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Viewing 211 to 240 of 22015
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0053
Zhaohua Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xiaomeng Shen, Yifan Ye, Quan Zhou, Xiaolong He, Xintong Wu
Regenerative braking used in hybrid electric vehicle can recover energy while braking, which can improve the driving distance of electric vehicle. As commercial vehicles trend to large tonnage, the power of vehicle retarding is greater than the power of vehicle driving. It is hard to ensure braking stability of the automotive only relying on regenerative braking and influence driving safety. This research combines regenerative brake and eddy current retarder. It can extend retarding time by sharing the brake torque of eddy current retarder using the regenerative brake. Meanwhile the regenerative brake supplies electric power for eddy current retarder and it will improve the energy efficiency of system. This paper aimed at target type vehicle that is 20 ton new energy commercial vehicles, and established the regenerative brake model and eddy current retarder model, and then combined vehicle running conditions for the system simulation.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0050
Shyam Kulkarni, Amitabh Vaidya, Priyanka Karwa
Electrical Safety is the most important factor considered while initiating circuit design for any EV modules. EVs contain very high battery power that can be devastating and extremely hazardous in case of any abnormalities. Hence Safety protection in the electrical circuits is the very critical and requires 100% accuracy. Electric vehicles contain many complicated circuitries. These circuits carry very high current & are operated at high DC Voltages. Thus in case of short circuit, very high current flows in the line that can cause severe damage to the car and also can be fatal. Hence each circuit is necessarily provided with protective elements like relays and fuses. Thus these fuses, which appear to be very small elements of the circuit, can become life saver in case of short circuits and can prevent huge damages. Hence, Proper selection of the fuses is very important and critical for an electric circuit. Generally fuses are selected by a very simple process.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0051
Ankita Dwivedi, S K Singh, R K Srivastava
Hybrid Electric Vehicles driven by electric vehicles are very promising in reducing emissions by maintaining high efficiency. The presence of inverters for the electric vehicles adds additional cost and maintenance to the overall system. Line start PM motor is a very encouraging technique for hybrid electric vehicles without any need of inverters and requires very less space. Line start motor provides the advantage of line starting as an induction machine and running as synchronous motor. The paper deals with the analysis and development of a new type of line start permanent magnet (LSPM) machine with conducting sleeve and surface mounted magnets. The use of conducting sleeve for starting the machine as an induction motor and surface mounted magnets on rotor make the construction of LSPM very simple. The cogging torque produced due to interaction of slot and PMs are reduced due to the presence of sleeve over the PMs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0058
A K Gupta, V Kartik, C P Ramanarayanan
Hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as potential solutions to the problems of exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges to increase vehicle functionality. The present paper focuses on the design, development and performance evaluation of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the concept of a new hybrid transmission. A light pick up diesel vehicle is selected as a platform for hybridization because this category of vehicles consumes a lot of fuel. A prototype of the new transmission system comprised of a coupled planetary gear set, clutches and brakes is built. This transmission utilizes two planetary gear trains coupled for multispeed capability and, has the ability to operate two power sources and to control such power sources independently from one another. To demonstrate the practical applicability of the transmission and this hybrid configuration, one prototype vehicle is built integrating the new transmission system.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0059
Rajasekhar MV
Recent focus on environment impacts and energy efficiency has been a key consideration for any vehicle manufacturer currently. These scenarios have led to the development of hybrid vehicle powertrains to acts as an immediate step towards improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. The hybridization of powertrain leads to an increase in overall cost of the vehicle on account of the anticipated benefits of improving vehicle efficiency. This cost factor plays a critical role in acceptance of technology in developing countries such as India to be a wide success. Under such situations the vehicle manufacturer has to devise a strategy for choosing the right technology (parallel hybrid, series hybrid, B-ISG etc) for the right segment of vehicle that can play a major role in making the vehicle a big success.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0055
Jignesh Sindha, Basab Chakraborty, Debashish Chakravarty
