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Standard
1966-07-01
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the overall requirements applicable to oxygen flow indicating devices intended to operate in conjunction with an oxygen regulator and mask system. Flow indicators covered by this document are for use with pressure demand, diluter-demand and continuous flow oxygen systems.
Standard
1966-06-20
This technical report documents three surveys to determine realistic vibration requirements for skid control systems specifications and obtain updated vibration information for locations in aircraft where skid control system components are mounted.
Magazine
1966-06-01
Standard
1966-06-01
This standard establishes the essential minimum safe performance standards for exhaust gas temperature instruments primarily for use with turbine powered, subsonic aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in paragraph 3.3 et seq. The exhaust gas temperature instruments covered by this standard are of the electrical servonull balance type, actuated by varying emf output of one or more parallel connected Chromel-Alumel thermocouples.
Standard
1966-05-15
This standard covers three basic types of total-temperature-measuring instruments used as a means of determining the total temperature developed by adiabatic heating of the air due to motion of the aircraft through the air. This standard establishes essential minimum safe performance requirements for total temperature measuring instruments, primarily for use with turbine-powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in this report.
Standard
1966-04-01
This document covers the general recommendations for cabin lighting in order to provide satisfactory illumination for, but not limited to: a. Boarding and deplaning b. Movement about the cabin c. Reading d. Use of lavatories e. Use of work areas f. Exiting under emergency conditions g. Using stowage compartments, coat rooms, and closets h. Using interior stairways and elevators (lifts)
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
R. C. Schmidt
Since standard highway trucks rarely include cold starting provisions as standard equipment, accessories must be provided to assist the starting. The author defines cold start with respect to temperature ranges, and then details equipment requirements for starting in each range. Available equipment is described, as is the operation of the engine after starting.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Kurt K. Stubenvoll, Frank J. Mulligan
Every truck can be a cold-weather truck. A simple 25 amp wiring arrangement, plugged into a 110 v outlet at the terminal before the truck's daily run, activates a series of immersion heating elements which will raise the engine, radiator, battery, and the fuel in the tanks to summer starting temperatures. The results will be elimination of cold-weather downtime in ambients of as low as −40 F, and assurance of normal battery life, without the addition of any maintenance items such as plumbing or hosing systems.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
P. H. Schweitzer, Carl Volz, Frank DeLuca
A feedback-type electronic control system has been developed for optimizing the performance of power producing machines. The device continuously corrects the setting (for instance, spark timing) of the machine for best power, which usually is also the point of best fuel economy. Instead of adjusting the setting from the outside, the engine is enabled to select its own best setting and to correct it continuously to always maximize the power output. The device consists of four principal components: the dither, which oscillates the setting continuously between narrow preset limits; the celsig, which senses the most minute accelerations; the control, which receives signals from the two; and a servo, which receives commands from the control and adjusts the setting.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
J. W. Brodhacker
Negative plate life has been improved by reducing the rate of sulfation of the battery. Chemistry of sulfation is briefly reviewed and factors in battery design contributing to improved sulfation-life are discussed. Emphasis is given to the “oil negative,” which not only reduces sulfation of the wet battery but has been found to prevent effectively the oxidation of dry charged negative plates.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
J. D. JENKS
Modern automobiles have a number of electrical circuits devoted to providing visual signals to the driver by means of indicator lamps. The circuits using indicator lamps found in Ford cars are reviewed, including both the indicators which are required by law, as well as those which are offered optionally. The unique characteristics of certain car models dictate variations in circuitry to accomplish a function similar to all models. In some cases, circuits and components are developed to achieve special features.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Daniel Orlando, Thomas Oswald
Modern storage batteries must provide greater starting power to meet the demands of today's engines. An effective method of increasing starting power is to reduce the resistance of the cell connectors. Cell connectors formed by resistance welding through the partition prove to be reliable and efficient connections, meeting all requirements for storage battery use. Batteries made with this type of cell connector provide considerably more starting power, particularly at low temperatures. This construction has been applied to all types of automotive batteries.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Rine Kruger, J. W. Barrick
Abstract Battery ratings set forth by the S.A.E. Standard are used to specify minimum charge and discharge characteristics and minimum life standards. Some deficiencies with present ratings are discussed as well as the requirements for a good battery rating. Factors such as temperature, current, state of charge, electrolyte concentration, and battery age must be considered in any rating. The development of performance equations as a new rating method is suggested to widen the scope of present measures of performance.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Raymond E. Zirkle
