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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6042
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1230
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Jerry Ku
It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco’s STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1375
James Price
Compressed development cycles drive increased focus on virtual development, including both functional verification and quantitative simulation of electrical system designs. However, one hurdle often cited is the effort needed to develop behavioral models of electrical components such as wires, fuses, and ECUs. This presentation shows that it is fully possible to obtain reliable and surprisingly accurate results using the simplest of models. By placing these models in a re-usable library and providing a simple, visual interaction environment, early design debugging using a computer becomes possible for every electrical engineer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
The benefits of aluminum as a conductor material are the reduction of mass, to minimize CO2 consumption in combination with low material cost. The intermediate aluminum cable cross section 2.5mm² - 6.0mm² cover a good potential for car implementation to hit this goal. The presentation describes the technical solutions for an aluminum wiring harness equipped with aluminum cable in the cross section of 2.5mm² - 6.0mm². Next to the connection technologies ultra-sonic welding and crimp technology, the presentation informs about the new SMC - technology for corrosion protection. SMC is the abbreviation for selective metal coating. This technology based on a material optimization for the crimp design of the terminal. It offers for the designer a modular approach of corrosion protection specific to its used compartment within the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0195
Satishchandra C. Wani
Bonds wires in automotive electronics modules are used to carry current from external harness to components on PCB. They are very thin wires (few µm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads under vehicle operation. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given external boundary conditions without fusing retaining electronic module functionality. While carrying current, wire bond material by nature offers electric resistance that is converted to heat, joule heating, is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance. For constant current flow, electrical resistance is proportional to wire material resistivity, length and inversely proportional to cross sectional area available for current flow. The resistivity of wire increases with temperature thus leading to thermal runaway situation if not handled properly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1169
Akira Yamashita, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto, Nobuyuki Ogami
Development of High-pressure Hydrogen Storage System on Toyota new FCV, lightening, downsizing, cost reduction, and performance improvement in hydrogen refueling are presented. Two kind of larger diameter tanks have been newly developed, due to reduce the number of the four 70MPa tanks installed in 2008 model. These two tanks were arranged under a rear seat and a trunk without sacrificing any passenger space. The lamination constitution of the container each layer, and shape of the bosses were optimized for the container lightening, and the container mass efficiency of 5.7wt% was achieved. As for the carbon fiber for the container where high grade type had been adopted in 2008 model, the carbon fiber manufacture struggled to improve the strength of the general-purpose type, and we could change the fiber grade. Hereby, reduction of the fiber quantity, downsizing of the container, and the cost reduction were realized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle, which directly transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into the electric energy. The integrated system starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed and efficiency, as well as the core technology for emission reduction during the starting process and the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the starting process of the linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the starting process that adopts the linear generator as a drive motor is analysed, obtaining the fewest driving cycle and the energy pipeline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the massmarket segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Current trends in the automotive industry show a path towards the diffusion of automated or even autonomous driving. Due to this development, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will increase in vehicles. The main challenge among this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0248
Hiroyasu Baba, Koji Kawasaki, Hideomi Kawachi
We have developed Li-ion battery heating system which is direct resistance heating for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) by use of an inverter and a motor. One relay is added between a positive terminal of Li-ion battery and one-phase (e.g. U-phase) of a three-phase motor. When additional relay is turned on, the motor coils, IGBTs (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) in the inverter and a smoothing capacitor for the inverter constitute buck-boost DC to DC converter. IGBTs are controlled to repeat charging and discharging between the battery and the smoothing capacitor. We made a system prototype and examined battery heating capability. And also we optimized charging and discharging frequency from impedance and current to improve heat generation. This method can increase battery temperature from -20 deg C to -1 deg C in 5 minutes and can extend EV driving range. Additionally the system can be installed into all HEV, PHEV and EV.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0258
Venkatesh Kareti, Priti Ranadive, Vinay Vaidya
Various Advanced Driver Assists Systems (ADAS) are being used today to increase safety of drivers. These systems viz. Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Pedestrian Detection (PD), are all based on inputs captured using a front mounted camera. It would be useful to combine all these applications together and process the same input for different application purpose. Additionally, multicore processors are now easily available and can be used for integrating multiple ADAS applications. This would lead to reduced cost and maintenance of ADAS systems with the same performance benefits. Since current ADAS applications are sequential and/or use single core processors there is a need to parallelize these applications so that multiple cores can be utilized optimally. In this paper, we discuss our experiments and results while attempting to integrate two such ADAS applications on a multicore embedded platform.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0249
