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1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790160
Uwe Werner Peters
Report sums up performance data obtained on lead-acid batteries and accessories especially designed for electric road vehicles. Also encompasses special technologies such as central electrolyte refilling system, forced cooling and central venting. Further describes VARTA'S latest accomplishments for reduced maintenance and improvement in reliability. Another objective is exploitation of improved technologies for motive power batteries for applications such as fork lift trucks. Furthermore, it presents development stage of VARTA'S improved nickel-iron FENOX-battery.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790148
J. David Marks, Michael J. Sinko
The Wiegand Effect - a new magnetic pulse generating technology requiring no electrical input - has been recently introduced as the distributor trigger in a capacitive discharge ignition system for high-performance applications. In this paper an inductive system is described, utilizing a Wiegand trigger which provides constant angular dwell. The magnetic circuit of the Wiegand trigger has been further developed to permit its easy incorporation in a conventional automotive distributor. All of the electronics, including a unique electronic advance circuit are incorporated in the distributor bowl.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790144
Peter J. Sacchetti
A new type of Ratiometric Temperature Sensor has been developed which shows considerable promise in the measurement of engine intake manifold fuel/air charge temperatures. The device consists of a conductive plastic potentiometer, driven by an integral bimetallic sensing element. The Ratiometric Temperature Sensor closely tracks the rapidly fluctuating temperature of the fuel/air charge, and provides a linear ratiometric output voltage ranging from 15% to 85% of the total supply voltage over the sensed temperature range of -40°C to +125°C. Output accuracy is ±3°C over a temperature range of +20°C to +100°C.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790145
Robert N. Lesnick, Murray Spector
A new technology for temperature sensors has been developed. The sensors are extremely rugged, capable of withstanding the most rigorous environments, and they are expected to result in very inexpensive product manufacture. This paper discusses the evolution of the design of metal core hybrid substrates and the principles of construction of a temperature sensor as a hybrid circuit on a metal core substrate. Sensor performance characteristics and cost are also explored. A discussion of the linearity of voltage response to temperature is included, and data are presented on the performance of the sensor in various environments. The paper concludes that the new sensor is suitable for operation in all environments found in automotive applications, and that its range is sufficient to accommodate all of the control functions currently found in the literature.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790138
John Huddart
The need for accurate, high-resolution automobile fuel gauges is becoming increasingly felt and this can best be fulfilled with modern developments of the capacitance-measuring technique used for aircraft fuel tanks. An inexpensive probe is described which can be used, with suitable circuitry, to give a 0.1 gallon resolution and accuracy, from which the influence of slosh and tilt is effectively eliminated. A low-cost measuring circuit is described, based on CMOS astable oscillators, which produces digital readings virtually immune to noise, voltage and temperature changes, and the effects of ageing.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790139
Kent W. Randall, J. David Powell
A cylinder pressure time history has long been used as an indication of the performance of internal combustion engines. Recently the use of cylinder pressure has been proposed for the knock adaptive closed loop control of spark advance (1, 2)*. The ultimate practicality of such a scheme depends heavily on the cost and reliability of a sensor to make this measurement. This paper describes the design, associated analysis, and the experimental performance of a potentially inexpensive sensor. The transducer is shown to be suitable for determination of the crank angle at the peak cylinder pressure and for detection of incipient detonation through the associated high frequency cylinder pressure oscillations. Furthermore, implementation of the sensor in a closed loop spark control system is briefly described. The sensor has proven to be adequate for spark advance control purposes.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790208
Arthur R. Sundeen
In an effort to make the diesel engine vehicle as convenient to drive, as is a spark ignitioned vehicle, Oldsmobile designed a fast warm-up glow plug control system. The new system attains glow plug operating temperature in about 6.5 seconds, compared to 60 seconds for the system it replaces. This paper details the system design which is based on feedback control of a model of the glow plugs.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790207
Hermann Hiereth, Gert Withalm
Some special features of the turbocharged gasoline engine are discussed in comparison with the turbocharged Diesel engine. The influence of compression-ratio, temperature of the charge air, air/fuel-ratio and ignition-timing on combustion, fuel economy and power output is shown. A combined compressor- and engine air-flow-map of the turbocharged gasoline-engine is developed and the features of a compressor matching the special requirements of a TC gasoline engine are deduced from this map. The position of the throttle in the intake-system, which has great influence on governing-qualities and load-change-responce of a turbocharged gasoline engine is discussed and the problems and disadvantages of a waste-gate governed turbocharger especially in connection with a gasoline engine are figured out.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790238
