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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio massarotti, pietro marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2707
Wei Li
This reseach presents the energy recuperation eddy current retarder (ERECR) which could offer a solution for the energy consumption and overheating issues of the conventional eddy current retarders. The ERECR consists of 3 main systems, namely Eddy Current Braking (ECB) system, Energy Recuperation (ER) system and Electrical Control System. The ER system which could recycle the kinetic energy from constrant speed downhill and the braking condition is mainly concerned in this research. By proposing a novel designed generator integrated with the dual-plate eddy current retarder, the ER system could generate electric energy to fulfill the energy demand of ECB system while offering respective braking torque. First, the energy flow for the vehicle braking and degrading was analyzed and the energy recovery potential under these conditions was calculated.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2411
Michal Sztykiel, Steven Fletcher, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
The increasing electrical demand in commercial and military aircraft justifies a growing need for higher voltage DC (e.g. ±270 VDC) primary distribution systems. A ±270VDC system offers reduced power losses and space savings, which is of major importance for aircraft manufacturers. At present, challenges associated with ±270 VDC systems include reliable fast acting short circuit protection. Solid State Contactors (SSC) have gained wide acceptance in traditional 28 VDC secondary systems for DC fault interruption. Nevertheless, the generation of adequate arc voltages for interruption at higher operating voltages and currents requires further technology maturation. This paper demonstrates an alternative method for fault mitigation by introducing bidirectional AC/DC converter topology with DC fault current blocking capability. Presently utilized converters lack this blocking feature due to the existing path for the fault current flow through the anti-parallel diodes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2420
Henry A. Catherino
The heat generation rate of a lithium ion cell was estimated using a reversible heat generation rate equation. Because the equation is based on the energy conservation law, the influence of kinetically slow processes should be considered. In this analysis, the influence of kinetically slow processes is present but it is small within the domain of the test measurements. This approximation can be of significant usefulness for modeling the thermal response of single cells and multi-cell batteries.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2407
Theodoros Kostakis, Patrick Norman, Steven Fletcher, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
The aviation industry has witnessed a technological shift towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. This shift has been driven by a number of perceived benefits including performance optimization and reduced life-cycle costs. Increased electrification within MEA has made aircraft electrical networks larger and more complex and this necessitates an increased electrical power offtake from the engine. With this comes the need to better optimise the efficiency of engine electrical power extraction. The paralleling of multiple generation sources across the aircraft is one potential design approach which could help improve engine operability and fuel efficiency within more-electric aircraft platforms and this paper will investigate options for this to be implemented within the context of current design and certification rules.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2408
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
This paper will propose a novel power generating system concept including auxiliary, backup and emergency power source. Existing aircrafts employs an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a ram air turbine (RAT) for the power generation besides aero-engine generators. APU works prior to stating the propulsion on the ground and as a backup power plant in the flight. RAT is activated due to keeping the essential system in the case of an emergency situation. Both systems are optimized on the conventional aircraft in which hydraulic, pneumatic and electric are supplied for the control and equipment. Although a conventional aircraft needs hydro pumps and air compressors, the coming of a new era of more electric architecture for aircraft and propulsion stimulates to improve the aircraft systems. In more electric aircraft, authors focus on the low pressure spool generation system of aero-engines.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2415
Kyle Shimmin, Greg Russell, Robert A. Reuter, Steven Iden
A reduced order dynamic aircraft model has been created for the purpose of enabling constructive simulation studies involving integrated electrical power and thermal management subsystems using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization methods. Previous higher-order models that have been used for this purpose have the drawbacks of much higher development time, along with much higher execution times in the simulation studies. The new formulation allows for climbs, accelerations and turns without incurring computationally expensive stability considerations; a dynamic inversion control law provides tracking of user-specified mission data. To assess the trade-off of improved run-time performance against model capability, the reduced order formulation is compared to a traditional six degree-of-freedom model of the same air vehicle. Thrust command comparisons against the higher fidelity model are shown to be excellent.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2410
Fei Gao, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher, Patrick Wheeler
DC electrical power system (EPS) for the future more electric aircraft (MEA) is promising due to several advantages such as lower system cost and simpler structure. So far, dominant control methods for proper power sharing can be mainly divided into two categories: active load sharing and passive load sharing. For active load sharing scheme, three common approaches are popular: master-slave control (MS), centralized control and average current control. The common of three approaches is the need of communication line among the parallel modules. On the other hand, most of the recent research is focused on passive load sharing (decentralized control method) e.g., droop control. As a decentralized control method, parallel modules can operate independently since no communication among the sources is needed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2413
Anngwo Wang, Jonathan Davies, Seth Gitnes, Lotfi El-Bayoumy
The instantaneous efficiency of an epicyclic geared rotary actuator is an important factor in sizing flight control systems where compound epicyclic gear trains are typically used. The efficiency variation can be smooth or fluctuating depending on the combination and timing of the teeth of ring gears, planet gears and sun gears. In a previous paper [1], the instantaneous efficiency characteristics of actuators with symmetric planets were investigated. The actuator’s reacting forces on the planets are symmetric and the overall length of the planet gears will not affect the efficiency. In this paper, a cantilever actuator with asymmetric planet gears is studied. The length and location of the reaction forces on the planet gears are key factors in the efficiency calculation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2409
