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1979-06-01
Standard
J551_197906
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of broadband electromagnetic radiation over the frequency range of 30 to 1000 MHz from a vehicle or other device powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor. Operation of all engines (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the engine is running is also included except operator-controlled equipment, which is excluded. The recommended level applies only to complete vehicles or devices in their final manufactured form. Vehicle mounted rectifiers used for battery charging in electric vehicles are included in this document when operated in their charging mode.
1979-05-01
Standard
AMS3579
null, null
This specification covers a non-crosslinked polyvinyl chloride plastic in the form of flexible, thin-wall, heat-strinkable tubing with a low recovery temperature. These products have been used typically as a flexible, electrical insulation tubing whose diameter can be reduced to a predetermined size by heating to 150 degrees C (302 degrees F) or higher, but usage is not limited to such applications. This tubing is stable for continuous exposure from -20 to +105 degrees C (-4 to 221 degrees F).
1979-05-01
Standard
AS8009
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance requirements for primary pressure altimeter systems other than air data computers. This document covers altimeter systems that measure and display altitude as a function of atmospheric pressure. The pressure transducer may be contained within the instrument display case or located remotely. Requirements for air data computers are specified in AS8002. Some requirements for nontransducing servoed altitude indicators are included in AS791. The instrument system specified herein does not include aircraft pressure lines. Unless otherwise specified, whenever the term "instrument" is used, it is to be understood to be the complete system of pressure transducer components, any auxiliary equipment, and display components. The test procedures specified herein apply specifically to analog type instruments. Digital instruments or automatic test instrumentation may require other test procedures.
1979-05-01
Standard
AIR1204
This publication will discuss water carryover from the environmental control system with respect to causes and indicated corrective or preventative action. In addition, condensation on structure will be reviewed with possible preventative action described.
1979-03-01
Standard
ARP1311
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes and other landing gear systems) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft. All axles, wheel forks, links, arms, mechanical and gas/oil energy absorbers, downlock and uplock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed and validated in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, damping, etc.) should also be included in this coverage. System level, non structural components such as retraction/extension valves, controllers, secondary structure and mechanisms in the airframe (e.g. manual release mechansims, slaved doors) as well as equipment that is located in the cockpit is not addressed in this ARP.
1979-03-01
Standard
J180B_197903
This SAE document describes alternator physical, performance and application requirements for heavy-duty electrical charging systems for off road work machines including those defined in SAE J1116. The purpose of this SAE document is to provide information on which to base machine and component design and to establish minimum requirements which will result in the most satisfactory operation of charging systems in construction, agricultural, and industrial machinery environments.
1979-02-15
Standard
AIR764B
This technical report documents three surveys to determine realistic vibration requirements for skid control systems specifications and obtain updated vibration information for locations in aircraft where skid control system components are mounted.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
791069
John M. Williamson, Wendell Shawler
Recognizing a critical void in battlefield support tactical air capability in night and adverse weather, a Fairchild sponsored activity was undertaken to develop, build and critically evaluate a near term, cost-effective solution consisting of an enhancement of the highly effective A-10 system. The objective was to incorporate an effective integration of proven avionics with appropriate displays and presentations into a modified A-10, and to demonstrate night/adverse weather tactical effectiveness using this system to exploit the A-10's tactics and munitions. The N/AW A-10 has been demonstrated to be a formidable and viable night-low level penetrator with outstanding lethality.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790895
John Morton, Graham S. Thexton
Recent advances in the application of electronics to the improvement of the control systems for battery electric vehicles have allowed the inclusion of completely stepless systems with regenerative braking down to 5% armature speed for use on series wound motors. These features necessitate the revaluation of the controller/motor options.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790729
W. H. Stover
Cold starting and oil pumpability were studied in a controlled field test with new and used oils. Minimum starting temperatures and the corresponding oil viscosities were established for vehicles with four, six and eight cylinder engines. Oil pumping characteristics following a cold start were also defined. It was found that a lower oil viscosity was required as the starting temperature went down to compensate for loss of battery output. The “critical” starting viscosities were always lowest for the four cylinder engine, suggesting that new CCS viscosity specifications should be based on the needs of small engines. The benefits for using a 5W rather than a 10W lubricant were modest (2-3°C) as were the increases in minimum starting temperatures with a used oil. The six cylinder engine was the most critical with respect to oil pumpability, probably because it had the longest oil pickup tube.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790709
