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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0026
Elke Salecker, Ingo Stuermer
Huge Simulink controller models often consists of (almost) identical subsystems, very often resulting from copy-and-paste operations and only slight adaptation of the subsystems by the model engineer. Although this “copy-and-paste” approach might help to achieve initial results very fast, in the long-run such subsystem clones create considerable problems. Like code clones, model clones increase the effort for testing and maintenance because they have to be tested individually and all copies have to be identified and updated if the functionality changes. JUST SIMPLIFY is an approach for detecting model clones in a Simulink model automatically based on model metrics calculations. This approach has been implemented in our model metrics and complexity measurement tool M-XRAY. JUST SIMPLIFY allows reducing the effort for model refactoring by avoiding time consuming manual search for model clones. As a result, the effort for testing and for maintaining models can be reduced significantly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0074
Michael Jensen
Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0050
Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The quality and correctness of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicle. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as medical devices and avionics. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance case, have been well adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0076
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Eman Magdy Moawad, Mohammed Diab, Mohamed ElHelw
New challenges and complexities are continuously increasing in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) development (e.g. active safety, driver assistant and autonomous vehicle systems). Therefore, the health management of ADAS’ components needs special improvements. Since software contribution in ADAS’ development is increasing significantly, remote diagnosis and maintenance for ADAS become more important. Furthermore, it is highly recommended to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) for the prognosis of ADAS’ safety critical components; e.g. (Ultrasonic, Cameras, Radar, Lidar). This paper presents a remote diagnosis, maintenance and prognosis (RDMP) framework for ADAS, which can be used during development phase and mainly after production. An overview of RDMP framework’s elements is explained to demonstrate how/when this framework is connected to database servers and remote analysis servers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0077
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
FM receiver compatibility with vehicle has been evaluated by obtaining the reception characteristics of broadcast waves by repetitive road tests; however the evaluation method had problems in terms of the objectivity and reproducibility. To solve those problems, Two-Stage method was developed for generating virtual radio wave environments, and enabling the evaluation of vehicle compatibility. Nevertheless, Two-Stage method has a difficulty in the reproduction of actual radio environment on a PC, thus estimation of incoming waves by experiment is necessary by using the likes of MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method. However, application of MUSIC method to FM reception has an issue in the separation performance for multipath waves in urban area due to constraints such as the number of antenna elements and occupied bandwidth.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0082
Satoru Komatsu, Yoshio Karasawa, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Kenji Taguchi, Suguru Imai
Vehicle compatibility of FM receiver (hereafter will be referred to as “FM device”) has been evaluated by obtaining reception characteristics of broadcast waves by repetitive road tests in a certain test environment. Evaluation of reception characteristics while driving had depended on sound evaluation by a limited number of examinees due to a difficulty in quantitative evaluation using actual broadcast waves, thus there had been issues in its reproducibility and objectivity. To solve issues mentioned above, Two-Stage method fading emulator (hereafter will be referred to as “Two-Stage method”) was developed by generating virtual radio wave environment on a calculator. Moreover, multipath distortion rate (MDr) was defined as the benchmark for sound evaluation, and then vehicle compatibility evaluation of FM device was reported at the 2015SAE World Congress. Technical issue of Two-Stage method is to reproduce a radio environment which is identical to actual reception environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0079
Tomohisa Harada, Yoshiyuki Hattori, Shinya Ito, Mitoshi Fujimoto, Toshikazu Hori
Recently, the electromagnetic interference to an AM radio by the noise generated from a power control unit in an HV has become a serious problem. In order to solve the problem, most of noise countermeasures focus on noise sources and noise propagation paths. On the other hand, a countermeasure in the radio receiver has been also proposed. This method detects the HV noise by using a noise sensor, and then, the noise signal is subtracted from AM radio signal which the noise superimposed. In this paper, a new noise suppression method using the digital signal processing in the AM radio receiver is proposed, which does not need noise sensors. The procedure of the method is as follows: First, a receiving AM radio signal containing HV noises is resolved into the in-phase component and quadrature component of a carrier by applying a quadrature demodulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0083
Satoru Komatsu, Akira Nagao, Taro Suzuki, Nobuaki Kubo
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement with the use of lengthy simulation. In this study, actual measurement data in urban area was obtained for long hours, and simulation using a 3D map was implemented. High-precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in actual measurement, and positional data at each measurement time obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for simulation and actual measurement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract: An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is not visible in the "off" condition and is minimized in the "on" condition. Introduction: As electronic displays such as TFT's are utilized increasingly in automotive instrument clusters, there is a desire from the OEMs to hide the display opening and present a "seamless" appearance to the user such that the user cannot see any apertures or margin gaps to the display. Background: The most relevant prior art is demonstrated by the BMW instrument cluster. In the BMW application, the Bayer LM296 film with a neutral density transmission factor of 25% is placed over a printed applique. Improved Solution Description: The principles behind the improved seamless solution are: 1. Reduce the reflections of the display opening by using a moth-eye film on the rear surface of the neutral density applique and providing a smooth AR surface on the display polarizer. 2.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0091
