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2016-05-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
Abstract In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. During fast idle, late IVO results in a small improvement in HC emissions and a deterioration of the PM emissions. The advanced exhaust phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0059
Christopher Quigley, Paul Faithfull, Simon Saunders, Neil Yates
The paper discusses the development and implementation of an innovative form of in-vehicle communications for the body control in an Ariel Atom niche sports car. A Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus has been developed that runs the LIN signals over the power lines of the vehicle wiring harness. The LIN system has one master and up to 15 slave ECUs. LIN is normally run at a maximum bit rate of 20 Kbit/s, however this system has been implemented at 57.6 Kbit/s by modulating over the power lines. Benefits of this approach include weight reduction, reduction in the number wires, ease in retro-fitting to existing vehicle architectures as only requires a connection to power lines and the ability to monitor the signals via the battery pins of the OBD connector of the vehicle. The approach has resulted in a reduction in weight due to wiring and electronic control unit reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0826
Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine startability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount on the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0824
The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy of the current and previous cycles. Parameters studied include the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the engine speed increases. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the residual gas fraction or the amount of residual fuel. The amount of fuel injected in the previous cycles is found to significantly impact the current cycle PM/PN emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1215
Zhenhai Gao, Xiaoting Zhang, Hongyu Hu, Dalei Guo, Hui Zhao, Huili Yu
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1202
Jihas Khan
With the advent of hybrid and electric cars, battery monitoring system and battery management systems became bundled with more and more sophisticated algorithms and specifications. Validation of the same became a head ache for OEMs and Tier ones considering the massive battery, high voltage and current involved and real loads directly or in directly connected to them. This paper is aimed at providing an intuitive explanation of these challenges and solutions which employ HILS for the component level validation of the same. Conventional validation for these systems produce test results much later in the embedded product development life cycle which calls for an additional over head of cost, resource, time and effort. Proposed solution is finding the accuracy of SOC SOH estimation algorithm in battery monitoring sensor which usually will be clamped to the real battery itself.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1204
Dongchang Pan, Sichuan Xu, Chunjing Lin, Guofeng Chang
As one of the most crucial components in electric vehicles, power batteries generate abundant heat during charging and discharging processes. Battery thermal management system (BTMS), which is designed to ensure the temperature of all battery cells within a safe range and maintain an even temperature distribution from cell to cell, is vital for the high efficiency, long calendar life and reliable safety of the power batteries. Conventional BTMSs such as air cooling and liquid cooling require extra power and may not meet the requirements at stressful and abuse conditions, especially at high density of heat generation and at high operating or ambient temperatures. With the desirable features of low system complexity, high energy efficiency and good battery thermal uniformity, thermal management using composite phase change materials (PCMs) has drawn specific attention in the last decade.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1213
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
The current battery technologies allow an EV with 300 mile range (BEV 300), but the cost of such a vehicle hinders the large scale adoption of this vehicle by consumers. DOE has set aggressive cost targets for battery technologies. At present, no single technology might meet the cost, energy and power requirements of a BEV 300, but a combination of multiple batteries with different capabilities might meet this criteria. This study looks at how such a combination can be implemented in the vehicle simulation model and compares the vehicle manufacturing cost and operating costs of these options. Preliminary analysis shows that there is an opportunity to modestly reduce BEV 300 energy storage system cost, by about 8%, using a battery pack combining an energy battery and a power battery. The baseline vehicle considered in the study uses a single battery sized to meet both power and energy requirements in a BEV 300.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0104
Khalil Maalouf, David Stull, Keith Nicholas
In copper wire, real time crimp monitoring has traditionally been based on force measurement during the crimp cycle. The force attributed to molding the copper wire into the terminal is a significant portion of the total force needed to form the crimp. Therefore, any wire deviations from the norm is translated into a force pattern aberration that can be detected using basic signal pattern analysis. As the industry is contemplating replacing copper wire with aluminum wire, in order to save on weight and material cost, the traditional force monitoring becomes ineffective in detecting wire faults in the crimp. The reason is that aluminum is a softer material than copper, and most of the force exerted during the crimp cycle is consumed by forming the copper terminal itself. The small force deviation due to aluminum wire fault becomes much more difficult to detect. Therefore, a new technique is needed to monitor crimped aluminum wires.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1209
Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Passively parallelizing two energy storage systems, one is energy type and the other is power type, requires minimal modifications of auto makers and thus a cost-effective method to enable advanced start stop technology. Traditional lead acid battery, lithium-ion battery, capacitor, are all candidate chemistries for dual energy storage solutions. However due to the dual nature of the technology the open circuit potential, resistance, and some other control variables should match in order to achieve optimal performance. In this work we use coupled equivalent circuit model and electrochemical model to study a few options of dual systems, namely the lead acid with NMC/LTO, lead acid with LFP-Graphite, and lead acid with capacitor. A few charging and discharging pulses are designed and simulated to evaluate the regen receiving capability and cranking capability of different chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1211
