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2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2154
Ary Armando Alvarez, Eufemio Muñoz
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post Transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PPT PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (WTW GHG) emissions and Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (WTW PEU). The team utilizes the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro platform with modifications such as 2.4L Ecotec engine, a 134 HP electric motor and a 12.6 KW/h battery pack. The vehicle is estimated to have a fuel economy of 58.7 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This paper presents the vehicle’s two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) while performing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified drive cycles: 505, HWFET, US06 City and US06 HWY.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2155
Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
Due to growing variant diversity and shortened product development time the calibration task of transmission control unit (TCU) parameters constitutes a challenge in further vehicle development. In future, tools and methods are required for an efficient adjustment of calibration parameters. Model based calibration methods represent a promising approach to calibrate these parameters effectively. For computer-aided calibration a powertrain model is required which simulates the behavior of the system accurately. Additionally the functionality code of the TCU is needed to calculate certain signals for engine- and clutch-control during the gearshift operation. The TCU software requires certain state quantities of the powertrain which have to be simulated explicitly and accurately by the model. Furthermore a residual bus simulation for all input signals of the TCU software has to be implemented, which normally are not provided by the powertrain model.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2153
Hubertus Ulmer, Ansgar Heilig, Matthias Rühl, Boris Löw
The calibration process of modern combustion engines is characterized by a wide range of experimental test runs. Whereas in the past mainly standardized test bench runs were carried out, the new Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and real drive emissions will require additional experimental efforts. In order to provide solutions for a time and cost efficient calibration process, Bertrandt has developed in the work of Burggraf [BUR15] an innovative optimization algorithm. While common Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization approaches are usually based on stationary engine operation points, the Bertrandt tool b.eco (Bertrandt. Engine Calibration Optimization) uses a quasi-stationary measurement procedure. The time necessary for establishing a steady state of the engine can thus be omitted. On the one hand, this leads consequently to a general reduction of time.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2157
Huiyan Zhang, Lei Shi
The three-phase sequential turbocharging(ST) system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve the fuel economy performance and reduce the smoke emission of the automotive diesel engine, which has wider range of application than the current two-phase sequential turbocharging system. However, it results in greater difficulty in obtaining strategies because of control variables increasing and more complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control schemes of bypass valve of turbine and fuel injection to improve the transient performance. A mathematical model of optimal control expressing the relationship between ST system parameters and engine performance is established, then a mean value model for diesel engine is built and verified by engine tests for transient process in SIMULINK environment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2156
Christian Friedrich, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch
Due to the increasing number of engine setting parameters to be optimized, model based calibration techniques have been introduced to medium speed engine testing to keep the number of engine tests low. Polynomials in combination with d-optimal test plans have been proven to be a good choice for modeling the stationary behavior of selected engine outputs. Model approaches like artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been rarely used for medium speed purposes since they require quite high amounts of testing data for model training. To evaluate the potential of these model approaches radial basis function networks, a subclass of neural networks, as well as Gaussian processes have been investigated as alternatives to polynomials. A manageable amount of tests according to an adapted d-optimal test plan was carried out at a test bench.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2059
Rolf Loewenherz, Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Daniel Diaz Lopez, Joshua Parkin
Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to its high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2028
Maher A. Hasan, Eric Walters, Michael Boyd, Jason Wells, Jon Zumberge, Chad Miller
Increasing system complexity along with ever tighter integration between subsystems necessary to meet increasing performance demands of modern aerospace platforms can give rise to subsystem interactions that adversely affect overall system performance. The standard approach of utilizing dynamic modeling, simulation, and analysis (MS&A) to study these interactions is often inadequate to capture all effects of interest due to the assumptions required to make the modeling feasible and integrated simulations computationally tractable. As such, Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, with part of the system being emulated using real-time simulation models, is being increasingly utilized in addition to MS&A in order to study interactions that are unknown a priori or cannot be adequately captured using MS&A alone.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2014
