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HISTORICAL
1986-08-01
Standard
J1362_198608
SAE J1362 presents graphical symbols for use on operator controls and other displays on off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116 plus mobile cranes but excluding agricultural tractors. Symbols for agricultural tractors are covered by ASABE S304, ISO 3767-1, and ISO 3767-2.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860936
B. Schwarz, K. Beckmann, D. Stümpel, P. Tamburini
The European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) is the first European reusable experiment platform, which is scheduled to be transported in 1988 into orbit by NASA's Space Shuttle. EURECA is designed for five free-flying missions in a 500 km and 28.5° inclination orbit, each with a 6-month operational and a 3-month dormant phase. The capabilities of the baseline Thermal Control Subsystem design have been investigated for future missions with regard to extended lifetime as well as applying a purely passive design according to the mission requirement. This paper describes the thermal concept for various EURECA missions expected to be realized in the near future. Moreover, a general outlook on future EURECA flights is presented. The work has been performed under the contract of the European Space Agency (ESA).
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860915
Ron L. Clouse, Timothy Lam
The Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility (ASTF) is a new USAF facility for testing large jet engines at controlled flight conditions. Successful control requires temperature measurements that are 1) highly accurate, 2) responsive, and 3) reliable. Duct wall temperatures that are considerably different from the airstream temperature lead to potentially large radiation and conduction errors. Low airflow velocity at some flight conditions presents problems in the area of response time. In addition, high reliability must be maintained when flight conditions produce a hostile environment of high wind loading and ice particles. Sverdrup Technology, Inc., contract operator of ASTF, specified temperature sensors compatible with the control application and monitored a contract for their procurement. This paper presents the salient performance requirements, discusses the final design, and shows the test results.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860914
Dan S. Matulich
While several methods have been used to control fog on aircraft windows, the most common are electrical and pneumatic. Most of the high performance military aircraft, for which fog control requirements are most severe, use pneumatic systems. These systems may use bleed or ram air, or may use conditioned air from the aircraft environmental control system (ECS). With the introduction of high-pressure water extraction in the aircraft ECS, extremely dry air has become available for fog control. This allows increased design flexibility, making antifog systems, which operate continuously to prevent fog formation, more practical.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860977
Mary S. Walker, Philip Tulkoff
This paper describes the thermal analysis, design, and testing of a dedicated cooling system for a Spartan spacecraft payload. A simple reliable design that requires minimum power consumption and minimum weight was developed. The payload has a CCD detector that must be maintained at a temperature of approximately −40°C or colder. The cooling system consists of a fin radiator, dual redundant heat pipes, and a thermal electric device (TED). The system was analytically modeled through the use of the Simplified Shuttle Payload Thermal Analyzer (SSPTA) computer program. A thermal test of the system simulating flight conditions was conducted to correlate the computer model and verify performance specifications.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860959
A. A. M. Delil
Two-phase heat transport systems are currently considered for the thermal management of future large power spacecraft. The monitoring of the quality, being the relative vapour mass content, of the two-phase mixture at various locations in the system, is valuable - possibly indispensable - for the proper operation of such a system. This paper reviews concepts for quality monitoring. Only a few concepts turn out to be suitable for spacecraft applications. Promising concepts are based on the capacitance, sonic velocity and index of refraction. These concepts are described and quantitatively analyzed. Applicability, advantages, restrictions and some hardware aspects are discussed.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860918
R. B. Boyda, S. P. Hendrix
Progressive development of Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration (EDC) technology by Life Systems under the sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has resulted in subsystem hardware and Control and Monitor Instrumentation (C/M I) that are ideally suited for application to the Space Station program. The development effort has simplified the mechanical assembly to where only seven Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), including two integrated components, are required to perform the process function. This simplification results in subsystem weight, power and volume requirements that are less than those of competing technologies. Further, process simplification provides both superior reliability and enhanced maintainability. Control and Monitor Instrumentation development has focused on utilization of state-of-the art electronics and software features that enhance subsystem reliability through fault detection and isolation.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
861007
Dennis B. Heppner, Jim M. Khoury, Jim D. Powell