Ulrich W. Seiffert
The number of accident analyses involving lateral (side-on) impacts is steadily increasing. An accident simulation test procedure that is applicable worldwide must first be established in order to significantly improve the safety features of vehicles. Factors to be considered in studying lateral impacts are: the mass, structural design, and rigidity of the vehicles involved in the collision; the point and angle of impact; impact speeds; vehicle interior and design; and the use of restraints.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790668
Keiichiro Yabuta, Hiroaki Nishimura
Judging from viewpoint of automotive safety and more space by eliminating a spare tire, the development of the run-flat tires is important. Many problems relating to weight increase and usability had to be solved in the course of the development of such tires. The “ N ” type run-flat tire, described in this paper, has a simple structure with reinforced side walls and additional beads to fit the rim flanges. Though this tire system brought about a small amount of weight increase, it needs no special part, therefore the conventional road wheels, air valves and tire changers may be used. We have tested and evaluated this tire system equipped with passenger cars as well as on the test machines. Especially vehicle dynamics such as steering, stability and so forth were tested. The test results indicated that this tire system is practical enough.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790659
A. Nersasian
Isolated fuel hose failures have been reported recently for cars equipped with electronic fuel injection systems. Although all of the factors responsible for failure are not known, “sour” or hydroperoxide-containing gasoline was suspected as being the main contributor. A study was undertaken, therefore, to determine the effect of “sour” gasoline on the tensile properties of fuel hose rubbers. Fluorohydrocarbon rubbers exhibited outstanding resistance to attack and the lowest volume swell. Epichlorohydrin copolymer reverted as evidenced by extreme softening and various nitrile rubbers underwent additional vulcanization resulting in embrittlement. Practical fluorohydrocarbon hoses have been constructed for the fuel injection system which resist degradation by “sour” gasoline.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790743
Shigeo Aono, Akio Hosaka, Mitsumasa Inoue
An electronically controlled closed-loop carburetor system has been developed for production application in Datsun car models. Providing a means of complying with Japanese Emission Standards, this design features the electronic control of carburetor supplied fuel with significantly improved emission performance and fuel economy. Technological advances include the noteworthy compensation of oxygen sensor output variations and improved transient emission.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790750
R. W. Lowne, S. P. F. Petty, J. Harris, C. A. Hobbs
When impact tests are performed on cars to assess the level of protection afforded in side impacts it is tempting to use the test dummies which were originally designed with frontal impact in mind. However, examination of the two situations shows that side impacts, where intrusion plays a more significant part in injury causation, are sufficiently different from frontal impacts for a special test device to be needed. This paper illustrates, from crash-injury studies, the types of injury seen in side impacts. These show that forces rather than accelerations should be measured, because serious injuries can be caused by localised forces to the torso and by crushing of the pelvis. The development of a special dummy designed to measure these forces in side impacts has already been described. This dummy has been calibrated against accident data and tentative human tolerance limits have been proposed.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790736
James O'Day, Richard Kaplan
Information on side impact fatal accident cases has been extracted from the NHTSA's 1977 Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) files, combined with parallel information from the National Crash Severity Study (NCSS), and used to estimate the relative frequency of various kinds of side impact collisions. The analysis has been restricted to passenger cars to estimate the number of fatalities, the total number of occupants in all towaway crashes, and the ratio of these two numbers. Data are shown for (1) right and left side impacts, (2) for vehicles impacted by other cars, by trucks, or by fixed objects, and (3) for drivers vs. other seated positions. About 60% of the side-impact fatalities in passenger cars in the U. S. occur as the result of the car being struck by a truck or striking a fixed object; most of the other 40% result from impact by another passenger car.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790567
Arthur W. Hoadley
A normalized lift coefficient indicator has been developed for single-engine aircraft. The system developed incorporates a low-cost capacitance type pressure transducer and an electronic circuit to calculate the wing pressure coefficient. The system eliminates the need for probes protruding from the aircraft's wing by using two flush pressure taps on the wing surface and the aircraft's static pressures. The pressure taps have been located so as to produce a normalized lift coefficient display that is nearly linear, independent of flap setting, and independent of thrust. The system gives the aircraft's proximity to a stall condition regardless of its load factor, weight, or configuration. The preceding should reduce the fatal stall/spin accidents that are one of the foremost killers in general aviation.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790568
