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Technical Paper
1968-02-01
H. N. Seiger, A. E. Lyall
A direct attack on the air pollution problems identified with the cities is to replace the internal combustion engine vehicle with one that is emission free. This paper deals with a small electric vehicle, designed for urban and suburban use, powered by batteries that are sealed off from the atmosphere. The power supply consists of a lithium/nickel fluoride, nonaqueous battery for total energy requirements, and a bipolar nickel/cadmium battery for the power required during acceleration and hill climbing. The object of this hybrid battery system is to obtain performance characteristics not available by either battery alone.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
D. V. Ragone
Battery performance characteristics for automotive power applications can be described in terms of two parameters, specific power and specific energy. Specific power is related to the speed of vehicles and acceleration. Specific energy is related to range. Using these two variables, data are presented graphically for a number of commercially available battery systems and battery systems in development. Included are lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, metal-air, organic electrolyte, sodium-sulfur, and fused-salt electrolyte batteries. The performance characteristics are related to automotive driving requirements for speed and range by an overlay on the graph of battery characteristics. This overlay shows that, for a given range, specific energy requirements for driving increase with speed, while the energy available from batteries decrease. The applicability of commercially available battery systems and the status and technical problems of new battery systems are discussed.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Dominicus A. J. Swinkels
This paper reviews recent work on high power and energy density batteries, which are being studied as possible electrochemical energy storage devices for electric vehicle power-plants. The requirement of high energy density for vehicle applications leads to the selection of battery systems made up of light, highly reactive metals found in the upper left-hand corner of the periodic table for one electrode and the light oxidizers found in the top right-hand corner of the periodic table for the other electrode. Many of these reactive materials will react with water and, hence, water based electrolytes cannot be used in these systems. The parameters relevant to achieving high energy, high power batteries are discussed and several systems presently being studied are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the Li-Cl2M battery.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Bruce R. Laumeister
This paper discusses some of the objectives, results, and implications of GE's electric vehicle and component systems developments to date. The experimental vehicle is covered in detail. The vehicle's styling, construction, materials, power system, operating costs, and performance are discussed with some alternatives and attendant economic considerations. The paper also presents a brief discussion of the power system requirements, performance, and economics of several potential electric vehicles as well as a critique of the potential power sources presently announced as having promise for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper includes pictures, tables, and graphs describing the experimental vehicle and illustrating the points discussed relative to other potential vehicles, power systems, batteries, and fuel cells.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
Robert R. Aronson
A new electric car has been developed which has a maximum speed of 60 mph, a driving range of 70-120 miles on a charge, and which can be recharged to 80% capacity in 46 minutes. The car's tri-polar, lead-cobalt battery and regenerative braking-system are described in detail. The average city or suburban resident could utilize such a vehicle for most of his driving requirements up to 70 miles a day, or under certain conditions, up to 230 miles a day.
Technical Paper
1968-02-01
W. G. Finn
A new and unique variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) aircraft electrical power generating system has been developed by Lear Jet Industries. The LearVerter is a blend of the best features of proven existing systems, and new features which are inherently simple and reliable. The result is a system which has outstanding performance characteristics, meets the needs of both new and existing aircraft, yet is unusually simple and straightforward.
Magazine
1968-01-01
Standard
1968-01-01
The specifications contained in this report cover high tension cable used in motor vehicles or tractor engine ignition systems. DOCUMENT REPLACED BY J2031
Standard
1967-10-31
This ARP covers the general requirements and test procedures for illuminating systems for integrally lighted aircraft instruments in order to provide (a) uniformity of illumination within each instrument, (b) legibility of instrument presentation under daylight or integral light, and (c) uniformity of illumination between instrument displays.
Magazine
1967-09-01
Magazine
1967-08-01
Magazine
1967-07-01
Standard
1967-07-01
This Aerospace Recommended Practice establishes performance standards for overspeed warning instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in paragraph 3.4. This ARP covers an electro-mechanical pneumatic device which is calibrated to provide control contacts that can be made to operate a warning device whenever the indicated airspeed (IAS) reaches a maximum value as defined by the operating limit speed curve for the specific model aircraft.
