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Viewing 241 to 270 of 21556
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs. ASILs are used to specify applicable requirements of the ISO-26262 standard so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk; Smart integrated sensors, such as angular position sensors, are used extensively in automotive safety-critical applications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0283
Allan Lewis, Mohammad Naserian
A method of locating a charging target device (vehicle) in a parking lot scenario by the evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) signal and Global Positioning System (GPS) data is proposed in this paper. As a result of this method, a vehicle will achieve expedited charger to system pairing while in the company of multiple chargers.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical progress and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received strong interest both from research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future development of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. This paper presents a stochastic model of the future velocity of a preceding car based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2X and radar information. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this work are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take ten or more years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0319
Reena Kumari Behera, Jiji Gangadharan, Krishnan Kutty, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Pedestrian fatalities in road accidents are increasing exponentially. The insight shows a crucial need for coming up with a real time pedestrian detection system on vehicles. This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The methods available in literature are mostly classifier based that is applied at various image scales, which makes it inefficient for real time application. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0305
Sven Bohn, Robert Feustel, Michael Agsten
The increasing number of electric vehicles (EV) is discussed several times. About 270,000 EVs were registered by the end of 2013 world-wide and several new models entered the US market in 2014. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) started as niche market with two vehicles in 2010 and reached 14 models from nine different automakers in 2014. On the one hand, an increasing number of PEVs has a positive environmental impact due to various reasons. On the other hand it has a substantial impact to the power grid which cannot be omitted. Individual electricity consumption of PEVs can match the average household consumption, which increases the load on distribution grids drastically. Charge power ranges from 1 to 80 kW, and is usually provided by a service connection to the low-voltage distribution grid. In addition to that, the electricity is not consumed continuously over 24 hours but rather 2 to 8 hours, simultaneously to the existing household peak load times from 6 p.m. to 12 p.m.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0314
Junyung Lee, Beomjun Kim, Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi, Jihyun Yoon, Bongchul Ko
This paper presents an automated driving control algorithm for the control of vehicle steering and acceleration of an autonomous vehicle. In order to develop a highly automated driving control algorithm, one of the research issues is to determine a safe driving envelope with the consideration of sensor uncertainties and probable risks. While human drivers maneuver the vehicle, they determine appropriate steering angle and acceleration based on the predictable trajectories of the surrounding vehicles. Therefore, not only current states of surrounding vehicles but also predictable behaviors of that should be considered in designing an automated driving control algorithm. The sensor uncertainties and probabilistic behavior characteristics are analyzed based on driving data collected on a real road.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Because all the actuators in a full drive-by-wire vehicle are using X-by-wire technology, autonomous driving will be realized just by introducing the exteroceptive sensors and by re-programming the electronic control unit (ECU). The control objective is to follow a desired path, while keeping the longitudinal velocity as close as possible to a given reference. Model predictive control (MPC) or receding horizon control (RHC) is effective in solving the combined motion control problem under the state and input constraints, which predicts the evolution of the plant model over a finite horizon based on a sequence of future inputs in order to optimize a performance index by using the preview information. This makes it an attractive method for use in the automated lane-keeping tasks.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0322
Jieyun Ding, Keqiang Li, Karl Hedrick
To provide a feasible transitional solution from all-by-human driving style to fully autonomous driving style, this paper proposed a lane-keeping ‘co-pilot’ system. For the following considerations, fully autonomous driving is not ready for commercial applications right now: (1)difficulty in decision making under complex traffic situations; (2)lack of acceptance and trust from human drivers; (3)legal regulations about liability haven’t been completed and are still disputable. Therefore, this transitional solution is proposed to improve the autonomous degree when driver is still in loop with the driving task. The lane-keeping ‘co-pilot’ is a driving assist system which helps driver to keep vehicle stay in the expected lateral driving zone and requires no on/off switch or decision making step as it is designed to be turned normally on.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0490
Ryosuke Saito, Daisuke Ide
We discuss the achievement of accurate and rapid appearance evaluation of a commodity from a design perspective. In design development, it is important to evaluate the quality of products in accordance with the customer’s viewpoint. Appearance evaluation using an actual model, such as a Mock-Up Model, is the optimal means. However, in order to respond to flaws or design changes quickly, we use a digital model. Therefore, we developed a graphic tool, TOPS, which can be used to obtain correct rendering results equivalent to an actual model, enabling a high level of precision and efficiency in digital design development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0151
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya, Pavel Gladyshev
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate opportunity to create a new type AC induction motor with the salient pole rotor (without winding) and both winding AC excitation and short circuited placed on the stator. There are some advantages in this design: The suggested design has a cold rotor. The stator short circuited and excitation windings are easier for cooling. The rotor has reduced weight in compare with regular induction motor rotor. The short circuit winding can be used for the current control like in the regular induction wound-rotor machines. In this case, the problem maintenance of the slip rings is eliminated. In this paper, we discuss theoretical opportunity for realization the induction mode operation in two and three phase machines. As a base for this, it serves the analyses operation of one phase machine. This analysis is fulfilled in comparison with regular induction motors with short circuited and wound-rotor windings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1400
Umashankar Nagarajan, Ambarish Goswami
Abstract The number of seniors is rising worldwide. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility, thus improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers, which “lock in” with the gait and help the subject walk faster using a phase lead characteristic. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion, not only a gait, and can help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and forecasting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices, which can be calculated either from lateral acceleration, lateral load transfer, or roll energy. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is unclear how they can be compared and how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices, in different critical maneuvers, for a heavy 8x4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, and eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The body of vehicle was exhibited during Tokyo Motor Show 2013 for the first time. xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV that has three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. Rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and an electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed in Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Motion control systems for xEV have been developed on the basis of our proprietary original motor control technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru, Kapil Dongare, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla
