Display:

Results

Viewing 241 to 270 of 21494
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1400
Ambarish Goswami
The number of seniors will rise rapidly. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility , improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers. Such a controller "locks in" with the gait and helps the subject walk faster. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion. This helps in more general activities. Specifically, it can also help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1158
Justin Wilbanks, Fabrizio Favaretto, Franco Cimatti, Michael Leamy
This paper presents a detailed design study and associated design considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and a diminishing supply of fossil fuels, all automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of production vehicles. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1699
Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Paul C. Miles, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Saurav Mitra, P. K. Senecal
Asymmetrical in-cylinder flow structure has been reported in previous studies in a small-bore Diesel engine. It has been demonstrated that this flow field asymmetry leads to an asymmetrical mixture preparation process. To understand the evolution of this asymmetry, it is necessary to characterize the in-cylinder flow over the full compression stroke. Moreover, since bowl-in-piston cylinder geometries can substantially change the in-cylinder flow, characterization of these flows in light-duty engines requires the use of geometrically correct pistons. In this work, a realistic flow has been realized via a transparent piston top with the conventional re-entrant bowl geometry. However, optical distortion caused by the complex bowl geometry greatly complicates the analysis of images taken through the bottom of the piston; for example in the measurement of swirl-plane velocities using particle image velocimetry (PIV).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
In order to mitigate traffic congestion, in this paper, we propose an effective approach of smoothing traffic flows by introducing smart cars. It is relied on the smartphone-based technology of detecting traffic congestion, initially developed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd throughout 2011-2013. The detection technology is basically aimed to correct erratic driving behaviors such as aggressive acceleration or rapid braking, and is referred as "smooth driving". Generally, it is known that traffic congestion will likely occur when volume of traffic generates demand for a space greater than the available road capacity. Nevertheless, driving patterns relative to reaction time, sensitivity and time headway, can also be crucial for traffic stability and congestion mitigation. So far, our driving strategy combined with the congestion detection has considered achieving the driving smoothness for "single" lane in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE softwares. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0149
Wenbin Liu, Can Wang
In summer, when vehicle parks in the direct sunlight, the closed cabin temperature would rises sharply which affects the occupants step-in-car comfort Solar powered vehicle parking ventilation system adopts the solar energy to drive the original ventilator. Thus, the carbin temperature could be dramatically decreased and the riding comfort could be also improved. This research analyzed the modified crew cabin thermal transfer model. Then the performance of the solar powered ventilation system is optimized combined with the power supply characteristics of the photovoltaic element. The storage and reuse of the solar power is achieved on condition that the cabin temperature could be steadily controlled. The research shows that, compared to parameters of environment temperature and the air velocity, the cabin temperature is more effected by the solar radiation intensity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1481
Myles Wilson, David Aylor, David Zuby, Joseph Nolan
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. The evaluation is based on the vehicle’s ability to avoid or mitigate crashes at 20 and 40 km/h. To ensure that the tested vehicle’s brakes are in service condition, IIHS protocol requires each test vehicle accumulate between 200 and 5,000 miles before testing and also complete a brake warm-up with 10 stops from 56 km/h at 5 to 6 m/s2 and three stops from 72 km/h that activate ABS. Other organizations, including automakers, conducting AEB testing follow the brake burnishing procedure described in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. Before testing compliance with the standard, FMVSS 135 requires test vehicles make 200 stops from 80 km/h at a deceleration of 3.0 m/s2.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and system design is revised to achieve the functional safety. This results in a set of hard rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0189
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Dominik Juergens
A permanent challenge for the development of automotive electronic control units is the steadily rising demand for computing power. One well known reason is surely the trend for co-hosting of functions on a shared hardware platform. But what is also heavily propelling this demand is the raising complexity of innovative functions meant to make the car brand specific driving experience even more unique, extraordinary and/or comfortable. The underlying complex algorithms often accompanied with high safety requirements thirst for faster CPUs. Meanwhile also for the automotive domain silicon vendors try to satisfy those resource demands with new microcontrollers incorporating multiple independent computing cores on one single chip as it is already common for personal computers, server installations, communication infrastructure and even consumer electronics like smartphones or flat TVs for quite some years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei huang, Jinfeng Gong
Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle forms to meet the increasing stringent requirements in energy saving and environment protection. The vehicle control unit(VCU) of pure electric vehicle is situated in the top-level of control architecture and decides the overall vehicle performance in a great degree. Vehicle control unit will be challenged more and more in the future to improve performance, reduce costs and the time need for match different pure electric vehicles. To meet these demands, the China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop a advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles which has well structure on hardware and software level and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. The paper introduces VCP development. The VCP hardware is development based on Infineon 32bit microcontroller TC1782 which uses the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle’s total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. Using finite element modeling, this paper presents a parametric analysis. For this research purpose, we first built LS-DYNA model of SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg , which is a two-seater. The model has no complex components, but it can provide reasonable crash pulses under full-frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0869
Ningsheng Qiao, Chandrasekar Krishnamurthy, Nicholas Moore
