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1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780852
Michael Athans
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of multivariable modern control theory to the design of advanced control systems for future automotive engines. Specific areas include static and dynamic optimization, multivariable stochastic estimation and control, and reliability issues.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780841
Gerald B. Herzog
The electronic industry and the automotive industry are trying to learn how to work together to achieve reliable, complex electronic control systems. To date however, the emphasis appears to be on initial component cost rather than on system life cycle costs. It is predicted that in the long run, the more complex CMOS technology will prove to be more cost effective than simpler NMOS technology.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780842
D. F. Hagen
The impact of the electronics industry, specifically the semiconductor industry, on automotive engine controls is evident in engineering programs at Ford Motor Company. Within the last four years, a new engineering organization has been established to design and develop these new electronic engine control systems. Additionally, the control system engineers are bridging the gap between engine system engineers and semi-conductor designers to create microcomputers, sensors and actuators with the latest technology. The tangible results of this new engineering activity are seen in the applications of electronics to engine controls at Ford. Starting with the 1978 model year and continuing with the announced 1979 model year applications, approximately twelve new components have been developed and released for manufacturing through the cooperative support of the semi-conductor and automotive industries.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780858
Donald Friedman, Erwin Belohoubek
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780859
Rosslyn J. Cannon, James C. Champlin, Joseph P. Ryan, Katharine Rima Schnepf
This report presents a brief description of electronic subsystems available on current production automobiles, and a discussion of the effects of the automotive environment on electronic components. Included is an estimate of the number of electronic components used in each subsystem; a summary, in chart form, of the availability, frequency of installation, and consumer cost of electronic systems available on 1977 automobiles; and a list of the major barriers and developments required for the implementation of some proposed automotive electronic systems.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780855
John T. Auman, Joseph C. Kindermann, James J. Laggan
Abstract This paper describes a systematic decision making process applied to the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility of automotive vehicles. It identifies objectives and classifies them by priority. It describes various mechanizations of possible assurance methods. A matrix of alternate mechanizations and objectives which they meet is assembled and the best alternate is identified.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780856
Edward J. Hayes, George W. Megginson
Electronic braking systems for air-brake vehicles have been required by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 121 since 1975. The need for the standard and the difficulty in documenting its benefits are discussed. Public criticism, court and legislative action threaten to cause it to follow the seat belt inter-lock. Major opposition derives from misunderstanding and opposition to government regulation.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780857
Kohsaku Baba, Yukitsugu Fukumori, Yoichi Kaneko, Kenji Sekine, Akira Endo
A 24 GHz doppler speed sensor for skid controls has been developed. The microwave sensor is designed using both waveguide and thin-film technologies and assembled into a small integrated unit measuring 27 x 10 x 9 mm. The radar unit and the control circuitry are housed in a waterproof module of 94 x 140 x 78 mm. Part of the casing forms a horn antenna, which radiates a vertically polarized beam incident at 45° on the road surface, when mounted on the vehicle. The error in speed measuring is usually less than 10 percent.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780340
Joachim Elsholz, Manfred Bortfeld
The identification of present indicators and controls were tested in several series with 100 subjects having varied demographic backgrounds and their statements evaluated as to the individual technical functions. In tests with another 50 persons, we measured the learning effects as functions of both the individual labels and the various demographic groups. Evaluation of these test series shows the influence of the different demographic data among the persons tested. With 150 subjects tested in European cars the driver's expectations as to where a specific control is located and what specific manipulation he associates with this control was investigated.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780286
Alan R. Dohner
With the fuel economy and emission requirements more demanding than ever and passenger-car engine control systems more sophisticated than ever, there exists a need for a methodical procedure to optimize the fuel economy subject to emission limits of the entire engine-vehicle-aftertreatment system over the federal fuel economy and emission tests. The optimal feedback control functions should account for: 1) transient system interactions; 2) cold start engine-catalytic converter warm-up dynamics; 3) exhaust aftertreatment; 4) driveability; and 5) any repeatable unknown phenomena which affect end-of-test fuel consumption or emissions. This paper presents an experimental Transient System Optimization (TSO) procedure which meets these requirements.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780261
Jimmy L. Funke
Theoretical and experimental results of an initial study of X-band swept frequency radar as a means of target discrimination for automotive radar are presented. A simple analytical model is used to demonstrate that the frequency dependence of radar returns from an object is related to the number and position of its scattering centers. Experimental measurements show that obstacles such as oil drums and road signs are simple targets comprised of a single scattering center while automobiles are very complex targets having a large number of interacting scattering centers. Analysis of the data indicates that X-band swept frequency radar has the ability to distinguish between simple and complex targets; however, targets posing potentially serious hazards cannot be distinguished from those which do not.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780262