R. A. Greene
The recent recognition of severe low-level wind shear (wind directional/velocity change with respect to distance and/or time) has engendered considerable discussion within the performance engineering and flight operations committee. Government-sponsored research has focused on piloting techniques to penetrate and, in instances of great variations in wind component over short periods or compressed boundaries, avoid air masses of different horizontal magnitudes. This paper outlines the development of an airborne system which evaluates the additional excess performance required to overcome the effects of both horizontal shear encounters and downdrafts. The data indicate that the early rapid detection of the sum of the two orthogonal vectors of a severe encounter will significantly improve the go-around profile and thus recovery opportunities.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790569
D. G. Denery, G. P. Callas, C. T. Jackson, B. K. Berkstresser, G. H. Hardy
The Ames Research Center initiated a program in 1975 to provide the critical information required for the design of integrated avionics suitable for general aviation. The program has emphasized the use of data busing, distributed microprocessors, shared electronic displays and data entry devices, innovative low-cost sensors, and improved functional capability. Design considerations include cost, reliability, maintainability, and modularity. As a final step, a demonstration advanced avionics system is being designed, fabricated, and flight tested. The purpose of this paper is to provide a functional description of the Demonstration Advanced Avionics System including a description of the system architecture in order to document the direction that the program is taking.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790623
J. Roskam, M. Rice, H. Eysink
The paper compares the size, weight and performance characteristics of hydraulic, pneumatic and electro-mechanical actuators for general aviation flight controls. Mathematical models for each type are presented. Actuator designs for specific control tasks in realistic light airplane applications are compared with each other. It is shown that electro-mechanical actuators utilizing the recently developed samarium-cobalt technology have significant advantages in terms of size and weight requirements while yielding very fast response.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790622
Daniel K. Bird
The actual development and test of electromechanical actuation hardware for critical, manned aircraft, flight control application that is specifically designed to interface with fly-by-wire commands is now represented by only two hardware units. One of these units was built by Delco Electronics for NASA-Houston and the second unit built by AiResearch Manufacturing Company for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. Each of these units feature inside-out motor designs using rare earth samarium cobalt permanent magnet rotors with electronic commutation and are powered with 270 volt DC electrical power. The innovative design features, incorporated in these two actuation units, are thought to have a significance for the future that will eventually influence actuation design for business aircraft.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790606
R. S. Cerny, J. J. Wycallis
Conventional magnetos require a periodic maintenance schedule in order to ensure optimum magneto performance. Cam, follower and pivot wear together with breaker contact erosion can shift ignition timing and degrade magneto performance. The dual breakerless aircraft magneto development was undertaken to eliminate these problem areas and result in a virtually maintenance free aircraft magneto.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790578
O.K. McCaskill
Bell Helicopter Textron has used fiber reinforced plastic materials in many applications since the earliest appearance of these materials. An overview of past, present and future usage is presented. The discussion includes examples of fuselage, control system, main rotor, energy attenuator and engine cowling/firewall applications.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790176
Alfred B. Bortz
The advent of electronic control systems has enabled automobile manufacturers to consider a vast variety of fuel, ignition, and exhaust gas recirculation system calibrations. Given a control system providing satisfactory performance, it is important to determine the calibration of that system which minimizes fuel consumption while meeting emission control standards. The disadvantage function technique enables an engineer to determine such an optimal calibration through an iterative procedure, interacting with a computer program. This paper describes the technique, illustrates it by example, and compares it with well-known optimization methods.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790179
Thomas Trella
An analysis is presented for the quantitative evaluation of spark ignition engine control parameters (spark advance, air-to-fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation) for optimal fuel economy, constrained emission levels and tradeoffs. Emphasis is placed on the procedures and techniques adopted for the off-line approach using steady state mapping dynamometer data of conventional engines in production. The analysis structure is composed primarily of existing documented tools, in particular, a) vehicle simulation programs, b) FTP-urban and highway drive cycle schedule, c) multiple regression techniques, and d) dynamic programming procedures. Analytical methods are evaluated along with illustrative examples, and discussions are presented on their sensitivities. Applications of engine control parameter optimizations are also illustrated with reference to two engine (one eight and one four cylinder) data bases. Major factors are discussed.
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