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1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770401
Eckehardt Hamann, Hansjörg Manger, Leo Steinke
A description of a closed loop fuel metering system was given in the SAE-Paper “Closed Loop Exhaust Emission Control System with Electronic Fuel Injection” (3). The component of paramount importance in the control system is the Lambda-Sensor, about which has been reported in the SAE-Paper “Ceramic Aspects of the Bosch Lambda-Sensor” (5). The paper reports on the work recently done for optimizing the Lambda-Sensor. As a result of this work the sensor of the latest design is an Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2-sensor whose temperature response is 150 °C lower and whose time of response in the CVS-test is the half. Generally, experimental work has been concentrated on improvement of thermal, mechanical stability and resistivity against exhaust operating temperature range response speed working life The results are given in this paper.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770961
D. Risch
In recent years, electronic controls and sequencers have gained increasing acceptance for use in control of industrial gas turbine engines. This has been due to increased reliability of electronic components and more complex control requirements. A technological innovation, the microprocessor, is likely to accelerate this trend and provide a new level of sophistication to controls of this type. Basically, a microprocessor is a digital computer which has been reduced to a circuit less than 1/4″ square. This circuit will perform a sequence of operations or instructions according to a predetermined plan or program. The program is stored in another pin-head sized electronic circuit called a Read Only Memory or ROM. When provided with a means of communicating with the outside world, these circuits can perform exceedingly fast and accurate calculations needed to control a gas turbine engine.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770962
L. Nigogosian
THE ADVANTAGE OF PROGRAMMABLE SEQUENCERS over relay logic and mechanical timers is assuming increasing importance since electronic systems are more versatile and reliable. The 1K1 series of programmable sequencers are designed primarily for gas turbine type applications where reliability failure detection, rapid fault finding and quick program changes are of prime importance. The operation of the sequencer is described emphasising its modular construction its powerful instruction set and the ease with which the system can be defined to operate any size of plant. The failure detection aspect of the system is described showing how failure can be diagnosed to a particular module. Finally various programming aids are described showing how accurate programs can be developed rapidly.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770963
Douglas J. Court
Electronic control of the gas turbine engine is now widely accepted. Advances in electronic technology have afforded the controls manufacturers with several alternative methods of design. This paper describes in detail the successful application of a programmable control unit combining analog and digital circuit techniques for the ERDA/Chrysler Upgraded turbine engine. In addition to the Chrysler program this Programmable Analog Control has been applied to turbines of several hundred horsepower, several thousand horsepower and tens of thousands of horsepower.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
771001
John V. Burns
Synchronous generators operating at constant speed are used to supply the electric power systems of most modern aircraft. The constant speed salient pole generator inherently develops the output power in the desired form, a sine wave of 400 hertz frequency. The hydromechanical constant speed drive, a straightforward, rugged combination of a planetary gear set and hydraulic units, is most frequently chosen to achieve the constant speed. The design of the constant speed generating system has evolved through experience, development, and state-of-the-art advances. The current system, the integrated drive generator, has the advantages of weight, performance, reliability, and ease of maintenance. Continued engineering effort is dedicated to achieving further advances.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
771002
E. B. Canfield, J. W. Summerford
This paper describes the operation, design, performance, and application of high reliability, variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) aircraft electric power generating systems. A high frequency, multi-phase, brushless generator supplies power to a frequency converter which conditions the variable frequency generator output into precision 3-phase, 115/200V, 400 Hz aircraft power, using the cycloconverter principle. Systems have been built with ratings from 20 to 150 kva. For a 75 kva system, the weight to rating ratio is about 1.6 lbs/kva and rated load efficiency is 80%. Predicted MTBF for current systems is in the 2000 to 6000 hour range.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
771003
Robert Kautz
The ECEPS Package for the KC-135 aircraft is a direct replacement for the 40 KVA CSD Generator Package that now exists in that aircraft. It is a 60 KVA system and fits in the same area. It consists of a gearbox, a generator, a DC link converter, and an air-to-oil heat exchanger. The entire system is oil cooled.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
771006
C.W. Helsley