The future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station will require a high level of Control/Monitor Instrumentation (C/M I) for the operation of its critical subsystems. Automatic control and monitoring of subsystem operation will provide the crew with more time to conduct space operations for scientific experiments and commercial processes. Subsystem control and monitoring involves real-time data processing, subsystem fault tolerance and redundancy management, caution and warning, health monitoring and trend analysis, data management and support for on-orbit maintenance and repair. This paper addresses the control and monitor requirements for the Space Station’s Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Sensor and actuator requirements are detailed. These are identified, along with the required controllers for the ECLSS complement of equipment. A controller hierarchy is also provided.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
861013
Leslie J. A. Rogers
The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) was flown on three Shuttle flights during 1984 and demonstrated just some of its many capabilities. In addition to the satellite rendezvous, docking, and stabilization techniques already verified, the MMU has the capability to rescue disabled crewmembers, assist with satellite servicing and refueling, perform inspections and photography, and assist with on-orbit construction. Many of these capabilities have applications in both the Shuttle and Space Station eras. Various augmentations to the MMU are being considered and developed for these future applications. Enhancements discussed in this paper include a digital electronics assembly, navigation aid, and a propellant tank kit.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860911
William A. Hudson, Mark L. Levin
Advanced military aircraft have separate airframe and engine fuel thermal management systems resulting in less than maximum use of the onboard fuel heat sink (FHS). In response, the proposed integrated configuration combines airframe and engine FHS systems, and optimizes control of engine burn fuel to nozzle temperature limits. This approach results in lower main tank fuel temperatures, less fuel boiloff, smaller environmental control systems (ECS) increased capacity at mission completion, and less supplemental ram air cooling. Three FHS systems are parametrically compared as a function of mission, heat loads, fuel control temperatures, and component performance.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860910
Richard Dieckmann, Otto Kosfeld, Larry C. Jenkins
Avionics cooling capacity of the F-15 Environmental Control System is being increased significantly. This increase is provided by integration of a high pressure water separator (HPWS) in place of the present low pressure water separator. Avionics cooling capacity of the present ECS is limited by its cooling air flow and supply temperature capabilities. Maximum flow is determined by the nozzle area of the cooling turbine. Minimum supply temperature is established so the air contains no liquid water. This temperature depends on the water removal capability of the low pressure water separator. The new HPWS removes more water from moist air than the present system. This allows colder, dry air to be supplied for avionics cooling. With colder supply air, less flow is needed to cool the same avionics. Since the system can provide the same flow with either water separator system, more avionics can be cooled by incorporating the HPWS.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860919
Alfred Kutschker, Robert M. Taylor, Robert J. Cusick
Future long duration manned space missions require a reliable sensor to monitor cabin oxygen (O2) pressure. This paper presents a concept for a solid zirconia O2 sensor capable of automatic self-test and calibration without the need for consumable materials. The operation and the techniques used to verify proper performance and to calibrate the sensor are described. The sensor design incorporates both potentiometric and coulometric measuring techniques operating simultaneously and independently of each other. Coulometric measurements are used to calculate the cabin sample O2 pressure without comparison to any reference state; potentiometric measurements are simple and reliable. The use of independent measurements permits the verification of results obtained with either technique and thus greatly enhances confidence. The design includes fault diagnostics which takes corrective action if a fault occurs.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860913
Stephen J. Black
The X-29 Fuel/Auxiliary Oil Thermal Management System provides total aircraft accessory oil cooling, including both flight and combined hydraulics, Integrated Drive Generator oil, and Accessory Drive Gearbox oil, with onboard fuel. Fuel cooling rates that are independent of engine demand are achieved through the use of a recirculation loop. Recirculation is minimized by maintaining the engine fuel inlet temperature at the maximum allowable. Fuel cooling results in lower, more uniform subsystem oil temperatures, less ram drag, and smaller, lighter-weight heat exchangers. Initial design studies and laboratory development testing will be discussed, along with comparisons of analytical predictions with flight test results.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860966
H. P. Leiseifer, Å.I. Skoog, H. Preiss
Environmental control and life support, ultimately tied to the presence of man in space is one of the key issues of the permanently manned space station initiated by the USA [1], [2].* Europe's participation in that programme is the COLUMBUS programme, the various elements and scenarios of which were subject of extensive studies [3], [4], [5]. This paper is devoted to the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (ECLSS) of the Pressurized Module (PM), the latter being one of the COLUMBUS elements. The present COLUMBUS scenario for the PM comprises the PM either to be attached to the US Space Station (USSS), being one of the core elements of the USSS (integrated PM) or as a Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF, a PM docked to the Resource Module, RM). The PM in the attached configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The present considerations center on the ECLSS of the PM in attached version which is taken as baseline.