Jonathan M. Rheaume, Charles Lents
The United Technologies Research Center has investigated a hybrid electric aircraft propulsion system for a commercial single aisle aircraft. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbo Fan (GTF) engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. A survey of state of the art energy storage options was conducted. Battery, supercapacitor, and flywheel metrics were collected from the literature including Specific Energy (Wh/kg), Volumetric Energy Density (Wh/L), Power Density (W/kg), Cost ($/kWh), and Number of Cycles. Energy storage in fuels with converters was sized for comparison including fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1981
Luis C. Herrera, Bang-Hung Tsao
One of the main challenges in the power systems of future aircraft is the capability to support pulsed power loads. The high rise and fall times of these loads along with their high power and negative impedance effects will have an undesirable impact on the stability and dc bus voltage quality of the power system. For this reason, studying ways to mitigate these adverse effects are needed for the possible adoption of these type of loads. One of the technologies which can provide benefits to the stability and bus power quality is Energy Storage (ES). This ES is designed with the capability to supply high power at a fast rate. In this paper, the management of the ES to mitigate the effects of pulsed power loads in an aircraft power system is presented. First, the detailed nonlinear model of the power network with pulsed power loads is derived. Due to the large size of this model, a model order reduction is performed using a balanced truncation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
The next-generation of more electric aircraft (MEA) will rely heavily on multiple generators and energy storage to service a mix of constant power and resistive loads. This increase in system complexity, coupled with strict physical and performance requirements, necessitates the need for model-based system engineering (MBSE). As such, the validation of the component models is critical for the development process of MBSE. While it is not uncommon to develop/test component models with uncertainty studies combined with educated assumptions for the model parameters, the experimental hardware tests provide an important and effective means to validate the component models and quantify the variability of the model parameters. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Intelligent Power program has procured numerous 40 kVA, 400 Hz, brushless synchronous generators at various stages of their life cycle.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware in the-loop (xHIL) in which an advanced power emulator (APE) is used to emulate an electrical load on an electrical power system (EPS). The emulator, in this case, is commanded using an advanced real-time target which can leverage CPUs and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken into three challenge problems (1) develop a solution to target behavioral level models to an advanced computational device (2) develop a high-bandwidth power emulation capability and (3) integrate these two solutions into an xHIL experiment. Challenge (1) will be addressed by targeting a behavioral level model of a brushless DC motor drive with a pulsedwidth modulated inverter to a real-time system. The results of the real-time model will be compared to that of a non-real-time gold standard.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2058
Thibaut Billard, Cedric Abadie, Bouazza Taghia
Rationalization of energy sources aboard aircraft and improvements in more electric technologies are pushing the aeronautic industry to meet the all-electric aircraft challenge. As a result, onboard power has been steadily increasing, reaching 1MW for B787. This paradigm shift towards more electrical aircraft architectures results in a higher risk of electrical discharges events such as gaseous breakdown, electrical arc and partial discharges. The latter phenomena being an important cause of concerns for component manufacturers as well as aircraft integrator because environmental, electrical stresses and cycling are, associated with mass reduction, all pointing in the direction of a higher likeliness of partial discharges events. The aim of this study is to characterize the partial discharge inception voltage, with the aforementioned constraints in mind, on aeronautic motor and its component in a representative environment.
2016-07-27
WIP Standard
J1455
The scope of this recommended practice encompasses the range of environments which influence the performance and reliability of the electronic equipment designed for heavy duty on and off road vehicles, as well as any appropriate stationary applications which also use these vehicle derived components. A few examples of such vehicles are on and off highway trucks, trailers, buses, construction equipment and agricultural equipment including implements.
2016-07-26
WIP Standard
ARP6903
This document is intended to provide guidance to assist users in choosing compatible component finishes/platings to achieve the best corrosion resistance performance for compatible components/couples.
2016-07-26
Standard
AS6070/8
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-07-25
WIP Standard
AS21378A
No scope available.
2016-07-22
Standard
AS20708/19B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-07-22
Standard
AS20708/21B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-07-22
Standard
AS20708/28B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-07-22
Standard
AS20708/20B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-07-22
Standard
AS20708/23B
Scope is unavailable.
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