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2015-04-15
Standard
J2974_201504
This SAE Technical Information Report provides information on Automotive Battery Recycling. This document provides a compilation of current recycling definitions, technologies and flow sheets and their application to different battery chemistries.
2015-04-15
WIP Standard
J1939/11
This document defines a physical layer having a robust immunity to EMI and physical properties suitable for harsh environments. These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Automated driving is made possible through the data acquisition and processing of many different kinds of sensors working in unison. Sensors, cameras, radar, and lidar must work cohesively together to safely provide automated features. In the episode “Automated Vehicles: Converging Sensor Data” (8:01), engineers from IAV Automotive Engineering discuss the challenges associated with the sensor data fusion, and one of Continental North America’s technical teams demonstrate how sensors, radars, and safety systems converge to enable higher levels of automated driving.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Extreme environment sensors require extreme environment cables that can reliably perform in temperatures up to 2300° F, withstand intense vibration, and have extraordinary strength.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. The quality of fluids used in aviation, such as oil or fuel, is an extremely important safety issue. One way to reliably monitor fluids is through the use of special measurement sensors. In the episode “Fluid Measurements and Avionics” (9:13), an engineer at Meggitt demonstrates the capabilities of time-domain reflectometry sensors, explaining how they are assembled and used. The business case for monitoring oil and fuel degradation, and how to proactively take advantage of preventative maintenance is also explained.
2015-04-14
Collection
Active Safety and Driver assistance systems are gaining importance as many passive safety systems have already been found to have yielded significant safety benefits that are possible from the deployment of those systems in the fleet. Similar success will much depend upon how fast these systems proliferate the entire passenger vehicle fleet. It will also depend on the deployment strategies used by the industry and the government as well as consumer acceptance and market demand for these systems. Additionally, opportunities exist to use the information gained from the various onboard sensors and vision systems in active safety systems for improving the effectiveness of today’s passive safety systems such as seat belts, airbags, and post-crash safety systems even further by the integration of active and passive safety systems.
2015-04-14
Collection
Model-Based Design has become a well-accepted development style for embedded control and software. This technical paper collection is designed to cover new processes, methods, and applications of new processes / methods to reduce development time and improve software quality. A particular emphasis will be placed on methods such as executable specification, design through simulation, early verification, automatic code generation, and model-in-the-loop testing.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection covers the control, calibration, and diagnostics of the engine, powertrain, and supporting electromechanical subsystems related to energy management in conventional and hybrid operation, considering the simultaneous optimization of hardware design parameters and control software calibration parameters.
2015-04-14
Collection
The success of HEV's, PHEV's & EV's is highly dependent on their batteries. This collection focuses on advanced battery technologies, including, but not limited to: advanced materials and cell chemistries, battery management systems and controls, modeling, testing, diagnosis and health monitoring, safety, reliability, durability, battery charging, battery economics/cost reduction, and system integration/optimization.
2015-04-14
Collection
Power electronics and electric motors are essential for improving vehicle efficiency through drivetrain electrification. Technologies that support high efficiency, high power density, and low cost motors and power modules are required for the success of vehicle electrification.
2015-04-14
WIP Standard
AS6509
Fibre Channel is the primary avionics bus on many modern military aircraft. It is also the defined High-Speed bus for MIL-STD-1760E weapons applications. Profiled Ethernet networks are the primary avionics bus in many commercial aircraft and Commercial Ethernet is an ever increasing presence in modern military aircraft as well. This network standard is a convergence of Fibre Channel and Ethernet into a unified network standard which will provide a seamless approach to integrating end systems from either technology into a merged network structure. This work is based upon the commercial data storage market industry’s work on the Converged Data Storage Network or FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet). This effort will look at profiling the FCoE work done in the commercial industry and adding information where necessary to affect a networking standard that will seamlessly integrate end systems from Commercial Ethernet, Fibre Channel, or FCoE enhanced devices.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection concentrates on the development and implementation of embedded software architectures that reside in production vehicle electronic modules. Topics include implementation on multi-core processors, parallel computing environments, multi-processor and multi-ECU systems, and the deployment of AUTOSAR. Expert speakers from the embedded software community are encouraged to share their experiences and opinions.
