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Viewing 241 to 270 of 21600
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Abstract Security access feature based on seed-key mechanism is widely used in automotive electronics, mainly for flashing ECU software, writing or reading specific parameter values and running diagnostic routines. There exist a number of techniques to decode the algorithm for key generation from a specific seed. Such techniques can put vehicle network at great risks due to an intruder flashing unauthorized version of ECU software, or changing internal parameters of ECU, or changing a VIN number. A lot more similar malicious attacks can be done by getting control over the ECUs. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to alter the performance from the stock and affect the safety of the passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm to protect the vehicle and ECU from such malicious attacks is explained in this paper. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU to replace the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security guarantying a secure operation of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0201
Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Phil Barber, Stuart Burgess
Abstract We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle. The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A composite parameter estimation algorithm incorporating a nonlinear adaptive observer structure uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0200
Karsten Schmidt, Udo Dannebaum, Harald Zweck
Abstract In-vehicle communication faces increasing bandwidth demands, which can no longer be met by today's MOST150, FlexRay or CAN networks. In recent years, Fast Ethernet has gained a lot of momentum in the automotive world, because it promises to bridge the bandwidth gap. A first step in this direction is the introduction of Ethernet as an On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface for production vehicles. The next potential use cases include the use of Ethernet in Driver Assistance Systems and in the infotainment domain. However, for many of these use cases, the Fast Ethernet solution is too slow to move the huge amount of data between the Domain Controllers, ADAS Systems, Safety Computer and Chassis Controller in an adequate way. The result is the urgent need for a network technology beyond the Fast Ethernet solution. The question is: which innovation will provide enough bandwidth for domain controllers, fast flashing routines, video data, MOST-replacement and internal ECU buses?
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0226
Mahdi N. Ali
Abstract Bluetooth communication systems are constrained to use a low cost filtering technology, which requires designers to implement inexpensive noise reduction techniques. Improving Bluetooth sound and audio quality has been a topic of research over the years. Sound and audio quality in vehicles are areas that still require improvements in order to achieve better customer experience when using Bluetooth communication systems. This paper proposes a low cost, simple, and effective method to reduce noise in Bluetooth systems using Kalman Filtering. Our novel method is proposed to be used in vehicular Bluetooth applications. We have created a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to validate the proposed method. Results have demonstrated significant noise reduction and improvement to the processed speech signals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
Abstract The suitability of FM radio receivers for automotive applications has conventionally been evaluated by evaluating the reception characteristics of broadcast waves while conducting repeated driving tests in a special test environment. Because the evaluation of sound quality while driving relies upon the auditory judgment of a limited range of test subjects, these tests present issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. In order to resolve these issues, a method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for automotive applications through the creation of a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed (this has been termed the “Two-Stage method”). In the research described in this paper, the Two-Stage method was used to analyze the effect of multipath distortion on FM receivers when driving through arbitrary radio wave propagation environments.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
Abstract This paper presents two newly developed technologies of optimizing impurity diffusion concentration for silicon semiconductor material and controlling internal stress of the top SiN (Silicon Nitride) layer on a membrane of a silicon substrate to apply them to the manufacturing process of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) type air-flow sensor chips. Until today, in MEMS-type airflow sensors, poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) and platinum were widely used as a resistor material of key functional elements on a membrane of air-flow-rate measurement portion. The functional resistors on the membrane are required to monitor high temperatures of about 300 °C and to perform the self-heating operations at that temperature range because of the suppression of contaminant deposition by means of evaporation or incineration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
Abstract Traditionally, the suitability of radio receivers and similar devices for automotive use has been evaluated by evaluating their reception characteristics in relation to transmitted waves via repeated driving tests. This method of evaluation presents issues in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. A method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for vehicle fitting using a virtual propagation environment created on a PC (termed the Two-Stage method) has been developed in order to address these issues. The major challenge in the Two-Stage method is the creation of an actual propagation environment on a PC. A test-based incoming wave estimation technology able to accurately estimate the characteristics of actual propagation environments is therefore essential. The estimation of incoming FM waves necessitates large array antennas. In addition, the incoming waves become coherent multipath waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0223
Michael David Johas Teener
Abstract With the explosion of demand for connectivity and multimedia in the automobile, the need for standards-based A/V networking that can be easily deployed is now well-established. The IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) Task Group1 and several other related IEEE Working Groups have developed a series of network enhancements that provide the components for highly reliable audio and video applications. This paper outlines these new technologies and their benefits when used for in-vehicle applications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0224
Patrick Shelly