Kannan Subramanian, Ganesh Kumar Ramakrishnan, Sindhuja Renganathan, Karthik Vssnt, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles' (BEVs) is gaining traction across all geographies to help meet increasing fuel economy regulations and as a pathway to offset concerns due to climate change. But HEVs and EVs have so far been a nascent market for India. These technologies have primarily shifted towards Lithium-ion batteries for Energy Storage (due to High Energy density and Power density). In order to make actual business sense of these technologies, of which, High Voltage battery is a major cost driver, it is necessary for these batteries to provide similar performance and life expectancy across the operating boundary of the vehicles, as well as provide the requirements at a competitive cost. In other words, the Li-ion batteries have to sustain the normal life cycle requirements and withstand wide range of storage temperatures that the conventional gasoline/diesel vehicles have been good at and still ensure good life.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Considering the rarefaction of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in addition the copper price, OEM’s are looking for innovative solutions to reduce both the cost and weight of wiring harnesses. One promising solution is the substitution of copper with aluminum alloys, which are currently used for high power electrical applications. In this context, LEONI launched a global project to supply automotive harnesses with aluminum wires. LEONI have already developed solutions using aluminum wires assembled to copper terminals by ultrasonic welding, these solutions are already in mass production. This assembly process is adapted for the junction of aluminum wires thanks to flat welding flat. For tubular terminals and high power junctions, other process must be investigated. One of the targeted processes is the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) and tests are performed by LEONI using the equipment of the firm BMAX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0885
Mark B. Murphy, John J. Moskwa
This paper details the development of a new dynamic Intake Air Simulator (IAS) for use on single-cylinder test engines, where the gas dynamics are controlled to accurately simulate those on a multi-cylinder engine during transient or steady-state operation. Single-cylinder test engines are used extensively in engine research laboratories, and sparingly in engine development to study charge motion, mixing, combustion, and other in-cylinder events. Even though the final target engine for use of these studies is the multi-cylinder engine, the gas dynamics of the single-cylinder engine varies considerably from this target engine. Charge motion in the cylinder is dominated by momentum, and the dynamics of the intake has a very strong effect on this motion, even in the closed period after intake ends. This can easily be seen by changing intake runner or system geometry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1189
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
A major challenge in the development of next generation electric and hybrid vehicle technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1184
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
The performance, life cycle cost, and safety of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) depend strongly on their energy storage system of vehicle. Advanced batteries such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries are quite viable options for storing energy in EVs and HEVs. In addition, thermal management is essential for achieving the desired performance and life cycle from a particular battery. Therefore, to design a thermal management system, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. The thermal characteristics that are needed include the surface temperature distribution, heat flux, and the heat generation from batteries under various charge/discharge profiles. Therefore, in the first part of the research, surface temperature distribution from a lithium-ion pouch cell (20Ah capacity) is studied under different discharge rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama, Toru Sukigara
Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charging and discharging. In order to analyze the causes of degradation, the changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using synchrotron XRD, TEM, XAS and SEM-EDX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1195
Kiyotaka Maeda, Masashi Takahashi
To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we derived power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions by tailoring. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and run on seven different types of road at different speeds, and the acceleration data that the battery packs received were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square value of acceleration were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, it has been suggested both experimentally and theoretically that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X and Y axes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular, as it can remove the troublesome plug-in process, provide an inherent electrical isolation and adapt to harsh environments. Charging power regulation, as one of important issues, is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes or the required charging power for batteries increases endlessly. Based on the comparative analysis of traditional regulation methods, this paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected symmetrically) to couple the cascaded resonant topology to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained directly from the voltage sources.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1198
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion phosphate battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating automotive components models of ASM (Automotive Simulation Model) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0136
Ying Fan