The achievement of a single-power generation distribution and utilization system on future high-performance aircraft will yield many benefits in the form of improved maintainability, reliability, and logistics. It will also reduce aircraft weight and the number of skill catagories required in maintenance training programs. Current aircraft have two parallel and nearly equal-sized secondary power systems (electrical and hydraulic). Of the two, only electrical has the potential for powering all significant functions on the aircraft from radio to landing gear. However, even though electrical power generation and distribution has always been competitive with hydraulic, electrical actuators (utilization) have been heavy and slow. For this reason, hydraulics have for many years monopolized all actuation applications in which power and/or frequency response requirements were moderately high.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770107
Robert L. Anderson
The programmable choke is a development tool designed to obtain detailed, precise knowledge of choke rich and lean limits during cold start and driveaway tests. It is a servomechanism that replaces the bimetal spring in a conventional choke, and controls and measures choke plate angle to within one percent. Detailed knowledge of choke calibration requirements, over the ambient temperature range is used to improve bimetal choke designs. This report describes the programmable choke and presents results of tests conducted on 460 CID vehicles equipped with this system.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770105
D. Baert, R. Van De Casteele
The paper gives a description of a simply programmable electronic ignition control system that can be applied to the study of engine behaviour. This apparatus permits an easy change of the advance or retard characteristics as a function of RPM or vacuum.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770008
A. D. Toelle
This paper addresses the advantages and constraints associated with microprocessor control of the automotive engine. The advantages center around the power of the microprocessor to compute virtually any complex control law, and the ease with which it permits the development of new calibrations and new control laws. The constraints relate to the speed of computation and the fact that the digital concept provides input/output relationships in finite increments rather than as continuous functions. We examine here in some detail the functional power of a digital controller to manipulate these input/output relationships, whether in the form of closed-form mathematical expressions, polynomial-series approximations, or multi-dimensional tables for linear interpolation.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770009
Allan J. Kotwicki, John M. Farrell, Norman W. Laursen, James E. Stevens
A microprocessor based vehicular engine control system testbed has been developed to make possible complex, interactive engine control experiments in the vehicle environment. Designed for flexibility, the on-board vehicle system incorporates two microprocessors, a variety of engine instrumentation, and controls over spark advance, air-fuel ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation. The two microprocessors have been linked to form an efficient computational network with sufficient capacity to implement most, if not all, engine control experiments. Also included in the vehicle are video displays which provide operator control and interaction with experimental engine control systems.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770801
Richard F. Pain
TODAY, AS IN PAST YEARS, considerable interest exists in the ability of the person in an automobile to avoid or evade rapidly impending collision situations. Much research and development has been conducted on vehicle performance capabilities to maneuver in such situations. The other component of collision avoidance is the driver. This paper summarizes recent developments for improving people performance in the avoidance situation. Two lines of development will be described:* a largescale evaluation of advanced driver training followed by an analytic study of the driver in avoidance situations. Usually analytic studies precede development and implementation; however, two projects described herein are in reverse order. Evaluation data and experience were gained by conducting training using the best available off-the-shelf advanced driver training materials. Based on these (and other) results, directions for further research or development were determined.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770854
William P. Winstead
A digital electronic spark timing system has been developed and placed in production for use on the 1978 Oldsmobile Toronado. This system consists of an ignition distributor which contains a magnetic pickup and ignition module, a coolant temperature sensor and a controller package containing electronics and a pressure transducer. Engine RPM, manifold vacuum and coolant temperature inputs are used to derive and control the engine spark timing. The controller electronics design is based on a digital microprocessor, custom designed to perform engine control functions such as spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation, idle speed, etc. The system design criteria includes data storage and calculation capability, automotive sensor and actuator interface, flexibility and accuracy.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770701
K. Almquist