1986-07-14
Technical Paper
860938
U. Laux, K. Beckmann, R. Lawson
COLUMBUS represents the European participation in the US Space Station (USSS). As a long term goal this program will provide a comprehensive autonomous European Space Station capability with the requisite in-orbit infrastructure.
HISTORICAL
1986-07-07
Standard
ARP4043
Grounding is the process of connecting one or more metallic objects and ground conductors to ground electrodes. Bonding is the process of connecting two or more metallic objects together by means of a conductor. Bonding is done to equalize electrostatic potential between two or more conductive objects. The generation of static electricity cannot be prevented entirely. Its generation is not in itself a hazard provided it can be dissipated safely. The hazard is encountered when changes accumulate to the extent that a spark discharge occurs to some other object in the presence of hazardous atmospheres, dusts, etc. Elimination of such potential hazards, therefore, requires proper grounding or neutralization of the charges to avoid dangerous accumulations.
HISTORICAL
1986-07-01
Standard
J590_198607
This SAE Standard defines the test conditions, procedures, and minimum design requirements for nominal 6, 12, and 24 V turn signal flashers. Document cancelled in 1999. Information now contained in J1690
HISTORICAL
1986-06-01
Standard
J537_198606
This SAE Standard serves as a guide for testing procedures of automotive 12 V storage batteries and as a publication providing information on container holddown configuration and terminal geometry. The ratings submitted are to be based on procedures described in this document. The ratings submitted must be of a level that when any subsequent significant sample is tested in accordance with this document, that at least 90% of the batteries shall meet the ratings. The choice of 90% compliance recognizes that batteries consist of many plates and require chemical-electrical formation procedures and small variations in test conditions and procedures can affect the performance of individual batteries. Future Considerations - In order to expedite the release of this revision of the Standard, several topic areas were deferred for consideration in future revisions.
1986-05-01
Technical Paper
860881
Lennart Johansson, John Agno, Worth H. Percival
The special attributes of the modern gas-fired V160 Stirling engine, from Stirling Power Systems Corporation, are discussed, and its advantages as a heat pump drive presented. The program, aimed at the light commercial market in the 10 ton range, is sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. The main subsystems of the V160 external combustion Stirling engine are discussed and performance data are included. Contractor activities are listed and preliminary results are given of a computer based heat pump performance model, comparing a gas furnace, an electric motor driven heat pump and a V160 engine driven heat pump.
1986-05-01
Technical Paper
860175
Shigetoshi Azuma, Takao Saitoh, Nobushige Izu, Akira Kawahashi
The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) has many superior characteristics compared to other display devices in the area of response, high-resolution, full-color and multi-display capabilities. However, CRTs commonly- used in offices or in the home have not been applicable for automobiles because they could not ensure sufficient display. performance, brightness, vibration resistance, and reliability due to the severe driving conditions of the automobile. We examined the applicability of the CRT into an automobile display system using an experimental vehicle and improved six especially important aspects such as dimensions, display appearance time, effect of magnetism, visibility, stabilization of brightness and prevention of excessive battery drain. Consequently, we developed a new display system called “Toyota Electro Multivision” and introduced it into the ‘85 Toyota Soarer, a luxury class passenger car for the Japanese market only.
1986-05-01
Technical Paper
860875
Richard M. Lewis
Fiber optics have proven to be a reliable medium for data transfer. The implementation of fiber optics on sea-going vessels shows promising economical benefits. This paper provides a summary of the developments that have led to the use of fiber optics aboard ships and how it affects ship design and construction. The basic fundamentals of fiber optic links as well as the advantages and disadvantages in comparison with conventional cabling methods are discussed. A typical application utilizing fiber optics in the engine room of ocean-going vessels is also included in the paper.
HISTORICAL
1986-05-01
Standard
J1001_198605
The purpose of this report is to establish guidelines for operator and bystander protection for flail mowers and flail power rakes whose intended use falls within the scope of this document. The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semi-mounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word 'industrial' is not to be confused with 'in-plant industrial equipment.'
