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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2608
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2367
Ganesan Mahadevan, Sendilvelan Subramanian
Control of harmful emissions during cold start of the engine has become a challenging task over the years due to the ever increasing stringent emission norms. Positioning the catalytic converter closer to the exhaust manifold is an efficient way of achieving rapid light-off temperature. On the other hand, the resulting higher thermal loading under high-load engine operation may substantially cause thermal degradation and accelerate catalyst ageing. The objective of the present work is to reduce the light-off time of the catalyst and at the same time reduce the thermal degradation and ageing of the catalyst to the minimum possible extent by adopting an approach with Dynamic Catalytic Converter System (DCCS). The emission tests were conducted at the cold start of a 4 cylinder spark ignition engine with DCCS at different positions of the catalyst at no load conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2452
Kingsley Joel Berry, Abdrahamane Traore, Aravind Krishna, Pavankumar Gangadhar, Allan Taylor
This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 36 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan Zeng, Penghao Zhang, Binyu Mei, Shiping Huang, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract:In low temperature condition, the increase of fuel viscosity, the decrease of flow-ability of lubricating oil and the decrease of storage battery performance cause the engine starting difficult. The current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but it causes a negative influence on storage battery performance and exhaust emission. In this paper, a warming device uses solar energy to directly warm up the engine. The device transfers solar power into thermal energy and store it into heat reservoir and uses heat conductor to warm up the engine. By using solar power to save power, the lifespan of the engine is extended and exhaust emission is decreased. This paper find out the heat amount necessary for diesel engine through resource gathering and calculation, choose an appropriate device and design a corresponding solar warming system. Keywords: warming system, solar power, diesel engine
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2412
Dojoong Kim, Dong Hyeong Lee, Jong Wung Park, Soo Hyun Hwang, Wan Jae Jeon
A variable valve actuation(VVA) system that changes the valve lift profiles according to the rotational speed and load condition of the engine, increases the intake and exhaust efficiency and gives a lot of possibilities to improve engine performance. A two-step VVA system has a relatively simple structure and is a cost effective way to improve engine performance. However, most two-step VVA mechanisms include hydraulically controlled switching systems. The biggest problem of the hydraulic switching systems is that oil temperature and pressure affect the operability of the mechanism, which is a major obstacle to achieving the goals of a VVA system to reduce fuel consumption and improve engine performance. In this study, we developed an end pivot rocker arm type two-step VVA mechanism, in which single cam drives two valves. The mode conversion of the two-step variable mechanism is done by an electronic switching system instead of a conventional hydraulic system.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2459
Liu Xiaojun, Yu Jinpeng, Yang Xia, Wu Daoming, Jie Zhu
In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20℃), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, in the low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger has been considered to supply power for PTC detailed in this paper. In order to control the current charging to the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control strategy models are established and compared: First, BMS controls the charging request current value which is send to off-board charger as a signal, and equals to the working current of PTC. Second, BMS controls the charging request voltage value which is slightly lower than the battery pack voltage.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2286
A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and fuel injection strategies influence the cold start performance of gasoline engines. Despite the cold start period is only a very small portion in the legislative emission driving cycle, but it accounts for a major portion of the overall driving cycle emissions. The start ability tests were carried out in the weather controlled transient dynamometer - engine test cell at different ambient conditions for investigating the cold start behavior of a modern generation multi-point fuel injection system spark ignition engine. The combustion data were analyzed for the first 200 cycles and the engine performance and emissions were analyzed for 300 s from key-on. It is observed that cumulative fuel consumption of the engine during the first 60 s of cold starting at 10 °C was 60% higher than at 25 °C and resulted in 8% increase in the value of peak speed of the engine.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2028
Steven Nolan, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt, Catherine Jones
Turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) for aircraft allows for the complete redesign of the airframe so that greater overall fuel and emissions benefits can be achieved. Whilst conventional electrical power systems may be used for smaller aircraft, much larger aircraft are likely to require the use of superconducting electrical power systems to enable the required whole system power density and efficiency levels to be achieved. The TeDP concept requires an effective electrical fault management and protection system. However, the fault response of a superconducting TeDP power system and its components has not been well studied to date, limiting the effective capture of associated protection requirements. For example, with superconducting systems it is the possible that a hotspot is formed on one of the components, such as a cable. This can result in one subsection, rather than all, of a cable quenching.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2030
