Display:

Results

Viewing 211 to 240 of 21492
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and system design is revised to achieve the functional safety. This results in a set of hard rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0189
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Dominik Juergens
A permanent challenge for the development of automotive electronic control units is the steadily rising demand for computing power. One well known reason is surely the trend for co-hosting of functions on a shared hardware platform. But what is also heavily propelling this demand is the raising complexity of innovative functions meant to make the car brand specific driving experience even more unique, extraordinary and/or comfortable. The underlying complex algorithms often accompanied with high safety requirements thirst for faster CPUs. Meanwhile also for the automotive domain silicon vendors try to satisfy those resource demands with new microcontrollers incorporating multiple independent computing cores on one single chip as it is already common for personal computers, server installations, communication infrastructure and even consumer electronics like smartphones or flat TVs for quite some years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei huang, Jinfeng Gong
Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle forms to meet the increasing stringent requirements in energy saving and environment protection. The vehicle control unit(VCU) of pure electric vehicle is situated in the top-level of control architecture and decides the overall vehicle performance in a great degree. Vehicle control unit will be challenged more and more in the future to improve performance, reduce costs and the time need for match different pure electric vehicles. To meet these demands, the China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop a advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles which has well structure on hardware and software level and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. The paper introduces VCP development. The VCP hardware is development based on Infineon 32bit microcontroller TC1782 which uses the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle’s total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. Using finite element modeling, this paper presents a parametric analysis. For this research purpose, we first built LS-DYNA model of SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg , which is a two-seater. The model has no complex components, but it can provide reasonable crash pulses under full-frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0869
Ningsheng Qiao, Chandrasekar Krishnamurthy, Nicholas Moore
Air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance is a condition where the air-fuel ratio in one or more cylinders is different than the other cylinders. When air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance occurs in one or more cylinders the fuel delivery system is unable to maintain a proper vehicle emission level. It is required for on-board diagnostics to detect air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance levels which cause the fuel delivery system to be unable to maintain vehicle emissions at or below 1.5 times any of the applicable FTP standards. Currently California Air Resources Board (CARB) only requires on-board diagnostics to detect exhaust bank specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. In the near future CARB will require on-board diagnostics to detect cylinder specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. This paper presents a non-intrusive approach on determining air-fuel ratio imbalance cylinder identification with an oxygen sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0872
Serkan Kulah, Tijs Donkers PhD, Frank Willems
With the introduction of mass production in-cylinder pressure sensors, closed-loop combustion control became feasible. This was beneficial for conventional diesel engines to enhance robustness against fuel quality variation, injector wear, and (multi-pulse) fuelling accuracy, and to optimize after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced combustion concepts, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), that all rely on controlled auto ignition. Although research shows that cylinder pressure-based control is promising, especially the system costs related to the case in which pressure sensors are instrumented in all cylinders are assumed to be unacceptably high for truck engines. This paper introduces a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty diesel engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1233
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
In response to the challenges of the General Motors and US Department of Energy EcoCAR 3 Challenge, Colorado State University has performed a series of vehicle modeling and simulation investigations. A conventional gasoline vehicle, conventional diesel (B20) vehicle, battery electric vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle were designed, simulated, and analyzed by Colorado State University for EcoCAR 3. Combining a small E85-fueled engine with a large battery pack, a plug-in hybrid architecture is able to provide similar benefits as the battery electric vehicle, but with less mass addition (300kg) and lower incremental costs ($10537). In order for any vehicle architecture to meet the EcoCAR 3 design criteria, the results show it must utilize an electrified drivetrain which can displace the fuel consumption and emissions production of conventional engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1519
Robert Suender, Günther Prokop, Thomas Roscher PhD
Starting from the USA in 2008 and followed by the European Union commencing in 2012, legal requirements concerning “Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems” (TPMS) for passenger cars and light trucks will be introduced in China as well and therefore in the third of the three largest automobile markets worldwide. Changes of pressure dependent physical tire properties such as dynamic roll radius and a certain tire Eigen mode, which are included in the ABS-wheel speed signals, indicates pressure loss in an indirect manner. Systems with corresponding working principles are called “indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System” (iTPMS). Since the tire is a structural element with varying characteristics according to the design parameters, the roll radius and frequency behavior due to pressure loss is variable as well. As a consequence, tires have to be evaluated regarding there compatibility to iTPMS during the vehicle development process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
Sreelakshmi C, Krishnan kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0221
Soham Banerjee, Anand Ganesan, Sudharsan sundaram, Kiran Jasti
The life of a two wheeler and its parts depends much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determines the life and the efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating the life and the other performance parameters of the two-wheeler. Hence it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and gives better fuel efficiency. This paper describes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts, the data collection system and a software application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors present in the vehicle during the run time of the two-wheeler. The data is further processed and sent to the mobile phone of the driver.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0320