The dynamic stability of a vehicle is of profound significance which has led three wheel vehicles to be used for only low speed application. Static Stability Factor (SSF) is a commonly used safety rating for vehicles. In this paper, stability of a three-wheeled vehicle with two wheels on the front axle (2F1R), a three-wheeled vehicle with two wheels on the rear axle (1F2R) and a standard four-wheeled vehicle are compared. A particularized formula for SSF of a three wheel vehicle is derived. Critical cornering conditions for lift-off are identified for both three wheeler configurations. Three wheelers with tilting wheel mechanism are seen as a potential solution for high speed stability. The mathematical model is derived for dynamic load transfer in case of tilting wheels. A comparison is carried out for cornering stability enhancements that can be achieved through tilting mechanism during critical cornering conditions.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0057
Sumit Gupta, Prateek Patel, Harish Chandra, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
In Hybrid vehicles the torque split and Gear Shift optimization strategy is generally cycle dependent and behaves significantly different in Real world driving conditions. This project helps us to optimize the torque split and gear shift points simultaneously for Real World and certification drive cycle for Hybrid Electric vehicle. Now the level of trade-off in optimization between certification and Real World conditions can be selected. The methodology evaluates Objective function at each and every operating point for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor-generator (E-machine) corresponding to all possible torque split and gear shift combinations at a particular instant and finally choose one combination with a least value of objective function (which is dependent on emission and fuel consumption, and is restricted under various constraints like drivability, component operational limits etc).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0064
Mukund Arvind Kulkarni, Gajanan Kale, Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Dandamudi Chinranjeevi, Vinten Diwakar
Electric Mobility is getting to be reality and Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are presently being created and marketed on an expansive scale. This has an enormous impact on all electrical and mechanical frameworks in a car, displaying new effectiveness, size, safety and expenditure challenges. This implies that new ideas must be produced at both component and system architectural levels. There is at present a pattern in the automotive industry to supplant combustion engines with electric motors or a mix of an electric motor and a combustion engine, thereby significantly decreasing the environmental impact of automobiles by diminishing (i.e., hybrids/crossovers) or totally eliminating (i.e., electric vehicles) car emissions.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0065
Mukund Arvind Kulkarni, Rajkumar Bhagate, Arun S, Gajanan Kale
The vibration of a vehicle often causes discomfort, fatigue and even injury to passengers. Therefore reducing vibration levels to a tolerable range is one of the most important goals in electric vehicle design. Since ride comfort is determined by road roughness and vehicle properties, the uncertainty of ride comfort results from uncertainties of road roughness and vehicle property data. A general multi-body dynamics formulation is employed to obtain dynamic response to evaluate the ride comfort uncertainty. The effects of individual and overall design variable uncertainties on the ride comfort are investigated for the reliability analysis and NVH acceptability of the electric vehicle under consideration. In order to control exterior Noise and Vibration, the sound pressure levels (SPL) of the car exterior structure-borne noise is investigated and suitable NVH solutions was implemented.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0062
C. Subramoniam
Abstract The solution for high fuel economy, low emission and long range requirement is the hybrid vehicle technology. The hybrid powertrain consists of an engine and a hub-motor as two power sources. Vehicle starts with electric mode and changes to engine operation at a predetermined speed. The electric mode operation is normally very smooth as it does not have reciprocating parts and exhaust noise. During the changeover from electric mode to engine mode, a step increase in vibration, noise and associated with a jerk feel were observed. Achieving the smoothness in all operating conditions is essential to meet customer requirements. The tools and techniques used to solve the noise and vibration problems in a hybrid powertrain are explained in this paper. The noise analysis was done using both subjective rating and objective measurements.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0063
Dipanjan Mazumdar, Surajit Das, Pramila Rao, A Sivakumar, S Jabez Dhinagar
The hybrid technology enables a regular two wheeler rider to accept the electric technology without the fear of getting stranded on road, as the internal combustion engine can be switched ON whenever required or the when the battery capacity is depleted. In a parallel hybrid four modes of operations are possible. Apart from pure EV and pure engine mode two hybrid modes can be enabled. One is hybrid economy mode which is the start- stop mode, in which the vehicle starts in electric mode and switches over to engine at higher speeds and the second one is the hybrid power mode in which both the IC engine and traction motor is switch ON simultaneously. A hybrid two-wheeler require two different types of motors for enabling the start stop operation- one is the traction motor and second is the starter motor. Two separate batteries are used in a vehicle to power the motors as their operating voltages are different.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0073