Hikaru Watanabe, Tsutomu Segawa, Takumi Okuhira, Hiroki Mima, Norishige Hoshikawa
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0102
Michael Ludwig, Martin Rieder, Marco Wolf
The intent to reduce CO2-emssions and the necessity to assess the emission levels of car engines have resulted in implementation of the new European drive cycle (NEDC). To underrun targeted threshold values in the NEDC, an electrification of cars is inevitable. Different concepts, e.g. mild- and micro-hybrid, as well as plug-in hybrid approaches, are capable to achieve the target of 90g/km. What all these technologies have in common is that they are based on an electric engine which has to be commutated. Design examples comprise Belt-Driven Starter Generators, Integrated Starter Generators, or stand-alone electric motors. Rotor-position sensors (RPS) are used within these machines to gain the angle information of the rotor, and therefore this angle-information is directly linked to robustness and performance of the electric powertrain. The intent of this paper is the generation of an overview of different sensor technologies suitable for rotor-position measurement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0155
Jaroslav Pekar, Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Anthony D'Amato, Engin Ozatay, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equipped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. Many authors reported application (or simulation only without in-vehicle validation) of linear or nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1463
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
It is extremely important to calibrate photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to accurately show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood and published that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV’s or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video when attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tohru Wakabayashi, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Hideki Matsushima, Masato Tanabe, Jun Anzai
Controller Area Network (CAN) is a technology widely adopted among vehicles but its vulnerability has been pointed out recently. Many countermeasures have been proposed, but none of them can be deemed as a generic solution. One reason is that those proposed countermeasures all require a heavy level of modification to the existing in-vehicle system.In order to accomplish this problem, we propose new methods to protect CAN network without affecting the existing system. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method as well as the architecture of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that implements it, report the result of our experiments, and show the effects against spoofing attacks as well as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei WANG, Qi Chen, Si Liu
In this paper, the matching of turbocharger and engine was studied base on a domestic 1.5 L gasoline engine, and the numerical simulation of the waste-gate valve opening diameter was calculated. The main research contents and results are summarized as follows: (1)Different exhaust bypass valve actuators were compared and analyzed, the results show that the electric motor actuator can be better matched in all conditions of engine, so the electric motor actuator have more development prospects than the solenoid pneumatic actuator which is the mainstream now. (2)A 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine simulation model was established by GT-Power, and the performance of external characteristic combined with the actual test data values were calibrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0049
Jinwei Zhou, Roman Schmied, Alexander Sandalek, Helmut Kokal, Luigi del Re
The implementation of Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) in production standard vehicles requires extensive test bench and field testing as the manufacturer has to guarantee for functionality and safety in all possible traffic environment situations. Especially field tests consume a lot of time and money which is the reason why methods that allow a reduction of field test hours obtain high attention. Virtual ADAS testing using a simulation environment provides great potential in reducing real world testing and therefore currently much effort is spent on the development of such tools. This work proposes a simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) framework, which helps to create a virtual test environment for ADAS based on real world test drives. The idea is to reproduce environmental conditions obtained on a test drive within a simulation environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0215
Amey Y. Karnik, Adrian Fuxman, Phillip Bonkoski, Mrdjan Jankovic, Jaroslav Pekar
The use of advanced cooling system actuators and control for improving vehicle fuel efficiency has been gaining significant attention. In addition to scheduling the actuators for fast powertrain warmup, the thermal management system can also contribute to improving fuel economy by operating the powertrain system at elevated coolant temperatures which reduces friction and improves thermal efficiency. Operating at elevated temperatures increases the risk of temperature constraint violation in presence for fast changing disturbances, such as changes in combustion heat load, vehicle speed or demanded cabin heat, can increase the risk of temperature constraint violation. An advanced cooling system with appropriate management strategy is required that uses active devices to allow greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to help mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important for understanding these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, these is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs need to move during road crossing phrases, which usually are the most critical moments for potential crashes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0094
Jaya Gaitonde, R B Lohani
Photodetectors are important components in automotive industry. Sensitivity, speed, responsivity, quantum efficiency and power dissipation are the important characteristics of a photodetector. We report a high performance photodetector based on GaAs Metal- Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET), with very high responsivity, high sensitivity, very high quantum efficiency, high speed and low power dissipation, surpassing their photodiode and phototransistor counterparts. A theoretical model of GaAs front illuminated Optical Field Effect transistor is presented. The photovoltaic and photoconductive effects have been taken into account. The gate of the OPFET device has been left open to make a reduction in the number of power supplies. The device shows high potential in automotive applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0101
Carl Arft, Yin-Chen Lu, Jehangir Parvereshi