Pulsed ruby laser optical radars were used to examine the feasibility of turbulence detection in laboratory test chambers and afield. Many returns obtained showed evidence of particle concentration variations, but none were identified as interactions with either turbulence or correlates of rough flying. Calculations and recently reported experimental evidence show that c-w laser doppler optars might eventually measure wind velocity components and gust spectra.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Joel Greene, Salvatore Roberto, Marcus Lewinstein
This paper deals with techniques of photometric measurements of starlight variations which propagate along a line of sight coincident with the flight profile of a jet aircraft. Thus, a CAT “volume” intersecting this flight path may be detected at some prior point in time and compared to non-turbulent measurements. A star tracker will produce information which by statistical processing will establish a threshold for advanced warning of CAT. Recommendations are presented for night time feasibility tests to be made with operational hardware under controlled conditions. Daytime tests requiring the measurement of weak bodies in high ambient conditions poses severe problems.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
R. C. Breece, D. L. Fried, J. B. Seidman
A concept for detection of clear air turbulence utilizing the Doppler frequency shift in laser light backscattered from atmospheric aerosol is described. The concept employs detection of beat frequencies in the output current of a photodetector resulting from photo mixing the backscattered light from two laser pulses illuminating separated volumes of air. Analysis of the spectral and coherence properties of scattered light is given which proves that the basic phenomena exists. The realizability of a practical system depends upon sufficient aerosol densities and higher performance lasers to achieve adequate S/N at useful distances.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Lloyd G. Cross
A scanning optical radar system for meterological studies is briefly described. The techniques of obtaining efficient, high pulse repetition rates from a ruby laser, scanning the transmitter and receiver beams, and the operation of the B scope area display are discussed.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
P. A. Franken, J. A. Jenney, D. M. Rank
Conclusions based on the airborne experiments with laser radars are summarized in this paper. Details of the equipment and the flight procedures will be displayed during the oral presentation at the conference.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Eric M. Wormser
Air temperature gradients are frequently associated with Clear Air Turbulence. Radiation measuring instruments have already been used for the remote sensing of air temperature. A suitably-designed instrument should give adequate warning of turbulence regions ahead and provide an opportunity for their avoidance. A spectral scanning infrared radiometer has been designed for this purpose and is described in this paper. Extensive ground tests have been conducted, including making atmospheric temperature analyses in horizontal and vertical directions. Mountaintop tests are being planned and airborne tests will follow. Detection ranges of 25 miles are anticipated.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
David Atlas, Kenneth R. Hardy, Keikichi Naito
An analysis is made of the spectrum of refractivity fluctuations in regions of CAT and of its radar reflectivity as a function of wavelength. The results are compared to the minimum detectable reflectivity of airborne radars having optimum state of the art characteristics at each wavelength. It is shown that the best radars now feasible can barely detect the most reflective CAT at 10 na. mi. (i.e. 1 minute warning). A 20 db improvement in sensitivity is required for detection of most CAT, which appears to be just attainable by pre-detection integration. The optimum wavelength to implement is 5 - 6 cm. The best radar at this wavelength will also detect cirrus clouds reliably. Whether detecting clouds, chaff, or direct CAT echoes, a measure of the echo fluctuation (or Doppler) spectrum is required to identify the intensity of CAT. It is also demonstrated that a ground-based forward-scatter link holds great promise for reliable CAT detection.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Joseph E. Nanevicz, Edward F. Vance, Sidney M. Serebreny
The results of a cooperative effort by Stanford Research Institute, United Air Lines, and Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories to determine the correlation between regions of clear air turbulence (CAT) and aircraft electrical activity are described. Corona discharges from precipitation static dischargers on DC-8 aircraft were monitored and correlated with CAT encounters. A significant correlation was found to exist between CAT encounters and periods of electrical discharge. It is suggested that these electrical discharges may be caused by electric fields in the region of clear-air turbulence, particulate matter in the region that charges the aircraft, or a combination of both. The results of a meteorological analysis of the regions where turbulence associated with electrical activity was observed indicated that the CAT incidents were of typical kinds that are associated with jet streams.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
H. W. TenBroek, C. R. Seashore
The results of an investigation of the low frequency electrostatic field characteristics of clear air turbulence are presented. Brief descriptions are included of the general theory and practical aspects of the field sensing antennas used during the program and the electronic instrumentation used in data-gathering flights and subsequent data reduction. The data from a ridgeline turbulence encounter is analyzed with respect to frequency content in the decade bandwidths from 0.1 cps to 2000 cps. The results reveal turbulence-generated signals in the 0.1-10.0 cps region which differ from pre- and post- encounter norms, presenting the possibility of anticipating the encounter. The direction of future effort is described.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Wilbur H. Paulsen
