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2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2156
Christian Friedrich, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch
Due to the increasing number of engine setting parameters to be optimized, model based calibration techniques have been introduced to medium speed engine testing to keep the number of engine tests low. Polynomials in combination with d-optimal test plans have been proven to be a good choice for modeling the stationary behavior of selected engine outputs. Model approaches like artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been rarely used for medium speed purposes since they require quite high amounts of testing data for model training. To evaluate the potential of these model approaches radial basis function networks, a subclass of neural networks, as well as Gaussian processes have been investigated as alternatives to polynomials. A manageable amount of tests according to an adapted d-optimal test plan was carried out at a test bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2153
Hubertus Ulmer, Ansgar Heilig, Matthias Rühl, Boris Löw
The calibration process of modern combustion engines is characterized by a wide range of experimental test runs. Whereas in the past mainly standardized test bench runs were carried out, the new Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and real drive emissions will require additional experimental efforts. In order to provide solutions for a time and cost efficient calibration process, Bertrandt has developed in the work of Burggraf [BUR15] an innovative optimization algorithm. While common Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization approaches are usually based on stationary engine operation points, the Bertrandt tool b.eco (Bertrandt. Engine Calibration Optimization) uses a quasi-stationary measurement procedure. The time necessary for establishing a steady state of the engine can thus be omitted. On the one hand, this leads consequently to a general reduction of time.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2155
Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
Due to growing variant diversity and shortened product development time the calibration task of transmission control unit (TCU) parameters constitutes a challenge in further vehicle development. In future, tools and methods are required for an efficient adjustment of calibration parameters. Model based calibration methods represent a promising approach to calibrate these parameters effectively. For computer-aided calibration a powertrain model is required which simulates the behavior of the system accurately. Additionally the functionality code of the TCU is needed to calculate certain signals for engine- and clutch-control during the gearshift operation. The TCU software requires certain state quantities of the powertrain which have to be simulated explicitly and accurately by the model. Furthermore a residual bus simulation for all input signals of the TCU software has to be implemented, which normally are not provided by the powertrain model.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2154
Ary Armando Alvarez, Eufemio Muñoz
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post Transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PPT PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (WTW GHG) emissions and Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (WTW PEU). The team utilizes the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro platform with modifications such as 2.4L Ecotec engine, a 134 HP electric motor and a 12.6 KW/h battery pack. The vehicle is estimated to have a fuel economy of 58.7 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This paper presents the vehicle’s two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) while performing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified drive cycles: 505, HWFET, US06 City and US06 HWY.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2216
Brad Richard, Martha Christenson, Deborah Rosenblatt, Aaron Conde
Five Ford Transit Connect vans, operating on alternative fuels and propulsion systems, were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were powered with petrol, low blend ethanol (E10), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and an electric battery. Four test cycles were used representing city driving and cold-start (FTP-75), aggressive high speed driving (US06), free flow highway driving (HWFCT), and a combination of urban, rural, and motorway driving (WHVC). Tests were performed at temperatures of 22°C, with select tests at -7oC and -18°C. Exhaust emissions were measured and characterized including, on all cycles, CO, NOX, THC, TPM (except on WHVC), and CO2. On the FTP-75, WHVC, and US06 cycles additional exhaust emission characterization included N2O, and CH4. On the FTP-75 and WHVC, carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also characterized.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2221
Joshua Kurtis Carroll, Mohammad Alzorgan, Corey Page, Abdel raouf Mayyas
Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as a promising future solution for sustainable transportation. This is due to the reduction in energy consumption when compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles. EVs and PHEVs contain an Energy Storage Systems (ESS). This increases the complexity of the system but also provides additional margins and fields for optimization. One of the most important elements of these vehicles is the ESS. The electrochemistry nature of battery systems is inherently sensitive to the temperature shifts. The shifts are controlled by the thermal management system of the traction battery systems, for electric-drive vehicles, which directly affects the overall vehicle dynamics. These dynamics include performance, long-term durability and cost of the battery systems. Hence, thermal management becomes an essential element in the achievement to meet the demand for better performance.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2233
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel N. Clark
The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single moving part (the translating rod) mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven primarily by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variance. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that tries to force the engine to operate at a fixed compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2157
Huiyan Zhang, Lei Shi, Yi Cui, Kangyao Deng, Yuehua Qian, Baiqi Huo, Lin Hua
Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8093
Ning Xu, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
The range-extended bus can cut the cost of heavy battery and is taken as an ideal transitional powertrain architecture to a pure electric drive. Based on a 12m long city bus and using modeling and simulation, range-extended electric powertrains with different EES(energy storage system) to meet the drive motor electrical power demand were developed, and also corresponding SOC(State of Charge) as well as APU(Auxiliary Power Unit) control strategies were designed. Simulation results were compared and followed: For adding more LiFePO4 batteries, the fuel consumption was lowest which was more than 40% lower than the traditional city bus and further decreased with engine stop during braking, but then frequent engine start/stop happened. When using blend SOC control strategy, fuel consumption changed little, while the accumulated charge per LiFePO4 cell decreased. So for this structure of ESS, blend SOC control strategy were preferred.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8096
