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Viewing 20071 to 20100 of 21010
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700301
H. L. Ernst
This paper presents an Advanced Electric Distribution System (AEDS) for future generations of military and commercial airplanes. Based on development activities over the past two years, and complemented by various suppliers, Air Force and Navy development programs, it has become evident that a “Solid State Multiplexed Electrical Power Distribution System” is the direction that should be pursued. This presentation emphasizes the system application, rather than the specific system or equipment design. It is considered that significant benefits will accrue to future airplane development programs by use of AEDS and associated application of Remote Power Controllers (RPCs) provided that they are incorporated early in the development and applied within their “application limits” as compared to being used as a “direct replacement” for the existing conventional distribution system with associated thermal circuit breakers. These benefits will include such items as wire weight reduction, crew work load reduction, reduced panel space requirements in the flight deck, and automatic load management functions.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700303
Olin B. King, V. B. Ramsey
The application of multiplexing to civilian and military aircraft electrical systems provides substantial improvements in cost, weight reduction, flexibility, reliability and maintainability over conventional hardwired systems. Relay logic and dedicated wires throughout a typical aircraft are replaced with remote data terminals, a twisted-shielded pair data bus, and a programmable central control unit. System reliability and maintainability is enhanced by the use of dual redundancy, built-in-test and automatic fault isolation and redundant switchover features. The system operation is stable when subjected to electromagnetic interference and electrical system transients. Current developments include a Data Handling System for SOSTEL II, device technology in solid state power controllers, and remotely resettable circuit breakers. A review of future aircraft electrical systems indicates that integrating the multiplex data terminals with other elements of the electrical systems will provide even further reductions in aircraft wiring.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700302
M. S. Osborn, D. C. Fox
The increase in the amount of complex communication equipment in aircraft systems has caused problems which conventional approaches to interconnection of independent subsystems can no longer solve. Using point-to-point wiring penalizes aircraft performance in terms of space usage, weight, cost, and reliability. This paper presents multiplexing techniques in conjunction with solid state technology and systems integration as proposed methods which will provide a cost effective solution to aircraft interior communication problems. Two basic systems reviewed are time division and frequency division multiplexing. The proposed use of a digital interior communication system for the SST, and the criteria that no single failure in a common element would cause loss of a signal, led to development of four multiplex systems which are dual redundant. Other features of this system are weight/cost advantages, flexibility, maintainability, and redundancy which insures high operational reliability and flight safety.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700305
T. E. Gidlund
The development of solid state proximity switches, sensors, logic and self-test circuits for aircraft electrical applications has led to switching systems for actuators, thrust reversers, and integrated sensor/switch units with improved reliability, maintainability, and simplicity of application. The advantages of proximity switches over medhanical switches, design objectives, operational details, and features of the system are discussed.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700304
R. D. Gold, F. S. Kamp
Abstract Solid-state power controllers can be designed to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements for aircraft electrical systems. Every stage in the design requires complete understanding of the science and the art of the technical disciplines involved. Moreover, an integrated systems approach is necessary to take full advantage of each technology. The complete safe-area characteristic of the power transistor is most important in design of dc controllers. High surge capability, as well as high di/dt and dv/dt capability, is important in design of ac controllers. Finally, the power-handling capability of the hybrid module package must be consisered.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700299
Robert M. Richardson, Lee C. Keene
What is cost effectiveness? How will it affect the airlines and industry? On an overall basis, it will mean nothing more than good economic common sense; cost effectiveness will be synonomous with success. There are three specific categories to explore with regard to cost effectiveness; namely, technology, systems engineering, and specifications. Cost effectiveness to the airlines can be interpreted as absolute minimal downtime, whereas, its effectiveness as applied to avionics manufacturers will mean cost reduction while maintaining a high degree of accuracy and reliability. This system will be advantageous to those producers who learn the lessons of cost effectiveness as they will multiply and prosper.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700282
John C. Mercer
While other modes of transportation have had a fairly predictable base for projecting future requirements, aviation has historically suffered from underestimating its rate of growth. Couple this with the high speed and short response time of this dynamic business, and we have today's airport and airway dilemma. Analysis indicates that the greatest benefits in system capacity will come from airport improvements and construction. A parallel and companion requirement is airways modernization. Automation and procedural changes are forecast not only to improve operations and capacity at reasonable cost, but can be implemented to offset and hold the line until the expensive and long term airport improvements can be completed. This paper discusses the basic computational-beacon tracking level under contract to be implemented at 64 terminal facilities beginning in 1970, and the important add-on packages under development to increase system reliability and capacity.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700314
P. D. Doran
