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Viewing 211 to 240 of 21705
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Abstract Modern vehicle design involves configuration of various sensors and actuators spread across the vehicle. These sensors and actuators placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with Electronic Control Units (ECUs). As long as wires are used for these connections, cost and time required for installation and maintenance are major concerns for OEMs. A wireless sensor network (WSN) can reduce length of wiring harness and can save time as well as cost of its installation. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way to build a strong, secured wireless network in vehicle. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that, sensor and actuator data is available only to required ECUs and not to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and actuators in the vehicle are segregated according to their location.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0306
Satoru Shinzaki, Hakaru Sadano, Yutaka Maruyama, Willett Kempton
Abstract In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of these sources on a power grid grows, it will become more difficult to maintain balance between renewable power supply and coincident demand, because renewable power generation changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions. As a means of resolving this imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed, because it enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing on-board batteries as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug-in vehicle with a capability of backfeeding to the power grid, by integrating a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter (on-board charger) and a digital communication device into the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
Abstract The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations which will directly lead to increased thermal resistance and limited energy handling capability. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0759
Tetsuya Nagai, Ryoji Hiraoka, Nobuyuki Iwai, Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito
Abstract In the real site of engine development, new means are required for optical measurements under a wide variety of conditions including high-loaded operation. We have accordingly developed the new optical probe having less restriction when installing onto the engine as well as having high durability. The shape of connector end of newly developed optical probe that fits to the engine is interchangeable with the M5 sensor used for in-cylinder pressure measurement. The optical module of the optical probe can also be installed in the M10 spark plug or the M8 glow plug. The durability of the newly developed optical probe is; heat up to 400°C, pressure up to 25 MPa, and vibration up to 50 G. The durability of the optical probe was assessed using the engines of commercially available motorcycles. The 110 cm3 engine was used for the time-wise assessment. The 150 cm3 engine was used for the environment-wise assessment. Either one is a single cylinder engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0754
Simona Silvia Merola, Adrian Irimescu, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Crank angle resolved imaging in the UV-visible spectral range was used to investigate flame front characteristics during normal combustion, surface ignition and light knock conditions. ‘Line of sight’ measurements provided information on local wrinkling: the evaluation was based on a statistical approach, with multiple frames taken at the same crank angle during consecutive cycles. This allowed the results during normal combustion to be representative for the specific operational conditions and to a good degree independent from the effects of cyclic variation. Abnormal combustion on the other hand, was investigated on a cycle-to-cycle basis, given the stochastic nature of such phenomena. The experimental trials were performed at fixed engine speed on an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with the cylinder head of a four cylinder 16-valves commercial power unit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
Abstract In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1464
Qiang Chen, Miao Lin, Bing Dai, Jiguang Chen
Abstract In China, nearly 25% of traffic fatalities are pedestrians. To avoid those fatalities in the future, rapid development of countermeasures within both passive and active safety is under way, one of which is autonomous braking to avoid pedestrian crashes. The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. Beyond that, this study also aims for estimating the mitigation of potential crash severity by AEB systems. The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
2015-04-14
Collection
The focus of this collection is on system safety analysis and design of safety-critical systems employing electronic controls. Topics include: implementation of safety-relevant systems, fail-safe strategies, distributed fault tolerant systems and hazard analysis. Application areas include: automotive active safety and alternative energy systems as well as avionics and mission management.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0745
Petter Dahlander, Stina Hemdal
Abstract To contribute to knowledge required to meet new emission requirements, relationships between multiple injection parameters, degrees of fuel stratification, combustion events, work output and flame luminosity (indicative of particulate abundance) were experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder optical GDI engine. A tested hypothesis was that advancing portions of the mass injected would enhance the fuel-air mixing and thus reduce flame luminescence. An outward-opening piezo actuated fuel injector capable of multiple injections was used to inject the fuel using different triple injection strategies, with various combinations of late and earlier injections leading to various degrees of fuel stratification. Sprays and combustion events were captured using two high-speed cameras and cylinder pressure measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
Abstract We have developed a bench test method to assess driver distraction caused by the load of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that this method can be used to assess the task loads of both visual-manual tasks and auditory-vocal tasks. The task loads are assessed using the performances of both pedal tracking task (PT) and detection response task (DRT) while performing secondary tasks. We can perform this method using simple equipment such as game pedals and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted in three test environments in which test regions, experimenters and participants differed from each other in the US, and the test procedures were almost the same. We set two types of visual-manual tasks and two types of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two difficulties for each task type to vary the level of task load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo
Abstract Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new features rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems as an extension to the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1158
Justin Wilbanks, Fabrizio Favaretto, Franco Cimatti, Michael Leamy
Abstract This paper presents a detailed design study and associated considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and increased consumer demand, automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Abstract Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the mass-market segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Abstract Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH (Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology) program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
Abstract Our study unveils what smart cars are needed to minimize congestion by traffic stability. We have previously considered pacer cars with single lane road networks based on a car following model, e.g. adaptive cruise control (ACC). However, pacer cars may have a limitation with multi-lane roadways in terms of lane distribution of traffic and shockwave suppression. Therefore, we motivate building a new smart car which extends the capability of pacer cars allowing lane changing at the timing of congestion detection. In essence, the congestion detection plays a role of adjusting the (time) headway of smart cars to determine whether lane changes should be undertaken. Lane changes can be used to uniformize (or equalize) lane distribution for traffic (flow) stability. Our simulation study has suggested that the proposed smart cars enforce the capability of traffic stability more than manual and pacer cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
Abstract The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Abstract Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitor systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve visibility of surrounding environment to the driver. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of legally prescribed mirrors. A CMS must also take into consideration several factors in the designed system to satisfy an overall system magnification and system resolution. Some factors pertain to the camera, and display inside the cockpit, but some other are related to the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity, height, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exists a fundamental nonlinear equation for a given CMS encompassing factors that influence the performance of the system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
Abstract This paper presents a novel technology to achieve very power (4W, 3.2W LED+0.8W driver) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp (55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp (6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm; the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular. As one of important issues, charging power regulation is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes. This paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected in X shape) to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source. By controlling the shoot-through state of H bridge, the input voltage to H bridge can be boosted, thus the transmitter current can be adjusted, and hence, charging current and power for batteries. A LCL-LCL resonant topology is adopted as the main transfer energy carrier, for it can work with a unity power factor and have the current source characteristic which is suitable for battery charging.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama, Toru Sukigara
Abstract Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charge and discharge. In order to investigate the causes of degradation, changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0251
Yoshikazu Nishida, Satoru Komoda, Naoki Maruno
Abstract The mounting of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) calls for the configuration of highly robust control systems. When mounting LIBs in the vehicle, it is important to accurately ascertain and precisely control the state of the battery. In order to achieve high durability, it is important to configure highly reliable systems capable of dependably preventing overcharging as well as to have control technology based on software that can contribute to extended battery life. The system configuration applies an overcharge prevention system that uses voltage detection with an emphasis on reliability. Furthermore, a method for varying the range of state of charge (SOC) control in the vehicle according to the battery state is implemented to assure durability. In order to achieve this, battery-state detection technology was developed for the purpose of correctly detecting and judging the battery state.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Abstract Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
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