Ilya A. Kulikov, Alexander Shorin, Sergey Bakhmutov, Alexey Terenchenko, Kirill Karpukhin
The paper proposes a method to analyze a trade-off between IC engine and electric battery sizes which is the essential issue of plugin hybrid and range extended electric vehicle design. This method implies a set of maps to be elaborated from batch simulations of hybrid vehicle running a driving cycle. Said maps establish relationships between ICE power, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption, and driving range of a vehicle. From these, one can choose a combination of ICE power and battery energy content meeting specific requirements for fuel economy and driving range. Mathematical model of the vehicle and the hybrid powertrain adopted for driving cycle simulations is described. Besides vehicle dynamics and drivetrain’s powerflows, it addresses battery’s current and voltage restrictions, which define performance of electric drivetrain and have to be taken into account when selecting ICE power.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8071
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Yurii Gutarevych, Vasyl Mateichyk, Valeriy Verbovskiy
Abstract The article discusses the use of the combined heating system with phase-transitional thermal accumulator. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, coolant and motor oil, and emissions of the internal combustion engine during its operation to accumulate the thermal energy. The results of experimental studies of the combined heating system are shown. A system and methods for pre-start and after-start heating of the vehicular engine in the investigated system are developed. The structure of the "combined heating” system to study the impact of its structural and adjustment parameters on the performance of thermal development of the vehicular engine is described. The use of the combined heating system within phase-transitional thermal accumulators is compared with the use of standard systems for a truck engine 8FS 9.2 / 8. It reduces the time of coolant and motor oil thermal development by 22.9-57.5% and 25-57% accordingly.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2012
Frank Feng, Debabrata Pal
Abstract There are many identical large solid-state switching Multi-Purpose Motor Controllers on board of one of the More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). The controllers drive over twice as many different machines with wide torque and speed ranges. The common motor controllers are installed in a central location. The machines are located at diverse and distant positions. Power is delivered and routed from the controllers to machines via a large network comprising of unshielded feeders and multiplexing units. The controllers are required to produce sine wave voltage output to machines, and draw clean power from the source to meet Power Quality (PQ) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) requirements. There are significant aircraft level weight savings with that concept. However, designing such a clean motor controller was a major power density challenge beyond switches, accounting for high torque main propulsion engine start and high speed Cabin Air Compressors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2014
Jonathan M. Rheaume, Charles Lents
Abstract Energy storage options for a hybrid electric commercial single aisle aircraft were investigated. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. A survey of state of the art energy storage options was conducted. Battery, super-capacitor, and flywheel metrics were collected from the literature including Specific Energy (Wh/kg), Volumetric Energy Density (Wh/L), Specific Power (W/kg), Cost ($/kWh), and Number of Cycles. Energy storage in fuels was also considered along with various converters sized to produce a targeted quantity of electric power. The fuel and converters include fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2058
Thibaut Billard, Cedric Abadie, Bouazza Taghia
Abstract The present paper reports non-electrically intrusive partial discharge investigations on an aeronautic motor. Relevancy, robustness and repeatability of partial discharge testing procedures, both on insulating materials characterization and on operating aeronautic equipment are essential to ensure reliability of the aircraft systems. The aim of this paper is to be the very first step of defining such procedures and the associated test equipment. To do so, the paper will start by providing an understanding of partial discharge phenomena and will review typical more electrical aircraft architecture. Key characteristics causing partial discharge risk to increase will be highlighted. The impact of harness length, high performance power electronics and voltage level increase on insulation system is demonstrated.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2059
Rolf Loewenherz, Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Daniel Diaz Lopez, Joshua Parkin
Abstract Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to their high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are the major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1981
Luis C. Herrera, Bang-Hung Tsao
One of the main challenges in the power systems of future aircraft is the capability to support pulsed power loads. The high rise and fall times of these loads along with their high power and negative impedance effects will have an undesirable impact on the stability and dc bus voltage quality of the power system. For this reason, studying ways to mitigate these adverse effects are needed for the possible adoption of these type of loads. One of the technologies which can provide benefits to the stability and bus power quality is Energy Storage (ES). This ES is designed with the capability to supply high power at a fast rate. In this paper, the management of the ES to mitigate the effects of pulsed power loads in an aircraft power system is presented. First, the detailed nonlinear model of the power network with pulsed power loads is derived. Due to the large size of this model, a model order reduction is performed using a balanced truncation and a second order approximation.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2028
Maher A. Hasan, Eric Walters, Michael Boyd, Jason Wells, Jon Zumberge, Chad Miller
Abstract Experimental Hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL) testing utilizing signal and/or power emulation imposes a hard real-time requirement on models of emulated subsystems, directly limiting their fidelity to what can be achieved in real-time on the available computational resources. Most real-time simulators are CPU-based, for which the overhead of an instruction-set architecture imposes a lower limit on the simulation step size, resulting in limited model bandwidth. For power-electronic systems with high-frequency switching, this limit often necessitates using average-value models, significantly reducing fidelity, in order to meet the real-time requirement. An alternative approach emerging recently is to use FPGAs as the computational platform, which, although offering orders-of-magnitudes faster execution due to their parallel architecture, they are more difficult to program and their limited fabric space bounds the size of models that can be simulated.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
Abstract This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment.
2016-08-19
Standard
AS90328A
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-08-18
WIP Standard
AS31061B
No scope available.
2016-08-18
WIP Standard
AS25183B
No scope available.
2016-08-18
WIP Standard
AS31081B
No scope available.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6482

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