This paper outlines highlights of the history of developments in the techniques of turbine engine performance monitoring using flight data. The steadily increasing importance of economic considerations in commercial air transport is expected to bring about extended usage of such engine performance monitoring practices in the future as the current equipment builds up time. In any case, the introduction into service of more complex and costly new aircraft is expected to dictate requirements for future continuing development of increasingly sophisticated techniques using flight data to monitor the performance of the advanced engines and associated systems installed in such aircraft. It is, therefore, intended that this paper will help serve those who seek a general perspective on how flight data performance monitoring of turbine engines began, what major steps took place in its development, the extent to which it is in use today, and its prospects for the future.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700317
S. Pauliny
Fifteen American Airlines BAC 1-11 airplanes have been equipped with electronic engine maintenance recorders for the purpose of evaluating the feasibility and merits of automatic maintenance recording on air transport aircraft. The maintenance recorder system and method of data reduction are briefly described. The experience gained to date from this program is portrayed. Some economic projections on the B747 and DC-10 jumbo jets are made based on this experience.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700340
John L. Pearson
In this paper the control of lifting bodies is discussed from the standpoint of a particular lifting body application, namely, the UpSTAGE interceptor. A brief description of the interceptor is given, along with a discussion of the command logic required to capitalize on the advantages of the lifting body in this application. The plant and control mechanism are discussed to illustrate the major sources of cross-axis coupling in the control problem. Finally, the control design approach used, which combines some modern control techniques with classical analysis tools, is discussed, and the philosophy employed in countering the major cross-axis coupling term is outlined.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700343
R. C. Kumpitsch, D. C. Sturges
A most promising approach in the field of flight control surface actuation is the use of independent integrated hydraulic actuator packages located at each flight surface actuation station. This concept eliminates hydraulic plumbing throughout the vehicle thus reducing the external connections to only electric power and command signals which are easily made redundant. The most compact and universal configuration of these packages will use a liquid metal hydraulic fluid thus making them capable of sustained operation in high-temperature environments without need of coolant systems. This paper summarizes the research, development, and experimental work that has been done so far.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700344
G. D. Jenney
Loss of aircraft from ground-fire strikes on hydraulic systems and primary flight controls was the incentive for developing the Flow Difference Sensor, a device that cuts out flow in damaged lines and bypasses it to effect minimum loss of fluid. This system decreases aircraft vulnerability greatly and reduces fire hazard. This paper describes the design, operation, and flight qualification tests of the instrument.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700354
Allan Katz
In this paper it is suggested that the technical constraints of the road-vehicle system, rather than cultural factors, have become the chief determinants of driving behavior in both developed and developing countries. This could explain why the traditional programs of propaganda, punishment, selection and improvement have become relatively ineffective in influencing driving behavior. Further it would appear that at present the most feasable approach for reducing the human factor in road accidents is through the research and implementation of programs which seek a “technical fix” of drivers' problems through engineered simplifications of the driving task. The establishment of policy and implementation of such programs, or any others, in the field of accident countermeasures is a matter of constant negotiation and renegotiation, in which the actors are government officials, scientists, application experts (traffic engineers, doctors, etc.) and the motoring public. Technical, financial, and sociological problems interact in many ways, making the selection of programs which will actually succeed in reducing accidents a highly complex matter.
1970-02-01
Standard
ARP1148A
This Recommended Practice outlines the electrical performance characteristics for a continuous duty, diesel or gasoline engine driven brushless alternator unit for supplying 400-Hertz electrical power to commercial transport aircraft. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing recommendations for various sizes and configurations of equipment and it is a guide for the preparation of detailed specifications. The unit is primarily intended to supply power to the aircraft during passenger loading and unloading, and during servicing operations. The combination of the equipment specified herein and the interconnecting cables(s) between the 400-Hertz alternator and the aircraft shall provide power characteristics at the aircraft receptacle which meet MIL-STD-704 requirements for Category 'B' equipment. Other limits which are necessary to meet specific conditions must be specified by the purchaser.
1970-02-01
Standard
ARP1148
This Recommended Practice outlines the electrical performance characteristics for a continuous duty, diesel or gasoline engine driven brushless alternator unit for supplying 400-Hertz electrical power to commercial transport aircraft. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing recommendations for various sizes and configurations of equipment and it is a guide for the preparation of detailed specifications. The unit is primarily intended to supply power to the aircraft during passenger loading and unloading, and during servicing operations. The combination of the equipment specified herein and the interconnecting cables(s) between the 400-Hertz alternator and the aircraft shall provide power characteristics at the aircraft receptacle which meet MIL-STD-704 requirements for Category 'B' equipment. Other limits which are necessary to meet specific conditions must be specified by the purchaser.
1970-02-01
Standard
J156_197002
This standard covers supplemental requirements for low tension primary cable intended for use as Fusible Links (Fuse Links) at a nominal system voltage of 60 V DC (25 V AC) or less in surface vehicle electrical systems. These supplemental requirements are intended to qualify cables for an extreme current overload.