Hua Tian, WeiGuang Wang, Ge-Qun Shu, Xingyu Liang, Haiqiao Wei
Power lithium-ion battery is the core component of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs). Thermal management at different operating conditions affects the life, security and stability of lithium-ion battery pack. In this paper, a one-dimensional, multiscale, electrochemical-thermal coupled model was applied and perfected for a flat-plate-battery pack. The model is capable of predicting thermal and electrochemical behaviors of battery. To provide more guidance for the selection of thermal management, temperature evolutions and distributions in the battery pack at various ambient temperatures, discharge rates and thermal radiation coefficients were simulated based on six types of thermal management (adiabatic, natural convection, air cooling, liquid cooling, phase change material cooling, isothermal).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1200
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Dong Gao
Whether the available energy of the on-board battery pack is enough for the driver’s next trip is a major contributor in slowing the growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs). What’s more, the actual capacity of the battery pack depend on so many factors that a real-time estimation of the state of charge of the battery pack is often difficult. We proposed a big-data based algorithm to build a battery pack dynamic model for the online state of charge estimation and a stochastic model for the energy consumption prediction. And the good performance of sensors, high-bandwidth communication systems and cloud servers make it convenient to measure and collect the related data, which are grouped into three categories: standard, historical and real-time data. First a resistance-capacitance-equivalent circuit is taken consideration to simplify the battery dynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0908
Norifumi Mizushima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
In the conventional type approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating instant fuel consumption rate referred from look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method of the fuel consumption, which corrected the map-based fuel consumption rate using the transient characteristics of individual engines, was developed and validated its utility for a heavy-duty diesel engine, complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0422
Robert A. Smith, Christopher Rudzinskas
“Molecular Analysis of Automotive Electrical Components Contaminated with Engine and Powertrain Performance Fluids” Robert A. Smith and Christopher R. Rudzinskas, Advanced Materials Group, Delphi Electrical/Electronic Architecture, Warren, Ohio Increased government regulations for increased fuel efficiency to combat rising fuel costs and environmental concerns has led to marked reduction in the size of cars. Automobile downsizing has reduced engine compartment volumes - decreasing separation of polymeric electrical components from fluid accesses and reservoirs and increasing the risks of spillage onto the components. The spatial separation has been reduced even further with trends toward high performance turbo-charged engines with enhanced automotive performance. Once contaminated, the polymeric component is then exposed to heating, due to engine performance, which could exacerbate fluid contamination into the interior of the part through imbibition into amorphous regions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0065
Xinyu Du, Shengbing Jiang, Atul Nagose, Yilu Zhang, Natalie Wienckowski
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauge following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harnesses was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 7mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1196
Yazhou GUO, Maji LUO, Jia ZOU, Yunpeng LIU, Jianqiang KANG
Traction batteries are operated in severe working conditions of wide temperature range as the vehicles run in different seasons and regions, which effects battery performance deeply. Investigation on the effect of temperature under such circumstances on battery performance is very significant to promote the application of traction battery. In this paper, some tests are conducted on a ternary-material lithium-ion battery at various temperatures. The cycling performance and some significant parameters are evaluated at the whole temperature range, especially at the extreme temperatures (below -10°C or above 45°C). The results show that the battery performance becomes poor obviously at low temperatures, which is reflected in the decreased terminal voltage and the faded discharge capacity, and at too high temperatures (above 45°C), power and capacity also decrease, which happens in the later discharge process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0825
William Fedor, Joseph Kazour, James Haller, Kenneth Dauer, Daniel Kabasin
LEV-3 regulation changes will require a 100% SULEV30 fleet average by 2025. While previous applications meeting SULEV30 have been primarily small 4- cylinder engines, the LEV-3 standards will require larger displacement engines to also meet SULEV30. One concept investigated to reduce the cold start engine-out HC emission is to heat the injected fuel during the cold start and initial engine idle period. Improved atomization and increased vaporization of heated fuel will decrease wall wetting and unburnt fuel. This will result in more fuel available to take part in combustion, thus reducing the required injected fuel mass and HC emissions. Heated fuel was used to produce a representative fuel stream temperature profile which was developed with an early prototype Heated DI injector. Heated vs. unheated gasoline cold start emission performance was evaluated on a 3.8L 6-cylinder NA vehicle and a reduction in HC emissions using heated fuel was demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1212
Yupu Chen, Miaohua huang
Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can not get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1197
Zhengbin Wu, Rongcheng Weng, Zhiqun zhang, Juan Li