Benjamin Cheong, Paolo Giangrande, Patrick Wheeler, Pericle Zanchetta, Michael Galea
In effort to reduce environmental impact of the aerospace industry, More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts with electrical systems for fuel pumping, wing ice protection, environmental control systems and aircraft actuation are becoming more and more widely researched. The replacement of hydraulic actuators by motor drives for flight control surfaces is particularly attractive for maintainability, reduction in operating costs and to eliminate the hydraulic fluid. High power density of aerospace motor drives is a key factor in the successful realization of these concepts. An integrated system design approach offer optimization opportunities for further improvements in power density however the challenge lies in its multi-disciplinary modelling and the handling of numerous optimization variables or constraints that are discrete and non-linear in nature. A 4-level modelling paradigm has been proposed by multiple authors to represent a motor drive.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2060
Joseph Dygert, Patrick Browning, Magdalena Krasny
The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has seen significantly increased levels of interest for its applications to various aerodynamic problems. The DBD produces stable atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma with highly energetic electrons and a variety of ions and neutral species. The resulting plasma often degrades the dielectric barrier between the electrodes of the device, ultimately leading to actuator failure. Several researchers have studied a variety of parameters related to degradation and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of various polymers such as PMMA or PVC that are often used in actuator construction. Many of these studies compare the degradation of these materials to that of borosilicate glass in which it is claimed that there is no observable degradation to the glass. Recent research at West Virginia University has shown that certain actuator operating conditions can lead to degradation of a glass barrier and can ultimately result in failure.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2061
Andrea Cravana, Gerardo Manfreda, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Robert Carrese, Piergiovanni Marzocca
An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system (composed of the electric motor, propeller, and the wing-propulsion mounting POD) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers. References: Amato, E.,Polsinelli, C.,Cestino, E.,Frulla, G.,Carrese, R.,Marzocca, P. (2016).
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2142
Brandon Mahoney, Jamie Marshall, Thomas Black, Dennis Moxley
It is well recognized that weight savings within an airframe can result in significant lifetime cost savings and increased flight range. The transition of aluminum alloys to lighter, composite materials is an increasingly prevalent strategy to reduce weight on aircraft. This paper describes the application of a lightweight carbon fiber composite technology to aviation, engine start lithium batteries. The transition of lithium battery chassis technology from metal to composite introduces technical challenges not found with traditional battery chassis. Modern lithium batteries contain more than energy cells; common internal components include switch mode battery chargers, health and safety monitoring electronics, and even environmental control circuitry such as heaters. Consequently, electromagnetic interference disruption potential created by the electronics must be addressed.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0069
Hyunwook Park, Jugon Shin, Choongsik Bae
Abstract The spray and combustion of diesel fuel were investigated to provide a better understanding of the evaporation and combustion process under the simulated cold-start condition of a diesel engine. The experiment was conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber and the engine cranking period was selected as the target ambient condition. Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques were used to visualize the liquid- and vapor-phase of the fuel under evaporating non-combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=0%). In-chamber pressure and direct flame visualization were acquired for spray combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=21%). The fuel was injected at an injection pressure of 30 MPa, which is the typical pressure during the cranking period.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0140
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte, Luis Sousa
Abstract Due to the need to properly quantify vehicle emissions in real world operation, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures will be used for measuring gaseous emissions on new EURO 6 vehicles.at the RDE 1 & 2: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles. Updated regulations have been enhanced to define RDE tests boundaries and data analysis procedures, in order to provide an accurate way to obtain representative results. The boundary conditions defined for vehicle testing include external atmospheric temperature, which can range from 0°C to around 30°C, for moderate conditions and -7°C up to 35°C for extended conditions in RDE tests. As a result of this range of possible test ambient temperature, pollutant emissions and energy consumption can vary considerably.
