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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0059
Christopher Quigley, Paul Faithfull, Simon Saunders, Neil Yates
The paper discusses the development and implementation of an innovative form of in-vehicle communications for the body control in an Ariel Atom niche sports car. A Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus has been developed that runs the LIN signals over the power lines of the vehicle wiring harness. The LIN system has one master and up to 15 slave ECUs. LIN is normally run at a maximum bit rate of 20 Kbit/s, however this system has been implemented at 57.6 Kbit/s by modulating over the power lines. Benefits of this approach include weight reduction, reduction in the number wires, ease in retro-fitting to existing vehicle architectures as only requires a connection to power lines and the ability to monitor the signals via the battery pins of the OBD connector of the vehicle. The approach has resulted in a reduction in weight due to wiring and electronic control unit reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1220
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja M. Rahman, Peter Savagian, Robert Dawsey
The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively in this paper. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both the motors. Induction motor A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor B winding is connected in wye. The choice of an induction motor for motor A enables a lower overall system cost and a rare earth free design while delivering desired performance. Low spin loss design of an induction rotor as compared to a permanent magnet rotor, especially at higher speeds, is the major enabler for the choice of an induction motor for motor A for this application. This paper presents advantages of induction machines (IMs) in automotive industry in the context of this application and an approach to design a cost-effective electric machine.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0640
Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, James Sevik, Katarzyna Matusik, Thomas Wallner, Christopher F. Powell
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. In this paper, we present the results of a proof of concept experiment that demonstrates the use of time-resolved x-ray radiography to measure the density of the plasma in the spark gap during the glow discharge phase of a conventional transistorized coil ignition system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0644
Syahar Shawal, Martin Goschutz, Martin Schild, Sebastian Kaiser, Marius Neurohr, Juergen Pfeil, Thomas Koch
Early flame-front propagation has been investigated in research engines with large optical access for quite some time. Usually, chemiluminescence is visualized with sensitive camera systems and the images can then be used to, e.g., determine flame shape and flame-front propagation speed. However, optically accessible internal combustion engines are limited in their operating range (load and speed), have large uncooled glass parts, and operate mostly in steady state. In contrast, large-aperture UV endoscopes enable optical access in nearly unmodified production engines, operated at speeds and loads significantly exceeding the limits of most “optical” engines. Here, we investigate the image quality achievable with an endoscope system in terms of detecting the premixed flame front. This study is an extension of our previous work on endoscopic flame imaging documented in SAE 2014-01-1178.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0639
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin Lawler, Akram Zahdeh
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are installed on the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data, and various engine events, including combustion and both the start and end of fuel injection are identified.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1660
Takahiro Okano, Akira Sakai, Yusuke Kamiya, Yoshio Masuda, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicle is on the increase to reduce exhaust gas emissions and help resolve energy issues. Regenerative cooperative brake technology has been adopted in these vehicles. The realization of this technology requires a braking system which can accurately control the hydraulic brake in response to a small change in the regenerative braking. On the other hand, the spread of collision avoidance supprt technology along with the growing safety awareness to the car is progressing at a rapid pace. The realization of this technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Brake system that meets these requirements in the past was present. But to promote further adoption, more simple structure brake system is required.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0894
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Yuki Ono, Yuji Mihara
Numerical solution of Reynold’s equation gives an oil film thickness of journal bearing in reciprocated engines. Such numerical modeling and simulation researches have been extensively investigated, and calculation and stand-alone cold rig test results agreed very well. Although, the lubrication condition can be difference between the unit apparatus and the actual firing engine in consequence of multiple phenomenon. In order to clarify the accuracy of numerical research, comparison of calculation results with measurement results in actual engine is important. In our knowledge, there are few previous works in this field. In this research, we developed a thin film pressure sensor to measure the oil film pressure in actual firing engine, and measured distribution of load on the bearing. The experiment was conducted in horizontal opposed four cylinder engine, and the distribution was measured in firing condition while rotation speed was changed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0908
Norifumi Mizushima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
In the conventional type approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating instant fuel consumption rate referred from look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method of the fuel consumption, which corrected the map-based fuel consumption rate using the transient characteristics of individual engines, was developed and validated its utility for a heavy-duty diesel engine, complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0113
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0170
Vidya Nariyambut Murali, Ashley Micks, Madeline J. Goh, Dongran Liu
Camera data generated in a 3D virtual environment has been used to train object detection and identification algorithms. 40 common US road traffic signs were used as the objects of interest during the investigation of these methods. Traffic signs were placed randomly alongside the road in front of a camera in a virtual driving environment, after the camera itself was randomly placed along the road at an appropriate height for a camera located on a vehicle’s rear view mirror. In order to best represent the real world, effects such as shadows, occlusions, washout/fade, skew, rotations, reflections, fog, rain, snow and varied illumination were randomly included in the generated data. Images were generated at a rate of approximately one thousand per minute, and the image data was automatically annotated with the true location of each sign within each image, to facilitate supervised learning as well as testing of the trained algorithms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0888
Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Yuki Ono, Masahiko Kawabata
Several attempts have been reported during the last 10 years or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil to monitor sliding states. A method to measure laser light extinction is frequently used for particle measurement. It would be an ideal measurement if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles cannot be separated from other particles, and therefore this method cannot be actually applied to a measurement device which is used to find out when to conduct maintenance activities and how the state of wear is. Therefore, we contemplated if the following method could be used to predict abnormal engine operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0073
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref
Especially in the production of passenger cars, the reprogramming of electronic control units can be considered as state-of-the art. Today, the automotive industry has to solve the problem that reprogramming of the ever-increasing amount of data takes too long. The CAN bus as interface hit the wall, CAN-FD might solve the problem, Ethernet will do. UDSonIP (ISO 14229) on DoIP (ISO 13400) and Ethernet (IEEE 802.11) are employed in the production of high-class passenger cars. On those vehicles, former discretionary pins of the OBD connector (SAE J1962) are used for the wired connection of external test equipment that supports UDSonIP. With a device that that fits the OBD connector and acts as a bridge between the Ethernet signals to WLAN, external test equipment that supports wireless communication, can be connected to the vehicle. Examples for such wireless devices include smart phones and tablets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0099
Deepak Venkatesh, Arockia Selvakumar
The concept of camless engines enables us to optimize the overall engine efficiency and performance, as it provides great flexibility in valve timing and valve displacement. This paper deals with design of camless engines with pneumatic actuator. The main objective of this research is to build a prototype and test its performance at different engine speeds. Also an extensive research on the sensors is done to detect the various sensors that could be used to identify the crankshaft position. In addition the overview of the proposed camless engine system is focused with the design principles and the components used. The developed pneumatic system is capable of actuating at 1500 rpm and demonstrates the ability of pneumatic actuators to be used in an internal combustion engine with low rpm needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0109
Dariusz Cieslar, Krzysztof Kogut, Maciej Różewicz, Mateusz Orlowski
Enhanced perception algorithms are the key requirement for the introduction of more sophisticated active safety functionalities in urban areas. In order to realize test-driven development from an early stage, either a set of representative and comprehensive test-drive logs needs to be available up front or a sufficiently universal simulation environment for virtual manoeuvres should be employed. In this article a case study of developing a radar-based estimator for target heading is considered. This relatively standard problem serves as an illustrative example to assess the merits of inherently simplified stimulus generated from virtual manoeuvres and its limitation in comparison to real measurements. It is argued that a convenient modelling approach for virtual scene simulation applied from early development stage can further improve the quality and integrity of active safety projects, especially when they involve multiple sensor types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0111
Hiroaki Tanaka, Daisuke Takemori, Tomohiro Miyachi
Establishing drivers’ trust in automation system is critical to the success of autonomous vehicle. The focus of this study is how to make driers drive an autonomous vehicle with confidence during braking events. In this study, 10 participants drove a test vehicle and experienced 24 different deceleration settings. Prior to each drive, we indicated to each participant the expected brake starting and stopping position. During each drive, participants would first maintain a set speed, and then stop the vehicle when they see a signal to apply brake. After each drive, we asked participants’ perceived safety about the deceleration setting he/she just experienced. The results revealed that ‘jerk’ have significant influence on drivers perceived safety.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0135
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xiangyu Zhu, Qipeng Chen
Nowadays researches of automotive electromagnetic field mainly focus on the component level and electromagnetic compatibility, while there is a lack of relevant studies on internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicles. With the increasingly complex internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicle, people are increasingly concerned about its potential impact of human health. This article researches on a type of electric vehicle and the occupants and analyses its electromagnetic radiation effects on human health. Firstly, considering the characters of Pro/E, Hypermesh and FEKO, the “Characteristics grouping subdivision” method is used to establish the entire vehicle body FE model. According to the requirement of MOM/FEM method, the entire vehicle model is optimized to be a high quality body model with simple construction and moderate grid size.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0137
Heiko Doerr, Ingo Stuermer
A key component of developing a safety-critical automotive system in ISO 26262 is developing what is known as the safety case. This delivery justifies that the systems is free from unreasonable risk and that the safety requirements are complete and satisfied by given evidence from ISO 26262 work products. However, the standard provides neither practical guidance on how the safety case should be developed nor how the safety argument should be evaluated in the functional safety assessment process. This paper discusses quality and product readiness of the system under development in the context of safety case generation. We will focus on the software part and ISO 26262-6 requirements that relate to this. We will look at the software lifecycle of the system and how to measure and deliver key data throughout this lifecycle. A major focus will be on how to best homogenize quality data and monitor critical software quality indicators that contribute to argumentation of the safety case.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0911
Makoto Nagata, Takashi Yamada, Ryuji Ando, Insu Kim, toshihisa tomie