Abstract With the dramatic mismatch between handheld consumer devices and automobiles, both in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features (or versions) are released, vehicle OEMs are faced with a perplexing dilemma. If the connected car is to succeed there has to be a secure and accessible method to update the software in a vehicle's infotainment system - as well as a real or perceived way to graft in new software content. The challenge has become even more evident as the industry transitions from simple analog audio systems which have traditionally served up broadcast content to a new world in which configurable and interactive Internet-based content rules the day. This paper explores the options available for updating and extending the software capability of a vehicle's infotainment system while addressing the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer mobile devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0283
Allan Lewis, Mohammad Naserian
Abstract Pedestrians A method of locating a charging target device (vehicle) in a parking lot scenario by the evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) signal and Global Positioning System (GPS) data is proposed in this paper. A metric call Location Image (LI) is defined based on the RSSI received from each charger and the physical location of the parking associated to that charger. The central parking lot processor logs the GPS coordinates and LI received from the vehicle. Each pairing attempt by a vehicle loads a new LI into the central processor's database. Utilizing the LI and the proposed methods the vehicle will achieve expedited charger to system pairing while in the company of multiple chargers.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Abstract Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take many years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
Abstract IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)'s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For these reasons, the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Abstract The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0253
Qiao Zhang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
Abstract Power management of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) with battery and supercapacitor(SC) is of critical importance for electric vehicles to achieve good driving performance, long traveling range and high energy efficiency. Due to the great differences in dynamic characteristics between battery and supercapacitor, and the complexity of a HESS, proper power management strategy between battery and supercapacitor remains to be challenging. The proposed research in this paper is to develop a power-balance and wavelet-transform based strategy for power distribution in a way such that each device can be utilized optimally. The transient dynamics is first decoupled via wavelet-transform algorithm while the power-balance algorithm is employed to improve system robustness based on the desired velocity-SOC relationship and a fuzzy logical controller. Finally some simulations have been conducted with results shown that the proposed strategy is valid and effective.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0254
Chunjing Lin, Sichuan Xu, Zhao Li, Guofeng Chang
Abstract A passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (PCM) for large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion batteries is designed. A battery module consisting of six Li-ion cells connected in series was investigated as a basic unit. The passive TMS for the module has three configurations according to the contact area between cells and the composite PCM, i.e., surrounding, front-contacted and side-contacted schemes. Firstly, heat generation rate of the battery cell was calculated using the Bernardi equation based on experimentally measured heat source terms (i.e. the internal resistance and the entropy coefficient). Physical and thermal properties such as density, phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the composite PCM were also obtained by experimental methods. Thereafter, thermal response of the battery modules with the three TMS configurations was simulated using 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0255
Claudia Meis, Stefan Mueller, Stephan Rohr, Matthias Kerler, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract Battery aging in electric and hybrid vehicles is a major issue, and one which has to be taken into consideration during all stages of the vehicle lifecycle. It depends on many factors, such as the cell chemistry, the cell design and stress factors as well as the current rate, ΔDOD and temperature. The stress factors have been identified as being crucial due to their influence on two important battery parameters: capacity and inner resistance. Battery aging models are essential to describing the interacting influences that stress factors have on battery parameters. They provide insights about battery aging without the need for extensive measurements. Various battery aging models with widely varying capabilities are described in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide a decision guide for utilizing the most appropriate aging model for the major stages of the vehicle lifecycle: vehicle development, operation (onboard and offboard) and post-operation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
Abstract The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0322
Jieyun Ding, Keqiang Li, Karl Hedrick
Abstract To provide a feasible transitional solution from all-by-human driving style to fully autonomous driving style, this paper proposed concept and its control algorithm of a robust lane-keeping ‘co-pilot’ system. In this a semi-autonomous system, Learning based Model Predictive Control (LBMPC) theory is employed to improve system's performance in target state tracking accuracy and controller's robustness. Firstly, an approximate LTI model which describes driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system is set up and real system's deviations from the LTI system resulted by uncertainties in the model are regarded as bounded disturbance. The LTI model and bounded disturbances make up a nominal model. Secondly, a time-varying model which is composed of LTI model and an ‘oracle’ component is designed to observe the possible disturbances numerically and it is online updated using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0371
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract There is an increasing customer demand for adjustable chassis control features which enable adaption of the vehicle comfort and driving characteristics to the customer requirements. One of the most promising vehicle control systems which can be used to change the vehicle characteristics during the drive is the semi-active suspension system. This paper presents a Rule-Optimized Fuzzy Logic controller for semi-active suspension systems which can continuously adjust itself not only according to the road conditions but also to the driver requirements. The proposed controller offers three different control modes (Comfort, Normal and Sport) which can be switched by the driver during driving. The Comfort Mode minimizes the accelerations imposed on the driver and passengers by using a softer damping. On the other hand, the increased damping in Sport Mode provides better road holding capability, which is critical for sporty handling.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1389