2015-04-14
Collection
The focus of this collection is on system safety analysis and design of safety-critical systems employing electronic controls. Topics include: implementation of safety-relevant systems, fail-safe strategies, distributed fault tolerant systems and hazard analysis. Application areas include: automotive active safety and alternative energy systems as well as avionics and mission management.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
Abstract The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system (LICELGIS) is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle. The LICELGIS starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed, efficiency and emission reduction, as well as the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the reversing control method and the energy utilization efficiency in the starting process of the LICELGIS. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the fewest driving cycle and the evaluation index are obtained. Meanwhile, the velocity tracking mode and the position tracking mode is proposed for the control of the starting force reversing. The motions of the starting process under two control method are comparatively analyzed, indicating that the former has a high efficiency, while the latter is more likely to achieve.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
Abstract This paper presents a novel technology to achieve very power (4W, 3.2W LED+0.8W driver) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp (55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp (6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm; the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Abstract Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitor systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve visibility of surrounding environment to the driver. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of legally prescribed mirrors. A CMS must also take into consideration several factors in the designed system to satisfy an overall system magnification and system resolution. Some factors pertain to the camera, and display inside the cockpit, but some other are related to the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity, height, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exists a fundamental nonlinear equation for a given CMS encompassing factors that influence the performance of the system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Abstract Due to the development towards automated or even autonomous driving, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will be required in vehicles. The main challenge for this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably. The transformation of these structures and functional principles from nature into technical solutions is combined within the keyword ‘bionic’.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Abstract The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
Abstract Historically aluminum was recognized as a valuable material to achieve weight reduction targets in engines, vehicle chassis and suspension. Aluminum needs to be also considered in new areas like vehicle electrification to support the overall weight reduction targets. The use of aluminum helps to improve fuel economy and brings down CO2 emissions by reducing weight. This benefit is an attractive option for the wiring harness to replace heavier copper conductors. In addition to large cross section wires for power cable, where aluminum conductors are already in use, the intermediate aluminum cable cross section of 2.5mm2 to 6.0 mm2 provides a good potential for car implementation to hit weight saving targets. The major implementation roadblocks for aluminum technology are the surface oxides Al2O3 which are an insulator and the potential galvanic corrosion of aluminum in combination with the always present copper terminal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Abstract For tubular terminals and high power junctions, the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) could be a technical solution to produce aluminum - copper assembly. LEONI has launched a study to evaluate this technology. Besides, the lifetime of vehicle components is an issue that manufacturers should consider during all the development phases from the conception to the validation in service. Consequently, the quality of the interface aluminum-copper obtained by MPC is evaluated in terms of microstructure, of electrical and mechanical properties and to describe the corrosion behavior.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei Huang, Jinfeng Gong
Abstract Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle types to meet the increasingly stringent standards in energy saving and environment protection. To meet the control demands, China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop an advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles. The developed VCP is well structured on both hardware and software and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. This paper describes the design of the hardware, the software architecture, the base software and the control strategy applied in the VCP in detail. A matching method is proposed to configure the VCP to a real VCU for the specific application by modifying the hardware channel definition and the control parameters. The paper shows successful application of the VCP on several types of pure electric vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Abstract This paper presents the engineering aspects of an integrated, monolithic, angular position sensor to be developed as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) in accordance with ISO-26262[1]. The sensor is a Hall-effect-based angular sensor, used in a wide range of automotive, safety-critical applications such as accelerator pedal position, throttle-valve position, or any other application requiring the accurate measurement of the angular position of a mechanical part. The assumed safety requirements allocated to this sensor have to be developed according to ASIL-C. The mapping between technical safety requirements and architecture elements, as conveyed by the technical safety concept, will be first presented. Failure mode effect and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA)[2], supporting the safety mechanism specification will be discussed next; here a safety mechanism selection guide is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
Abstract This paper presents two newly developed technologies of optimizing impurity diffusion concentration for silicon semiconductor material and controlling internal stress of the top SiN (Silicon Nitride) layer on a membrane of a silicon substrate to apply them to the manufacturing process of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) type air-flow sensor chips. Until today, in MEMS-type airflow sensors, poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) and platinum were widely used as a resistor material of key functional elements on a membrane of air-flow-rate measurement portion. The functional resistors on the membrane are required to monitor high temperatures of about 300 °C and to perform the self-heating operations at that temperature range because of the suppression of contaminant deposition by means of evaporation or incineration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Abstract Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the mass-market segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0254
Chunjing Lin, Sichuan Xu, Zhao Li, Guofeng Chang
Abstract A passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (PCM) for large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion batteries is designed. A battery module consisting of six Li-ion cells connected in series was investigated as a basic unit. The passive TMS for the module has three configurations according to the contact area between cells and the composite PCM, i.e., surrounding, front-contacted and side-contacted schemes. Firstly, heat generation rate of the battery cell was calculated using the Bernardi equation based on experimentally measured heat source terms (i.e. the internal resistance and the entropy coefficient). Physical and thermal properties such as density, phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the composite PCM were also obtained by experimental methods. Thereafter, thermal response of the battery modules with the three TMS configurations was simulated using 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0255
Claudia Meis, Stefan Mueller, Stephan Rohr, Matthias Kerler, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract Battery aging in electric and hybrid vehicles is a major issue, and one which has to be taken into consideration during all stages of the vehicle lifecycle. It depends on many factors, such as the cell chemistry, the cell design and stress factors as well as the current rate, ΔDOD and temperature. The stress factors have been identified as being crucial due to their influence on two important battery parameters: capacity and inner resistance. Battery aging models are essential to describing the interacting influences that stress factors have on battery parameters. They provide insights about battery aging without the need for extensive measurements. Various battery aging models with widely varying capabilities are described in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide a decision guide for utilizing the most appropriate aging model for the major stages of the vehicle lifecycle: vehicle development, operation (onboard and offboard) and post-operation.
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