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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0143
James Price
Consumer demands place the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation into cars at the same pace (faster time to market with no increase in cost) as the consumer industry does for consumer electronics. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles as well, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without further cost increases. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it’s impossible to compartmentalize design domains because it is connected in many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independently of each other and are not ideally suited to deal with any type of interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0251
Yoshikazu Nishida, Satoru komoda, Naoki Maruno
"The mounting of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) calls for the configuration of highly robust control systems. When mounting LIBs on the vehicle, it is important to accurately ascertain and precisely control the state of the battery. In order to achieve high durability, it is important to configure highly reliable systems capable of dependably preventing overcharging as well as to have control technology based on software that can contribute to extended battery life. The system configuration applies an overcharge prevention system that uses voltage detection with an emphasis on reliability together with a method for varying the range of state of charge (SOC) control in the vehicle according to the battery state in order to assure durability. In order to achieve this, battery-state detection technology was developed for the purpose of correctly detecting and judging the battery state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama
Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charging and discharging. In order to analyze the causes of degradation, the changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using synchrotron XRD, TEM, XAS and SEM-EDX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1197
Chao Chen, Franz Diwoky, Zoran Pavlovic, Johann Wurzenberger
A Linear and Time-invariant (LTI) Reduced Order Method (ROM) has recently been proposed for battery thermal problems in system-level simulations. In this method, a couple of Foster networks or state space models are applied to estimate the volume-averaged module/cell temperature or local temperature at specific positions in a battery pack. When the parameters prescribed to the Foster network or state space model are identified by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, it has been shown that the LTI ROM is able to provide identical results as those from CFD. In this work, an LTI model of a fluid-cooling EV battery module with twelve series connected Li-Ion cells is presented. The model consists of two LTI sub-systems: one is called self-heating sub-system which describes the temperature response to the heat dissipated from the reaction layers and electrodes of the cells.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0140
Aleksandar Hrnjak
In the auto industry there are many electromechanical systems and components and each system has a different purpose. This paper will explain sensitivity and integration of electromechanical systems up to 0.5 KW such as closure systems or similar actuators (power liftgate systems, power sliding door system, sun-roof system, window regulators, cinch latch… etc.) We can split these systems in two major groups as: 1) System with Strong Motor (SM system) 2) System with Weak Motor (WM system) Both systems can have the same purpose and different performance. SM system has less mechanical components and a stronger motor, while WM system has more mechanical components and a weaker motor. In this paper I will explain what advantages and disadvantages are between the systems, such as: 1. System integration 2. Systems sensitivity and reaction 3. Systems packaging and mass 4. Systems noise level 5.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0132
Sibi Visht Sankara Narayanan, Diane Peters PhD
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer’s power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept’s feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer’s single drive wheel, which allows us to dispense with the need for a differential.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0224
Andrew Patterson
With the dramatic mismatch between consumer handheld devices and automobiles in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features are deployed, vehicle manufacturers are faced with a dilemma. If the vehicle full of Embedded Software is to succeed, there needs to be a secure and accessible method to update software in a vehicle’s infotainment and telematics systems, in order to add new features and version updates. This session will explore available options for updating and extending the software capability of an infotainment system, in an effort to address the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0223
Rick Kriefeldt, Michael David Johas Teener
With the explosion of demand for connectivity and multimedia in the automobile, the need for standards-based A/V networking that can be easily deployed is now well-established. The IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) task group has developed a series of network enhancements that provide the components for highly reliable audio and video applications. This paper and presentation outlines these new technologies and their benefits when used for in-vehicle applications. Over the last ten years, consumer demand had driven a large increase in audio and video features and options in the automobile. Once only found in luxury cars, features such as DVD playback, backup cameras, and navigation have become commonplace options in many mainstream automobiles. Rear Seat Entertainment (RSE) units are growing in sophistication with more sources and choices at your fingertips. Each of these options has added to the need and desire for a common networking architecture in the automobile.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1223
Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola PhD
An approach is being pursued for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). The twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance has led to a SHEV powertrain using energy storage as a means for filtering drive cycle power demands on the engine, rather than an energy source for supplying all-electric range. The concept is intended to minimize, if not eliminate, the battery in the SHEV without resorting to full range proportional control of the engine and generator. An initial optimization study reported for a cross-over SUV SHEV showed a 3.5 kWh Li-ion battery pack was still required. In new research, a sports car class SHEV was studied, which is the topic of this manuscript. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size even more because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the battery size in the SUV. In this manuscript, a controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ to be realized with a light ESS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1191