Oscillators are key components in automotive electronics systems. For example, a typical automotive camera module may have three or more oscillators, providing the clocks for microcontrollers, Ethernet controllers, and video chipsets. These oscillators have historically been built around a quartz crystal resonator connected to an analog sustaining circuit driving the crystal to vibrate at its resonant frequency. However, quartz-based devices suffer from poor performance and reliability in harsh automotive environments. SiTime has developed timing solutions based on silicon micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology that exhibit better electromagnetic noise rejection and better performance under shock and vibration. In this paper, we first discuss the design and manufacturing of the MEMS-based device, with emphasis on the specific design aspects that improve reliability and resilience in harsh automotive environments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1416
Rambabu Radakrishnan, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan, Sarath Padattil
Infotainment screens have become critical interface between occupant and Vehicle. Historical development of In-vehicle infotainment (IVI) has shown us the growth of interface size and usability is tremendously increased. The basic small segmented displays of past decades have transformed into large touch screen interface. Earlier small screen interfaces had minimal information and less driver assist functions. It was mainly entertainment based information, which does not require much attention from driver. But recently it has changed from glancing the screen to seeing the screen, due to increased driver assist functions like GPS navigation etc. The amount of information displayed is also increased tremendously. This scenario requires the screen positioning inside vehicle with following requirements like visibility without any obscuration, zero in vehicle reflection on glass areas due to infotainment screen illumination and legibility requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam Chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 36 middle-aged drivers (25-50 years, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90 years, mean =77). The LDW included yellow "advisory" visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red "imminent" when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver's forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0462
Chunlei Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Konghui Guo, Fangwu Ma, Dong Chen
With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0549
Hai Wu, Meng-Feng Li
The HIL (Hardware-in-the-loop) is a critical important technology during the ECU (Engine Control Unit) software development and verification cycle at research and production engineering phases. The physical models in PDE, the legacy mean value models or the commercial-of-the-shelf tools are the mostly used for HIL implementation. The predictive capability, fidelity, complicity and the expandability are among the evaluating criteria for these models. Besides, the less developing, calibration time and better reusability are the favorite factors when control engineers consider between them. The inheritance from the upstream stage and integrality to the downstream stage of whole production development would be the expected features of the desirable model. The GT-Power model is mostly utilized for engine performance simulation and has high fidelity and predictive capability over different engine steady conditions and transient conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0469
Hyunkoo Kang, Wooyong Jung, Choon Lee
This paper presents payload estimation based on experimental friction coefficients identification. To estimate exact payload mass, dynamic mathematical model such as actuator dynamics and front linkage dynamics is derived by using Newton-Euler method. From the dynamic equation, nonlinear terms are analyzed and transformed. And a friction model is derived from the experiments with various conditions which have three states; boom joint angle, head and rod chamber pressures. It can identify friction coefficients and compensate friction forces. In addition, the accuracy of payload estimation system is verified through the field test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0023
Zhengling Lei, Hui Xie, Tielong Shen
Modeling techniques matter a lot in many fields of engine engineering. Models are needed not only for control design but also for energy management. However, problems usually could be encountered during modeling process either because of the system complexity or due to the high cost beyond the affordable range. As a result, a new modeling technique based on offline data and online disturbance estimation approach is proposed in this paper. By employing the proposed modeling technique, models are set up in real time with the online information from input and output. The hard to model part of system dynamics are handled as internal disturbance of the system, while the uncertainties from outside are taken as the external disturbance, and the combination of the two can be estimated online by a kind of active observer called extended state observer (ESO).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0021
Xiaodong Zhang, Jian Wu, Rui He, Haizhen Liu
PEPS(Passive Entry and Passive Start)system is gradually becoming a main stream option in automotive keyless entry application, which improves the convenience and vehicle anti-theft performance. Based on the complex functions and safety technical requirements of the PEPS controller, and due to the development method of the model-based system design widely used in the automotive electronics industry, this paper presents a model-based on the development of PEPS controller method, which introduces the process of modeling and automatic code generation for the PEPS controller. Through Simulink/Stateflow of PEPS controller using logic system modeling, the PEPS controller complex system functions are divided into different function layers with each functional layer modeling respectively, and implement the graphical language logic function design in the model design specific logic.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0065
Xinyu Du, Shengbing Jiang, Atul Nagose, Yilu Zhang, Natalie Wienckowski
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0057
Eiji Taki, Yoshiro Hirata, Yoshifumi Ohmori, Naoji Kaneko, Hiroya Andou
Today, LIN (body systems), CAN (control systems), MOST (multimedia camera systems) is used as in-vehicle network protocol according to an application domain. And, standardization of the next-generation communication technology progresses on each domain. We can expect that CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) is a communication to satisfy the requirements of the body systems (high response, system expansion easiness, high reliability, low cost). The CXPI has major three features to satisfy the requirements of the body systems communication. 1. [High response, System scalability] With the CSMA/CR (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Resolution) bus accessing method same as CAN, each ECU can transmit its message at its own needed timing. CXPI can transmit periodic data and event data. A high priority data is transmitted by Arbitration.
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