The surface electric conductivity of catalyst material is supposed to be a key parameter for some catalyst reaction however the sufficient investigation has not been performed. In this study, the surface electric conductivity of catalyst powder, such as Rh/Ce1-xZrxO2, Rh/ZrO2 and Rh/Al2O3, were measured by EUPS (EUV excited Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and those conductivity was compared with water gas shift performance. As a result, good correlation was seen between the surface conductivity and the hydrogen production activity by water gas shift reaction, and the contribution of the surface conductivity over some catalytic reaction was confirmed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, advancements in emission legislation and engine control both enable and require further improvements and application of new techniques. To address upcoming real world emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to address this issue is applying virtual sensors which utilize already available sensor information in an ECU to provide estimates of not measured emissions. For real world application it is important that the virtual sensor works in varying environmental and operating conditions and here the choice of input variables can have a strong impact. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of DOE and iterative identification of polynomial models is extended to address varying conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1407
Sama Hussein, Benjamin Hamilton, O. Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Evgueni Bordatchev
Retroreflective (RR) optical elements play a critical role in signalling, safety, and aesthetic/styling functionality of automotive lighting. The commonly used inverted-cube RR structures with hexagonal aperture have significant limitations that are primarily rooted in their manufacturing technique that involves complex assemblies/shapes of hexagonal pins and electroforms, particularly in case of freeform surfaces. This study introduces two new types of RR elements, namely: right triangular prism (RTP) and triangular pyramid. The mathematical/analytical models underlying these two new geometries were detailed as the intersection between a cube and a plane placed in a particular relative orientation with respect of each other. Following this, non-sequential optical simulation studies were performed using Zemax OpticStudio software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1409
J. Christopher Watson, Gennady Dumnov, Alexander Muslaev, Andrey Ivanov, Svetlana Shtilkind
Condensation occurrence in automotive headlights can be detrimental to consumer acceptance of a product. This paper describes a technique for transient numerical simulation of liquid film formation on surfaces during lighting thermal analysis performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), including how the film’s properties influence the thermal solution. The numerical technique presented accounts for the change in the film thermal state and thickness due to heat exchange with external fluid flow and solid bodies, surface evaporation/condensation, melting/crystallization within the film volume, and its motion due to gravity and friction forces from the surrounding airflow.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
In recent years, semi active suspension systems which are energy saving and low cost have already been adopted in various vehicles to improve ride comfort and vehicle controllability. At the same time, various reports have been published that examine the control laws for ride comfort using these systems. Controlling ride comfort with semi active suspension systems, it is necessary to estimate the suspension stroke velocity. There are researches of the observer using suspension stroke sensor and vertical acceleration sensor on sprung mass. However, there are researches of the observer using vertical acceleration sensor on un-sprung mass to develop the simple and low cost semi active suspension systems too. The study described in this paper aim to further enhance the estimation precision of the suspension stroke velocity using the vertical acceleration sensor on the un-sprung mass.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the effects that inappropriate tire pressure has on tread wear and tire and wheel damage. Previous research, such as NHTSA’s Tire Pressure Special Study in 2001, sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) included on all Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s unique on-board data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0459
Jian Zhao, Jing Su, Bing Zhu, Jingwei Shan
Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is a system which monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals from Anti-lock Brake System (ABS). In this paper, a practical indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to the relationship between the tire pressure and the tire circumferential vibration. Firstly, the error of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares algorithm. Then, the measuring error is eliminated and the vibration noise is further extracted from the from the wheel speed signal. Using the vibration noise, the resonance frequency of the tire vibration system was extracted by Maximum Entropy Spectral Estimation (MESE) based on Auto-regressive (AR) model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0467
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Modern brake control system has been widely used not only for handling and stability, but also more and more towards handling driver assistance and active safety features, such as ACC, and RBS for EVs. As a result of the increasing number and complexity of brake control features, the functional overlap and interaction of each subsystem become inevitable with multiple objectives ranging from enhanced safety and stability, comfort and convenience, to energy saving. Under the conventional control architecture, since each of these features or subsystems may be developed by an individual supplier independently from each other, the integration and coordination among them become more and more complex. The ability to interchange one supplier's subsystem with another becomes problematic, which often causes inevitable duplications. This paper presents a novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1495
Motomi Iyoda, Tom Trisdale, Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat, William Rose
EDR (Event Data Recorder) is a function of recording vehicle status at the timing of accident. Toyota introduced EDR from August 2000 one after the other. Now about 70% of Toyota vehicles in North America have EDR. This is more than about 50% EDR coverage of all vehicles in North America. There is EDR regulation in USA, so we record EDR data based on the regulation. We think this is the minimum requirement and we record additional necessary data required from accident reconstruction. They are, (1) additional pre-crash data, (2) additional side crash recording system, (3) roll over recording system, (4) pedestrian protection PUH (Pop Up Hood) recording system, (5) non-crash triggered recording system VCH (Vehicle Control History), etc. Commercially available tool is necessary for EDR data retrieval, based on the regulation in USA. So we adopted BOSCH CDR (Crash Data Retrieval). All Toyota EDR can be retrieved using CDR for all over the world including North America.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0153
Qingkun Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
This paper studies intelligent vehicle threat assessment aimed to improve trajectory planning for intelligent vehicles based on the random tree (RRT) approach, which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. The proposed RRT approach integrates the threat assessment in the trajectory planning and proves to be more efficient and effective compared to the hierarchical framework. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
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