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Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Hiroshi Uno, Yutaka Nozawa
Honda Motor Co. has developed two small engine-driven portable generators which, by virtue of featuring cubic “appliance” design, are ideal for family recreational use. These designs involved exploration of many facets of engine cooling in enclosed spaces, design of ultra-small displacement engines, reduction of engine noise levels, improvements of permanent magnet generators, and optimization of user safety not previously considered in the portable generator field.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Yutaka Nozawa, Hiroshi Uno
Abstract There has been considerable delay in the development of small-size, portable diesel engines compared with gasoline engines. This is due primarily to difficulty in overcoming such disadvantages as low power-to-weight ratio, hard starting in cold weather, and generally difficult operation. This has been the situation despite the fact that the diesel engine offers several important advantages, such as operation with low-cost, readily available fuels, low specific fuel consumption at partial power, reliable operation in adverse environments, and the reduction of fire hazard when using low-volatility fuels. The Honda Motor Co., taking advantage of experience and knowledge acquired with high-performance gasoline engines, has developed a lightweight, air-cooled, 9 hp diesel engine that overcomes most of the shortcomings of the small size diesel engine. This was accomplished by giving special attention to the design of the accessories essential to the operation of the engine so that the engine and accessories can be combined to form a complete and integrated powerplant.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
D. J. Barrow
The need for synthetic life testing as an aid to early decisions in new product design and development is discussed. Means of collating vehicle usage and operating regime data and the statistical determination of population parameters from a small number of test vehicles are shown and used as a basis for the formulation of synthetic life test schedules. Special-purpose and multienvironmental laboratory facilities designed to operate over a range of up-rated test levels are illustrated and the need is shown for obtaining correlation between the results of synthetic life testing and the predictions of service failure patterns obtained by road testing.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Frank B. Stark, Winfield W. Loose, Frederick Maltais
Economical new families of automotive printed circuit connectors and interconnection systems are being developed which take advantage of automated installation equipment and provide connections to conventional harnesses and flexible circuitry as well as to the printed circuit boards themselves.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
E. J. Newill, R. L. Larson, G. E. Harland
Recent development work has led to production of two new families of integral charging systems featuring semiconductor voltage regulators designed to employ integrated circuit electronic techniques. The severe application conditions defined by the environment under the hood of heavy-duty vehicles and passenger cars and the tight electrical performance specifications have been satisfied by integrated circuit techniques not previously used in an automotive application. Successful voltage regulator designs open the way for other vehicular applications of integrated circuits.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Arnold J. Thibodeau
The miniaturization and reliability associated with microelectronic circuits has allowed the alternator voltage regulator to be made an integral part of the alternator. This concept overcomes past limitations inherent in electromechanical and discrete component transistor regulators. Advantages gained from the concept include wiring simplification, reduced system complexity, greater reliability and longer life.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Vernon R. Schmitt
This paper presents a new concept and technique for solving the problems associated with the prediction and control of flight component failures which are attributed to contamination of the power transmission fluid in the servo actuating subsystem. Basically this technique assumes that these failures are probabilistic. Mathematical models are then established and comparisons made between calculated and measured values of contamination in a system to determine the degree of acceptability of the fluid.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
A.W. Winkley
An integrated circuit regulator for automotive alternator systems has been developed. It may be used either as a separately mounted unit or incorporated within the alternator. Consideration is given to the choice of micro-circuit, the type of transistors, and the method of substrate assembly. The design features and operation of the circuit are discussed.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Harry A. Augenblick
Increasing air traffic has produced an increase in midair collisions. This paper describes the airborne collision avoidance system (CAS), which is intended for use by large aircraft. It also describes the Dinade CAS, intended to be installed in small aircraft. In addition, the combination of the Dinade interrogator with a weather radar to conserve capital investment, space, weight, and power consumption, is discussed.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Donald P. Hansen, Carl R. Goulet
This paper delves into the electrical characteristics developed in automotive equipment and how these same characteristics meet today’s aircraft requirements of light weight, low-speed performance, higher outputs, etc. It covers the problems of adapting automotive electrical equipment, such as vibration characteristic differences, mounting and drive systems, and cooling requirements under continuous high performance outputs. Differences in wiring systems between aircraft and automotive systems, the requirements of self-excitation, and the requirements of operation without the battery connected in from the standpoint of limited voltage spikes are discussed. Specialized requirements such as radio interference suppression, use of static transistorized regulators, and qualification requirements are also presented for consideration in the use of automotive electrical components.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Charles C. Nosley, David J. Hucker