Air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance is a condition where the air-fuel ratio in one or more cylinders is different than the other cylinders. When air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance occurs in one or more cylinders the fuel delivery system is unable to maintain a proper vehicle emission level. It is required for on-board diagnostics to detect air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance levels which cause the fuel delivery system to be unable to maintain vehicle emissions at or below 1.5 times any of the applicable FTP standards. Currently California Air Resources Board (CARB) only requires on-board diagnostics to detect exhaust bank specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. In the near future CARB will require on-board diagnostics to detect cylinder specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. This paper presents a non-intrusive approach on determining air-fuel ratio imbalance cylinder identification with an oxygen sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0872
Serkan Kulah, Tijs Donkers PhD, Frank Willems
With the introduction of mass production in-cylinder pressure sensors, closed-loop combustion control became feasible. This was beneficial for conventional diesel engines to enhance robustness against fuel quality variation, injector wear, and (multi-pulse) fuelling accuracy, and to optimize after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced combustion concepts, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), that all rely on controlled auto ignition. Although research shows that cylinder pressure-based control is promising, especially the system costs related to the case in which pressure sensors are instrumented in all cylinders are assumed to be unacceptably high for truck engines. This paper introduces a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty diesel engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1233
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
In response to the challenges of the General Motors and US Department of Energy EcoCAR 3 Challenge, Colorado State University has performed a series of vehicle modeling and simulation investigations. A conventional gasoline vehicle, conventional diesel (B20) vehicle, battery electric vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle were designed, simulated, and analyzed by Colorado State University for EcoCAR 3. Combining a small E85-fueled engine with a large battery pack, a plug-in hybrid architecture is able to provide similar benefits as the battery electric vehicle, but with less mass addition (300kg) and lower incremental costs ($10537). In order for any vehicle architecture to meet the EcoCAR 3 design criteria, the results show it must utilize an electrified drivetrain which can displace the fuel consumption and emissions production of conventional engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1519
Robert Suender, Günther Prokop, Thomas Roscher PhD
Starting from the USA in 2008 and followed by the European Union commencing in 2012, legal requirements concerning “Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems” (TPMS) for passenger cars and light trucks will be introduced in China as well and therefore in the third of the three largest automobile markets worldwide. Changes of pressure dependent physical tire properties such as dynamic roll radius and a certain tire Eigen mode, which are included in the ABS-wheel speed signals, indicates pressure loss in an indirect manner. Systems with corresponding working principles are called “indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System” (iTPMS). Since the tire is a structural element with varying characteristics according to the design parameters, the roll radius and frequency behavior due to pressure loss is variable as well. As a consequence, tires have to be evaluated regarding there compatibility to iTPMS during the vehicle development process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
Sreelakshmi C, Krishnan kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0221
Soham Banerjee, Anand Ganesan, Sudharsan sundaram, Kiran Jasti
The life of a two wheeler and its parts depends much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determines the life and the efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating the life and the other performance parameters of the two-wheeler. Hence it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and gives better fuel efficiency. This paper describes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts, the data collection system and a software application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors present in the vehicle during the run time of the two-wheeler. The data is further processed and sent to the mobile phone of the driver.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0200
Karsten Schmidt, Udo Dannebaum, Harald Zweck
In-vehicle communication faces a rising request for bandwidth, which cannot be fulfilled by today’s MOST150, FlexRay or CAN networks. During the last years Fast Ethernet has gained a lot of momentum in the automotive world, because it promises to bridge the bandwidth gap. A first step in this direction is the introduction of Ethernet as On Board Diagnostic interface for production vehicles. Next potential uses-cases are the use of Ethernet in Driver Assistance Systems and in the infotainment domain. But already for many of these use cases the Fast Ethernet solution is too slow to move the huge amount of data between the Domain Controllers, ADAS Systems, Safety Computer and Chassis Controller in an adequate way. The result is the pestering request for a network technology beyond the Fast Ethernet solution. The question is which innovation will provide enough bandwidth for domain controllers, fast flashing routines, video data, MOST-replacement and internal ECU-Bus?
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan kutty
In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining of paramount importance. As significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature (haze, fog etc.) In terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS, haze formation in the atmosphere poses the challenging problem. In this paper, the proposed method addresses a novel technique of enhancing the quality in terms of visibility and visual perception of the haze affected images. Using HSV color space and the haze model, the haze affected images are recuperated. The proposed procedure involves retaining of hue (H) and scaling of saturation (S) value of each pixel between the haze input and de-hazed output images. In addition, a simple method for manipulating the ‘V’ space to de-haze the input image is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop C P
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing at the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power density ratios. In this scenario, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1306
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into a secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted a comprehensive study of this topic. This presentation will focus on a subset of that study focusing on battery degradation and value, specifically addressing the following key questions: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? What’s the value of a second-use battery?
Viewing 241 to 270 of 21494

Filter