Abstract Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and system design is revised to achieve the functional safety. This results in a set of hard rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0317
Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi
This paper describes a robust model predictive control (MPC) framework of lane change for automated driving vehicles. In order to develop a safe lane change for automated driving, the driving mode and lane change direction are determined with environmental information, sensor uncertainties, and collision risks. The safety margin is calculated using predicted trajectories of surround and subject vehicles. The MPC based combined steering and longitudinal acceleration control law has been designed with extended bicycle model over a finite time horizon. A reachable set of vehicle state is calculated on-line to guarantee that MPC state and input constraints are satisfied in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. Simulation studies has been conducted and the proposed framework has been successfully implemented on a test vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
Thomas Heurung
Abstract Consumer demand for electronics has now placed the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation in cars much in the same way we have see innovation in the mobile device industry. There is now an expectation for automobile OEMs to deliver more innovation to market faster - with no increase in cost. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without passing the cost increases to the consumer. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it's impossible to compartmentalize design domains because they are connected in so many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independent of each other and are not suited to deal with interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0134
Durga Madhab Mishra, Bimal Kant Gupta
Abstract The Two wheeler motorcycles electrical system consists of a generator, a storage battery, voltage control protective devices and the electrical loads. Battery, in motorcycles, supports the starting, lighting and ignition system. Generally, in a vehicle, headlight or any other electrical apparatus consumes significant amount of current from the battery causing drain of the battery when the vehicle is not running and one of the light or electrical apparatus inadvertently remains on for some time. The present invention relates to vehicle light system and, more particularly, to a light control system of a vehicle. This discloses a concept which, automatically turned off vehicle lighting system when engine is OFF. Present invention named as “Intelligent lighting system” which helps in avoiding drainage of battery in case, when rider switches ON the ignition switch (H/L already ON) & engine OFF.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0133
Clark Kinnaird
Abstract As many automotive functions evolve from purely mechanical to electrically-driven, the use of efficient brushless DC motors is becoming prevalent. This paper discusses the design of a BLDC motor controller, including the technical tradeoffs, hardware implementation, and testing results. This design example examines the specific requirements for a compact solution for driving a water pump, but the design methodology and tradeoffs also apply to other motor control applications where efficient control of motor speed is needed. Practical details such as component parameters are discussed to guide designers in identifying the link between critical performance requirements and component selection. The paper includes discussion of circuits which mitigate EMC issues inherent in switching supplies and power stages. Attention is also paid to ancillary design topics such as reverse battery protection, overvoltage due to load dump, thermal issues, and other fault-tolerant considerations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
Abstract The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Abstract As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0162
Kunihiko Suzuki, Guang Yu, Satoru Watanabe
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop control-oriented modeling methodology and apply to an actual control design in turbocharged spark ignition engines. A grey-box modeling approach was adapted to accelerate the system calibration time, while providing accurate system dynamics. An engine simulator based on first principles models was utilized to investigate the statistical model derivation process. A recursive least squares method with forgetting factor was employed to estimate model parameters related to turbocharger and vehicle/drivetrain behaviors, which seemed to be major factors causing delay of turbocharger system. The concept was demonstrated through its application to the actual control design, and the reliability of the proposed method was theoretically investigated. According to the model evaluation results, approximated behavior models are in good agreement with time series data yielded by the engine simulator under various transient operations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
Abstract This paper presents a model-based approach to detect unintended acceleration (UA) as well as other vehicle problems. A diagnostic system is formulated by detecting several specific vehicle events such as acceleration peaks and gear shifting. Mathematical models are created for these events based on simulation data and the final diagnostic conclusion is drawn from the voting result of all these models. The detection algorithm is validated using independent data sets obtained from Matlab/Simulink. A three dimensional vehicle model is built to implement traffic simulation. Vehicle problems and drivers' reactions are simulated and added during the process. Sensor noise is also considered and corresponding filters are designed and applied. The results show that the fault diagnostic system is successful in detecting UA.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
Abstract The suitability of FM radio receivers for automotive applications has conventionally been evaluated by evaluating the reception characteristics of broadcast waves while conducting repeated driving tests in a special test environment. Because the evaluation of sound quality while driving relies upon the auditory judgment of a limited range of test subjects, these tests present issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. In order to resolve these issues, a method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for automotive applications through the creation of a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed (this has been termed the “Two-Stage method”). In the research described in this paper, the Two-Stage method was used to analyze the effect of multipath distortion on FM receivers when driving through arbitrary radio wave propagation environments.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
Abstract Traditionally, the suitability of radio receivers and similar devices for automotive use has been evaluated by evaluating their reception characteristics in relation to transmitted waves via repeated driving tests. This method of evaluation presents issues in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. A method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for vehicle fitting using a virtual propagation environment created on a PC (termed the Two-Stage method) has been developed in order to address these issues. The major challenge in the Two-Stage method is the creation of an actual propagation environment on a PC. A test-based incoming wave estimation technology able to accurately estimate the characteristics of actual propagation environments is therefore essential. The estimation of incoming FM waves necessitates large array antennas. In addition, the incoming waves become coherent multipath waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Abstract Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
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