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Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive powerplants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. In modern gasoline combustion concepts the application of direct injection combined with stratification is one of the most promising strategies. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions at the start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEV mode, the transients are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which are harmful to combustion and emission performance. This paper concerned about the GDI engine performances for ISG HEVs during the start-up process. A servo motor was connected directly to the engine output shaft to simulate the ISG. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing, ignition timing and so on, can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Antonino La Rocca, David MacMillan, Paul Shayler, Michael Murphy, Ian Pegg
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. Magnitude and cycle-to-cycle variation of indicated parameter have been used as key indicators of cold idle performance. The utility of different injection strategies, up to three pilot injections before a main, is investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm, a speed representative of idle conditions, and at -20ºC. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis performed for each case. A CFD investigation was then used to visualise the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution, with particular emphasis on how the injection patterns affect the mixture distribution in the proximity of the glow plug. Kiva 3v was used to model the combustion system and fuel injections. A 60º mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. Combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nicolas Arnault, Guy Monsallier
Cold weather is a challenge for compression ignition engines. As Diesel fuel creates wax crystals and gel when temperature goes down enough (sometimes just below 0°C), it comes to plug the fuel filter and the fuel injection system, leading to undesirable effects like loss of power, engine stall after start or even engine not starting at all. Side effects like fuel feeding pump durability can also be linked to it. Moreover, it has been shown that BioDiesel, and especially FAME coming from Palm, Tallow or Used Kitchen Oil has negative impacts on vehicle cold flow operability. Literature has even identified the key fuel components which impact the cold flow properties. Fuel cold flow properties can be improved through additives, which can be already included in the fuel at the pump, or manually added by the driver. But, obviously this cannot be easily controlled on the field and car manufacturers cannot handle in advanced where the fuel fill-up will be done, nor the quality of the fuel fed in the vehicle tank.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan
Engine transients have attracted high attentions from researchers due to their high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle driving. More emissions are expected compared to steady states as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has a significant influence on engine transients especially at the start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were investigated in this study. The transient engine tests were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in the cold cell at the different ambient temperatures ranges between +20 and -7 ºC. The engine including, fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the whole transient tests. Instantaneous engine performances including torque and speed, gaseous emissions such as CO, HC and NOx, and particle emissions for its number and size distribution were analysed during each transient test at different ambient conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Krzysztof Jan Siczek
Nowadays microbes like bacteria are used to wring out electrical energy trapped in wastewater. Such bacterial batteries use oxygen at the cathode to soak up the harvested electrons. Oxygen is used because of its efficiency during collecting electrons. Unfortunately such mini power plants can be treacherous and sensitive to leak of oxygen and microbes. The oxygen can bubble over to the anode and the bacteria can migrate closer to the cathode to swipe the gas for their own energy production. They can also case risks a short circuit. In the case of such battery it is a real problem the control of gas flow and behaviour. To prevent spillover between electrodes in such batteries, engineers use the complex membrane barriers should be used. Replacing of bubbling oxygen with solid silver oxide that gobbles up electrons allows creating rechargeable bacterial battery. For both fuel cell and microbe-based battery it is needed a place to send electrons, but putting oxygen in there is a real problem.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Bandaru Balaji, L Navaneetha Rao
The present work describes an approach for simulation of on-road-driving cycles (duty cycles) in transient engine testbed to predict the fuel economy for different vehicles from ICV to HCV. The driving cycles investigated in the current study are generated from the typical experimental data measured from instrumented vehicles in real world traffic conditions ranging from different cities, highways and village roads in India. The measured driving cycle data is analyzed using MATLAB programing, and then sub-divided into several zones depend on the time of operation over the engine operating area. Later, the engine driving cycle data was corrected in terms of speed and torque before simulating in engine testbed, which is essential for minimizing dynamometer influence on the fuel consumption. The power consumed by auxiliary equipment and other losses were considered in the study. The main objective of the work is to develop a procedure to estimate the likely performance, fuel economy and emissions of an upcoming/under development engine or vehicle, by a given drive cycle simulation, without having to go through the costly route of building the vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, He Ma, Jianyi Tian, Akbar Ghafourian