1970-01-01
Standard
J537F_197001
This SAE Standard serves as a guide for testing procedures of automotive 12 V storage batteries and as a publication providing information on container holddown configuration and terminal geometry. The ratings submitted are to be based on procedures described in this document. The ratings submitted must be of a level that when any subsequent significant sample is tested in accordance with this document, that at least 90% of the batteries shall meet the ratings. The choice of 90% compliance recognizes that batteries consist of many plates and require chemical-electrical formation procedures and small variations in test conditions and procedures can affect the performance of individual batteries. Future Considerations - In order to expedite the release of this revision of the Standard, several topic areas were deferred for consideration in future revisions. These items include, but may not be limited to, the following: post dimension modifications, battery technology agnosticism, and a new, more application relevant charge acceptance test.
1970-01-01
Standard
J849B_197001
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the recommended locations for the air brake and electrical connections for towing multiple trailers. It applies to all commercial trailers except drop frame and car haul types.
1969-12-31
Standard
AS1104
This specification covers that gyroscopic instrument normally defined as a "subminiature rate gyro." The rate gyro, when subjected to an angular rate about its input axis, provides an AC output voltage proportional to the angular rate. The subminiature size category generally includes gyro instruments of one (1) inch diameter or less and three and one-half (3 1/2) inches length or less. This specification defines the requirements for a subminiature spring-restrained, single-degree-of-freedom rate gyro for aircraft, missile, and spacecraft applications.
1969-12-01
Standard
AS414A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers two basic types of temperature instruments as follows: type I: ratiometer type, actuated by changes in electrical resistance of a temperature sensing electrical resistance element; the resistance changes being obtained by temperature changes of the temperature sensing resistance element. Type II: millivoltmeter type, operated and actuated by varying EMF output of a thermocouple; the varying EMF input to the instrument being obtained by temperature changes of the temperature sensing thermocouple. This document establishes the essential minimum safe performance standards for electrical type temperature instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in Section 3.4.
1969-12-01
Standard
AS413B
This Aerospace Standard establishes the minimum sage performance standards for electrical type temperature instruments primarily for use with reciprocating engine powered transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in Section 3.4. This Aerospace Standard covers two basic types of temperature instruments as follows: TYPE I Radiometer type, actuated by changes in electrical resistance of a temperature sensing electrical resistance element; the resistance changes being obtained by temperature changes of the temperature sensing resistance element. TYPE II: Millivoltmeter type, operated and actuated by varying E.M.F. output of a thermocouple; the varying E.M.F. input to the instrument being obtained by temperature changes of the temperature sensing thermocouple.
1969-12-01
Standard
J129_196912
This SAE Recommended Practice has been established to provide direction for the design and installation of an identification number as assigned to passenger car and truck engines and transmissions. In adhering to these recommended practices, facility of application in factory production and appearance are matters for manufacturer control. Reference SAE J853.
1969-12-01
Standard
J392_196912
This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to electrical systems of motorcycles both with and without batteries. Purpose This document provides minimum illumination voltage values for all motorcycle classifications as specified in SAE J213 describes test procedures to determine that these voltages are maintained.
1969-12-01
Standard
AIR1093
The purpose of this report is to provide recommendations for the minimum dimensions of characters and symbols used in aircraft instrument dials and panel displays as related to the conditions stated in para. 3.
1969-11-01
Magazine
1969-11-01
Standard
AMS2695
This specification covers electrical connections made with single, solid, round copper or copper alloy wire wrapped around copper alloy terminals without the use of solder.
1969-11-01
Standard
AMS3588
This specification covers an irradiated, thermally-stabilized, modified polyolefin plastic in the form of thin-wall, heat-shrinkable tubing with a low recovery temperature. This tubing has been used typically as a very flexible, electrical insulation tubing whose diameter can be reduced to a predetermined size by heating to 100 degrees C (212 degrees F) or higher, but usage is not limited to such applications. This tubing is stable for continuous exposure from -55 to +135 degrees C (-67 to +275 degrees F).
1969-11-01
Standard
AMS3587
null, null
This specification covers an irradiated, thermally-stabilized, modified polyolefin plastic in the form of a thin-wall, heat-shrinkable tubing with a low recovery temperature. This tubing has been used typically as a very flexible, electrical insulation tubing whose diameter can be reduced to a predetermined size by heating to 100 degrees C (212 degrees F) or higher, but usage is not limited to such applications. This tubing is stable for continuous exposure from -55 to +135 degrees C (-67 to +275 degrees F).
1969-11-01
Standard
AMS3582
null, null
This specification covers a crosslinked polyvinyl chloride plastic in the form of flexible, thin-wall, heat-shrinkable tubing. Primarily for use as a flexible, electrical insulation tubing whose diameter can be reduced to a predetermined size by heating to 175 degrees C (345 degrees F) or higher. This tubing is stable for continuous exposure from -20 to +105 degrees C (-5 to +220 degrees F).
1969-10-01
Magazine
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