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Viewing 241 to 270 of 21764
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0603
Robert A. Smith, Mikel Petty
Abstract Poly(butylene terephthalate) stock with 0, 15, and 30% glass fiber filler, used in the housings of electrical connectors on hybrid and electric vehicles, was examined by creep and stress relaxation for viscous deformation and modulus loss at 25, 75, 125, and 150°C. Sets of virgin and aged samples were examined within each set then compared to each other. Both the virgin and aged samples showed little viscous deformation or modulus reduction at 25°C, which was below the Tg of 40°C. Thermoplastic creep and stress relaxation was observed at the temperatures above Tg with, expectedly, more sample distortion and stiffness loss observed at higher test temperatures and lower filler contents both in virgin and unaged samples. Aged samples became stiffer, and more resistant to irrecoverable strain and stress relaxation than virgin samples indicating connectors to have a “self-healing” aspect through in-service use at elevated temperatures.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because it has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of this system. In this research, the durability test mode of a new Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFLS) with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as a new light source has been developed for a new large luxury sedan vehicle. First of all, the failure mode effect was analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal, vibrational, operational and electrical loads were investigated. The Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) technique was used to collect the vibration and temperature of an AFLS in a proving ground. The vibration test mode was designed by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. The customer usage data was used for making the target cycles of operational movement such as swiveling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
Abstract This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves and acceleration performance following SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The results obtained are compared to a chassis dynamometer test performed on the same vehicle to prove feasibility for a low cost implementation when there is no access to said testing tools.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract There is an increasing customer demand for adjustable chassis control features which enable adaption of the vehicle comfort and driving characteristics to the customer requirements. One of the most promising vehicle control systems which can be used to change the vehicle characteristics during the drive is the semi-active suspension system. This paper presents a Rule-Optimized Fuzzy Logic controller for semi-active suspension systems which can continuously adjust itself not only according to the road conditions but also to the driver requirements. The proposed controller offers three different control modes (Comfort, Normal and Sport) which can be switched by the driver during driving. The Comfort Mode minimizes the accelerations imposed on the driver and passengers by using a softer damping. On the other hand, the increased damping in Sport Mode provides better road holding capability, which is critical for sporty handling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1642
Shrey Aggarwal, Rama Subbu, Sanjay Gilotra
Abstract Testing, validation & evaluation are vital factors in terms of defining vehicle reliability and durability. Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance of the engine. It affects many variables including engine longevity, fuel economy, and engine power. It needs to be measured & controlled such that vehicle performance can be improved. Sparks occurring too soon or late in the engine cycle are often responsible for excessive vibrations and even engine damage. Today's spark-advance controllers are open-loop systems that measure parameters that affect the spark-advance setting and compensate for their effects. A closed-loop scheme instead measures the result of the actual spark advance and maintains an optimal spark-advance setting in the presence of disturbances. Attempt has been made in our endeavor to develop an embedded system device which can be used hands-on to measure the ignition timing with respect to T.D.C.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical models. Adding advanced components such as variable valve trains or direct injection systems to the model increases the degrees of freedom resulting in a high number of measurements for validation. Steadily rising costs for development, time and staff make it crucial for industry to improve the quality of measurements with advanced analysis techniques. Often, such models consider the simulated system as stationary, implying that system variables no longer change with time. This paper presents an internal combustion engine measurement system utilizing algorithms for the real-time evaluation of the state of the engine or its components. Several approaches have been reviewed and tested regarding their applicability. The most straightforward algorithms compare the gradient of a sensor signal to a pre-defined threshold.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1633
Donghao Hao, Changlu Zhao, Ying Huang, Xiaoyan Dai, Jiawei Liu
Abstract A multi-task control template has been established for diesel engine control system in this paper. By analyzing the function requirements and control strategies of electronic diesel engine control system, the data flow diagram has been obtained. Based on the mechanisms and characteristics of the RTOS as well as the design methods of real-time system software, modules in data flow graph has been divided further. So that the multi-tasks of the control system have been drawn. Then each task's properties have been designed. Afterwards, every task and the embedded RTOS have been transplanted into Freescale MPC5554 microcontroller. After that the multi-tasks have been tested and optimized in a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS) system of dSPACE AUTOBOX. The results show good reusability and real-time performance and it can increase the efficiency of the diesel engine control software development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1634