Constant frequency a-c electrical equipment, consisting of a hydraulic constant speed drive powering an a-c generator, is now available for consideration on business aircraft. This system can provide significant weight savings over other types of electrical systems and provides the same high reliability and good growth potential that has been realized on larger military and commercial aircraft since 1946. The weight savings that can be attained is particularly appealing when the aircraft includes an auxiliary power unit (APU) that can be used to provide power for pneumatic or hydraulic main engine starting. This eliminates the need for the heavy d-c starter/generator and results in lower overall aircraft weight.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
R. M. Stewart, C. R. Spohn, W. A. P. Meyer
Factors contributing to winter hot starting difficulties encountered in some modern automotive gasoline engines were investigated in a two-phase study. These factors were evaluated first in test cars and then in a test stand engine under more closely controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of oil viscosity on an engine's hot cranking torque requirements and the ability of batteries at various charge levels to supply sufficient power to satisfy these requirements were extensively investigated; whereas the effects of viscosity index improvers, precombustion reactions, engine hot soak time, and oil temperature were only briefly investigated. The present ASTM D 445 viscosity at 210 F was shown to be inadequate for predicting the hot cranking performance of multigrade oils and a method for determining an oil's hot cranking “engine viscosity” was developed. The results show that battery condition and oil viscosity are major factors contributing to the winter hot starting problem and can cause hot starting failures without precombustion reactions contributing to the problem.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
J. D. Richards, T. L. Nystrom
The procedure for obtaining the performance of a thermoelectric generator from a knowledge of the materials, properties, the junction temperatures, the leg geometries, and the extraneous circuit resistance are well known. This paper deals with the reverse procedure of designing a device which will perform in an optimum fashion while delivering a predetermined voltage and current from a given input heat flux density. The design procedure is demonstrated for hypothetical 250-W generator utilizing segmented N-type PbTe (type 3N/4N)* and P-type PbTe (type 2P). The optimized performance parameters of these materials under ideal conditions are presented in tabular form. Adjustment procedures are established to account for extraneous resistance, shunt heat losses, and off-optimum design performance. The design of the converter portion of a 560-W portable multifueled generator is reviewed, and the results are compared to observed performance.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Joseph P. Angello, Galen R. Frysinger
The Army has an ever-increasing need for electric power units, the most important capability of which is silent operation. In addition multifuel operation, light weight, remote operation, and versatility are required. This paper describes the development of three such units (10, 20, and 30 amp) which are expected to fill this need. The units are about 3.5% efficient, but improved thermoelectric materials are expected to improve this figure. The units run on gasoline, diesel, JP-4, JP-5, and fuel oil at temperatures of −25 to 125 F and altitudes of 8000 ft with a voltage of 28 V d-c. The units range in weight 25–50 lb.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Joseph A. Mas
The difficulties encountered in charging batteries over wide temperature ranges have long been recognized. This paper discusses the concept of charge acceptance of batteries and its relationship to the gas pressure developed within sealed batteries. A newly developed system of pressure control charging is described together with its performance over wide temperature ranges. This system completely prevents overcharging at high temperatures and assures full battery capacity down to extremely low temperatures.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
A. C. Price
The Battery Subcommittee of the SAE Electrical Committee has developed a new standard for rating automotive batteries. The proposed standard is detailed and discussed in light of its sufficiency in describing battery performance, its usefulness to application engineers in specifying original equipment batteries, and to vehicle users in selecting replacement batteries.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
R. C. Griffis
The basic concepts involved in a technically correct reproduction of the charging system of a vehicle are reviewed. Simplified techniques and procedures are explained for measuring the customary battery variables plus others such as composition and evolution rates of the battery gases as a function of time, temperature, and battery type. The use of only simple and relatively inexpensive battery laboratory equipment and the application of uncomplicated experimental techniques are stressed.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Anthony Sabatino
The thin wall polypropylene battery has reached production status and is presently being marketed commercially. The polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer has the ideal properties that make it the best material for a battery cover and container. Polypropylene containers are molded with thin partitions and thin walls. The added available acid volume makes possible higher capacities for given sizes or new compact battery designs.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Vincent M. Halsall
This paper describes the development of a thin wall polypropylene cased battery. The electrical capability has improved in several areas: watt-hours/pound of battery, watt-hours/cubic inch of battery, terminal voltage over full range of electrical load, engine cranking power, and engine cranking energy.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Dan Schneiderman
The Mariner V mission to and past the planet Venus in 1967 is described and some scientific results are summarized. The engineering challenge and process of physically converting a machine designed to conduct a Mars flyby into one suitable for the Venus mission are discussed, and particular technical problems and solutions arising from this conversion or other aspects of the 1967 flight mission are examined. Finally, some results of a study of test effectiveness in this project are considered.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Peter A. Castruccio