Prateek Patel, Tapan Sahoo, Harish Chandra
The two major benefits of hybridization of automotive powertrain are realized in the form of engine downsizing and capturing free energy using some form of onboard recuperation system. The design of such systems is mostly driven by iterative simulations. However, this study is about quantitatively deriving the potential of regenerative braking from Indian driving perspective. The calculation results are based on Indian homologation cycle and collection of real world driving data and condensing them into meaningful drive cycles for prominent Indian cities. This study further calculates component and control strategy requirements and quantitatively defines the compromises that would result due to the calibrations in strategy. This enables the engineers to make concrete data driven decisions. (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2010) The study also comprises incorporating safety related considerations in system design e.g. Stability while wheel lock, ABS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0070
Sachin P. Pandit, Sarika Kelkar, Nikhil Mittal
Hybridization of Automobile powertrain is a powerful strategy towards reducing emissions and enhancing fuel economy. However the benefit of a HEV, depends solely on the energy management strategy involved. A variety of algorithms have been proposed so far, which are often computationally complex and/or require several iterations of vehicle testing. Herein, we propose a very cost-effective and time-saving approach of tuning HEV control parameters that can predict the emissions and fuel consumption on any given drive cycle, for the given vehicle. We describe in detail the proposed control strategy and provide experimental data demonstrating the efficacy of the same.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0069
Akhilesh Prasad Singh
Electric vehicles are very important need to the World in present situation of environment, limited fossil fuel resource and problems of road transportation. Many R&D works are going on all over the World to make an alternative vehicle like fuel cell, capacitor charge, Hydrogen fuel, hybrid, battery operated vehicles for fossil fuel based vehicles but due to their limitations it has not become practical. The overhead supply adopter play important role in rubber tyre wheel Electric Trolley bus to take power from pair of overhead supply line but restrict the operation of ETB as well as problem of de-wirement. The new design of Electronic current collector (ECC) is having panto-graph structure connecting both overhead wires (P &N) with full rolling flexibility to ETB without short. The ETB with ECC ply like normal fuel buses i.e turns, overtaking, multi-lines crossings etc).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0078
Prabhat Pustake, Basab Paul, Syrus Nedumthaly, Pramaan Arcot, Madhan Mohan, Karthikeyan Ethirajan
Rolling resistance contributes ~8% impact on energy efficiency of an automobile. This paper emphasises on how power consumption in an electric vehicle architecture is minimized by reducing rolling resistance through optimization of design parameters in front axle unitised bearing. Optimum bearing design selection can result upto 10% lesser power consumption hence increasing vehicle efficiency. Suitable testing results and calculations establish the claims in reduction of power consumption. The effect of higher energy losses due to rolling resistance are prominent in Electric-Vehicles as compared to IC-Engine cars due to significantly lower power-train losses which overshadow rolling resistance losses in conventional cars.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0066
C S Nanda Kumar, C S Shankar Ram
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are emerging as alternatives to the traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) driven vehicles to meet stringent emission norms, environmental and energy concerns. A commonly seen HEV configuration is the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), in which both the ICE and electric motor are mechanically coupled to drive the wheels. Depending on level of hybridization, which is defined as the ratio of motor power to the total power of the drive train, the PHEV is further classified into Mild, Full, and Plug-in hybrid. Regenerative braking is a key feature in HEVs that improves the fuel economy. The amount of energy recovered again depends on the motor and battery specification. The design and analysis of the drive system and the control strategy for a typical Indian vehicle is the key focus of this paper.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0077
Amit Kumar Baghel, Pawan Kumar, Praveen Kumar PhD
In this paper a thorough analysis of the impact of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, both in current scenario and that in long term with time-line year as 2030 is done. By comparing the Co2 emissions of different vehicles in today’s scenario and by 2030, we can say that EV and HEV will be very much suitable for future transportation. Two more advantages of using EVs and HEVs will be: one the KWh required per km will be less and another is: Renewable sources of energy can also be used for charging the batteries. This will reduce the burden on thermal power plants in countries like India where 6 0% electricity demand is fulfilled by these power plants.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0076
Sudha Bansal