Constanza Ahumada S., Seamus Garvey, Tao Yang, Patrick Wheeler, Herve Morvan
This paper considers the electromechanical interconnection between the electrical power system of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the shaft connecting the engine to the generator. In order to probe the existing coupling between these two systems and therefore the necessity of studying them together, the effect of an electric load impact on the mechanical system of the MEA will be analyzed. As the MEA concept, replaces the pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical systems by electrical systems, the electrical power rating of the MEA is considerable higher than the power rating of existing aircraft and consequently new challenges arise. A larger electrical power system implies larger generators and higher power loads, which can have higher associated electrical transients. Moreover, unlike in previous aircraft and most ground based electrical power systems, in the MEA the short term changes in power tend not to be small compared to the total load in the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2584
Andrew Dickerson, Ravi Rajamani, Mike Boost, John Jackson
Based on a advanced modeling approach, we are developing a system for estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) for Li-Ion batteries for aerospace applications. We begin with a set of functional requirements that are further translated to detailed system and maintenance specifications. We will show how this RUL calculator will be translated to actual algorithms and operating procedures inside a battery’s management unit. Test data will be used to validate the robustness and goodness in the predictions. We will also share plans for the future along with implications for certification of the system. This is important because batteries are governed by FAA regulations and are dispatch critical for certain applications.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2522
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke, Perry Rucker
In this paper, we will describe basic principles for design of open IMA architectures using VPX standard, and describe based on space avionics architetcure, how those components can be used for definition of open VPX-based architectures for IMA and integrated systems. VPX, as a switched fabric, supports the design of advanced integrated systems using technologies such as deterministic Ethernet, which can be used in backplane and backbone applications. In cases where functional interrelationships and Ethernet network bandwidth sharing is deterministic and all logical links among critical function have configurable quality of service with guaranteed timing, the complexity challenges in design of advanced integrated architectures can be much simpler to handle and mitigate. This enables design of truly open and flexible modular embedded systems, which can host hard real-time, real-time, and soft functions at lower system lifecycle costs.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2404
Catherine E. Jones, Karen Davies, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt, Michael Armstrong, Andrew Bollman
Distributed electrical propulsion has been predicted as a possible solution to enable air travel to continue to grow at high levels, whilst meeting noise, emissions and system performance targets. Such aircraft will require a complex electrical power system, to deliver power to propulsor motors from gas turbine driven generators. In order ensure high enough power densities can be reached, it is well documented in the literature that such systems should be superconducting. Hence the development of a suitable power system which is sufficiently light and efficient, in order to be viable for the aerospace application, is challenging due to a number of unanswered questions regarding the best choice of system architecture, suitable levels of redundancy and fault management and protection strategies. Key to the development of the distributed electrical propulsion system is the understanding of how faults propagate in the network, and based on this what possible protection strategies may be.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2412
Tao Yang, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher
The more-electric aircraft (MEA) is the developing trend for the next generation airplanes. Recent advances in power electronics, electrical drives and modern control techniques make it possible to replace many functions which are conventionally managed by hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical power, with electrical power driven devices. Such replacement would increase reliability, capability, maintainability, reduced weight and volume, and provide higher survivability in aircraft operations. The use of MEA technology will result in a large number of AC/DC converters supplying power for functions as fuel pumps, cabin pressurization, air conditioning, engine start and flight control. There are two alternative ways to convert the AC power to the DC power: the pulse-width modulation (PWM) active front-ends and passive multi-pulse converters. The former approach seemingly needs considerable development to meet the reliability requirement for aircraft applications.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2587
Matthew Smith, Peter F. Sulcs, Rhonda Walthall, Mark Mosher, Gregory Kacprzynski
Aircraft System Health Management (ASHM) is a UTC developed web application that provides access to Aircraft Condition Monitoring Function (ACMF) reports and Flight Deck Effects (FDE) records for B787 and A320 a/c. The tool was built with a flexible architecture to field a range of off-board diagnostics and prognostics modules designed to transform an abundance of data into actionable and timely knowledge about fleet health. This paper describes the ASHM system architecture and implementation with a focus on “lessons learned” in applying diagnostic and prognostics algorithms to available fleet data. Key topics include managing data quality issues, design for cross-enterprise collaboration and defining a workable approach to testing, validating and deploying prognostics and diagnostics models with various degrees of complexity. A case study is provided related to fluid leak detection within an environmental control subsystem.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2544
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Pierluigi Antonini
Within the “Industria 2015” Italian framework program, the HI-ZEV project has the aim to develop two high performance vehicles: one full electric and one hybrid. The hybrid vehicle is a sport car with an internal combustion engine with a maximum power of 300 kW and an electric motor with a maximum power of 150 kW. It is equipped with a 400 V, 15 Ah storage system. Special batteries are required due to the high values of discharge current needed to supply the electric subsystem (up to 25 times the nominal current). Also a dedicated cooling system has been designed, to avoid a dangerous rising temperature, due to such high currents. The cells used have been the Demon 5Ah OCCL (Oxygen-Cobalt-Carbon-Li-Ion technology). Every single module is composed by 6 cells in series with 22.5V of nominal voltage, while the battery pack is made with 18 modules in series and 3 in parallel.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0037