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
The parameters of battery electrochemical model based on porous electrode theory are complex, which is suitable for off-line analysis. The parameters of equivalent circuit model (ECM) are few and composed of electrical components (resistances, inductances, capacitances, Warburg impedance, constant phase element…), whose operation is fast, and more suitable for the on-line estimation of the vehicle power battery performance, such as SOC, SOH and temperature. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy battery model which can comprehensively depict the internal state of the battery is developed in the paper firstly. The model is based on the porous electrode theory, and it can obtain a complete spectrum of the cell impendence. Then the effect of battery key parameters (the radius of particle, electrochemical reaction rate constant, solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficient, conductivity) to the simulated impedance spectroscopy are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy PhD, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm. Preliminary measurements indicated that this range breaks into three different zones, each with its own unique possible failure characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Automotive OEM’s are investing large sums in the development of (hybrid) electrified vehicles and networked automotive systems (such as Car2x systems). Future aims towards autonomous driving and currently ongoing replacement of traditional mechanical systems with modern embedded systems lead to significantly increasing complexity of these systems. Premium cars in 2009 implied more than 90 electronic control units (ECU) with close to 1 Gigabyte software code implemented. For 2018 30% of the overall vehicle costs are predicted to stem from vehicle electronics. At the same time, the higher degree of integration and the safety-criticality of the control application raise new challenges. Evidence of correctness of the different applications, possibly running on the same computing platform, has to be guaranteed. On one hand, the development of such systems has to face many cost challenges and is required to support the demands of time-to-market (first time right).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0164
Smitha K.P., Priti Ranadive, Naveen Boggarapu, Rakesh A
The automotive industry today follows Model Based Development (MBD) for developing modern automotive applications. This method involves creating models for a given system under design and then using tools like Matlab/Simulink to auto-generate code for target platforms. This method is popular since maintenance of MBD based applications is simple and less time consuming as compared to maintaining application code. Thus, MBD facilitates correct designs and easy maintenance of automotive applications. However, there are legacy automotive applications that are not developed using models. It is difficult to accommodate and test any changes in such application codes since it requires extensive testing. Additionally, for application code generated from models, many a times, code is changed during testing and these changes are not reflected in the model. Hence, there is a need to convert legacy automotive application codes to models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0191
Priti R. Ranadive
Improving reliability and quality of software is a major aspect in automotive industry. Software reliability and quality improves by reducing bugs or defects in the software. However, finding these defects at an early stage in the software development life cycle is important to reduce the rework and cost. Manually detecting defects or bugs in large code sets is time consuming and is less accurate. Hence, using static or dynamic analysis tools has become a standard practice in automotive industry. Though many such tools are commercially available, it is observed that these tools are less used for various reasons. Some of the major reasons are users need to spend considerable amount of time to learn to use these tools to get desired output reports, customized checks are required for an application that are not provided by the tool and reports are too lengthy as well as cumbersome to analyze.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru
Engine Stop-Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to achieve reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing of the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and necessary adjustments are made to system design. This results in a set of hard and fast rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0886
Joseph Pritchard, Wai K. Cheng
The use of secondary air in the SI engine exhaust is an effective means to control the HC emissions and to facilitate the catalyst light-off in the engine start-up process. The effects of the secondary air on particulate matter oxidation in the exhaust have been studies in a gasoline direct injection engine under cold idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The engine operates at lambda of 0.8 and 0.9; the exhaust lambda (the air fuel ratio after the secondary air addition) varies from the same value as the engine lambda (no secondary air) to lambda = 1.2. The spark timing has been set at 10 and 15 degrees atdc. Significant reduction of particulate number (up to 80%) and particulate volume (up to 90%) have been observed. The temperature of the exhaust is deemed too low for particulate oxidation using the classical Strickland-Constable correlation. The particulate oxidation is attributed to the action of the radicals derived from the oxidation of the exhaust species (HC, CO and H2).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Both the increasing power requirements and the integration of safety-critical electrical systems present a challenge for the development and validation of future automotive electrical networks. In particular, the layout of alternators, storage devices, and converters, and also the robust and optimum design of the electrical distribution system are based on a profound understanding of the electrical power consumption. For this reason, considerable effort has been made to develop models of electrical systems and loads as well as their respective use-profiles. Unfortunately, even for a mid-sized vehicle, the number of loads leads to a tremendous number of possible combinations of on- and off-states. Furthermore, the simultaneous operation of some loads is highly improbable or excluded, whereas the operation of other loads is positively correlated. In addition, in most cases the use of certain loads depends on the operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
The nature of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric & hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate trade studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical FMEA report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0253
Qiao Zhang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