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. Therefore, the study of engine transients has received increasing attention for meeting the new emission legislations. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for the measurement and processing of data during transient engine tests concerning the noise in time-resolved data during the transient which requires proper filtering. A common practice in engine tests is ensemble averaging the data of a number of cycles for the steady state experiments but this method is not suitable for the transient cases. In this study, four alternative automated methods were implemented on in-cylinder pressure data of each individual cycle to compare and analyze the suitability of combustion diagnostic.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Jianyi Tian
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the resultant pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion at lower temperatures. In this research work, a light-duty, turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed for an investigation of the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at -7°C for at least 8 hours before starting of the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (HC, NOx and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after DOC. The results showed that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at -7°C start than the case at 20°C start. The reduction of NOx and THC by DOC was less during idle period at -7°C cold start.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Hongming Xu, Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian, Miroslaw Wyszynski, Jakub Piaszyk
The cold start performance of diesel engines has been receiving more attention when the European Commission emission regulations directed to include the cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles. The cold start performance of diesel engines is influenced by the ambient conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and engine operating conditions. The present research work investigates the effect of the cold ambient conditions on the engine idle speed stability and the exhaust emissions (gaseous and particle emissions) from the diesel engine during the cold start and followed by idle conditions. The engine startability and idling tests were carried out on the diesel engine in the cold cell at the different ambient temperatures ranges between +20 ºC and -20 ºC. The higher fuel consumption and peak speed observed at very cold ambient temperatures have been compared to those at ambient conditions. The exhaust emissions of the engine were higher at cold start and then it started decreasing during idle.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Suman Harapanahalli
Today’s automobiles have wide range of fuel options with the same trend continuing the vehicle will be able to handle more than 2 fuels. It will become cumbersome for the driver to remember different types of fuels that are supported by vehicle. In this paper we introduce an mechanism with which the fuel door opens only if the fuel station can refuel the required fuel for the vehicle. This is achieved using the near field communication. A simple RFID tag is fitted in the fuel nozzle in the station when the nozzle is taped to the fuel door the electronics shall read the type of fuel and only if that fuel is accepted by the vehicle the fuel door is opened.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Henry A. Catherino, Fred Feres
Deep charge and discharge cycling of 24 Volt battery strings composed of two 12 Volt VRLA batteries wired in series affects reliability and life expectancy. This is a matter of interest in vehicle power source applications. These cycles include those specific operational cases requiring the delivery of the full storage capacity during discharge. The concern here is related to applications where batteries serve as a primary power source and the energy content is an issue. It is a common practice for deep cycling a 24 volt battery string to simply add the specified limit voltages during charge and discharge for the individual 12 Volt batteries. In reality, the 12 Volt batteries have an inherent capacity variability and are not identical in their performance characteristics. The actual voltages of the individual 12 Volt batteries are not identical. The experimental measurements reveal that one of the two individual batteries in the series configuration is driven to voltages exceeding the acceptable operational limits for a single 12 Volt battery.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sanket Pawar
Off-road commercial vehicles many times have to work at remote areas in poor working conditions like reduced visibility due to fog, snow, inadequate ambient lighting, dust etc..They may not have any access to emergency facilities in such places. Challenging geographical terrains and adverse weather conditions makes the situation worse. The combination of both can further degrade working conditions. The operator may need to either work or guide his vehicle through tight places or in hilly areas having such conditions. That imposes many challenges to operator in terms of efficiency & safety of both operator & vehicle. In an effort to increase productivity and efficiency operator may miss to look at safety aspects consequently, leading to accidents that can incur heavy losses due to damages to vehicle further delaying the work. It can even lead to a life threatening emergency in some cases. On the other hand, decrease in efficiency results in increased cost of operation due to unnecessary wastage of fuel & delays in getting the work done.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
John Robert Fraley, Alireza R. Behbahani, Gary W. Hunter
Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. Degradation and damage that develops over time in hot section components can lead to catastrophic failure. Poor characterization of degradation processes in harsh environments can affect the development of durable components. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper will review some of the wireless technologies for implementation of the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. From aprognostics perspective, monitoring the surface temperature of rotating and nonrotating components in the gas turbine is a critical enabling technology.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Gregory J. Moore, Frank Puglia, Lawrence Myron, Stephen Lasher, Bob Doane, Joe Gnanaraj, Seth Cohen, Arthur Dobley, Ryan Lawrence
