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1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851646
Gary F. E. Vrooman
This paper describes an indoor electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing facility designed for automotive testing over the 60 Hz to 18 GHz frequency range. The facility includes a large TEM cell, covering the 60 Hz to 20 MHz frequency range, and a state-of-the-art anechoic chamber, covering 20 MHz to 18 GHz. In addition to describing the test cells, this paper discusses testing methodology, automatic testing software and calibration. Data is presented depicting the electromagnetic field distribution in each test cell with and without the test vehicle in place. Data is also presented showing a typical field distribution near a high power shortwave transmitter site for correlation purposes.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851647
Edwin J. Fabiszak
Finite Element computer programs are widely used in structural analysis in the automotive industry. In recent years, they have been successfully applied for calculating magnetic fields and performance parameters in a wide variety of electromagnetic components, such as DC motors actuators, alternators, and horns. (1) Recently magnetic finite element programs have been applied to the analysis of EMI/EMC in automotive systems, such as the wiring harness, horn, and spark plug wires. (2) While finite element programs tend to require mainframe computer resources, recent improvements in microcomputers now allow numerically intensive activities, such as finite element analysis, to be effectively run on microcomputers. This paper will present an example of a two dimensional finite element analysis of a sparkplug using a microcomputer.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851648
James H. Coffell
Insuring conducted Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of electronic components from DC to 200 MHz can be determined through analytical prediction techniques and empirical data reduction. For analytical modeling and prediction of automotive electrical/electronic systems, there are two main analytical techniques which can be used. From DC to approximately 500 KHz, conventional circuit analysis lumped parameter networks are implemented. From 500 KHz to 200 MHz, transmission line theory using linear passive networks are employed.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851649
James H. Coffell
Traditional electrical engineering empirical - retrofit design can be replicated today using commercially available analytical design computer software. By building upon existing computer aided engineering programs, it is possible to create a viable electrical engineering analytical design group capable of designing out potential electromagnetic compatibility problems before prototype construction and empirical verification begin.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851653
Mamoru Kobashi, Kazuhiko Funato, Keiji Aoki, Susumu Harada
In the fall of 1984, Toyota marketed a new engine control system through the use of a commercial single-chip microcomputer. Engine control functions have been optimally allocated between the system's hardware and software, and three new circuit modules have been developed for the calculation of basic injected fuel amount, and knock control, ignition control. This has resulted in a large scale reduction of the load on the system's microcomputer, which has made the use of commercially available microcomputers possible, thus cutting costs while at the same time increasing the functions and reliability of the system.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851674
Man-Feng Chang, Michael P. Nolan, James H. Rillings, Ather A. Quader
The axially stratified-charge (ASC) concept was demonstrated in a compact production car by modifying the engine and developing the required control system and calibration. Two production 1.8 L four-cylinder engines were modified to operate as ASC engines by adding shrouded inlet valves to produce swirl, and by providing timed-sequential port fuel injection. One of these engines was calibrated for minimum fuel consumption in the laboratory using a computer-controlled engine and dynamometer. The second engine was installed in a vehicle equipped with an oxidizing catalyst. A complete control system was developed for this engine to implement the minimum fuel consumption calibration in the vehicle. The fuel economy of the ASC vehicle was six percent better than that of the base vehicle. It had acceptable driveability, and had a 91 Research octane requirement on the fuel.
1985-10-01
Standard
J551_198510
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of broadband electromagnetic radiation over the frequency range of 30 to 1000 MHz from a vehicle or other device powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor. Operation of all engines (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the engine is running is also included except operator-controlled equipment, which is excluded. The recommended level applies only to complete vehicles or devices in their final manufactured form. Vehicle mounted rectifiers used for battery charging in electric vehicles are included in this document when operated in their charging mode.
1985-10-01
Technical Paper
851940
Donald W. S. Young, Burkhard Ohly
The paper discusses system and hardware design characteristics of the steering for several current aircraft and aircraft under development, covering both mechanically and electronically controlled systems. Possible future developments for steering systems are discussed briefly.