Energy storage and power management are of critical importance to various electric vehicles, including pure, hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Of all the energy storage devices, batteries are one of the most widely used. However, battery alone has faced several challenges, including low power density, short cycling life, challenges in thermal management in high power-load conditions. Super-capacitor (SC) on the other hand, has much higher power density and has emerged as an attractive pairing for batteries. As a result of the hybridized energy storage, it allows a downsized battery for reduced weight, and allows battery to operate without large current spike for extended life. Since battery and SC have different dynamic characteristics, an overall energy management strategy should be designed for the system to coordinate power flows between different energy sources.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0887
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular, as it can remove the troublesome plug-in process, provide an inherent electrical isolation and adapt to harsh environments. Charging power regulation, as one of important issues, is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes or the required charging power for batteries increases endlessly. Based on the comparative analysis of traditional regulation methods, this paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected symmetrically) to couple the cascaded resonant topology to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained directly from the voltage sources.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0181
Takahiro Iida, Masahiro Matsubara, Fumio Narisawa, Hideyuki Kojima, Tohma Yamaguchi
 Car specifications have became diversified because of the target market or grades of the vehicle, so variations of automotive software increased. Now our development term becomes shorter and shorter, and software development cost becomes higher and higher. Furthermore, software development cost keeps increasing because of electronic control units multiplication and the integration of larger and larger control software scales. The braking system is one of the systems composed of the problem. The braking system is comprised of a booster, ESC, a caliper (electric parking brakes). Currently, the controls of braking systems are requiring to develop many functions for high-performance brakes (ADAS, ESC). Additionally in case of HEV or EV, braking systems are demanded to cooperate with regenerative braking system. Moreover, braking systems contain devices from different suppliers which have different policy to decide which devices to use.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0248
Hiroyasu Baba, Koji Kawasaki, Hideomi Kawachi
We have developed Li-ion battery heating system which is direct resistance heating for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) by use of an inverter and a motor. One relay is added between a positive terminal of Li-ion battery and one-phase (e.g. U-phase) of a three-phase motor. When additional relay is turned on, the motor coils, IGBTs (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) in the inverter and a smoothing capacitor for the inverter constitute buck-boost DC to DC converter. IGBTs are controlled to repeat charging and discharging between the battery and the smoothing capacitor. We made a system prototype and examined battery heating capability. And also we optimized charging and discharging frequency from impedance and current to improve heat generation. This method can increase battery temperature from -20 deg C to -1 deg C in 5 minutes and can extend EV driving range. Additionally the system can be installed into all HEV, PHEV and EV.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1179
Christopher J. Brooks, Eric Kreidler
Vehicle drivetrain electrification is one of the many future challenges that automakers face. While there are many different EV system configurations, the one constant is the need for better electrochemical storage. Initially, this paper will discuss existing electrochemical systems and their potential to meet future vehicle requirements. We will then examine beyond Li-ion systems and their potential to replace current technology. Lithium-O2 batteries form lithium peroxide (Li2O2). This product formed on the electrocatalyst happens to be a wide band-gap semiconductor/insulator. This has ramifications for discharge, charge, and battery design. During discharge, the poor electronic conductivity of Li2O2 limits the amount and rate at which product can be formed. Under a constant discharge, the resistance of the electrode increases, causing a voltage drop that becomes sufficiently large and stops any further reaction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1190
Matthew Shirk, Jeffrey Wishart
As part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC Level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery testing includes constant-current discharge capacity, Electric Vehicle Power Characterization, and Low Peak Power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1181
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Timur Aliyev, Anthony Rick, Brian Sisk
Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery pack can be employed by a battery management system (BMS) to balance a variety of operational considerations, including optimization of pulse capability and avoiding damage/aging to the battery. Consideration of cell-to-cell performance variability of lithium-ion batteries is critical to correct estimation of the battery pack power limit as well as proper sizing of the individual cells in the battery. Further, understanding of cell variability is necessary to protect the cell and other system components, e.g. fuse and contactor, from over-current damage. In this work, we present the use of an equivalent circuit model for estimation of the power limit of lithium battery packs by considering the individual cell variability under current or voltage constraints. We compare the power limit estimation by using individual cell characteristics compared to the estimate found using only max/min values of cell characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1180
Letao Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Xuezhe Wei, Zechang Sun
Lithium-ion batteries have been increasingly utilized as the energy storage systems in electric, hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in vehicles (EVs/HEVs/PHEVs). To guarantee batteries in a normal operation scenario, parameters and states such as terminal voltage, current, open circuit voltage (OCV), state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), temperature and so on need to be monitored and estimated by battery management systems (BMSs). As a crucial characteristic relationship, the OCV-SOC curve reflects rich information containing SOC, SOH, heat generation, etc. However, due to thermo-dynamic characteristics of Li insertion/extraction process, the OCV-SOC curve exhibits hysteresis (OCV differs between charge and discharge). Generally, this phenomenon can be neglected for some battery types such as LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, but for LiFePO4 batteries, it is very pronounced and non-ignorable due to the very flat feature of the OCV-SOC curve.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements.From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
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