Toru Ishino, Shinichi Takai
Abstract When selecting a transmission gear, it has been standard to shift by operating a lever-type gear selector, but with advances in transmission technology and vehicle control, there is currently demand for technical progress in the operating method of the gear selector, and a good balance between intuitive operation by users and prevention of accidental operation is required. The authors have developed a push button-type electrically controlled gear selector that makes shifting easy to master and enables intuitive operation. A push button-type shifter should essentially be suitable for intuitive operation, but difficulty in distinguishing between selections has been an issue. However, we posited that distinguishing gear position selections by differentiating button operation direction as well as button positioning and shape could be implemented effectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
Abstract With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
Abstract The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
Abstract One of the greatest challenges facing the electric vehicle (EV) is its very short cruising range compared to gasoline-powered vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In addition to cruising range, two other major challenges faced by EVs are charging and on-road acceleration. To resolve these challenges, this paper proposes a new way of thinking about how to extend the cruising range of EVs. The goal of this research is to extend the cruising range for EVs by enabling unlimited cruising range through simultaneous energy supply and charging while running. As a result, the following benefits can be realized: Unlimited EV cruising range Zero charging time Reduced battery load (1/2 or less) More enjoyable driving thanks to a lifting of the power limitations on EVs The paper describes a prototype system that achieves unlimited travel distance, then describes the results of real-world testing of the system, and finally discusses future prospects.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1680
David H. Myszka, Andrew Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum
Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that principally rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with only an internal combustion engine where the electrical systems of hybrid vehicles are not available. Governing performance equations are formulated and design parameters are selected based on an optimization of the vehicle operation over a simulated urban driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Abstract Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The vehicle was exhibited during the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show and the 2014 Automotive Engineering Exposition. The xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV with three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. The rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with a built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed by Mitsubishi Electric. Motion control systems for the xEV have been developed based on our proprietary motor control technology.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and predicting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices calculated either from lateral acceleration or lateral load transfer. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is not obvious how they can be compared or how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices in different critical maneuvers for a heavy 8×4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1564
Joshua L. Every, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger
Abstract Typically, when one thinks of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), systems such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Collision Imminent Braking (CIB) come to mind. In these systems driver assistance is provided based on knowledge about the subject vehicle and surrounding objects. A new class of these systems is being implemented. These systems not only use information on the surrounding objects but also use information on the driver's response to an event, to determine if intervention is necessary. As a result of this trend, an advanced level of understanding of driver braking behavior is necessary. This paper presents an alternate method of analyzing driver braking behavior. This method uses a frequency content based approach to study driver braking and allows for the extraction of significantly more data from driver profiles than traditionally would have been done.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1630
Wolfgang Ebner, Michael Stolz, Markus Bachinger, Evgeny Korsunsky
Abstract Hybrid-electric vehicles provide additional functionality compared to conventional vehicles. So-called ‘hybrid’ software functions are required to coordinate the conventional powertrain control and these additional control functions. A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This paper aims to provide a framework for efficient interface definition, connection and coordination of control units for hybrid electric vehicles. Such a framework supports an efficient development of control unit architectures and the distribution of software functions. The generic approach necessitates modular software functions. It defines the distribution of these functions in control units optimized with respect to reuse, interfaces and compatibility with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants, especially also considering compatibility with a conventional powertrain and its electric hybridization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1603
Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim, Ahmed A. Hamouda