For 70 years Yardney has been a leader in specialty battery and energy systems for military, space, avionics, weapon systems and undersea vehicles. Yardney has evolved since beginning in 1944 in New York City, to Pawcatuck, CT, and since 2013 resides in East Greenwich, RI. The chemistries provided in this time include silver-zinc, magnesium silver chloride, lithium thionyl-chloride, nickel zinc, lithium-ion (Li-ion) and several metal-air technologies. Yardney has made cells from 50 mAh for human implantables to 1000 Ah for submersible vehicles. In addition to battery systems, Yardney also pursues hybrid systems for ground, space, undersea and avionic applications. The beauty of hybrid systems, combining energy sources such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells and solar, is that they can be used to optimize energy and power density, and with proper design lead to longevity of components and an overall cost savings. Where fuel cells can provide the most energy of these specified constituents on a large scale, at a smaller scale they come at a cost due to their inefficiencies and their bulk.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Javier Gazzarri, Nishant Shrivastava, Robyn Jackey, Craig Borghesani
Battery management system design is a complex problem that requires sophisticated models of the battery cell that mimic their electrochemical behavior under a variety of operating conditions. Equivalent circuits offer an adequate balance between fidelity and simulation speed, their parameters reflect direct experimental observations, and they are largely scalable. Scalability is particularly important at the real time simulation stage, where a model of the battery pack runs on a real time simulator that is physically connected to the peripheral hardware in charge of monitoring and control. With modern battery systems comprising hundreds of cells, it is important to count on a modeling and simulation approach that is capable of handling numerous simultaneous instances of the basic unit cell and still be real time capable. In previous publications we presented a technique for the creation of a battery cell model that contains the electrochemical fingerprints of a battery cell based on equivalent circuit model fitting to experimental data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Mike Boost
Rechargeable lithium batteries are essentially ubiquitous in our daily lives and in virtually every industry from pocket key fobs to billion dollar space programs, in benign as well as extreme environments. Cell production in 2012 was estimated at 4.4 billion cells and expected to double by 2016. However within civil aviation, lithium batteries are still in the early stages of deployment. The general consensus within the industry is that the use of lithium batteries within civil aviation will increase substantially in the coming years. Within the past decade the use of rechargeable lithium batteries has been certified on several platforms including Airbus, Cessna and Boeing. Airframe manufacturers are highly focused on the potential for the lithium technology to reduce the weight and thus increase range for their aircraft. However, there are numerous considerations within the lithium battery design that must be addressed to achieve optimal safety, more specifically lithium cell determination and electronic design.
WIP Standard
2014-07-23
This specification covers the requirements for radio frequency absorptive component wires and finished cables which function electrically as distributed low-pass filters. Materials and construction details are specified in the applicable specification sheet.
WIP Standard
2014-07-22
SPECIFICATION COVERS A TAPE STYLE DEVICE FOR REPAIRING LARGER SIZE PRIMARY WIRE.
Standard
2014-07-17
To provide standard terminology and definitions with regard to ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Standard
2014-07-15
SAE J2601 establishes the protocol and process limits for hydrogen fueling of light duty vehicles. These process limits (including fuel temperature, the maximum fuel flow rate, and rate of pressure increase and end pressure) are affected by factors such as ambient temperature, fuel delivery temperature and initial pressure in the vehicle’s compressed hydrogen storage system. SAE J2601-2014 establishes standard fueling protocols based on a look-up table approach with performance targets. The current standard is table-based and provides concise performance targets for both communications and non-communications fueling as described in Sections 7 through 10. An important factor in the performance of hydrogen fueling is the station’s dispensing equipment cooling capability and the resultant fuel delivery temperature “T” rating. SAE J2601 has a reference fueling target of 3 minutes with 95-100% SOC (with communications) with a T40 rated dispenser as specified in section 6.1. However, with lower fuel delivery temperature dispenser ratings (T30 or T20) and/or at high ambient temperatures, fueling times may be longer.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
To provide cross reference between test methods across the fiber optics industry.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
THIS SPECIFICATION COVERS ENVIRNMENT RESISTANT, HEAT-SHRINKABLE SOLDER TYPE SHIELD TERMINATION DEVICE WITHOUT PRE-INSTALLED GROUNDING LEAD WHERE OPERATING TEMPERATURE DOES NOT EXCEED 200 DEGREES CELCIUS.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
THIS SPECIFICATION COVERS ENVIRONMENT RESISTANT, HEAT-SHRINKABLE, SOLDER TYPE, SHIELD TERMINATION DEVICE WITH PRE-INSTALLED GROUNDING LEAD WHERE OPERATING TEMPERATURE DOES NOT EXCEED 200 DEGREES CELCIUS.
Standard
2014-07-09
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements for maintenance of design voltage in snowmobile electrical systems. It pertains to both battery-equipped and battery-less systems.
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