Design of a new electronics system requires more than just laying out a new circuit board and installing components. This paper presents an approach used to integrate a totally new system into a versatile and reliable tool for agricultural combines.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770727
G. R. Renner
The trend in FCIM vehicles continues toward variety, complexity, immensity, and unique function. Vehicle, engine, and component manufacturers work together in application of special generators, cranking motors, batteries, and wiring to meet the needs of the engine, vehicle, and operational mode. Approaches to applying electrical component systems designed to function synergistically on the vehicle are now being investigated. Experimental studies on line-haul highway tractors, using new developments combining components, hardware, instrumentation, and electrical diagnostics, show promise of improvement of generator, cranking motor, and battery life and service. Principles applied in the systems approach should be applicable in FCIM areas.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770726
N. R. Eisenhut
A modern lead-calcium battery design (sometimes referred to as “maintenance-free”), offering significant advantages in vehicle design, manufacturing and usage, has been introduced and widely accepted for many types of vehicles. It offers excellent storage properties and resistance to vibration and shock, requires no owner attention or service during its useful plate life, eliminates battery acid attack on terminals or battery retainer, significantly reduces routine service costs. New concepts, materials and technology used in this design are explained and the benefits for farm, construction and industrial machinery application are considered.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770734
Wayland A. Tenkku
Small solenoid operated cartridge valves provide flexibility to supply many functions in hydraulic systems. A line of solenoid operated two way, two position cartridge directional control valves has been developed in conjunction with a series of solenoid coils with different terminations. The coils are completely interchangeable with any of the valves. Additional development in solenoid operated cartridge valves has resulted in a co-axial solenoid cartridge relief valve which can also utilize the same solenoid coils as the other valves.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770751
Charles R. Cornell
This paper discusses the application of electronics to off-highway vehicle transmission controls. While special problems have to be dealt with in vehicle applications, the growing use of on-board electronics has opened the door to greater utilization of the inherent flexibility of the hydrostatic transmission. Two production electronic control systems are presented as examples. The first is a simple open-loop remote transmission ratio control system. The second is a closed-loop output speed control system with manual and automatic shutdown logic and displays to keep the driver informed of operating conditions.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770869
H. D. Tarpinian, E. H. Culp
A study of the role of tires in the ride-disturbance created in passenger cars by longitudinal grooves in highway pavements is presented. The coincidence of groove spacing in pavement and groove spacing in tires is shown to be of major importance. Tire construction and operating conditions are shown to be secondary. A methodical approach for evaluating tread patterns for potential disturbance is described.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770884
Donald M. Brueck, E. Dawson Ward
To simulate vehicle dynamic performance, accurate parameters must be available to relate the vehicle differential equation model to the actual vehicle. This paper presents a simplified method to identify vehicle suspension spring rates, damping characteristics, and unsprung mass inertia properties. The method presented employs a digital computer algorithm to implement an equation error identification technique. A sequence of four laboratory tests was developed to obtain suspension input and response data required in the equation error technique. Each test is of a short duration (less than three seconds) and does not require vehicle disassembly. To verify the technique a test stand employing an electro-hydraulic position servosystem was constructed and the test sequence was applied to the rear suspension of a 1972 Pontiac Catalina.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770001
Kurt Binder, Uwe Kiencke, Martin Zechnall
Coordination and concentration of different electronic functions within a car with the objective of functional cooperation and, if possible, incorporation into a single package to reduce costs and improve reliability is discussed. The alternatives of a Special Purpose Computer or a General Purpose Realtime Computer are described with regard to available sensor technology.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770005
G. Novis, J. Bryant
An overview of Digital Engine Controls is presented in light of the various phases required to develop an engine control microcomputer system. Topics include breadboarding techniques, vehicle mounted hardware, preproduction circuit sets, custom LSI circuit development and advanced integration. A brief review of depletion mode NMOS technology is presented along with details of a suitable family of 16 bit microprocessors, memories, and digital/analog input/output functions that can be implemented with LSI IC's to perform real time engine control. Finally, a development time table is presented which highlights program milestones in a two year development cycle.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770002