Unmanned satellites have now been used for almost a decade in useful earth-oriented applications; communication, navigation, geodetic survey, meteorology. In the coming 1970-1980 era, these applications are expected to increase in number and expand in scope; and to be augmented by additional applications having to do with the discovery and monitoring of the earth's natural resources, and of other phenomena of interest to man -- disasters, patterns of cultural development, oceanic traffic, and others. These latter tasks fall within the functional category of “observation” tasks wherein the principal role of a space system will be the collection of information, both by direct observation and by gathering data emitted from sensors deployed over the earth's surface. Eventually, these observation functions will be complemented by satellite-directed surface activity -- ships, aircraft, land vehicles. In this later era, the role of the satellite will be expanded from that of pure observation to that of observation combined with elements of command and control.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
J. M. Cumming
A critical evaluation of spacecraft propulsion requirements for the 1970 decade is presented. The anticipated types of this time period are surveyed to identify future applications of present hardware and areas requiring new propulsive media. A prediction of the technological advancements to be anticipated during the latter part of the 1970's will be ventured.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
A. E. Davies
The Olympus 593 supersonic engine uses a two-spool turbojet with a simple reheat system for thrust boost. Control of engine fuel flow, primary nozzle area, and reheat fuel flow is largely electronic and the paper briefly describes principles of system operation before examining the function, location, and mounting of the constituent line replacement units. Procedures and equipment for checkout and fault diagnosis are described. Maintenance philosophies and relevant test equipment were defined when the system performance requirements were specified and the case will be made that advances in maintainability techniques match the increased range of control system requirements, leading to utilization and “go” capability at least equal to best current experience.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
D. W. Read
A variety of clad metals of the copper-aluminum family are finding their way into electrical applications. Breakthroughs in technologies of bonding now make this generic group of materials, hitherto economically impractical, available for normal electrical uses in strip and the all new, wire form. These materials combine the conductivity and joinability of copper with the light weight and low cost of aluminum.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
James W. Shearer
Film and fabric insulated aluminum magnet conductors in round and shaped sections have been developed for commercial application. The physical characteristics of the constructions provide magnet wires capable of being processed in existing equipment. Chemical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the magnet wires predict successful usage of these wires in high reliability products. Termination methods and techniques have been developed which provide versatility of processing and reliability of performance. Aluminum magnet wire can offer engineering advantages when units are specifically designed for this type wire.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Gilbert R. Shockley, Robert B. Lightner
Electric coils wound with an aluminum foil conductor are commercially available and can now replace many copper magnet wire coils in the No. 26 AWG or larger copper wire size range. High-speed, completely automatic foil coil winding machinery has been developed to wind coils at a production rate comparable to the most modern copper wire coil winding machines. The excellent supply, availability, and price stability of aluminum, along with new developments in coil design and winding technology, make aluminum foil an excellent conductor for the electric coil market.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
James R. Voss, Ralph S. Warner
An all electric governor is described for constant speed applications, especially engine-generator sets. The various parts of the electric governor are described. An analysis of the transient characteristics of this governor system on a particular engine is presented. General application of this governor is described.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Terry O. Hockenberry
The dynamic behavior of the dielectric fluid and fluid contaminants, and some of the effects of the dielectric fluid behavior on the electrical discharge machining process variables are described. High speed photomicrographic records showing the dispersion of debris accompanying a single EDM discharge and the removal of the debris by the dielectric fluid flow are presented. Dielectric flushing effectiveness is discussed and curves of volume flow rate for deep cavities are presented. The volume flow rate data suggest that dielectric flushing pressure, the flushing parameter which is usually monitored during the EDM process, is not a very meaningful indication of flushing effectiveness.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Frank Jaques
Synchronized pulsed flushing is described as a method for controlling wear on electrodes during the EDM process, which uses electrical energy to remove material in machining. Background is provided on EDM phenomena. The attributes of wear are specified, and the method of synchronized pulsed flushing is contrasted with continuous flushing.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
D. E. Bender
A vane motor starter, driven either by compressed air from a storage tank or by hot gas from a solid propellant cartridge, improves starting reliability in two ways: 1. When the air supply is depleted, either by leaks or by unsuccessful starting attempts, a cartridge provides the gas power to meet the emergency. 2. When the weather is cold and engine starting is difficult, a cartridge offers higher torques and higher cranking speeds than can normally be obtained from a compressed air system. This system, initially designed for trucks, has been tested in the laboratory and in the field and is now in production. Performance curves for air and hot gas are presented. Cartridge performance and safety are discussed. Reliability figures from aircraft starter cartridges which have been in production for 15 years provide a statistical reliability background for this new starting system.
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