve functionality over a passive system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1656
Daehyun Kim, Eunho Shin, Jin Seo Park, KyungSu LEE, Kok Cheng Gui, Klaus Scheibert
Abstract Vehicle Security means protecting potential threats, unintended malfunction and illegal tuning. In addition, it has become a more important issue on an automotive system as it is directly connected to the driver and pedestrian's life. Automotive industry significantly needs to enhance security policies to prevent attacks from hackers. Nevertheless, in some systems, performance still has to be considered at first when security functions are implemented. Especially, in case of Engine Management System (EMS), fast engine synchronization for starting should be considered as the first priority. This paper is intended to show an approach to design efficient secure boot implementation for EMS. At the beginning of this paper, the concept of secure boot is explained and several use cases are introduced according to execution modes, such as the foreground and background secure boot modes. As a next step, engine starting process by EMS is explained.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1653
Jon Barton Shields, Jörg Huser, David Gell
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing ECU-to-ECU communication within the connected vehicle and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge ECU sensors connected to ECUs within the connected vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is an advanced combustion technique, which has the potential to be operated by alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and results thermal efficiency similar to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines. Due to extremely high heat release rate (HRR), PCCI combustion cannot be used at higher engine loads, which make it difficult to be employed in production grade engines. This study focused on development of an advanced combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. This Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open engine control unit (ECU), which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0052
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1223
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xi Zhao
Abstract There are many electronic devices in electric vehicle (EV), making its electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) serious. Motor drive system is the main interference source of EV, whose electromagnetic interference (EMI) is much worse than conventional vehicle. In this paper, the motor drive system of EV was mainly researched, and a co-simulation method was proposed: control system and motor model were established with Matlab, and the equivalent circuit model of inverter and the cable model were established with Saber. By this way, a complete motor drive system model for conductive EMI was obtained. This modeling method can not only accurately establish the EMI sources and coupling paths, but can simulate the control strategy and operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1253
Somnath Sengupta, Chethan Gururaja, Sushant Hingane, Prajwal A K, Malay Maniar, Ondřej Mikuláš, Jaroslav Pekar
Abstract Increasingly strict CO2 and emissions norms are pushing the automotive industry towards increasing adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. HEVs are complex hardware systems which are often controlled by software that is complex to maintain, time-consuming to calibrate, and not always guaranteed to deliver optimal fuel economy. Hence, coordinated, systematic control of different subsystems of HEV is an attractive proposition. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) based supervisory controllers have been developed to coordinate the power split between the two prime movers of an HEV – internal combustion engine and electric motor. A dynamical physics based HEV model has been developed for simulation of the system behavior. A cost function has been formulated to improve fuel economy and battery life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1446
Allen Charles Bosio, Paul Marable, Marcus Ward, Bradley Staines
Abstract A dual-chambered passenger airbag was developed for the 2011 USNCAP to minimize neck loading for the belted 5th female dummy while restraining the unbelted 50th dummy for FMVSS208. This unique, patented design adaptively controlled venting between chambers based on occupant stature. A patented pressure-responsive vent on the second chamber permitted aspiration into the second chamber before a delayed outflow to the environment. The delayed flow through the pressure-responsive vent from the second chamber acted like a pressure-limiting membrane vent to advantageously reduce the injury assessment values for the HIC and the Nij for the 5th female dummy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4076