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Viewing 211 to 240 of 21647
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Abstract Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take many years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0319
Reena Kumari Behera, Jiji Gangadharan, Krishnan Kutty, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation. The segmentation would consist of foreground and background segments as well. The background clutter is removed based on certain predefined conditions governed by the camera features. A novel edge based head detection method is proposed for increasing the probability of pedestrian detection. The combination of head and leg pattern will determine the presence of pedestrians.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
Abstract The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0317
Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi
Abstract This paper describes a robust Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework of lane change for automated driving vehicles. In order to develop a safe lane change for automated driving, the driving mode and lane change direction are determined considering environmental information, sensor uncertainties, and collision risks. The safety margin is calculated using predicted trajectories of surround and subject vehicles. The MPC based combined steering and longitudinal acceleration control law has been designed with extended bicycle model over a finite time horizon. A reachable set of vehicle state is calculated on-line to guarantee that MPC state and input constraints are satisfied in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been conducted simulation studies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0316
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Yohei Akashi, Toshihide Satake, Yukiyasu Akemi, Satoru Inoue, Ryotaro Suzuki
Abstract Parking assist systems which relieve burden of drivers have been put into practice in the world. Mitsubishi Electric has also been developing several technologies to realize the system, where our products such as sonar (ultrasonic sensor), electric power steering (EPS), a motor, and an inverter are used. In the parking assist system, peripheral environment of the vehicle in a parking lot is detected with our sonar sensors and determine whether or not there is a parking space available. Estimation of the position and the attitude of the vehicle is also carried out. On the basis of the detection and the estimation, a smooth and efficient path to drive and park the vehicle is generated with an optimization technique. In particular, this paper focuses on a drive control for electrified vehicles to track the reference trajectory at a desired speed given from the assist system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0313
Ugo Rosolia, Francesco Braghin, Andrew Alleyne, Edoardo Sabbioni
Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulations show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0314
Junyung Lee, Beomjun Kim, Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi, Jihyun Yoon, Bongchul Ko
Abstract This paper presents an automated driving control algorithm for the control of an autonomous vehicle. In order to develop a highly automated driving control algorithm, one of the research issues is to determine a safe driving envelope with the consideration of probable risks. While human drivers maneuver the vehicle, they determine appropriate steering angle and acceleration based on the predictable trajectories of the surrounding vehicles. Therefore, not only current states of surrounding vehicles but also predictable behaviors of that should be considered in determining a safe driving envelope. Then, in order to guarantee safety to the possible change of traffic situation surrounding the subject vehicle during a finite time-horizon, the safe driving envelope over a finite prediction horizon is defined in consideration of probabilistic prediction of future positions of surrounding vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
Abstract In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) in combination with other active safety features like air bags etc. is gaining popularity. Vision based ADAS systems perform well under ideal lighting, illumination and environmental conditions. However, with change in illumination and other lighting related factors, the effectiveness of vision based ADAS systems tend to deteriorate. Under conditions of low light, it is therefore important to develop techniques that would offset the effects of low illumination and generate an image that appears as if it were taken under ideal lighting conditions. To accomplish this, we have developed a method, that uses local color statistics from the host image with low illumination, and enhance the same using an adaptive color transfer mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes and used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filter is used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process of image acquisition. However, RGB and NIR images are captured entirely in two different spectra/wavelengths; thus they retain different information. Since NIR and RGB images compromise complimentary information, we believe that this can be exploited for extracting better features, localization of objects of interest and in multi-modal fusion. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the NIR image from a given optical image. Using a normal optical camera and based on the compressed sensing framework, the NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Abstract Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0304
Samveg Saxena, Jason MacDonald, Doug Black, Sila Kiliccote
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) enable improved vehicle efficiency and zero emissions in population centers, however the large loads from EV charging can stress grid systems during periods of peak demand. We apply detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars to quantify the ability for EVs to reduce their charging during periods of peak demand, i.e. as in a demand response program. A managed charging controller is developed and applied within the vehicle-to-grid simulator (V2G-Sim) which charges vehicles during demand response (DR) events only if charging is required to satisfy anticipated mobility needs for a given driver over the next 24 hours. We find that up to 95% of EV charging loads can be removed during DR events without compromising the mobility needs of individual drivers. This value is found by comparing the charging loads of EVs using the managed charging controller against an uncontrolled charging case.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0305
Sven Bohn, Robert Feustel, Michael Agsten