M. David Freedman
In examining the alternatives for a cost-effective system design for an on-board automotive microprocessor, standard and specialized architectures must be compared. The architectures are examined as to their ability to perform basic control functions at low cost while retaining the ability for system expansion to handle additional control functions cost-effectively. In all cases, the real-time system requirements must be met despite the computational load on the microprocessor. A philosophy is presented so that the reader can gain an insight into the different possible design approaches.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770004
E. Floyd Kvamme, Jerry R. Crowley
Engineers faced with the problem of designing automotive digital processors and control units with microprocessor chips must select from standard or custom designs. A new type of microprocessor which can be uniquely modified to tailor its performance to the specific needs of the automotive control system is presented. Examples of performance improvement are given for spark timing and dwell computations. Trade-offs in cost, performance, risk and development time for standard, modified standard, and custom microprocessors are discussed. Various development approaches are reviewed and conclusions reached for future applications.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770157
Gary J. Grandbois
A recently introduced 3 Digit Monolithic A/D Converter makes highly reliable automotive data acquisition and control systems easy to design and fabricate. The device includes many significant performance features, requires a minimum of external components and provides the outstanding stability and reliability needed for automotive control and instrumentation systems. This I.C., the LD130 offers an extremely accurate (0.1%) conversion from an analog input to a Binary-Coded-Decimal (BCD) output, an easily handled output format for interfacing both displays and microprocessors.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770159
Larry Kendall
The availability of low cost microprocessors is a major step towards practical Automotive Control Systems. Such systems also require sensing of physical parameters and transferring sensed values into and out of the processors. In some cases “Digital” sensors are practical and should be used. Other cases require analog sensors and Analog to Digital Conversion. Traditional methods of Analog to Digital Conversion, developed mostly for military and scientific applications, do not meet the needs of the Automotive Industry. These needs, including cost objectives, speed and accuracy goals and desirable features are outlined. Two circuits and approaches are recommended for Automotive Applications. The 4151/7151 is shown for single input relatively slow applications and the μA0850, a new monolithic IC, is described for complex multi-input control systems.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770158
Tom Cate
The need for low-cost VFC and FVC circuits will increase as automotive electronic systems become more complex and the use of microprocessors increases. Today, monolithic integrated circuits are available that can be used to implement VFC and FVC functions at minimum cost and with excellent performance.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770161
Robert W. Miller
A new level of electronic building blocks for automotive system design is evolving. These circuits will perform specific functions with high accuracy, low cost, and a minimum of external components. This paper describes a unique frequency to voltage converter designed for the specific interface problems found in automotive systems. The concept of a building block device requires that a function be performed in the same way as it can be mathematically defined. This device is free of the typical compromises associated with adapting conventional F-V converters to automotive requirements. It interfaces directly with magnetic pickups and its output is directly proportional to frequency even as the frequency goes to zero. Two specific application areas are explored. The need for an electronic speedometer/tachometer for better reliability and easier instrument panel design calls for a ripple-free low frequency F-V or F-I converter.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770160
Richard A. Blanchard
The development of microprocessor automotive control systems emphasizes the need for a direct interface between microprocessors and displays or electromechanical actuators. Vertical Metal Oxide Semiconductor or VMOS devices offer a combination of high input impedence, large output current, rapid switching of large currents, and immunity to current hogging and second breakdown problems. The electrical characteristics of VMOS devices makes them attractive candidates for interfacing with microprocessors as well as other automotive applications. However, the successful incorporation of VMOS devices in automotive systems requires a thorough understanding of their electrical operating characteristics under varying conditions. This paper investigates the characteristics of VMOS power transistors, compares them with bipolar transistors, and discusses the use of VMOS transistors in automotive applications.
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