2017-08-01
Journal Article
2017-01-9283
Peter R. Hooper
Abstract This paper reports on the research and development challenges experienced from dynamometer testing of a spark ignition UAV engine operating on heavy fuel. The engine is a segregated scavenging two stroke engine with air charge delivery by means of integral stepped pistons overcoming durability issues of conventional crankcase scavenged engines. A key element of the experimental study builds upon performance development to address the need for repeatable cold start on low volatility fuel thereby eliminating gasoline from UAV theatres of deployment. Lubrication challenges normally associated with crankcase scavenged two stroke engines are avoided by the integrated re-circulatory lubrication system. The fuel explored in this study is kerosene JET A-1.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1969
Senthil Ram Nagapillai Durairaj, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Abstract Magnesium alloy current being used for automotive sector and are being significantly used for manufacturing engine block as offering higher power to weight ratio to the vehicle. In this context, the magnesium alloy has been used in the replacement of aluminium alloy for the starter housing which in turn increase the power to weight ratio of the motor. Considering the operation condition of starter motor in the engine of the vehicles, the starter motor is being exposed to the harsh environment, where its system is being tested for Noise, Vibration and Harshness. In this paper, the magnesium alloy housing is used to study the vibration and noise developed in the starter motor and the same is compared with the noise and vibration of the motor when it being used with Aluminium alloy Housing. First, the vibration study is carried out for the housing part alone to capture the resonant frequency of the both housing alloy say, Aluminium and Magnesium.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1967
Senthil Ram Nagapillai Durairaj, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Abstract Global Automotive Industry is mandated with the task of emission reduction and mileage improvements. One of the key areas being looked at from mileage standpoint is light weighting. While Aluminum body is replacing Steel is many vehicular applications, in Starter Motor Aluminum is the key component. Therefore, any attempt at light weighting must consider Aluminum. A Starter motor fits directly on to the engine. Aluminum being the housing material provides structural stability. It also performs the role of heat dissipation being a good thermal conductor and source of electrical ground path. Aluminum constitutes 20 - 25% of Starter motor weight. Any significant weight reduction cannot be achieved unless we look at the components made of Aluminum, namely die cast Housing and End plate. The alternatives considered in this study include engineered plastics, magnesium alloy and composites.
2017-06-28
Journal Article
2017-01-9181
Zhongming Xu, Nengfa Tao, Minglei Du, Tao Liang, Xiaojun Xia
Abstract A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9078
Dong Gao, MiaoHua Huang, Jiangang Xie
In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1734
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Guo-Shun Chuang
Abstract An accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is necessary not only for optimal energy management but also for protecting the lithium-ion batteries (LIB) from being deeply discharged or overcharged. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is established to simulate the dynamic behavior of LIB. Parameters of internal resistance, diffusion resistance and diffusion capacitance are identified using the recursive least square method. Because open circuit voltage (OCV) and SOC have an obviously nonlinear relationship, an extended Kalman filter is proposed to estimate the SOC based on the ECM model. Local linearization is employed to approximate the nonlinear SOC-OCV curve by a straight line with the slope and intersection around the operating point. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed algorithm is less than 5% for the test patterns.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0137
Akira Ando, Koichi Hamashima, Shinji Kato, Noriyuki Tomita, Takahiro Uejima
Abstract In respect to the present large refrigerator trucks, sub-engine type is the main product, but the basic structure does not change greatly since the introduction for around 50 years. A sub-engine type uses an industrial engine to drive the compressor, and the environmental correspondence such as the fuel consumption, the emission is late remarkably. In addition, most of trucks carry the truck equipment including the refrigerator which consumes fuel about 20% of whole vehicle. Focusing on this point, the following are the reports about the system development plan for fuel consumption reduction of the large size refrigerator truck. New concept is to utilize electrical power from HV system to power the electric-driven refrigerator. We have developed a fully electric-driven refrigerator system, which uses regenerated energy that is dedicated for our refrigerator system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0275
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, N. Prajitha, P. Sethu Madhavan
