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2016-05-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Massarotti, Pietro Marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0038
V S S Naga Karthik Tunuguntla, Kannan Subramanian, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli, Aravapalli Sriniwas, Ganesh Kumar Ramakrishnan
Designing a new product with a novelty involved in it, is called Product Design. This new product has to be sold by an Original Equipment Manufacturer to its customers. Development of this novel product design (Product Development Process) should be efficient & exhibit reliable operation across its lifetime fulfilling its customer expectations. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) helps in achieving the same by a structured approach for product or process design. This paper demonstrates the DFSS (DMADV) implementation for the design of Thermal architecture to a xEV's energy storage system with unique& appropriate tools for analysis in each phase.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0044
Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Mukund Kulkarni, Vinten Diwakar
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play an important role in sustainable mobility thanks to the efficient energy utilization and zero–emission when in use. The battery has a great impact on the performance of electric vehicles, basically determining the driving range. As a consequence, the choice of the battery technology and its effective utilization is of paramount importance. Li-ion chemistry is very sensitive to overcharge and deep discharge, which may damage the battery, shortening its lifetime, and even causing hazardous situations. This requires the adoption of a proper Battery Management System (BMS) to maintain each cell of the battery within its safe and reliable operating range. In addition to the primary function of battery protection, a BMS should estimate the battery status in order to predict the actual amount of energy that can still be delivered to the load.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0037
Jiten Kishorbhai Chavda, Varsha Shah
India is developing country with tremendous growth in automobile sector. 8 to 9 million new two wheelers and over a million four wheelers are every year come on the road. Penetration of EVs, HEVs(full forms) and PHEVs has large scope with good environment friendly support and energy saving prospectus. Initial and replacement cost of battery is one of the biggest economic criteria for the same. Hybrid power source for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs gives enhance performance which increase life of battery and reduce overall cost of battery operated vehicles. Accurate parameter estimation for battery used in electrical vehicles is essential for designing the hybrid power source with fuel cell and battery or ultra-capacitor and battery to improve the performance of battery operated EVs, HEVs and PHEVs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0043
ChiruVenkat Reddy, Vikrant Singh, Rashed Rabaa
At low temperatures, the internal resistance of a Li-ion cell is very sensitive to its temperature and SOC. As such, conventional equivalent circuit based models often fail to predict the power obtainable from a cell under low ambient temperature conditions. Electrochemistry based models have shown good promise to model cell dynamics at low temperatures (subzero temperatures). In the current study, we use a previously developed electrochemistry based cell model, and couple it with electrical solver to carry out electro–thermal simulations. Full module level simulations with cell and associated electrical circuitry are carried out and cranking power (in short duration ~ 10-15 sec) deliverable from module estimated.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0041
Rajasekhar MV, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Unlike fuel tanks as energy sources, high voltage batteries acts as energy sources for hybrid electric vehicles. These traction batteries have to operate under varied environments and provide energy to electric power train for vehicle propulsion. With the demand for production intent hybrid electric vehicles, the battery pack development for series production has been one of the focus areas in recent times. This paper details a systematic approach on the steps to be followed while developing a battery pack considering the vehicle requirements. These parameters include pack structural design, thermal management, cell protection, battery control monitoring, charging and testing parameters which needs to be considered for effective battery pack development.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0042
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Jithesh VC
Battery is the primary and only source of power in the electric vehicle. Electric vehicle batteries differ from normal starting, lighting, and ignition batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Traction batteries are designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, energy to weight ratio and energy density. These batteries facilitate the noiseless, pollution free and economical operation of electric vehicles. But this can be dangerous under some conditions and can pose a safety hazard if punctured or charged improperly since they contain a flammable electrolyte and are also kept pressurized. The development of safe, high voltage batteries is regarded as a major challenge. Thus in these batteries the gases are retained within the battery as long as the pressure remains within safe levels.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0119
Sivakumar Nadarajan, Rui Wang, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sanjib Kumar Panda
This paper studies the potential of using vibration signatures in detecting stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator. The vibration data collected from the experimental setup under various degrees and severities of the stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator are investigated to identify fault signatures in the vibration signal. Investigation on the vibration signals show that the fault signatures in vibration can be used to detect and diagnose the stator winding short circuit fault in the brushless synchronous generator. Besides this the identified fault signature can also be able to differentiate between the stator winding fault and load unbalance.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0120
Yogesh Sherki, Nikhil Gaikwad, Jayalakshmi Chandle, Anil Kulkarni
Earthquake is one of the major natural calamity. So prediction of the reach of earthquake event to the various locations could result in minimizing the disaster due to it. An early warning system for earthquake mainly issues an alarm to have a time margin for evacuating peoples to the safe place or shutting down key facilities like major industrial work etc. to avoid major consequences. This paper contains the design of sensor system and the techniques used for detection and processing of the received signals. The main difference between our method and conventional methods of earthquake location tracking is the addition of two planer Azimuth angle. Conventionally the triangulation method only used for tracking the earthquake location. But this method is not much accurate since it considers the average speeds of the P and S waves. The speed of seismic waves varies immensely depending upon the contents of soil, rocks or water etc. below the earth surface.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0125