This paper proposes an integrated neuro fuzzy system (INFS) to interface and deliver maximum power from a PV system for battery charging. The full bridge dc/dc converter is used to interface between the PV output and the load. Full bridge ZVS DC/DC converter reduces the switching losses, voltage and current stress of the switching device. The performance of the system is evaluated using proposed controller and compared with the other MPPT algorithm i.e. P&O and fuzzy based approach. With this combination of the system i.e. soft switched dc/dc converter and INFS MPPT algorithm, high efficiency can be easily attained.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0074
Ross Milligan, Tariq Muneer, Ian Smith
Abstract In the UK, a quarter of all CO2 emissions come from transport and approx. 90% of this comes from road vehicles. According to the UK Government (a) at the end of 2013 there were 35 million vehicles licensed for use on the roads of UK and during 2013, over 4300 new ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEV – vehicles with emissions of CO2 below 75 g/km, or fully electric) were registered for the first time, this is 25% up on 2012. This included over 3600 cars and vans eligible for UK government ‘plug-in grants’ this too is up, nearly 50% more than in 2012. The largest increase for individual models were the Renault Zoe and the Nissan Leaf being the most popular electric vehicles available to the European market.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0086
Sumedha Sharma, Amit Dua, Surya Prakash, Neeraj Kumar, Mukesh Singh
Smart Grid (SG) is envisioned to become one of the leading technologies of the modern era by replacing the traditional electric grid with a modern information and communication infrastructure. SG can be integrated with distributed renewable energy (RE) resources to reduce congestion on the transmission lines. In this paper, a Central Energy Management System (CEMS) is proposed which primarily includes RE along with necessary energy storage infrastructure such as electric vehicles (EVs), and battery energy storage system (BESS). The main aim of CEMS is to control the flow of energy in the grid. It consists of information and communication technology to enable a two-way communication between the utility, and consumer. The objective of the current proposal is to implement a real-time green energy management system in SG environment to make a balance between demand and supply.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0084
Nand Arora, Mukesh Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar, Anish Jindal
This paper provides a Smart Meter (SM) system for Smart Homes (SH) which can measure the active energy consumption of each device installed in the building. This system also enables the user to control the devices of SH as per their requirements. It keeps full record of the rated current of each device and automatically switches off the device in case the current through it exceeds the safe limit. It also provides the information of the tariff of different utilities which are connected to the SH. This SM has an additional feature of automatic switching to the power supply with minimum tariff at any instant of time. Further, this SM can also regulate the charging facility for the Electric Vehicles (EVs).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0082
Mukesh Singh, Rubi Rana, Kuljeet Kaur
In this paper, frequency regulation in the smart grid environment is achieved by controlling the charge and discharge rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) battery. The aggregators at the charging station (CS) level are designed which help in coordinating the group of EVs. EVs will charge or discharge based on the need of the grid for frequency regulation. It has been verified that EVs in V2G environment will stabilise the grid in terms of frequency if the coordination among the EVs are achieved through aggregators. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposal. It is finally verified that controlled charging and discharging of EVs battery can stabilise the grid in terms of frequency.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0080
Kannan Thirugnanam
Due to increasing peak power demand and decreasing quality of power delivery to consumers, the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are highly acceptable for grid support. If the EVs are exchange active and reactive power to grid during parking hours, then the peak power demand has reduced and quality of power delivery has improved. The EVs are discharged at a place to be called as a Grid Supporting Station (GSS). The GSS have multiple Discharging Units (DUs) which transfers active and reactive power from EVs’ batteries to grid. In this paper, a fuzzy based control method is described for EVs which regulate the active and reactive power for grid support. The active and reactive power flow from EVs to grid based on the node voltage and amount of energy available in the GSS. Each DU is designed for a maximum power handling capacity of 80VA. The performance of the GSS is analyzed with five set of EVs which is connected through point of Common Coupling (PCC) of distribution node.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0092
Brijesh Kumar Kushwaha, Gautam Rituraj, Praveen Kumar