Abstract The increasing number of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) impacts the power grid due to their high demand in power and energy, and uncertainties in the charging behavior. Typical PEVs are charged single-phase up to 32 A (7.2-kVA) or tri-phase up to 32 A (22.0- kVA). Both charging technologies have to be discussed in order to determine their impact on planning and operating of low-voltage distribution grids to assure a reliable and stable PEV charging. Traditional grid planning and analysis methods, which average and evenly distribute PEV loads on the distribution grid, fail in providing a realistic answer about the grid capacity to charge PEVs. The question; How many PEVs can be charged simultaneously on a distribution grid remains unanswered. Therefore, this paper describes a novel methodology to realistically evaluate the grid capacity for PEV charging on 3-phase 0.4-kV distribution grids.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0134
Durga Madhab Mishra, Bimal Kant Gupta
Abstract The Two wheeler motorcycles electrical system consists of a generator, a storage battery, voltage control protective devices and the electrical loads. Battery, in motorcycles, supports the starting, lighting and ignition system. Generally, in a vehicle, headlight or any other electrical apparatus consumes significant amount of current from the battery causing drain of the battery when the vehicle is not running and one of the light or electrical apparatus inadvertently remains on for some time. The present invention relates to vehicle light system and, more particularly, to a light control system of a vehicle. This discloses a concept which, automatically turned off vehicle lighting system when engine is OFF. Present invention named as “Intelligent lighting system” which helps in avoiding drainage of battery in case, when rider switches ON the ignition switch (H/L already ON) & engine OFF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0151
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya, Pavel Gladyshev
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate opportunity to create a new type AC induction motor with the salient pole rotor (without winding) and both winding AC excitation and short circuited placed on the stator. There are some advantages in this design: The suggested design has a cold rotor. The stator short circuited and excitation windings are easier for cooling. The rotor has reduced weight in compare with regular induction motor rotor. The short circuit winding can be used for the current control like in the regular induction wound-rotor machines. In this case, the problem maintenance of the slip rings is eliminated. In this paper, we discuss theoretical opportunity for realization the induction mode operation in two and three phase machines. As a base for this, it serves the analyses operation of one phase machine. This analysis is fulfilled in comparison with regular induction motors with short circuited and wound-rotor windings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0152
Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Marta Kolasa, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin, Tomasz Talaska
Abstract In this paper we present an example design process of filters used in automotive industry. Signal preprocessing is very important operation in active safety algorithms. Such algorithms usually take into account the vehicle state that includes position, velocities and accelerations of the car. On the basis of these data, as well as the parameters and trajectories of external objects “observed” by the car, the algorithms make decisions about various safety actions. Designer of such algorithms must assure an appropriate quality of such signals, which usually means a proper filtering. In this paper we focus on selected important aspects of the filter design process. The main objectives of the presented investigations is to obtain such filters that ensure a sufficient rejection of undesired components from the signal and at the same time that do not introduce too high delay to the processed signals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
Abstract As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Valve Actuation (FVA) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder that found assistive for control flexibility by technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures developed for two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0156
Alexandr Murashkin, Luis Silva Azevedo, Jianmei Guo, Edward Zulkoski, Jia Hui Liang, Krzysztof Czarnecki, David Parker
Abstract The number of software-intensive and complex electronic automotive systems is continuously increasing. Many of these systems are safety-critical and pose growing safety-related concerns. ISO 26262 is the automotive functional safety standard developed for the passenger car industry. It provides guidelines to reduce and control the risk associated with safety-critical systems that include electric and (programmable) electronic parts. The standard uses the concept of Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) to decompose and allocate safety requirements of different stringencies to the elements of a system architecture in a top-down manner: ASILs are assigned to system-level hazards, and then they are iteratively decomposed and allocated to relevant subsystems and components. ASIL decomposition rules may give rise to multiple alternative allocations, leading to an optimization problem of finding the cost-optimal allocations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0153
Reinhold Blank
Abstract Today, the electrical and electronic system in vehicles is one of the core systems - with big influence on functionality and quality. And it is - besides the engine - the most expensive part of the vehicle. The ongoing pressure on saving cost (and weight) is also a major challenge to the developers of the E/E system. Every cent saved on a car creates substantial savings, since most systems are applied to platforms with several million cars per year. A cost saving target of $20 per car (without negative influence on the functionality and quality) sounds impossible for most insiders. This presentation identifies some areas where the potential for savings is not (fully) exhausted. For each area there are examples out of the global automotive industry where substantial savings with $10 or more have been achieved. Furthermore, the presentation will propose approaches for “Value engineering” and “Redesign2Cost”.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0168
Steffen Lampke, Simon Schliecker, Dirk Ziegenbein, Arne Hamann