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, integral motor compressor, evaporator & condenser assembly, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. . Conventional Car can use engine's waste heat for heating or defrosting, while the Electric vehicle has no waste heat to use, so that it faces greater difficulties in heating mode. In order to promote the application of electric vehicles and to reduce environmental pollution, it is important to research how to improve battery`s capacity and develop efficient energy storage battery, as well as reduce the energy consumption of the electric car`s accessory equipment.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0127
Rakhee Vijayan, B. K. Swathi Prasad, A. T. Sriram
This paper deals with simulation of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) configuration with special attention to sliding mode controller (SMC) for boost converter (BC). MATLAB/Simulink software tool is used for the simulations. Proportional-integral (PI) and SMC for fuel cell (FC) side BC is modeled and simulated. The SMC shows slightly faster response and lesser steady state oscillations compared with PI controller. Integration of FC connected to BC along with SMC, DC motor with controllers and battery pack with bidirectional converter are made to verify the motor response in FCHEV configuration.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0128
Prateek Patel, Tapan Sahoo, Harish Chandra
The two major benefits of hybridization of automotive powertrain are realized in the form of engine downsizing and capturing free energy using some form of onboard recuperation system. The design of such systems is mostly driven by iterative simulations. However, this study is about quantitatively deriving the potential of regenerative braking from Indian driving perspective. The calculation results are based on Indian homologation cycle and collection of real world driving data and condensing them into meaningful drive cycles for prominent Indian cities. This study further calculates component and control strategy requirements and quantitatively defines the compromises that would result due to the calibrations in strategy. This enables the engineers to make concrete data driven decisions. (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2010) The study also comprises incorporating safety related considerations in system design e.g. Stability while wheel lock, ABS.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0121
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the indigenous development of CAN based low-cost cluster controller which drives the non-CAN cluster in a CAN based vehicle. The use of CAN network in vehicle is ever growing and has number of advantages which includes efficient diagnostics, low-cost and reduced wiring harness. The use of CAN network in a module expects the other interconnected modules also to be CAN based. Typical example being development of EV or HEV requires the instrument cluster of the vehicle also to be CAN based, as its information mostly available in CAN (For example SOC of High voltage battery). The indigenously developed controller drives the non-CAN cluster dials based on the CAN message from vehicle control unit. The controller hardware is designed to be universal driver which can drive almost all instrument clusters. This controller also has reverse functionality that converts the physical signal from vehicle to CAN message.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0122
Vishal Nair V, Prasanth P, Srinivasan Raju
This paper focuses on interfacing the Inverter ECU to a Simulated Electrical/Hybrid Car , using a HIL System along with Component level simulations. A Simulation environment along with HIL system is described which can be used to do most of the Software Durability and Stress testing of the Inverter ECU. The paper also describes the extended applications in testing hybrid components.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0123
Tejal Sarda
Instrument Cluster and Load Center software modules are developed traditionally using custom legacy C code development resulting in repetitive work and longer software development time. This paper would detail a novel and Frugal Embedded Software Development Methodology which utilizes reusable, modular and scalable software architecture that is independent of the machine model and type and a configurable framework for instrument cluster and load center to feed machine specific details by the systems engineer. This enables developing and virtual testing of the software quickly without utilizing the embedded software development environment and renders the repetitive development work into a redundant work by offering an automated configurable framework for software development. This method significantly reduces the overall embedded development life-cycle and the number of engineers required to develop these software modules.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0124
Weicheng Huang, Huayu Zhang, Du Yingmeng, Honghui Wu, Zhikang Fan
Thermal efficiency of conventional automobile engine is only about 30%, and most of other energy is brought away by the exhaust in the form of wasted-heat. Therefore, the heat recovery of engine exhaust has become a hot topic, among which generating electricity through exhaust gas is one of the most important and effective ways. In this research high efficient thermoelectric materials are applied in the thermoelectric generating system. First of all, heat transfer model between car exhaust and cooling water has been established. Then, based on the heat transfer model, in the thermoelectric power generating system the heat transfer area of evaporator has been analyzed and optimized. Finally, based on generating capacity evaluation system, when the engine speed is within the range of common 1700 ~ 2100rpm, when the optimal evaporator area range is 0.8m2 ~0.95 m2 the maximum power output could be achieved.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0135
Rohit Karegaonkar, Sushant Patil, Urvil Parmar
The Current Methodologies of virtual and Automated Testing on touch screen displays are limited, since, minor screen changes and display software updates will cause the automated tests to fail and hence there will be a need to fix them. Addition of new items to a drop-down list, movement of buttons, reusability and conversion of Test scripts for similar devices will be a cumbersome job. The general approach of testing Display manually, is not feasible due to sluggishness, monotony and repetitiveness of work, which can cause manual errors in different volumes at different times, it will also reduce the option of Batch executions of tests 24*7.The automated approach for testing such Displays through XY coordinates pointing on a screen, taking Screen captures and using optical character recognition for verification methods are non-reliable and affects the performance of testing. This makes automating a test difficult, causes a high amount of risk as well as high maintenance costs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0134