Lithium-ion battery is in an increasing demand for alternative energy vehicles, grid storage systems and consumer electronics for its long cycle life, relatively high energy density and safety. It is important to achieve the accurate dynamic performance of lithium-ion battery for practical applications. Associating the electrochemical phenomena of a battery with electrical and non-electrical components, equivalent circuit models are normally more computation efficient compared to electrochemical models. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit model for lithium-ion battery having inductive and capacitive components with the complex parameters is proposed. The corresponding imaginary part of these complex parameters represents the frequency-dependent dissipation characteristics from different electrochemical and physical aspects in this proposed battery model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0655
Farid Bahiraei, Amir Fartaj, Gholm-Abbas Nazri
Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for hybrid and electric vehicles as environmentally friendly means of transport. The main barriers for widely deployment of these batteries in electric vehicles are safety, cost, and poor low temperature performance, which are all challenges related to battery thermal management system (BTMS). Therefore, an effective thermal management strategy is crucial for enhancing the system lifetime and increasing vehicle range. In this study, a coupled thermal-electrochemical model for prismatic cells is primarily developed to simulate the battery cell chemistry and heat generation. This model is also used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive cooling systems. The active cooling system under study utilizes cooling plates and water-glycol mixture as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1194
Panos D. Prezas, L. Somerville, P Jennings, A McGordon, J. K. Basco, T. Duong, I. Bloom
As electrified vehicles become more common in the market place, consumers would expect to have similar experiences as cars powered by an internal-combustion engine. This is especially true when it comes to “refueling” the vehicle. Refueling an internal combustion vehicle takes up to 10-15 min. On the other hand, fully charging a lithium-ion battery system can take 1-2 h. To meet the expectations set by the internal combustion engine, the battery system would have to be charged at the 4-to-6-C rate. Additionally, if a motorist runs out of gasoline on the highway, 20 L of fuel can be quickly added to the tank, partially refilling the tank and enabling the motorist to get to his next destination. The results of our investigation on the effects of fast-charging commercially-available lithium-ion cells on performance, life and physical condition of the electrodes in the cells in both scenarios, full and partial charging, will be presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0045
Takanori Uno, Akahori Ichiro, Iwata Yasuaki
In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with the coil turn ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing each wire. This model also can be applied when leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by the experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that S-parameters when dozens of wires are clamped with the BCI probe can be generated from the measurement results of S-parameters when one wire is clamped.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1214
Hillol Kumar Roy, Andrew McGordon, Paul A Jennings
Battery sizing has significant importance for the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Although several research has been done over the years for the battery sizing, no research has focused on battery system efficiency which affects fuel economy. This paper has investigated battery system efficiencies of different optimum battery sizes which were optimised using two design optimisation methodologies. The first methodology considered a single driving pattern at a time, whereas, the second methodology considered different driving patterns simultaneously for the optimisation. The study considered a simulation model of a power-split HEV for the optimisation of battery size along with internal combustion engine, motor, and generator. An electric-assist charge sustaining supervisory control strategy was considered as the energy management. The maximum speed, acceleration, and gradeability were considered as design constraints.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1203
Zhang Qiao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
This paper describes a novel power management control strategy of battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle to improve system efficiency and battery lifetime. The battery lifetime may be dramatically impacted by frequent charge or discharge current resulted from the rapid variation of the load power demand. In the presented research, the high and low frequency power demand in the load is separated by a Haar wavelet transform algorithm to overcome the problem of battery overload work and associated degeneration in battery lifetime resulting from an ineffective distribution between battery and supercapacitor. The purpose of frequency distribution is that the supercapacitor is used to share high frequency power components of load power demand to smooth the power demand applied to battery. As a result, the low frequent power can be shared by battery. This control strategy can be specifically referred to as sole frequency control.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1319
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Katsuhiko Yamamoto
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulated result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper as an application of the 1D physical power plant model, we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. The power plant was 3.5L 6cyl NA. The power plant model was realized by energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modelling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1195
Atsushi Baba, Kinnosuke Itabashi, Nozomu Teranishi, Yoshihiro Edamoto, Kensuke Osamura, Ichiro Maruta PhD, Shuichi Adachi PhD
This paper proposes a battery state estimation on a battery management system (BMS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). It is important to estimate a state of charge (SOC) and parameters of the battery such as a state of health (SOH), internal resistances and dynamics of electrochemical reactions. The BMS can provide information on the driving range of the EVs to the drivers by accurately estimating SOC and SOH. It can also calculate a state of power (SOP) to use the battery safely by accurately estimated SOC, internal resistances and others. For that purpose, this paper proposes the BMS adopted a simultaneous state of charge (SOC) and parameter estimation method using log-normalized unscented Kalman filter. The key idea is a log-normalization of the parameters to improve numerical stability and robustness of the algorithm. The proposed system is verified by a series of simulations using experimental data with EVs.
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