Dezhao Zhang, Shengbo Li, Qiang Yang, Li Liu
The reference path played a very important role in the parking schemes. In this paper, an arc tangent liked polynomial trajectory model is proposed, and an optimal trajectory is obtained for automatic parallel parking based on genetic algorithm, which ensures that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles or other vehicles during parking. The proposed algorithm has strong robustness because of that all the parameters of the vehicle and the parallel parking spaces are parameterized. Using the trajectory model with the vehicle and parking space parameters, a cost function with multi-constraints, were established for path planning. The start and end points of the planning trajectory are the actual starting point and the desired final parking point of the vehicle by choosing three parameters of the trajectory model appropriately. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0200
Karsten Schmidt, Udo Dannebaum, Harald Zweck
In-vehicle communication faces a rising request for bandwidth, which cannot be fulfilled by today’s MOST150, FlexRay or CAN networks. During the last years Fast Ethernet has gained a lot of momentum in the automotive world, because it promises to bridge the bandwidth gap. A first step in this direction is the introduction of Ethernet as On Board Diagnostic interface for production vehicles. Next potential uses-cases are the use of Ethernet in Driver Assistance Systems and in the infotainment domain. But already for many of these use cases the Fast Ethernet solution is too slow to move the huge amount of data between the Domain Controllers, ADAS Systems, Safety Computer and Chassis Controller in an adequate way. The result is the pestering request for a network technology beyond the Fast Ethernet solution. The question is which innovation will provide enough bandwidth for domain controllers, fast flashing routines, video data, MOST-replacement and internal ECU-Bus?
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop C P
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing at the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power density ratios. In this scenario, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1306
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into a secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted a comprehensive study of this topic. This presentation will focus on a subset of that study focusing on battery degradation and value, specifically addressing the following key questions: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? What’s the value of a second-use battery?
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1630
Wolfgang Ebner, Michael Stolz, Markus Bachinger, Evgeny Korsunsky
To reach more and more stringent emission regulations (especially lower CO2 targets) vehicle manufacturers need to optimize every single component like engine and transmission but also to develop totally new powertrain concepts. The development of a complete new powertrain is very expensive. Companies try to find solutions to electrify the existing powertrain designs to take advantage of reusing big parts. Depending on system requirements electrification of a powertrain ranges from partly electrified (micro- and mild-hybrid) to complete electrified vehicles (full-hybrid, electric vehicle). A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This work focuses on the efficient connection and coordination of control units with respect on hybrid functions. To use this concept with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants a generic approach is selected.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1634
Toru Ishino, Shinichi Takai
Transmission and vehicle control technology is advancing, and the shift operation format for the electronic gear selector is currently diverging from typical shifters, such as the shift lever located near the center console. As a result, automobile manufacturers find technical solutions that bridge the gear selection operations desired by drivers and the technical demands arising from control. A pushbutton-type electronic control gear selector device was developed with a differing operation direction for each gear operation. This enables instinctive operation that makes it easy for drivers to master the shift operation for each driving gear, while providing the same operating capability as a typical shift device. This new electronic control gear selector is scheduled for .
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt Von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical model approaches, which need to be applied using a multitude of accurate and repeatable measurements. Advanced components like variable valve trains or direct injection systems result in an increasing number of degrees of freedom and therefore in additionally required measurements. Both leads to higher efforts regarding time, staff and costs, why it becomes crucial to improve measurement techniques in order to reduce the required time and enhance the quality. Many of the models above consider the simulated system being stationary, i.e. the system variables would no longer change with time. Therefore the calibration measurements also have to be conducted at stationary system states to be valid and moreover to be comparable and repeatable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1638
Dejan Kihas, Michael R. Uchanski
Due to stringent emissions regulations, engine-out NOx has emerged as a critical signal for control and on-board diagnosis (OBD) of diesel engines and their aftertreatment systems. A physical NOx sensor mounted upstream of NOx aftertreatment devices often provides this essential signal. Recently, numerous researchers and OEMs have used on-ECU computations to estimate the engine-out NOx level. Such work is typically undertaken to either improve OBD monitors or to lower bill of material cost by removing the sensor. These on-ECU NOx estimators are sometimes called inferential sensors or virtual sensors. This paper reviews the literature on-ECU embedded NOx inferential sensors in order to paint a picture of the current state of the art and to identify directions for future work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Misfire Detection in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine Kevin Chen, Ricky Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess and Sam Hashemi Abstract Misfire detection is one of the monitors that have the most specific and detailed requirements in the OBD-II regulations. There have been a number of technical papers in the literature discussing various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, those misfire detection systems are generally not suitable for detecting misfire in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In skip fire engine operation, however, any working cylinder or working cycle may be skipped.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU) or pair of ECUs need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics’ high speed dynamics of with PWM signals frequently in the 10-20kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor co-located with analog and digital input and output, FPGAs make it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of 1 microsecond.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 21492

Filter