Abstract As the world is going through an evolutionary development in most of the science fields, there is an essential and exceptional demand for higher efficiency power generators to recover the thermal losses. Recently thermoelectric materials have attracted extensive attention for this purpose. The recent advancement in nanotechnology has a remarkable impact on thermoelectric materials development. This resulted in nano structured materials whose thermoelectric properties exhibit a great challenge to its bulk form, such as Silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Silicon nanowires are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without significant decrease in the electrical conductivity. In the present work silicon nanowires have been implemented in fabricating a thermoelectric device which can be employed in different applications, such as engines, to recover part of the energy lost in these applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
Thomas Heurung
Abstract Consumer demand for electronics has now placed the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation in cars much in the same way we have see innovation in the mobile device industry. There is now an expectation for automobile OEMs to deliver more innovation to market faster - with no increase in cost. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without passing the cost increases to the consumer. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it's impossible to compartmentalize design domains because they are connected in so many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independent of each other and are not suited to deal with interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0134
Durga Madhab Mishra, Bimal Kant Gupta
Abstract The Two wheeler motorcycles electrical system consists of a generator, a storage battery, voltage control protective devices and the electrical loads. Battery, in motorcycles, supports the starting, lighting and ignition system. Generally, in a vehicle, headlight or any other electrical apparatus consumes significant amount of current from the battery causing drain of the battery when the vehicle is not running and one of the light or electrical apparatus inadvertently remains on for some time. The present invention relates to vehicle light system and, more particularly, to a light control system of a vehicle. This discloses a concept which, automatically turned off vehicle lighting system when engine is OFF. Present invention named as “Intelligent lighting system” which helps in avoiding drainage of battery in case, when rider switches ON the ignition switch (H/L already ON) & engine OFF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
Abstract The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0153
Reinhold Blank
Abstract Today, the electrical and electronic system in vehicles is one of the core systems - with big influence on functionality and quality. And it is - besides the engine - the most expensive part of the vehicle. The ongoing pressure on saving cost (and weight) is also a major challenge to the developers of the E/E system. Every cent saved on a car creates substantial savings, since most systems are applied to platforms with several million cars per year. A cost saving target of $20 per car (without negative influence on the functionality and quality) sounds impossible for most insiders. This presentation identifies some areas where the potential for savings is not (fully) exhausted. For each area there are examples out of the global automotive industry where substantial savings with $10 or more have been achieved. Furthermore, the presentation will propose approaches for “Value engineering” and “Redesign2Cost”.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0152
Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Marta Kolasa, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin, Tomasz Talaska
Abstract In this paper we present an example design process of filters used in automotive industry. Signal preprocessing is very important operation in active safety algorithms. Such algorithms usually take into account the vehicle state that includes position, velocities and accelerations of the car. On the basis of these data, as well as the parameters and trajectories of external objects “observed” by the car, the algorithms make decisions about various safety actions. Designer of such algorithms must assure an appropriate quality of such signals, which usually means a proper filtering. In this paper we focus on selected important aspects of the filter design process. The main objectives of the presented investigations is to obtain such filters that ensure a sufficient rejection of undesired components from the signal and at the same time that do not introduce too high delay to the processed signals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0154
Lei Rao
The ability to provide a tool integrated environment for quick exploration and optimization of system architecture design alternatives is of paramount importance to the automotive industry. An integrated analysis environment can help reduce development and production costs as well as production time to the market. Given a large number of design alternatives, engineers cannot evaluate them manually due to time constraints. Thus a flexible and scalable tool that helps engineers to automatically explore the design space and optimally select a design meeting the design objectives and constraints is a key for succeeding in this area. This paper discusses lessons learned through hands-on experiences with an existing commercial tool and provides in-depth insights of the development process and complexities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0151
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya, Pavel Gladyshev
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate opportunity to create a new type AC induction motor with the salient pole rotor (without winding) and both winding AC excitation and short circuited placed on the stator. There are some advantages in this design: The suggested design has a cold rotor. The stator short circuited and excitation windings are easier for cooling. The rotor has reduced weight in compare with regular induction motor rotor. The short circuit winding can be used for the current control like in the regular induction wound-rotor machines. In this case, the problem maintenance of the slip rings is eliminated. In this paper, we discuss theoretical opportunity for realization the induction mode operation in two and three phase machines. As a base for this, it serves the analyses operation of one phase machine. This analysis is fulfilled in comparison with regular induction motors with short circuited and wound-rotor windings.
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