Dennis Morris
Custom MOS has been around since the late 60's when it was used extensively by the military and some farseeing calculator manufacturers. In fact, custom MOS caused the calculator revolution and the development of microprocessors. The 8080 was an evolution from a custom processor. Custom MOS is a synergyism between the end product developer and the semiconductor technologist. It is a semiconductor product that is designed for a specific need. As a consequence, it is the most efficient and cost effective answer to that need. However, when you also take development time, development costs, and manufacturing guidelines into account, another solution may be more sensible. Custom MOS is anything from a simple sound generator to a complex engine control computer system. Custom MOS is not limited to a single chip system. It may be a multi-chip system with a mixing of standard components. Techniques can be used to reduce system costs by efficient usage of interconnect.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790162
Michael L. Whitehead
A high energy lead-acid battery was developed to provide, at no extra cost, a 1800 kg (4000 lb) payload electric delivery van with a driving range of 80 - 90 km (50 - 55 miles). In addition to the new high performance electrodes, an integrated approach to the total power source concept evolved new lightweight designs for battery packaging and a system engineered battery charger and an automatic topping-up facility. Despite the 40% improvement in range compared with 55 - 65 km (35 - 40 miles) for conventional traction batteries, a 4 year battery life is expected due to the reinforcing features of the tubular design adopted for the positive electrode.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790161
M. M. Farahat, J. A. E. Graae, A. A. Chilenskas, D. L. Barney
Thermal management studies of the Lithium-Aluminum/Metal Sulfide Battery demonstrate the need for a light weight, high thermal efficiency case for electric batteries. Calculations based upon the rectangular configured MK IA battery using vacuum-foil insulation, show that the heat loss rate goal of 400 watts can be met. Experimental studies directed at the determination of the reversible T▵S heating gave results that compared within 8% with theoretically derived values. Calculations based upon the 50-kWh MK II battery and a 10,000 miles driven/year show that by utilizing the thermal storage capacity of the system, essentially no additional energy is needed to keep the battery hot.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790177
Harish S. Rao, A. I. Cohen, J. A. Tennant, K. L. Van Voorhies
A procedure has been developed for establishing optimum engine performance, in terms of fuel economy and exhaust emission constraints, as a function of spark advance, exhaust gas recirculation and air-to-fuel ratio. The salient features of the procedure are: (i) it is based on mathematical engine models that have been validated over a driving cycle on an engine dynamometer, (ii) it is based on solving a nonlinear programming problem with equality and inequality constraints, and (iii) the results of the optimization are used to develop control calibrations that can be implemented on a vehicle. This paper describes the procedure to determine optimal calibrations for a fuel injected spark ignition engine under warmed-up operating conditions. Validation of these results on an actual vehicle has yet to be demonstrated.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790499
Don Folkes
On-board microcomputer systems in automobiles have become a fact of life for the automotive industry. Because of strict requirements on emissions and fuel economy imposed by the federal government, and to meet the increasing demands of consumers for sophisticated driver assistance controls and displays, the automotive industry has turned to microcomputers to perform these complex functions. This paper will use the Mostek MK3870 family of Microcomputers to illustrate the sophistication of “State of the Art” MOS LSI and automotive applications of this technology.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790313
Kenneth F. Kaiser, Charles R. Sarle, Bruce R. Owen
The projected high volume use of turbochargers on automobiles has presented the designer with two formidable problems - cost and mounting flexibility. The cost of an automotive turbocharger has to be less than that of a comparable unit for a diesel engine - without any sacrifice in reliability. In order to maintain the cost, the manufacturer is forced into designing one basic unit to be used in numerous applications. Therefore, the successful marketing of an automotive turbocharger will depend very heavily upon the mounting versatility designed into the basic unit. The design of the Schwitzer S6 automotive turbocharger was initiated with severe economic guidelines and mounting versatility being paramount in the design philosophy. In order to meet the design goals, a number of unique items had to be considered and incorporated into the turbocharger. The current design can be mounted from within four degrees of horizontal to within ten degrees of vertical.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790907
Bradley A. Pritts
Methods are presented for analyzing large diameter bearing applications in order to determine the broadest dimensional tolerances which are consistent with requirements of fit and function. Industry conventions for dimensioning and tolerancing are presented with special reference to position tolerancing. Practical dimensional tolerances for various size and grades of bearings are listed. Gear tolerances are discussed relative to large bearings which are equipped with integral gearing.