Gerald F. Ross
This paper describes a BAseband Radar (BAR) sensor for radar braking application; an early version of the BAR concept was reported previously as a precollision sensor for air bag activation. In this paper we show how the normally wide effective beamwidth of the BAR is narrowed by using interferometry in conjunction with a novel delay line digital processor scheme. The beamwidth of the breadboard system spans a traffic lane width at 45 meters. The paper describes the details of the BAR sensor front-end and preliminary test results sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780213
J. C. Cook
The crankshaft position sensor (CPS) is a variable reluctance magnetic sensor which accurately senses the position of four teeth equally spaced 90° apart on a toothed ring attached to the crankshaft. The electronic engine control (EEC) calculates RPM using two adjacent pulses, and with other processed information, calculates spark advance. Actual spark initiation again uses the CPS as a reference position. The properties and environment of the sensor which determine accuracy, noise, and other characteristics important in its interface with the system is discussed.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780214
Gary M. Marx, Robert L. Bell
A new type of pressure sensor has been introduced into the 1978 production automobile. This design, consisting of a unique capacitive approach, requires the use of only one moving part to produce a voltage output which is proportional to the input pressure signal. The simple construction combined with field and bench performance tests has demonstrated a sensor which possesses high durability and repeatability at a modest product cost.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780211
James E. Acker
WITH THE DEVELOPMENT of the Ford Electronic Engine Control System to meet increasing emission and fuel economy requirements, the need arose to accurately assess engine coolant and inlet air temperatures in order to properly control exhaust gas recirculation flow and spark timing. This paper will discuss the design of the temperature sensors developed for that purpose. The sensors meet the functional requirements of the control system and are durable and reliable. The basic design is also readily adaptable to many other temperature sensing applications.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780209
William Wheeler
The use of microprocessors in automotive electronics systems such as Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) and Electronic Fuel Management (EFM) has created a need for a variety of precision position-sensors capable of reliable performance in underhood environments. This paper describes the basics of precision potentiometers and switches which have been adapted for these and other specialized engine applications. A brief description introduces the precision potentiometer as a position-sensor, and details the differences among the more common types of potentiometers. The fundamental low cost position-sensor concept is elaborated upon with a discussion of some of the special materials and techniques used to develop units for automotive applications. Among the special problems discussed are requirements of long life at high temperature, high vibration environment, and stringent performance accuracy.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780210
J. N. Reddy
This paper describes the application of automotive sensors to electronic control of the internal-combustion engine, with emphasis on sensor-signal characteristics and utilization. Manifold absolute pressure, crankshaft position, throttle position, temperature, and exhaust-gas recirculation are among the parameters monitored to electronically regulate engine inputs. Also presented are a number of control concepts realized with these sensors.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780207
William G. Wolber
The paper presents an overview of developments on the principal sensors applicable to automotive engine control through brief descriptions of the more important sensor concepts for the various parameters, and an indication of sensor status. The parameters covered are manifold absolute pressure (MAP), manifold vacuum (MV), ambient absolute pressure (AAP), crankshaft position (speed), mass air flow, fuel flow, coolant temperature, air temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and throttle position. Special sections are included covering sensor developments overseas, and describing noteworthy efforts of the SAE and the International Standards Organization (ISO) with respect to engine sensor standards.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780208
J. David Marks, Michael J. Sinko
The Wiegand Effect is a new magnetic phenomenon occurring in a specially work-hardened small diameter ferro-magnetic wire. When subjected to an appropriate magnetic field, a sudden, very rapid flux change occurs. A substantial voltage pulse may be induced in a sensing coil wound around the Wiegand wire, or in its proximity. No electrical input is required, and with the appropriate excitation the pulse is essentially independent of the rate of flux change of the externally applied field. The characteristics of the Wiegand Effect are of interest in a number of automotive applications.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780221
Luther E. Vaaler, Eric W. Brooman
The potential and current distribution over the grid of a lead-acid battery can be calculated by applying Kirchoff's Law to a three-dimensional resistance network analog. Such a model was used to simulate the highrate discharge of a typical grid having a conventional, uniform pattern of grid members. The potential and current density were found to vary widely over the grid surface. Modifications to the design of the grid make the potential and current density distribution more uniform, which would lead to more efficient utilization of the battery active materials, and an improved battery performance.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780215
L. E. Unnewehr, C. W. Knoop
A method for modeling electric vehicles has been developed and applied in the prediction of electric vehicle performance and range over variable driving cycles. This model is also applicable for studies of the size, power rating, and costs of electrical drivetrain components. The details of the battery and motor simulation used in the model are described. The battery simulation characteristics are compared with the results of life-cycle tests performed on lead-acid batteries. A method for sizing and rating a battery for electric vehicle applications is suggested.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780158
