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Viewing 181 to 210 of 21556
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Developing software components in compliance with ISO 26262 is a challenging task. The ISO standard recognizes model-based development as a preferential development approach and recommends the use of model-based design in order to reduce possible software errors and improve software quality. The ISO standard recommends which techniques and methods should be used, but not how they should be applied or how these methods and techniques can be mapped to a company-specific development process. This paper describes a straightforward approach for achieving ISO 26262-compliant model-based software components in 10 steps. These steps include test-focused requirements, test coverage on integration level, modeling guidelines and model reviews, definition of the tool chain, as well as development process and software unit specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr, Thomas End
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)’s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For that reason the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0174
Advaita Datar, Amey Zare
Abstract Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques commonly use static analysis to detect property violations in modern software systems. However, besides checking for general programming errors like division by zero, array index out of bound etc., certain program patterns can also be verified in order to detect inconsistencies in the software. For instance, there could be several strongly related program entities, such as groups of variables or data structure members updated together, which are often observed across various parts of a program. We term such strongly related entities as group variables. When only a subset of group variables is updated at some part of a program, it could probably be a result of some inconsistency in implementation which may lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. Therefore, verifying group variables and their write operations is essential to ensure the safety and reliability of software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei Huang, Jinfeng Gong
Abstract Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle types to meet the increasingly stringent standards in energy saving and environment protection. To meet the control demands, China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop an advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles. The developed VCP is well structured on both hardware and software and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. This paper describes the design of the hardware, the software architecture, the base software and the control strategy applied in the VCP in detail. A matching method is proposed to configure the VCP to a real VCU for the specific application by modifying the hardware channel definition and the control parameters. The paper shows successful application of the VCP on several types of pure electric vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1468
Radovan Miucic, Xinzhou Wu, Sue Bai, James Misener
This paper explores using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) that can improve safety by exchanging messages between vehicles and pedestrians. In recent years, the percentage of pedestrian fatalities has risen in the US compared to other traffic crash victims. In 2012 alone there were 4743 pedestrian fatalities, which is 14.1 percent of the total fatalities. DSRC is the next chapter for the advanced vehicle safety systems, which can reduce the total number of fatalities and injuries. Even though the DSRC was intended for the vehicle-to-vehicle communication it can be extendable to vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In August 2012 we successfully demonstrated this prototype safety system using an off-the-shelf smartphone with a modified Wi-Fi transceiver and a DSRC-equipped vehicle. In addition to existing on-board sensors, DSRC can provide an opportunity to increase pedestrian visibility, enable the vehicle to warn the driver and assist in vehicle control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new feature rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems using the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0290
Amin Tahmasbi-Sarvestani, Hadi Kazemi, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0302
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
The idea of grid friendly charging is to use electricity from the grid to charge batteries when electricity is available in surplus and cheap. The goal is twofold: to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid and power generation, and to reduce the cost to the consumer. If prices are known in advance (day-ahead pricing), the optimization only requires picking the cheapest time slots for charging the battery. Further savings can be made by using real time prices that are not known in advance, but the optimization problem then depends on price prediction models. A previous study considered the problem of charging an electric car using day-ahead and real time tariffs as provided by a smart meter tariff. It presented a simple suboptimal approach, which did not include a model of the electricity grid.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0152
Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Marta Kolasa, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin, Tomasz Talaska
Modern safety algorithms in automotive industry have to be fast enough to assure an appropriate safety level in systems that feature high dynamics. On the other hand, such algorithms more and more frequently must be realizable in hardware with limited computation resources. Usually there is a trade-off between those two aspects and thus both new system level and new hardware level solutions have to be pursued. One of the key blocks in any signal processing paths are filters used, for example, to remove the noise in order to enhance input data in following step processed by the safety algorithms. Looking from this point of view filters facilitate the work of such algorithms that potentially can be simplified in this way. During the design process of any filter, various trade-offs exist between such parameters as group delay that results from the filter length, steepness of the transient band, attenuation in the stopband, etc.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0153