Standard
1967-07-01
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
Magazine
1967-05-01
Magazine
1967-04-01
Magazine
1967-03-01
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
James C. Blair, Jerome R. Redus
Flight control requirements of reusable launch vehicles are reviewed and compared to those of aircraft, current launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Areas are identified in which more work on the flight control system will improve mission performance. Current work in three areas is briefly reviewed - the use of man in the control loop, the development of systems which can accommodate large changes in the flight conditions, and use of the flight control system to reduce wind-induced loading.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
M. J. Schlatter
Fuel cells using hydrocarbons, methanol, and ammonia fuels, and air as oxidant, are evaluated for vehicle propulsion. Progress and problems in the direct and indirect use of these fuels in fuel cells are considered. In the indirect systems, they are first reacted to produce hydrogen containing mixtures, which are then oxidized in the fuel cells. Comparisons are made with present experimental fuel cell powered vehicles, which use expensive and dangerous fuels and oxidants. Fuel cells are also compared with present and proposed new high energy density battery systems for vehicle propulsion.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
William D. Thompson
Abstract Aerodynamic investigations in tandem twin aircraft are confined mainly to the effects of propeller slipstream variations on longitudinal control, trim, and stability. Slip stream velocities measured at the horizontal tail increase by a factor of three during a transition from a glide to a full throttle climb at 75 mph. Out-of-trim stick forces must be minimized by judicious placement of the elevator trim tab and careful design of the horizontal tail geometry. Rear engine operation is superior to front engine operation in stability, control, and performance, offering 100% more longitudinal stability in climb and 24% more rate of climb at sea level.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Henry W. Gayek
New electronic devices such as the silicon rectifier, transistor, silicon controlled rectifier, and miniature electromagnetic relay are changing the complexion of aircraft d-c generating systems. Their application has resulted in the introduction of a static equivalent of the familiar carbon pile regulator and of the overvoltage relay, as well as a unique protector against feeder faults. As developed by General Electric, these new products provide better voltage regulation, improved engine starts, and better system protection. They are smaller, lighter, and longer-lived than the older electromechanical devices. Brushless d-c generators, also made possible through the use of modern semiconductors, bring relief from old-time maintenance problems of brush and commutator wear. All these new products represent new trends in aircraft d-c systems.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
K. L Fletcher
New packaging concepts for avionics equipment are evolving as a result of extensive use of microcircuits and thin film circuits. These components, essentially planar in configuration, have naturally led to the development of new planar packaging systems. A system of this type currently being implemented uses planar circuit boards of a unique new design and also provides a method of packaging these boards in separate planar sections. Two or more of these sections, each with its own connector and dust cover, may constitute a complete airborne function such as VOR or VHF communication. The sections, which are shorter than standard ARINC units because of increased packaging efficiency, also facilitate equipment installation in smaller aircraft.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
G. A. Lucchi
A number of design parameters are traded off in the design of an airborne weather radar system. The inter-relative effects of design tradeoffs can be meaningfully approximated by application of the standard range equation which takes into account such items as peak transmitter power, width of the transmitted pulse, target area and reflectivity characteristics, transmitter wavelength, antenna gain, and the receiver overall noise figure. Selection of that radar system which is best suited to the particular aircraft to be equipped not only increases the utility of the aircraft, but also the safety of operation within given weather margins. Optimal allowances made for such installational limitations as reflector size, radome design, and temperature environments enhance both the performance and the reliability of the radar.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Edward B. Moore
Microelectronic devices are the natural next phase in the evolutionary cycle which comprises miniaturized, transistorized, and solid state components. Microelectronics refers to a miniature device that will make it possible to manufacture electronic equipment smaller than has been done in the past. Of greater significance than the smallness of the devices is the reliability, maintainability, and ultimately the cost factors of such devices. This paper describes various microelectronic devices currently in use and presents photographic illustrations. New products will be manufactured and marketed which will make far greater use of such devices, and, in many instances, cause a significant change in design concepts used to achieve the functions of avionics in General Aviation aircraft.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Lee J. Vetter