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an analysis technology for improving the reliability of the product. The main process of FMEA is summarized as fellows: firstly to find out the potential failure modes of the product; then to calculate the risk priority number (RPN); finally to determine the risk value order of the subsystems or parts. Risk priority number is a basic method to risk management and harm degree judgment of the product failure. Aiming at a failure mode, with the value of the severity of effect (S), the probability of occurrence (O), and the difficulty of detection (D), the value of RPN is the product of S , O and D. The range of three factors is from 1 to 10 respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
This paper is based on a vehicle research project called CULT (Cars Ultra-Light Technology) under the lead of Magna Steyr Engineering (Graz, Austria) which focuses on the development of an ultra-light (600 kg) vehicle (4-seater, A-segment) with a hybrid propulsion system. The Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology of the TU Vienna, was responsible for the complete powertrain development. To reach the project CO2 target of only 49 g/km a downsized CNG DI engine was combined with a 6-gear automated transmission and a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG). The first part of this paper shortly summarizes the final project results by highlighting the CO2 saving potentials obtained by the 12 Volt BSG. The connection of the BSG on the transmission input shaft instead the conventional adaption on the belt-drive of the ICE should maximize the CO2 potentials. This new approach leads to a significantly increased recuperation potential, because the engine drag torque can be de clutched.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1182
Mehrdad Mastali Majdabadi Kohneh, Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
The lithium-ion batteries generate significant amount of heat during the high discharge rates which can lessen the battery life and even cause some safety issues like battery explosion. Therefore, the batteries have to satisfy performance, safety, and long-term durability requirements of the vehicle energy storage systems. In order to achieve this goal, thermal management of the battery pack is necessary to prevent overheating and uneven heating across the entire pack during the charging and discharging. Mathematical modeling of the batteries is an efficient way to study the thermal behavior of batteries in different working situations. However, because of the complicated nature of the electrochemical models, thermal models mostly exclude the electrochemical details of the batteries. As a result, simple relations for the heat generation of the batteries have been considered which are mainly based on the experimental data or Ohmic heating.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1181
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Timur Aliyev, Anthony Rick, Brian Sisk
Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery pack can be employed by a battery management system (BMS) to balance a variety of operational considerations, including optimization of pulse capability and avoiding damage/aging to the battery. Consideration of cell-to-cell performance variability of lithium-ion batteries is critical to correct estimation of the battery pack power limit as well as proper sizing of the individual cells in the battery. Further, understanding of cell variability is necessary to protect the cell and other system components, e.g. fuse and contactor, from over-current damage. In this work, we present the use of an equivalent circuit model for estimation of the power limit of lithium battery packs by considering the individual cell variability under current or voltage constraints. We compare the power limit estimation by using individual cell characteristics compared to the estimate found using only max/min values of cell characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1185
Brian Sisk, Timur Aliyev, Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Negin Salami, Kem Obasih, Anthony Rick
Competitive engineering of battery packs for vehicle applications requires a careful alignment of function against vehicle manufacturer requirements. Traditional battery engineering practices focus on flow down of requirements from the top-level system requirements through to low-level components, meeting or exceeding each requirement at every level. This process can easily produce an over-engineered, cost-uncompetitive product. By integrating the key limiting factors of battery performance, we can directly compare battery capability to requirements. Here, we consider a power-oriented microhybrid battery system using coupled thermal and electrochemical modeling. We demonstrate that using dynamic resistance acquired from drive cycle characteristics can reduce the total size of the pack compared to typical static, fixed-duration resistance values.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1183
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan, Anush Nair, Mithun Manalikandy, Anurag Reghu, Jacob John, V S Rani
Hybrid and electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular these days owing to concerns over exhaustion of conventional fuel sources, pollution from combustion, as well as high carbon foot print of these fuels. Lithium-ion batteries are widely preferred as the source of power for hybrid and electric vehicles because of their high monomer voltage and high energy density. Accurate estimation of the State of Charge of battery is crucial in the electric vehicle. It provides the information on the range of operation of the vehicle. It also ensures the safety and reliability of the battery unit. Accurate State of Charge estimation also enables more optimized battery pack design for the electric vehicle. Conventional methods for State of Charge estimation such as Coulomb counting and open circuit voltage measurement suffer from inaccuracies and is affected by noise during the vehicle operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1186
Michael Safoutin, Jeff Cherry, Joseph McDonald, SoDuk Lee
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance and energy efficiency of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer directly to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by adding and removing a fixed quantity of charge at currents between 0.2C and 2C and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 25C.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6042

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