Reinhold Blank
Today, the electrical and electronic system in vehicles is one of the core systems – with big influence on functionality and quality. And it is – besides the engine – the most expensive part of the vehicle. The ongoing pressure on saving cost (and weight) is also a major challenge to the developers of the E/E system. Every cent saved on a car creates substantial savings, since most systems are applied to platforms with several million cars per year. A cost saving target of $20 per car (without negative influence on the functionality and quality) sounds impossible for most insiders. This presentation identifies some areas where the potential for savings is not (fully) exhausted. For each area there are examples out of the global automotive industry where substantial savings with $10 or more have been achieved. Furthermore, the presentation will propose approaches for “Value engineering” and “Redesign2Cost”.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0154
Lei Rao
The ability to provide a tool integrated environment for quick exploration and optimization of system architecture design alternatives is of paramount importance to Automotive industry. It can help to reduce development and production costs as well as production time to the market. Given a large number of design alternatives, engineers cannot evaluate them manually. Hence a flexible and scalable tool that helps engineers to automatically explore the design space and optimally select a design meeting the design objectives and constraints becomes a key to the succeed in this area. This paper discusses lessons learned through hands-on experiences on an existing commercial tool in the market and provides in-depth insights of development process and complexities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine is modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Variable Valve Timing and Lift (FVVTL) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder found assistive for control flexibility with technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures are discussed on two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0161
Hua Huang, Di Di, Yuqiang Chu, Clemens Guehmann
With the continuous growth in the emission requirements and higher riding comfort demand, the shift quality becomes more and more an important evaluation index of the automated transmission control algorithms. Traditionally, the shift quality is assessed subjectively by the driver's feeling according to the ATZ grade from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 10 (outstandingly satisfied). Then the calibration engineer adjusts the control parameters in the transmission control unit (TCU) till the shift quality meets the requirements. However, the real vehicle calibration has disadvantages, such as low reproducibility of the shifting event and high dependences on the driver's driving habit. In consequence, finding the correlation between the control parameters and the desired shifting quality needs professional knowledge and skills.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0164
Smitha Kizhakkae Palakkal, Priti Ranadive, Naveen Boggarapu, Rakesh Rao, Pallavi Kalyanasundaram
The automotive industry today follows Model Based Development (MBD) for developing modern automotive applications. This method involves creating models for a given system under design and then using tools like Matlab/Simulink to auto-generate code for target platforms. This method is popular since maintenance of MBD based applications is simple and less time consuming as compared to maintaining application code. Thus, MBD facilitates correct designs and easy maintenance of automotive applications. However, there are legacy automotive applications that are not developed using models. It is difficult to accommodate and test any changes in such application codes since it requires extensive testing. Additionally, for application code generated from models, many a times, code is changed during testing and these changes are not reflected in the model. Hence, there is a need to convert legacy automotive application codes to models.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0163
Madhura Medikeri, Thomas Tasky, Johannes Richenhagen
With the increasing popularity of seamless gear changing and smooth driving experience along with need for high fuel efficiency, transmission system development has rapidly increased in complexity, and so has the transmission control software. For this reason, extensive testing and documentation along with quick and efficient development methods are required. FEV responds to these challenges by developing and integrating a transmission software architecture called “PERSIST” with an automated verification and validation process called “Nightly Build”. The “PERSIST” architecture divides the software and reduces complexity while making it more modular. The FEV software development process incorporates AUTOSAR standards and safety standards such as ISO 26262 in a structure that aids in the reusability of functions and components, thereby reducing development and testing time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0166
Christian Drabek, Annette Paulic, Gereon Weiss
Car infotainment systems feature an increasing number of functions to keep pace with consumer needs. The GENIVI Alliance aims to facilitate this evolution of infotainment systems by developing a common baseline where services of different suppliers can easily be integrated on a single hardware platform. Since the huge number of services creates more dependencies and interactions, more effort is required to ensure the same level of quality. We present a novel approach and effective tooling to reduce the effort for the interface verification of in-vehicle software components. Our models create different views of the system. Consistency checks and automated transformations between the views reduce the modeling effort and ensure compatible interactions of distributed software components. Layered reference models separate the description of the structure and the behavior of the services’ communication.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0168
Steffen Lampke, Simon Schliecker, Dirk Ziegenbein, Arne Hamann