1985-10-01
Standard
J759_198510
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
1985-09-30
Standard
ARP1068B
This document recommends display criteria for instrumentation on the flight deck of transport aircraft, taking account of human factors that affect engineering design.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851490
Gary L. Stecklein, Benjamin Treichel
A 14-ton tracked amphibious vehicle has been equipped with a hydrostatic drivetrain that consists of land drive and seaborne transmissions. The transmissions and the vehicle's engine are under microcomputer control. In addition, the microcomputer reads operator inputs and does operational checks of the vehicle's various subsystems. If arty of the subsystems is found to be degraded in their performance the microcomputer informs the operator. This paper presents an overview of the drivetrain systems and the implementation of the control and diagnostic systems.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851491
Jeff Cullman
Many mobile vehicles require four-wheel steering modes in order Co enhance mobility in tight spaces. Not only is four-wheel steering required, but three modes are also desired for a variety of mobility problems of off road vehicles. Typically three modes of steering are required: 1.) Standard steering; 2.) Coordinated; and 3.) Crab. The rear steering operation should be automatic and proportional allowing the operator to give full attention to the front steering and other vehicle operations. Also, switching from one steering mode to another must be simple and quick. Through the use of inexpensive analog electronics and proportional hydraulic components, a reliable servo steering system capable of three modes can be constructed. This paper will consider the following areas of design: 1.) Hydraulic design requirements and considerations; 2.) Electronic design requirements and considerations; and 3.) System operation and set-up.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851505
Peter J. Stroempl, Charles Stricklin
Certain design and performance benefits are realized by utilizing hydrostatic transmission (HST) for vehicle propel drives. The component nature of the HST provides design flexibility to build the transmission into the machine and not require the carriage be built around the transmission. This feature may result in lower design and installation costs and potentially better control over vehicle dynamics. Other benefits derived from HST characteristics: A. Load carrying capability is independent of engine speed. B. Maximum drawbar pull is available over a wide engine speed range. C. Hydrostatic braking. D. Vehicle inching. E. Potential for fuel savings. The typical HST control is the displacement type. The pump or motor displacement is regulated by a mechanical, hydraulic or electrically signaled servo valving. The servo valve characteristically eliminates displacement error.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851516
K. Chicoine, R. Alcock, L.L. Christianson, D.P. Froehlich, B. Kocer
A battery-powered, skid-steer, loader was designed for farm-chore routines and general materials handling activities. The design criteria used are discussed in terms of vehicle performance, safety and energy use. Tubular plate, lead-acid batteries provide a usable energy capacity of 25 KWh. Series wound motors were used for traction and a compound motor used for the hydraulics package. Side entry is a unique feature, facilitated by the opportunity to place the battery mass as a counter balancing force, which may provide easier and safer access than is currently offered by skid-steer loaders. The break-out force, lift-capacity, lift height and lifting rate are comparable with commercially available skid-steer loaders. An SCR dual-proportional controller operates two series wound traction motors. Two joystick controllers directionally position the vehicle, regular forward and reverse speeds and operate the loader hydraulics.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851535
Richard J. Smith, Dwight B. Stephenson, Glenn R. Wendel
This paper describes the design considerations and development to provide a more universally accepted John Deere pump for OEM applications. Increased power and pressure characteristics as well as improved aspiration and control capability were achieved through applied engineering techniques such as 1) finite element analysis (FEM), 2) control system computer modelling and 3) state of the art wear surface specifications. A variety of sizes and application features are possible through the use of family design concepts. Sample applications are presented to demonstrate the John Deere radial piston pump flexibility.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851539
James Sikorski
To increase productivity a new concept of proportional pressure, flow and control cartridges have been developed to enhance vehicle operation at a reasonable cost. Actuators have also been developed to stroke directional valves, or piston pumps and motors. These low power consumption devices readily interface with microprocessors. Engineers have been looking for new generations of electrohydraulic valves which will increase operator performance by simplifying the operation of vehicles with automatic controls where possible plus eliminating the brute strength manual type valving to decrease operator fatigue. Maintenance has always been a severe set back to productivity. By utilizing effective yet efficient cartridge proportional valves that are designed for simplicity of use and repair, drastic savings are shown. Previous designs were bulky and very contamination sensitive. They did the job, but were both expensive and had very high maintenance levels.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851556
O. A. Scheffler, Robert E. Moss
Two new Caterpillar Wheel Loaders have been developed in the 1.2 cubic meter (1.5 cubic yd.) and 1.5 cubic meter (2.0 cubic yd.) bucket capacity categories. This paper provides a review of the design objectives and summarizes the design features included to meet worldwide manufacturing and marketing requirements.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851577
Robert W. Burrahm, Vernon O. Markworth