HISTORICAL
1986-05-01
Standard
J276_198605
This SAE Standard is applicable to articulated frame loaders and tractors as defined by SAE J/ISO 6165, and rollers and compactors as defined by SAE J1017, when equipped with steering, frame locking device. The scope is limited to machines where hazards exist due to maintenance operations. Purpose This document provides the performance requirements for a steering, frame locking device which when used will prevent unintended articulation of the machine either during shipment or maintenance operations. In addition, it provides mounting position, storage on the machine and identification requirements.
HISTORICAL
1986-05-01
Standard
J98_198605
This SAE Standard is intended to be used as a guide for manufacturers and users of general purpose industrial machines to provide a reasonable degree of protection for personnel during normal operation and servicing. This document excludes skid steers which are covered by SAE J1388. Avoidance of accidents also depends upon the care exercised by such persons (see SAE J153). Inclusion of this standard instate, federal, or any laws or regulations where flexibility of revision is lacking is discouraged.
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860836
Steven N. Friedman
This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical characteristic of a MIL-STD-1553 to MIL-STD-1750A Computer Interface. The BOS-65600, Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), Bus Controller (BC) and Bus Monitor (MT), along with the BUS-66300 Microprocessor Interface Unit are the main building blocks. This combination will support the Fairchild F9450A or McDonnell Douglas (MDAC-281) MIL-STD-1750A Computers. They will also interface with any sixteen bit microprocessor with a minimum of support circuitry. Refer to Figure 1, RTU/BC/MT, MIL-STD-1553 to MIL-STD-1750A Computer Interface. The custom monolithic LSI components used in these special Superhybrids will be discussed. An explanation of the special shared Dual Access Memory approach will be included. This discussion will show how a dedicated memory can off-load the host CPU and fully support all 1553 transfers.
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860837
Joel Fleiss
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860838
Joseph P. Fischer
This paper describes the development of a standard size and function electronic module to meet the requirements of aircraft technology advances and future military aircraft avionic systems. The standard electronic module developed utilizes a MIL-STD-1750A central processing unit and is designed for applications requiring a general data processor. Design goals included MIL-STD-1750A compatibility, non-volatile, high speed memory, memory management options, interfacing to a common bus backplane, the use of surface mount technology, application of new material and process techniques, and high speed I/O and direct memory access. Second generation development of this electronic module will incorporate VHSIC technology.
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860840
Paul F. Christiano
The paper describes an advanced MIL-STD-1553-controlled UHF/VHF radio. In previous UHF/VHF radio subsystems, each UHF/VHF radio had a dedicated control head which stored and controlled all radio modes and data. In an advanced architecture, independent multipurpose data entry units are used to control any number of radios, simultaneously, with the aid of a bus control-processor as a data base and mode command controller for the radios and display units. To integrate the system properly, the bus control-processor must have dynamic control of each radio's modes and provide the data to generate each of the display unit's data formats. Processors with advanced software can reconfigure radio parameters to circumvent failures, and also generate valid command modes when receiving conflicting data from the independent data entry unit or associated data inputs.
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860841
D. P. M. Chown, J. G. Farrington
Optical fiber transmission can provide substantial benefits to MIL-STD-1553B data bus systems, most notably complete freedom from interconnect EMC problems. However, the very short intermessage gap specified by the Standard has hitherto confined passive optical interconnect implementations to those based on a single star coupler. The unacceptably unwieldy and vulnerable optical harness which this necessitates will in many cases impede this application of fiber optics. We have therefore proposed an efficient ‘local star coupler’ passive interconnect, which can be flexibility tailored to provide an elegant interconnect in a wide range of installations. This concept has been enabled by the development of a fibre optic transceiver which embodies novel coding and receiver design features. These allow it to robustly achieve sufficient sensitivity and dynamic range, in full compliance with 1553B timing, throughout a military avionics temperature range.
1986-04-24
Technical Paper
860842
Richard A. Flanagan, Damon G. Simpson
The integration of data bus military standard MIL-STD-1553 into an aircraft stores management system is unique. The number of remote terminals connected to the network is not constant. Weapons and their remote terminals are physically separated from the network during normal operation. This creates dynamic changes in the electrical loading of the network. Laboratory network integration tests were performed for both fighter and bomber single level networks. Single and multiple stores releases were simulated. Test results allow designers to understand the effects of coupler spacing, stub length and weapon releases on the performance of stores data bus networks.
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