A fluidic flight control system has been flight tested to develop and evaluate vortex rate sensors, fluidic amplifiers, dynamic shaping techniques, and system accuracy. Discussed are results which have confirmed applicability of conventional control theory and projected high reliability. Also discussed is a stabilization system featuring an electropneumatic servo actuator with variable transfer function and unique characteristics for application to a range of stabilization problems. Recent electronic system studies have shown substantial improvement in reliability, maintainability, size, weight, and cost reduction by use of microelectronic functional modules as alternates to individually-mounted discrete components.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
L. W. Weixelman
Fuel gaging systems in over 90% of small civil aircraft use the automotive float type sender with an electrical indicator. Considering such factors as dihedral, summing, temperature, variation in specific gravity of fuel used, and input voltage, the accuracy is approximately ±5% of full scale and ±10% of the reading. A more accurate system is highly desirable for weight control, flight planning, and possible c. g. consideration. Among other gaging systems available are improved float types at moderate costs, capacitive systems with good accuracy at comparatively high initial cost and increased maintenance, and a mass sensing system at moderate cost. The pros and cons of each system are discussed. Factors contributing to errors in readout and often overlooked are variations in height versus volume of fuel tanks because of manufacturing tolerances, and changes in shape and relative position of tanks under different loading when in flight.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
H. W. Kaatz, Fred Wilhelm, Leo Tobacman, L. L. Aspelin
Recent engine developments have increased altitude performance of light aircraft. Operation at altitudes above 15,000 ft demands changes in the air operated instrument systems and fuel systems in order to assure dependable operation throughout the new altitude ranges. The first section, on pneumatic systems, deals with the requirements and considerations leading to the conversion from vacuum to pressure operated gyro, autopilot, and de-icer boot systems. The second section, on fuel systems, is intended to aid in the solving of the present fuel systems vapor lock problem. A discussion on aviation gasoline includes a tabulation of most of the hydrocarbons, including the classes of hydrocarbons used in this fuel, together with the vapor pressure, boiling point, and heating value of each. A description of the ASTM distillation tests and the Reid vapor pressure equipment is included, since these characteristics affect the volatility and vapor locking tendency. A qualitative description of how vapor lock occurs in the suction piping and its accessories is included.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
C. R. Harper, G. J. Kidera
It was noticed in 1964 that many accidents occur when jetliners enter severe air turbulences. Studies revealed that pilot performance is compromised in many ways. To prevent this, flight crews should be properly restrained during all phases of flight. They should trust the gyrohorizon as the only reliable attitude indicator, and they should be aware of the fact that “railroad track” turbulences may terminate in unusually severe turbulences. Also, the most reliable and readable artificial horizon should support the pilot.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Gordon D. Annin
For the Boeing SST, flight simulators are providing important insight into problems of stability, control, and flight information display in advance of the actual cutting of metal for flying hardware. Simulator investigations have yielded tentative solutions to several flight instrumentation problems: the optimum scale factor for the pilot's pitch indicator; the economical evaluation of experimental landing displays through the use of CRT line-writing techniques; and the development of a display system for informing the pilot of his situation with respect to a prescribed sonic-boom-limited climb or descent profile.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Robert D. Porter
The supersonic transport will introduce into commercial service for the first time variable geometry air inlets and their related control systems. This paper discusses air inlet control system function and the effect of control performance on aircraft operation. The impact of these additional control functions on cockpit procedures is discussed along with possible in-flight troubleshooting techniques. Ground support equipment provisions must be integrated into the system design to assure dispatch reliability of the aircraft. The effect of component reliability on dispatch reliability and maintainability is presented.
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