James O'Day, Lily Huang, Howard M. Bunch
This paper was prepared in connection with a broader study of the opportunities and risks associated with a demonstration program defined by the Congress of the United States in the Electric and Hybrid Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The paper develops estimates of the number of accidents, injuries, and fatalities which might result from introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles into the general passenger vehicle fleet. In order to derive such an estimate, we have referred to existing accident data banks for small internal combustion engine cars operating primarily in urban areas, and have extrapolated from that data to some assumed electric vehicle populations. In addition, we have considered some particular problems of electric vehicles which might produce new dangers, such as electric shock, battery acid, and low acceleration capability. The desirability of imposing existing or new safety standards on these vehicles is considered.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780116
Kaare Karstad
The design of a microcomputer-controlled automotive AM/FM radio is discussed. The system features, and gives priorty to, a clock display. However, the 3-1/2-digit LED display can also serve as a 4-year calendar, elapsed-time counter, or frequency channel, on request. The tuning process automatically activates the frequency display. Basic aspects of real-time clocks and frequency measurements in microcomputer systems are discussed, as is the ability of the COSMAC processor to permit a software-generated clock to be obtained with low cost and high accuracy. While the ignition switch turns the display on or off, the CPU and clock run continuously. The use of CMOS circuitry in the system keeps the power drain below 5 milliamperes and assures months of system operation, even when the vehicle (battery) is not used.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780117
John Lappington, LaVerne A. Caron
Electronics suitable for engine control applications has steadily evolved from analog control systems to microprocessor based designs. The change in technology required in switching from analog to microprocessors has required sensor development, new analog to digital conversion techniques, and development of custom input/output circuits suitable for automotive applications. By proper design of the microcomputer system, an engine control unit can be developed that is cost effective compared to conventional analog circuit techniques while providing additional flexibility. The primary limitation of a digital approach is the long lead time required to change the ROM pattern. This lead time can be reduced by combining PROM and ROM in the same system.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780119
G. Cilibraise
The development of Ford Motor Company's microprocessor based electronic engine control has identified a number of fundamental issues and general observations regarding the application of microprocessors to the automotive environment in the areas of microprocessor selection, cost partitioning and design objectives.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780120
Brian Knowles, Gene Hill, Chester Silvestri, Richard Rubinstein
Five conclusions are drawn and discussed concerning single chip microcomputer trends and their impact on automotive systems. The conclusion's relate to: high performance microcomputers minimum cost microcomputers special purpose microcomputers decentralization of automotive systems use of EPROM in production systems
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780118
T. W. Hartford
This paper describes a microprocessor engine controller designed for onboard control of closed-loop fuel injection, spark advance, and exhaust-gas recirculation. Developed through the preproduction prototype stage, the controller utilizes software subroutines to accomplish such operations as multiplication and interpolation. Ignition is controlled by means of time delays from relatively widely spaced crankshaft-position pulses. Emissions, driveability, fuel-economy, and hardware-cost comparisons are made between the microprocessor engine controller and a 1977 production analog electronic-fuel-injection controller with a mechanical-advance-controlled distributor. Directions for future development efforts are also described.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780121
David K. Long
The 1978 model year marks a turning point in the introduction of electronic controls in automobiles. Although most of the existing functions are performed with analog circuitry, microprocessors are beginning to come into their own. Their ability to respond to the challenge rests largely on communications. Establishment of standards for timing, inter-connection and protocol are a necessary but not sufficient condition for the orderly development of compatible support products employing different technologies. This paper discusses some techniques for avoiding communication bottlenecks and introduces the concept of semi-smart peripherals. Cited examples include spark control, A - D conversion and display control.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780051
Jerry W. Burns
This paper describes a new leveling system which addresses itself to the needs of future, lighter weight vehicles for which attitude control is more important and engine vacuum is partly or totally unavailable. The system utilizes reverse air flow to clean its filter and regenerate its air dryer for lifetime moisture control. The electronic controller and high capacity compressor provide positive response without the use of a storage tank. The reduced number of air fittings and an improved “snap-on” fitting help guard against leaks. This system is described as it interfaces with passenger cars and light trucks using air-adjustable springs in the suspension system.
1978-02-01
Technical Paper
780046
John M. Klobuchar, R.J. Ellis
Application of dedicated microprocessor controlled and frequency synthesized AM-FM electronic tuning with digital display and unique push button keyboard control in an automotive radio. Presentation of the human engineering, technical aspects and benefits of an all electronic approach. Description of the modular design of the finished radio and application of computerized testing.
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