A review is made of the various approaches considered in trying to develop an instrument capable of detecting CAT ahead of an aircraft. Because of the widespread regions in which CAT can occur and its often limited size, an airborne instrument is felt to be necessary to provide the pilot with sufficiently accurate and timely data to permit appropriate action to be taken to minimize its effect on the aircraft. While progress has been understandably slow, the outlook is not as black as it was a few years ago and the interest and efforts of many more people plus advances in technology enhance the possibilities of finding a solution to the CAT problem.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
George Litchford, John E. Gallagher
The inauguration of true city center schedules coupled with the tremendous response from the traveling public and the continuing increase in passenger seat mile revenues for over a decade of VTOL scheduled air carrier service is evidence of the public need and confirmation of a continuing expansion of operations. Future research and development will be directed at reducing operating costs and improving schedule regularity on trip lengths that vary from the very short inter-airport to city distances to upwards of a hundred miles. The airframe manufacturers are already building helicopters large enough to carry 45 to 65 passengers and if adequate progress can be made in reducing direct operating costs (and thereby lowering seat mile costs), helicopters will become a common mode of air transportation in the very short-haul market. One significant advantage of VTOL air transportation is the flexibility of service patterns that can be provided. As neighborhoods change in character and new residential and corporate headquarter communities are developed in previously uninhabited areas, VTOL air services can adjust accordingly.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Paul Rosenberg
Possible methods for the advance detection and warning of clear air turbulence by airborne devices are surveyed briefly. These include: active use of radar, microwaves, infrared and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; passive use of infrared, millimeter waves and visible light; air temperature probes; electric field measurements; electric charging of aircraft; ozone detection; and microbaro-metric measurements. The state of the art of CAT detection and warning is still exploratory. No method has yet been demonstrated to give advance warning of CAT with a confidence level sufficient to justify operational use, and too little is known about the physical parameters of CAT to enable any one method of detection and warning to be singled out as the most promising. More basic research on the physics and meteorology of CAT itself is needed.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Paul W. Kadlec
Certain atmospheric temperature changes have been observed to be a factor in detecting the occurrence of clear air turbulence, especially at jet altitudes above 25,000 feet. Data for this study were collected on 146 flights during the year while riding as an extra crew member in the cockpit of airline and military jet aircraft. The aircraft instrumentation in the research program included a portable test instrument to detect temperature changes as well as the normal components of an air data system and temperature sensors. A comparison between several rates of temperature change was made in an effort to determine which would indicate actual flight conditions most efficiently. From flight observations using the portable test instrument, a rate of temperature change of 1.0°C per minute was found to be the most useful criterion for correctly indicating flight conditions in the majority of cases.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Elmar R. Reiter
A summary is given of the present state of knowledge on the physical causes of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Special reference is made to recent measurement results from Project TOPCAT. Implications of these flight investigations, which were made over Australia, on remote sensing of CAT and on the planning of future research efforts are outlined.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Vern Johnson, J. R. Baker, J. W. Massey
Adaptation of fixed shaft turboprop engines to business and utility aircraft requires drastic simplification of the control system as compared to transport turboprops. The AiResearch TPE331 engine incorporates a variable low pitch stop controlled thru mechanical linkage to achieve both simplified control and also reverse thrust. Control of the system utilizes a cam cut to match airplane-engine-propeller flight characteristics. Flight testing in aircraft varying from a converted B-26 test bed to slow STOL aircraft was used to verify calculations and develop control system, negative torque system and general engine development.
Technical Paper
1966-02-01
Norman R. Driscoll
A simple wings-leveling device for light aircraft, and the effect of this device on the instrument flight performance of non-instrument qualified private pilots were evaluated. Experienced research pilots found overall system performance acceptable. However, slightly lower rate capability and slightly higher control forces than desired were present. Non-instrument qualified private pilots were provided with an increased capability to recover from an inadvertent instrument flight situation. Limited navigation and communication tasks, beyond the capability of the pilot while controlling the basic aircraft, could be performed with system aid. Control wheel force developed by the system as a function of bank angle in a steady turn was found to be a definite instrument flight aid.
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