This paper describes a distributed digital process control computer designed for large industrial processing plants that has been applied successfully to laboratory engine testing. Over the past two years several complete systems have been installed and adapted to control engines from 75 kW to over 1800 kW with various dynamometer/generator absorption devices. Control problems encountered, and solutions we have found, are discussed along with the wide range of capabilities this type of system can provide. A short comparison is made between distributed digital control systems and mini-computers, listing advantages and disadvantages of both.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851585
Masashi Kasaya, Tatsuhiko Abe
A simple contact-point based start of injection sensor has been developed for use in closed-loop injection timing control systems. The main element in this sensor is a highly durable thin film deposited by an advanced ion plating process. This sensor is expected to provide accurate detection of start of injection over all speed ranges. Sensor transient response in the feedback loop is also expected to be fast compared to other types of sensors. This detecting method can easily be applied to many kinds of injectors because of its simple structure. The durability has been confirmed by extensive testing.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851564
R. C. Meier, T. G. Goetz
Quality is the number one priority at Ford Motor Co. To adhere to the best in class (BIC) engine quality standard, current manufacturing processes and controls are based on the philosophy of defect prevention and not detection. One such control is the critical gaging operations, checking tolerances to .0005″. “Out of specification” tolerances may cause abnormal engine noise and vibrations. Therefore, to rapidly and effectively determine abnormal engine noise, a method using accelerometers and cost-effective electronic signal processing techniques was developed. This paper describes an overall approach to the characterization of specific engine anomalies through the use of frequency domain signal analysis techniques. To apply this technique “mis-built” (out of specification) production 5.0L V8 engines were assembled at Cleveland Engine Plant No. 1. The results of this study and the development of an inexpensive electronic module to detect engine noise are presented.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851492
Rainer Naepfel
The requirement for reliable, precise positioning of functions without reciprocal influence, promoted the development of an alternative to the “6-way system” the 4-way system in mobile hydraulics. Lower horsepower consumption, remote controllability, built-in position feedback and manual operation in emergencies are the prime design criteria. When precision control is required, electro-hydraulic proportional control offers the best solution. This new concept in mobile hydraulics could find its application in special machines such as: airfield extinguisher vehicles, heavy load transporters, aeriel ladders. The basic concepts of hydraulic and electro-hydraulic control for these special applications are discussed in this paper.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851546
Vittorio Rocco
Direct and reliable measurements of Top Dead Center dynamic position and of thermodynamic loss angle are necessary for accurately evaluating many engine operating parameters. For the purpose of taking these measurements, a sensor -whose operating principle is based on the closing of an electrical circuit- was designed and tested by the Author on a research D.I. Diesel engine. The tests, carried out in motoring conditions, provided at every engine speed a well resolved signal of TDC dynamic position in reference to which thermodynamic loss angle was measured. A good agreement was found between the angle values so measured and those numerically computed by a thermodynamic mathematical model of compression stroke.
1985-09-01
Technical Paper
851594
David J. Rutkowski
Fuel efficiency of an agricultural tractor is a systems consideration. An efficient powertrain can waste fuel if it is not used properly. Ford Tractor Operations developed a Fuelminder to inform the operator of the fuel use and efficiency of his tractor and as a guide to improve its operation. Operators who evaluated this display module thought they could save fuel by using the information obtained.
1985-09-01
Standard
AS8023
The purpose of this document is to define the minimum performance requirements to be met by static electric power inverters designed for use in civil aircraft. The tests specified herein provide a laboratory means to determine the performance characteristics of static electric power inverters under electrical and environmental conditions representative of those encountered in actual aeronautical operation.
1985-09-01
Standard
J1308_198509
This practice applies to engine cooling fans used on Off-Road, Self-Propelled Work Machines and related equipment defined in SAE J1116 JUN81, in 1, 4, and 5. It does not include guarding for belts, pulleys or other rotating equipment used on these machines.
1985-08-01
Technical Paper
851461
Christopher King
This paper will discuss the origins of electroluminescence and its evolution. The basic structure of thin-film electroluminescence will be described, as will the electrical, materials and environmental characteristics of EL devices. Finally, a look at what the future holds for EL displays will be presented.
1985-08-01
Technical Paper
851459
Fang Zongde, Jiang Xiaoyu
In this paper the principles of the laser speckles method is discussed and we used this method to measure the deformation of the gear teeth. In addition, the application of complex variables and energy method of theory of elasticity to calculate the gear tooth deformation has been improved. The measured values well coincide with the calculated results.
1985-08-01
Technical Paper
851460
Paul Danner
Surface mount technology is the method of attaching leadless, short leaded or bare chips to various substrate materials. This technology is not new, but has caught on as a method of assembling printed circuit boards and is considered the wave of the future. This may be regarded as a marriage between conventional hybrid assembly and printed circuit boards as this technology has been recognized for over 30 years in the hybrid industry. This paper will discuss the assembly methods and the merits of both of these technologies.
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