The underlying theories of, both, control engineering and real-time systems engineering, assume idealized system abstractions that mutually neglect central aspects of the other discipline. Control engineering theory, on the one hand, usually assumes jitter free sampling and insignificant (constant) input-output latencies disregarding complex real-world timing effects. Real-time engineering theory, on the other hand, uses abstract performance and resource models that neglect the functional behavior, and derives worst-case situations that have little expressiveness for control functionalities in automotive systems. As a consequence, there is a lot of potential for a systematic co-engineering between both disciplines, increasing design efficiency and confidence. We have taken a standard control-engineering tool (Simulink) and combined it with state-of-the-art real-time system design and analysis tools (SymTA/S and TraceAnalyzer from Symtavision).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0176
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Jens Harnisch, Albrecht Mayer, Udo Dannebaum, Herbert Christlbauer
The implementation of innovative features in the areas of electric-drive systems, chassis and driver assistance systems as well as the introduction of new networking architectures and mostly the increasing in-house software developed by car manufacturers result in new ECUs integrating high numbers of application software components. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. Currently, the applied approaches like sending debug messages over CAN or FlexRay need to be enhanced by further approaches. It is important to accept that timing is a crucial aspect.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0180
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Kai Richter, Konrad Reif, Andreas Schulze, Torsten Flämig
Transitioning from single-function to multi-function ECUs poses new challenges to the software integration, especially the design, verification and optimization of the software architecture with the OS schedule. We must maximize the CPU utilization and run all functions according to their specific timing needs (CPU load, cycle time, execution time, jitters, etc.). In single-function systems, the relation between function/software development and software integration/test is simple: one function, one ECU, one test system. When timing issues are detected, we can identify their root cause and take appropriate action, either in the function or in the platform software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0169
Kazuyuki Nakata, Maya Seki, Ryoichi Nishikawa, Soju Matsumoto, Shinichiro Murakami, Yukio Yoshino
Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper (doi:10.4271/2013-01-0425). Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer’s tasks.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0149
Can Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Zhewen Tian, Zhanwei Tian, Jiafan Li
In summer, when vehicle parks in the direct sunlight, the closed cabin temperature would rises sharply which affects the occupants step-in-car comfort Solar powered vehicle parking ventilation system adopts the solar energy to drive the original ventilator. Thus, the carbin temperature could be dramatically decreased and the riding comfort could be also improved. This research analyzed the modified crew cabin thermal transfer model. Then the performance of the solar powered ventilation system is optimized combined with the power supply characteristics of the photovoltaic element. The storage and reuse of the solar power is achieved on condition that the cabin temperature could be steadily controlled. The research shows that, compared to parameters of environment temperature and the air velocity, the cabin temperature is more effected by the solar radiation intensity.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0179
Ralph Mader, Armin Graf, Gerd Winkler
The combustion engine will be the dominant drive for motor vehicles despite all the advances in the electrification of the drive train, for many years. The greater are the challenges for the automotive industry, especially in fuel consumption (CO2) and the environmental impacts of other emissions. From the fuel supply to the engine, up to the exhaust after treatment, new or improved functions are needed, which are integrated into increasingly powerful control electronics. This modern electronic engine management and powertrain controller will remain key components in the vehicle. As most of the microcontrollers for future applications will be in a multi-core topology, this article gives an overview about how PowerSAR® supports this architectures. It shows the concepts applied in the basic software as well as for the application software designed for maximum throughput.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0183
Georg Macher, Muesluem Atas, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
The number of embedded systems in the automotive domain has grown significantly in recent years. This trend is also strongly supported by the ongoing replacement of traditional mechanical systems with modern embedded systems. This enables the deployment of more advanced control strategies, thus providing new benefits for the customer and environment. At the same time, the higher degree of integration, complexity, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. Distributed system development, short time-to-market intervals, and automotive safety standards (such as ISO 26262) require efficient and consistent product development along the entire development lifecycle. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. These standards rely on risk identification and mitigation strategies.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0194
Hua Zeng, Isao Hoda, William Ivan, Andrew Baker, Syed Kadry, Hiroki Funato, Jia Li, Masayoshi Takahashi, Hideyuki Sakamoto, Ryuichi Saito
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is getting more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of all the electric components for vehicle is evaluated and validated at component-level test bench. However, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of components is changed due to the difference of configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.) because the component-level test is not always identical with vehicle-level test. In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. Also, the comparison between the simulation and measurement results is presented and discussed.
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