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Ifushi Shimonomoto
Abstract Objective tools that can assess the demands associated with in-vehicle human machine interfaces (HMIs) could assist automotive engineers designing safer interaction. This paper presents empirical evidence supporting one objective assessment approach, which compares the demand associated with in-vehicle tasks to the demand associated with “benchmarking” or “comparison tasks”. In the presented study, there were two types of benchmarking tasks-a modified surrogate reference task (SuRT) and a delayed digit recall task (n-back task) - representing different levels of visual demand and cognitive demand respectively. Twenty-four participants performed these two types of benchmarking tasks as well as two radio tasks while driving a vehicle on a closed-loop test track. Response measures included physiological (heart rate), glance metrics, driving performance (steering entropy) and subjective workload ratings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1379
Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Kenichi Ando
Recently, lithium ion cells are being used in more and more electric and hybrid motor vehicles. However, accidents due to thermal runaway of the cells have been reported, involving abnormal heat, smoke, and fire. Since each of these vehicles contains many cells, if the thermal runaway of one cell triggers that of another and thus causes thermal runaway propagation, a car fire or other serious accident may occur. This study aims to ensure the safety of motor vehicles with lithium ion cells. To identify such accident risks, we conducted a basic experiment to clarify the phenomenon of thermal runaway propagation following a thermal runaway. In the experiment, seven laminate-type lithium ion cells were tightly stacked one on another, with a thermocouple placed at the center of the surface of each cell. Then, the center of the cell in the middle of the seven stacked cells was overcharged to trigger a thermal runaway.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1400
Umashankar Nagarajan, Ambarish Goswami
Abstract The number of seniors is rising worldwide. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility, thus improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers, which “lock in” with the gait and help the subject walk faster using a phase lead characteristic. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion, not only a gait, and can help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, and eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The body of vehicle was exhibited during Tokyo Motor Show 2013 for the first time. xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV that has three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. Rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and an electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed in Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Motion control systems for xEV have been developed on the basis of our proprietary original motor control technology.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1645
Thomas De Cuyper, Gery Fossaert, Olivier Collet, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract In the development of internal combustion engines, measurements of the heat transfer to the cylinder walls play an important role. These measurements are necessary to provide data for building a model of the heat transfer, which can be used to further develop simulation tools for engine optimization. This research will focus on the Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensor. This sensor consists of a platinum RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) on an insulating Macor® (ceramic) substrate. The sensor has a high frequency response (up to 100 kHz) and is small and robust. These properties make the TFG sensor adequate for measurements in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. To use this sensor, its thermal properties - namely the temperature sensitivity coefficient and the thermal product - must be correctly calibrated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1646
Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Luigi Sequino
Abstract The common realization of the necessity to reduce the use of mineral sources is promoting the use of alternative fuels. Big efforts are being made to replace petroleum derivatives in the internal combustion engines (ICEs). For this purpose it is mandatory to evaluate the behavior of non-conventional fuels in the ICEs. The optical diagnostics have proven to be a powerful tool to analyze the processes that take place inside the engine. In particular, 2d imaging in the infrared range can reveal new details about the effect of the fuel properties since this technique is still not very common. In this work, a comparison between commercial diesel fuel and two non-conventional fuels has been made in an optically accessible diesel engine. The non-conventional fuels are: the first generation biofuel Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and an experimental blend of diesel and a fuel with high glycerol content (HG).
2015-04-08
Magazine
Hydraulics still in control of off-highway needs Engineers continue to master electronic controllers and software to help systems manage engine speeds and boost efficiency, to the ultimate benefit of both OEMs and end-users. Off-highway calibration challenges—big and complex As the final set of Tier 4 regulations kick in for engines greater than 750 hp (560 kW), calibration efforts must contend with complex engine and aftertreatment systems. Engine manufacturers and service providers deal with this complexity, but does it need to be so? DEF delivery modelling for SCR systems Researchers characterize a 0-D model of a urea delivery module, oriented to model-based control and to the simulation of the system response to fault injections finalized to diagnosis validation.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
Abstract In this study, the method of analyzing the thin-wall crashing box of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed by the means of simulation and validation following Formula Society of Automotive Engineers-SAE rules. The analysis was performed based on computerized simulation software for calculated the absorption capacity of the simple and multiple cell of thin-walled tubes. The effect of thin-wall thickness consisted of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm was also evaluated. The simulation results as energy absorption, crashing force efficiency, and absorbed energy per unit mass were identified among nine patterns. According to the results, the increase of interior cell number and the wall thickness contribute the absorbed energy ability. However, the increment of wall thickness lead to the increase of crashing force magnitude. Regarding the kinetic energy, a 2×2 multiple cell box with the thickness of 2 mm is designated for construction and verify.
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