This paper presents an experimental study of an Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT) system using a full bridge converter operating at variable frequency and variable load. Equivalent circuit models for ICPT systems are used to represent the total impedance seen by the source, by combining the primary and secondary network is described. For achieving the maximum efficiency, a condition is derived. A variable frequency controller is used to control the switching frequency of the converter to transmit the power through inductive coils are described. The modeling of ICPT system, design criteria and its controller details are discussed. Efficiency curves are plotted with respect to variation in frequency and load. The problem of frequency deviation that makes an inefficient power transfer has been investigated. The results obtained from this study provide a foundation and understanding for future design and control of ICPT systems.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0093
Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram
Despite the major improvements in battery performance over recent years and the development of hybrids and plug in hybrids to solve the problem of range anxiety, the market penetration of electric vehicles remains stubbornly low. Even though the fuel costs of EVs are much lower than the alternatives the high price of EV batteries is one of the problems which still deters buyers. With the increasing popularity of electric vehicles, "range anxiety" is now being replaced by "charging anxiety". The Electric Highway give EV users "Range Confidence" that recharging is available should they want to travel between towns/ communities or make long distance road trips. Knowing that Charging is easy and convenient helps to encourage people and businesses to buy and drive plug in Electric vehicles. Increasing the market demand for electric vehicles helps reduce the impact upon the environment and dependency on foreign oil.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0088
Aditya M. Deshpande, Kartik U. Deshpande
India is the third largest market for the automobiles. But less than 1% of total automobiles on-road in India are Electric vehicles, one of the factor is lack of charging infrastructure in India. This paper refers how to increase charge stations by utilizing electricity from electric poles and convert it into DC to charge the electric vehicles, while charging rate is limited through a controller which takes the input from electronic data capture machine. Hence every electric pole has a potential of becoming charge station. This improvement in charging infrastructure will foster the growth of electric vehicles in Indian market.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0087
Kashyap Lilabhai Mokariya, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
Electric Vehicle will be a necessity in several years because of the increase in prices of crude oil. The energy storage will play a major role in day to day life. In modern days it can be done effectively and efficiently using batteries .One of the ways to use the batteries in efficient way is to utilize the battery of a car. A car is usually parked for more than 20 hours a day on an average scale. The energy stored in the battery can be utilized to perform various functions on a grid. This paper focuses on the various aspects of vehicle to grid integration. These include charging a battery to its discharging. Four quadrant operation of battery is explained and results are simulated and discussed in matlab simulink environment.The advantages and limitations of V2G are also discussed.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0005
Sankar Selvakumar
There are several bidirectional converters are proposed to integrate batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cell, electric motors, etc., to control the motoring and regenerative breaking effectively in Electrical Vehicle (EV); however, in regenerative breaking the breaking action is much affected because of a) failure of regenerative breaking at lower back emf, and b) discontinuous input current at the motor end. In addition, the traditional BDC are incapable to switch the power flow direction from one to another instantaneously. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed an instantaneous mode switching bidirectional Boost/SEPIC converter to extract maximum power even under low speed and to switch the power flow direction instantaneously from motoring mode to regenerative breaking mode and vice versa. Finally, the computation results of proposed BDC and traditional BDC are compared.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0068
Kumar Piyush, Alok Gautam, Abhijit Bora, Harivansh Dayal, Chinam Patro, Tapan Sahoo
In the automobile industry, high fuel prices and growing environmental concerns have continuously driven up the demand for fuel efficient vehicles. Improved transmission and engine design, aerodynamics, fuel quality improvement and weight reduction are some of the various methods which can contribute to increase in fuel efficiency. Reduction in the weight of wiring harness can lead to decrease in overall vehicle weight, which was a key motivation that led us to explore a light weight, cost effective alternate conductor in the form of aluminum. This paper explains the methodology used for adoption of aluminum conductor in wiring harness. Keywords: Fuel efficiency, Weight reduction, wiring harness, aluminum.
2015-08-03
Magazine
Big Data, aircraft, and a better future Aircraft manufacturers, in particular engine makers, are exploiting the opportunities that come with collecting the vast amount of data available, from customer reports to engine exhaust temperatures. Why is it potentially so useful? What are some of the best ways to use it? Let the good times continue to roll The booming international commercial aviation sector continues to be a bright light leading the future of the aerospace industry.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 22015

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