Abstract The underlying theories of both control engineering and real-time systems engineering assume idealized system abstractions that mutually neglect central aspects of the other discipline. Control engineering theory, on the one hand, usually assumes jitter free sampling and constant input-output latencies disregarding complex real-world timing effects. Real-time engineering theory, on the other hand, uses abstract performance models that neglect the functional behavior, and derives worst-case situations that have little expressiveness for control functionalities in physically dominated automotive systems. As a consequence, there is a lot of potential for a systematic co-engineering between both disciplines, increasing design efficiency and confidence. We have taken a standard control-engineering tool, Simulink, and combined it with state-of-the-art real-time system design and analysis tools, SymTA/S and TraceAnalyzer from Symtavision.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0166
Christian Drabek, Annette Paulic, Gereon Weiss
Abstract Car infotainment systems feature an increasing number of functions to keep pace with consumer needs. The GENIVI Alliance aims to facilitate this evolution of infotainment systems by developing a common baseline where services of different suppliers can easily be integrated on a single hardware platform. Since the huge number of services creates more dependencies and interactions, more effort is required to ensure the same level of quality. We present a novel approach and effective tooling to reduce the effort for the interface verification of in-vehicle software components. Our models create different views of the system. Consistency checks and automated transformations between the views reduce the modeling effort and ensure compatible interactions of distributed software components. Layered reference models separate the description of the structure and the behavior of the services' communication.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0176
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Jens Harnisch, Albrecht Mayer, Udo Dannebaum, Herbert Christlbauer
Abstract In recent years, we see more and more ECUs integrating a huge number of application software components. This process mostly results from the increasing amount of so called in-house software in various fields like electric-drive, chassis and driver assistance systems. The software development for these systems is partially moved from the supplier to the car manufacturers. Another important trend is the introduction of new network architectures intending to meet the growing communication requirements. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more quality of service requirements with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered [2]. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional, but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for modern electronic systems [6,7,8,9].
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1519
Robert Suender, Günther Prokop, Thomas Roscher
Abstract Starting from the USA and followed by the European Union, legal requirements concerning “Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems” (TPMS) for passenger cars and light trucks will be introduced in China as well and therefore in the third of the three largest automobile markets worldwide. Changes of pressure dependent physical tire properties such as dynamic roll radius and a certain tire eigenfrequency, which are included in the ESC-wheel speed signals, indicates pressure loss in an indirect manner. Systems with corresponding working principles are called “indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System” (iTPMS). Since the tire is a structural element with varying characteristics according to the design parameters, the roll radius and frequency behavior due to pressure loss is variable as well. As a consequence, tires have to be evaluated regarding there compatibility to iTPMS during the vehicle development process.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0154
Lei Rao
The ability to provide a tool integrated environment for quick exploration and optimization of system architecture design alternatives is of paramount importance to the automotive industry. An integrated analysis environment can help reduce development and production costs as well as production time to the market. Given a large number of design alternatives, engineers cannot evaluate them manually due to time constraints. Thus a flexible and scalable tool that helps engineers to automatically explore the design space and optimally select a design meeting the design objectives and constraints is a key for succeeding in this area. This paper discusses lessons learned through hands-on experiences with an existing commercial tool and provides in-depth insights of the development process and complexities.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0201
Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Phil Barber, Stuart Burgess
Abstract We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle. The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A composite parameter estimation algorithm incorporating a nonlinear adaptive observer structure uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0172
Won Kyung Ham, Sangchul Park, JiMyoung Park, Minsuk Ko, Min-Ho Yoo
Abstract Presented in this research is methodology for modeling the behavior of an automotive ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to verify in a production system. The methodology of this paper is to verify the defects of ECU products during in a real operation, before the defective ECU equipped to an automobile. The performance of an ECU operation is dependent on not only the specification of a hardware device, but also a software program installed in the memory of an ECU. The software program of an ECU is able to be validated before installation, but the validation process is usually executed in a very controllable environment. In order to consider the software program which is frequently changeable in practice, the verification methodology of ECU products as the hardware device and software program integrated is required for detecting defective ECU products caused by inappropriate software program during in manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0292
Pascal Herve
Abstract Transportation systems use wireless technology to link vehicles and mobile devices to each other, and to the transportation infrastructure. This paper presents an advanced approach supporting and establishing a future testing and certification framework for vehicles and applications that can leverage wireless communications for the transportation environment. Assessing such integrated communication systems performance will realize the full potential of connected vehicles, travelers and infrastructure. To reach this potential, connected vehicle equipment and applications must meet minimum performance requirements, conform to common technical standards, and interoperate with one another. Over-The-Air Testing and Certification method provides formal means of verifying that a vehicle integrating specific communication technology fulfills the End-User's expectations and complies with Standards and Regulations.
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