1979-02-01
Standard
J1253_197902
The electrical cranking system components, which include the battery, cables, and cranking motor, must be carefully selected to provide the necessary speed to start an engine under the most severe climatic conditions for which the system is intended. Engine cranking loads increase with cold temperatures, therefore, the initial selection of these components needs to consider low temperature engine torque requirements. To insure an adequate electrical cranking system is obtained, it is important that proper test procedures are used for obtaining the cranking load requirements of the engine.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790119
A. H. Seilly
The limitations of conventional solenoids will be explained and reasons given to show that as they are made more powerful their speed of operation decreases. HELENOID actuators are capable of armature travel times in less than one millisec irrespective of preloads or masses, despite the larger size and power required as the duty increases. The relationships between eddy currents and flux penetration; materials and flux leakage; inductance and power supply are illustrated, together with the way they are all interconnected and varying with time, requiring a comprehensive computer program to design for optimum performance.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
791056
W. E. Boehringer
Many contemporary aircraft requiring multiple hydraulic systems for power redundancy have utilized hydraulic power transfer units to provide that service. These units, which are commonly called reversible motor pumps (RMPs), have been heavy, noisy and inefficient with generally very poor differential pressure startup characteristics. A new-generation RMP that has solved many of these problems has been developed for the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 Series aircraft. The new unit emits significantly less noise than existing comparable units and is both weight- and cost-competitive, with excellent startup and running characteristics. It will provide an excellent means of attaining pumping redundancy in future hydraulic system configurations.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
791054
Charles A. Kubilos
Energy storage and dissipation characteristics of common types of servo-controlled loads are examined along with the differences in total energy used between fixed and variable systems. Concepts and equations for system analysis with variable displacement equipment are summarized. Typical examples of variable displacement equipment now in use are presented.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790679
A. T. Bergan, D. K. Lischynski, L. G. Watson, D. E. Rivett, A. C. Shiels
From May, 1977 to May, 1978, the Transportation Centre, University of Saskatchewan conducted four surveys to determine seatbelt usage rates in Saskatchewan. The surveys were conducted prior to and after, the passage of a law on July 1, 1977, requiring seatbelt use by front seat occupants of motor vehicles. The surveys were conducted at sampling stations on urban streets, provincial highways and municipal roads. The results of the May, 1978 survey were analyzed to determine what relationships exist between usage rates and various vehicle characteristics. Usage rates when examined using cross-tabulations appeared higher for certain types of vehicles: compact or sub-compact vehicles, foreign models, etc. However, when the data was analyzed using multiple regression techniques, only the year of vehicle manufacture showed a consistently high level of significance.
1978-12-01
Standard
J542C_197812
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide standardized dimensions for mounting starting motors. It is recommended that a full register diameter having a minimum depth of 2.54 mm (0.100 in) be provided in the flywheel housing to insure proper control of gear center distance and clearance between pitch diameters. The clearance between the starting motor pilot diameter and the register diameter in the flywheel housing should be 0.03 mm (0.001 in) minimum to 0.25 mm (0.010 in) maximum.
1978-11-01
Standard
J1211_197811
This guideline is intended to aid the designer of automotive electronic systems and components by providing material that may be used to develop environmental design goals. The climatic, dynamic, and electrical environments from natural and vehicle-induced sources that influence the performance and reliability of automotive electronic equipment are included. Test methods that can be used to simulate these environmental conditions are also included in this document. The information is applicable to vehicles that meet all the following conditions and are operated on roadways: Front engine rear wheel drive vehicles. Vehicles with reciprocating gasoline engines. Coupe, sedan, and hard top vehicles. Part of the information contained herein is not affected by the above conditions and has more universal application. careful analysis is necessary in these cases to determine applicability.
1978-10-01
Standard
AMS3579A
This specification covers a non-crosslinked polyvinyl chloride plastic in the form of flexible, thin-wall, heat-strinkable tubing with a low recovery temperature. These products have been used typically as a flexible, electrical insulation tubing whose diameter can be reduced to a predetermined size by heating to 150 degrees C (302 degrees F) or higher, but usage is not limited to such applications. This tubing is stable for continuous exposure from -20 to +105 degrees C (-4 to 221 degrees F).
1978-10-01
Standard
J551F_197810
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of broadband electromagnetic radiation over the frequency range of 30 to 1000 MHz from a vehicle or other device powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor. Operation of all engines (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the engine is running is also included except operator-controlled equipment, which is excluded. The recommended level applies only to complete vehicles or devices in their final manufactured form. Vehicle mounted rectifiers used for battery charging in electric vehicles are included in this document when operated in their charging mode.
1978-10-01
Standard
AS8016
This AS covers vertical velocity instruments which display the rate of change of pressure altitude of an aircraft, as follows: type A - direct reading, self-contained, pressure actuated; type B - electrically or electronically operated, self-contained, pressure actuated; and type C - electrically or electronically operated, input from a remote pressure sensor. The range of operation of the instrument and the altitude range when applicable shall be as marked on the instrument face or nameplate. This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for vertical velocity instruments for aircraft use.
1978-10-01
Standard
AS8018
This AS covers subsonic and supersonic Mach meter instruments which, when connected to sources of static (Ps), and total (Pt), or impact (Pt-Ps), pressure provide indication of Mach number. These instruments are known as Type A. This AS also covers servo-operated repeater or digital display instruments which indicate Mach number when connected to the appropriate electrical output of a Mach transducer of Air Data Computer. These instruments are known as Type B. This Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies the minimum safe performance standards for Mach Meter instruments primarily intended for use in aircraft under standard and environmental conditions.
1978-09-01
Standard
J56_197809
This SAE Standard specifies test methods and general requirements for the determination of the electrical characteristic data of alternators for road vehicles. It applies to alternators, cooled according to manufacturer's instructions, mounted on internal combustion engines. This document attempts to follow ISO 8854, dated 1988. ISO 8854 has been modified herein to reflect local market requirements and historical precedent.
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