Mithun Patil
Goal: Reduce machine test time and finding defects early in V cycle by; Utilizing VR Lab for embedded software functional testing & performance testing. Key Objectives: 1. Controller software testing using virtual environment [SIL+HIL_VIL] 2. Exploring ideas for Vehicle level PV&V using virtual environment 3. Performing exploratory and investigative testing using virtual environment Benefits-Key features: • Single platform support for multiple vehicle of any region • Unsafe field scenario and accidental analysis • Save in time & cost through less proto build, Machine deprecation and logistic • Simulators for Training Achievements: Successfully integrated 4 vehicle to VR world using SIL and HIL Direct Savings: Cost & Time Indirect Saving : Infrastructure Investment, Machine Depreciation, Logistics [Travel & Transport
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0137
Sumit Gupta, Tapan Sahoo, Prateek Patel, Harish Chandra
In Hybrid vehicles the torque split and Gear Shift optimization strategy is generally cycle dependent and behaves significantly different in Real world driving conditions. This project helps us to optimize the torque split and gear shift points simultaneously for Real World and certification drive cycle for Hybrid Electric vehicle. Now the level of trade-off in optimization between certification and Real World conditions can be selected. The methodology evaluates Objective function at each and every operating point for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor-generator (E-machine) corresponding to all possible torque split and gear shift combinations at a particular instant and finally choose one combination with a least value of objective function (which is dependent on emission and fuel consumption, and is restricted under various constraints like drivability, component operational limits etc).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0136
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0130
Abhijeet S Taksale, Priti Shahane, Vishwas M Vaidya, Goutham Dronamraju K V, Vivek Deulkar
Electronic controller unit (ECU) used for controlling sub-systems of complex real life applications like automotive vehicles can pose several challenges. Many times one needs to plan development and testing of controller, when the end vehicle is also under development and hence not available. In such case, hardware in the loop (HIL) approach for testing such controllers emulates the external application environment and allows concurrent development of the electronic controllers. Even when the end vehicle is available, if design iterations are to be carried out using “in-vehicle” testing approach, then the same can be time-consuming. Such an approach may also possess safety hazards if malfunction of the ECU impacts occupants/vehicle safety. Many cases require simulation of a range of use-case scenarios as well as system operation under diverse set of environments.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0129
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, P L N Prasad, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Range in electric cars is always challenging due to limited capacity of the batteries and the total number of batteries to be used to achieve the same. Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. Underbody drag increases due to air entrapment around these components. Aerodynamic study for baseline model using CFD simulations showed that there was a considerable air resistance due to underbody components. To reduce the underbody drag, different add-ons are used and their effect on drag is studied. A front spoiler (air dam) is used to deflect the incoming air towards sides of the car.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0132
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the implementation of sensor less hill assist control system in electric LCV. In manual transmission vehicles without hill assist, the restart at the slope can be done through skilled clutch control. For the vehicles not having clutch (auto transmission or direct drive), the restart of the vehicle at hill is not possible with driver skills alone and needs the hill assist functionality. It involves the costlier sensors and control mechanism for its implementation. The work aimed at implementing hill-assist functionality without the use of gradient sensor and brake actuators. In the absence of brake actuators the holding torque is provided by the traction motor. The PID controller with parameterized vehicle model in loop calculates the holding torque required. The precise vehicle model for the controller built through vehicle tests.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0131
Kalpesh Savant, Shravan Kumar Chirlanchi
Runoff Test: - Runoff test is performed in factory for first few limited production build machines. It verifies all the machine functions possible. The Virtual Vehicle RunOff test targets new approach for automation test to perform first level product verification and validation in virtual environment to produce higher quality and productivity. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test helps to perform software PV&V in short duration, eliminating hardware dependency and providing enough confidence before software delivery for real time PV&V. It also helps to reproduce and debug issues. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test setup needs a product simulation, controller executables and a test script tool. Test script tool will communicate with Product simulation and controller executables to command test cases, verifies the result and generates test report.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0139
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Yuanqi Gao, Haobo Xu, Jiahao Xia, Weiye Xue, Shiping huang
Sweeping Vehicle is an important tool to beautify the city environment with the characteristics of low cruise speed, less driving power consumption, and small operating area, which provides a good application prospect for the development of the electric sweeping vehicle. The characteristics of excellent stability at low speed, efficient energy conversion, convenient operability, and environment-friendly make it the first choice for cleaning road surface. In the study, the structure of vacuum dust collection system without sweeping brush is adopted in the designed electric sweeping vehicle. What is more, no dust particles generate when a sweeping vehicle is dumping. Therefore, it is worthy of the name "clean" vehicle. Firstly, electromotor and exhaust fan model is established, the joint performance between working electromotor and exhaust fan and the electromotor efficiency features are analyzed.
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