Jiten Kishorbhai Chavda, Varsha Shah
India is developing country with tremendous growth in automobile sector. 8 to 9 million new two wheelers and over a million four wheelers are every year come on the road. Penetration of EVs, HEVs(full forms) and PHEVs has large scope with good environment friendly support and energy saving prospectus. Initial and replacement cost of battery is one of the biggest economic criteria for the same. Hybrid power source for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs gives enhance performance which increase life of battery and reduce overall cost of battery operated vehicles. Accurate parameter estimation for battery used in electrical vehicles is essential for designing the hybrid power source with fuel cell and battery or ultra-capacitor and battery to improve the performance of battery operated EVs, HEVs and PHEVs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0128
Prateek Patel, Tapan Sahoo, Harish Chandra
The two major benefits of hybridization of automotive powertrain are realized in the form of engine downsizing and capturing free energy using some form of onboard recuperation system. The design of such systems is mostly driven by iterative simulations. However, this study is about quantitatively deriving the potential of regenerative braking from Indian driving perspective. The calculation results are based on Indian homologation cycle and collection of real world driving data and condensing them into meaningful drive cycles for prominent Indian cities. This study further calculates component and control strategy requirements and quantitatively defines the compromises that would result due to the calibrations in strategy. This enables the engineers to make concrete data driven decisions. (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2010) The study also comprises incorporating safety related considerations in system design e.g. Stability while wheel lock, ABS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0133
Ayush Pandey, Arna Ghosh
In this paper, we present a highly robust controller for velocity control of mobile robots, which could be used for different kinds of mobile robots. The controller design is illustrated with two different kinds of mobile robots one of which is a differential drive robot and another is a non-differential non-ackerman drive mobile robot. Through theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments on robots, various controller design techniques were analyzed viz. using the Root Locus Method in the s-plane, using Bode Plots for Frequency Domain Analysis and using State Variable Feedback Controller Design. Also, we have compared the results obtained with the Deadbeat response for the system. The paper shows comparison with open loop performance of the system and also shows the results of controller design when it is assumed that the mathematical model of the plant is unknown. The relation of these facts with the robust controller design hence obtained is also discussed.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0120
Yogesh Sherki, Nikhil Gaikwad, Jayalakshmi Chandle, Anil Kulkarni
Earthquake is one of the major natural calamity. So prediction of the reach of earthquake event to the various locations could result in minimizing the disaster due to it. An early warning system for earthquake mainly issues an alarm to have a time margin for evacuating peoples to the safe place or shutting down key facilities like major industrial work etc. to avoid major consequences. This paper contains the design of sensor system and the techniques used for detection and processing of the received signals. The main difference between our method and conventional methods of earthquake location tracking is the addition of two planer Azimuth angle. Conventionally the triangulation method only used for tracking the earthquake location. But this method is not much accurate since it considers the average speeds of the P and S waves. The speed of seismic waves varies immensely depending upon the contents of soil, rocks or water etc. below the earth surface.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0125
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, integral motor compressor, evaporator & condenser assembly, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. . Conventional Car can use engine's waste heat for heating or defrosting, while the Electric vehicle has no waste heat to use, so that it faces greater difficulties in heating mode. In order to promote the application of electric vehicles and to reduce environmental pollution, it is important to research how to improve battery`s capacity and develop efficient energy storage battery, as well as reduce the energy consumption of the electric car`s accessory equipment.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0142
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0143
Rupen Singla, Anubhaw Kirti, Nishit Jain, Sandeep Mandal, Tapan Sahoo
Keyless entry feature is one of the basic feature which has to be provided even in the lowest variant of entry level cars. From low cost bench setup to multi-purpose automated Hardware-in-loop setup, different test setups, test results and significant cost saving initiatives are explained through this paper. Detailed cost and manpower analysis of different setups is done for cost optimization of future testing setups. The work discusses why, when and under which boundary conditions simple low-cost test solutions provide a better alternative in terms of economy, duration and quality compared to mid and full HIL systems.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0147
Anoop N. N
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2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0149
John G. Arvanitis
The battery model accuracy is one of the major keys for building high fidelity battery storage energy systems and hybrid energy systems. Any proposed model must account for thermal variations because of the crucial effect of temperature in transport and kinetic phenomena of electrochemical systems. This paper proposes an effective fractional approach method for increasing the accuracy of a model and estimating faster the required parameters using the Matlab Curve Fitting toolbox taking into account of thermal dependence. It is based on existing work on Electrical Circuit Model Layered Technique parameter estimation. The new approach applied on lithium (LiFepo4) cell under different operating conditions revealed dependences of the equivalent circuit elements on state of charge, average current, and temperature. The proposed process is useful for creating a high fidelity model capable of predicting electrical current/voltage performance and estimating run-time state of charge (SOC).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0136
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
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