Abstract As technology gets upgraded every day, automotive manufacturers are paying more attention towards delivering a highly reliable product which performs its intended function throughout its useful life (without any failure). To develop a reliable product, accelerated combined stress testing should be conducted in addition to the conventional design validation protocol for the product. It brings out most of the potential failure modes of the product, so that necessary actions can be taken for the reliability improvement. This paper discusses about the field failure simulation and reliability estimation of automotive headlamp relays using accelerated combined stress testing. To analyze various field failure modes, performance and tear down analysis were carried out on the field failure samples. Field data (i.e. electrical, thermal and vibration signals) were acquired to evaluate normal use conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N. Khalid Ahmed
Abstract It is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). One strategy to improve EV range is to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper applies Big Data technology to investigate how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data Drive (BDD) data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile (MFM) data was also leveraged to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on the dynamic nature of driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0398
Robert A. Smith, Allison Ward, Daniel Brintnall
Abstract Both pellet raw material and resulting extruded insulation samples were obtained from three grades of PVC used to produce automotive insulation and were examined for thermal stability on a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The Flynn Wall technique was used to obtain degradation activation energies by plotting ln(heating rate) vs 1/T and using a literature value of 7% weight loss as the point of performance failure. The Arrhenius relationship was used to predict multiple year lifetimes at 100°C from the multiple hour degradation times observed on the TGA at 200°C. The insulation specimens of two of the samples were found to be significantly less thermally stable than the pellets - indicating slight decomposition occurred during extrusion onto the cable core. All cable insulation samples predicted service lifetimes many times the expected auto life. A PVC insulation sample was examined for failure at various oven aging temperatures using ASTM D3032 mandrel wrap testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1667
Scott Piper, Mark Steffka, Vipul Patel
Abstract With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
Abstract A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. For years now electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn this e-documentation into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1681
Kyaw Soe
Abstract This paper describes a test system for improving the completeness and representativeness of automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) test benches. This is with the aim to enable more testing and hence increase the usage and effectiveness of these facilities. A proportion of testing for automotive electrical and electronics systems and components is conducted using E/E testing boards (“test-boards”). These are table-like rigs consisting of most or all electrical and electronic parts connected together as per a car/truck/van. A major problem is that the testing is conducted on the equivalent of a static vehicle: test-boards lack basic dynamic elements such as a running engine, vehicle motion, environmental, component and fluid temperatures, etc. This limits the testing that can be carried out on such a test-board.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0937
David Culbertson, James Pradun, Magdi Khair, Jeff Diestelmeier
Abstract Tightening regulations throughout the world demand a reduction in fuel consumption and NOX emission levels, creating an increasing need for additional heat for SCR aftertreatment. A durable and low cost heating system is needed for vehicles with hybrid or 24Vdc electricity. Recent development efforts have resulted in much smaller and lower cost heating systems for electrical systems ranging from 400 to 24Vdc. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the size of the heater and the relationship of heater power to the amount of time required to heat the exhaust. Intelligent solid state switching enables the heater to be smaller without compromising durability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0893
Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1206
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Perry Wyatt
Abstract Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery system plays an important balancing role of optimizing the battery design cost, maximizing for power and energy, and protecting the battery from abusive usage to achieve the intended life. The power capability estimation of any given lithium-ion battery system is impacted by the variability of many sources, such as cell and system components resistance, temperature, cell capacity, and real time state of charge and state of health estimation errors. This causes a distribution of power capability among battery packs that are built to the same design specification. We demonstrated that real time power limit estimation can only partially address the system variability due to the errors introduced by itself. Integrating feedback control algorithms with the lithium-ion battery model maximizes the battery power capability, improves the battery robustness to variabilities, and reduces the real time estimation errors.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2608