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Magazine
1967-09-01
Magazine
1967-08-01
Magazine
1967-07-01
Standard
1967-07-01
This Aerospace Recommended Practice establishes performance standards for overspeed warning instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in paragraph 3.4. This ARP covers an electro-mechanical pneumatic device which is calibrated to provide control contacts that can be made to operate a warning device whenever the indicated airspeed (IAS) reaches a maximum value as defined by the operating limit speed curve for the specific model aircraft.
Standard
1967-07-01
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
Magazine
1967-05-01
Magazine
1967-04-01
Magazine
1967-03-01
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Franklin D. Richardson
The reduction in price of the plastic power transistor over its metal can counterpart is identified with new encapsulants and automation rather than reduced performance or reliability. The production and testing of the Bendix B5000 plastic power transistor is discussed to indicate how process improvements have been reflected in a device with widespread automotive circuit applications. Advantages of silicon plastic, the transfer molding system, automated element and device testing, and form factors permitting multiple mounting techniques are presented.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Eugene A. Hanysz
A new concept in communications for the motorist called DAIR for Driver Aid, Information, and Routing is described. It is designed to assist the driver with his peripheral functions so that he can concentrate his attention on driving. DAIR automatically gives routing instructions, communicates traffic signs and roadside messages, and provides a radio link to call for emergency assistance or information. The system is cooperative between the motorist and the road authority but is independent of other motorists. Demonstration hardware has been designed around the Citizens Band to take advantage of the mobile transceivers already in service. DAIR can be implemented in a building block fashion using the CB transceiver as the basic component.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
F. Bauer
Vehicle density of the nation’s highways results in so much information input to the drivers’ eyes that the limit of his ability to perceive and react is being approached. The Ford Radio Road Alert is a new method of providing information to the driver in a more easily used form. It uses coded messages from roadside transmitters which trigger a memory storage in the vehicle and cause recorded announcements to be made through the car radio whether it is on or off. A logic circuit automatically overrides a message being received if one of a more critical nature is required. The driver is assured of receiving the radio messages in a consistent format, with constant volume, and in all weather conditions. A method is provided to make this system compatible with vehicles not so equipped with reduced advantages. The Road Alert is a critical portion of the over-all vehicle communications system which would include two-way convenience communications and ability to receive audio signs. At present, the Citizens Radio Service is used, although the concept will apply to other portions of the radio spectrum.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Robert C. Hogle
There is no handbook of vehicle electrical system design or no secret formula which can serve as a guide in the development of electrical components for competitive events. The basic approach to the extent possible, therefore, was to use production components or components for which we had considerable background experience.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
VICTOR D. MYERLY
Since the introduction of Electro-Chemical Machining some ten years ago, the process has been used to good advantage for the difficult machining operations where machinability and geometry posed difficult problems. With this success, the use of ECM has grown into areas of many conventional operations. The new concepts of better control, more accurate reliable machines, coupled with higher amperage power supplies, are putting this process on a competitive basis with normal milling operations. To promote the acceptance of this process in industry, not only have new concepts of the machine tool been executed but much work has gone into tool development, research on electrolytes and surface effects. Manufacturers now offer not only initial installation and training in your plant but also hold periodic formal training seminars and make tooling manuals available to their customers. This paper offers a machine comparison with conventional machining; a brief description of the process; a discussion of ECM machine improvements and the types of industries presently using ECM.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Dean Edgerton
The objectives of Category II and III Test Programs, particularly with relation to reliability demonstration, are described. Data is presented and analyzed from the Category II and III tests of two different systems, one a missile, the other an airborne radar fire control system. Examples are given of reliability improvements that were introduced during the Programs, with emphasis on coordination between factory and field. The importance of proper organization and control of the Test Program is discussed, and attendant problems are illustrated. It is concluded that even though limitations exist, Category II and III tests come the closest to allowing the total system to be exercised under operational conditions; and that from the test results, assessments can be made of demonstrated reliability, and significant reliability improvements can be achieved.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
W. Donovan Schutt, Stanley Schreiber
This paper will concern itself with the reliability aspects of the ABRES feasibility programs. A specific example of the Athena program will address booster and data acquisition system reliability improvement. In addition to typical reliability practices, strong management control and examination of the hardware, procedures and design compromises resulted in a continuous reliability growth during the course of the program. The criticality of payloads obtaining good payload test data from very few and expensive flights requires an entirely different approach for the reliability aspects of these systems. Finally, some specific thoughts and techniques employed to achieve the enviable record for this program will be described.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Vincent C. Iacono, Richard J. Morss
The procedure followed for the conduct of the Maintainability Design Review of the AN/SQS-26CX Sonar System is discussed. Esoteric Techniques utilized are presented, pitfalls to be avoided are emphasized, and solutions to design review problems are given. The paper presents a fundamental test point optimization technique and discusses modifications necessary to apply a standard Maintainability Prediction Technique to a modern complex system in order to utilize it as a design review tool.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
James C. Blair, Jerome R. Redus
Flight control requirements of reusable launch vehicles are reviewed and compared to those of aircraft, current launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Areas are identified in which more work on the flight control system will improve mission performance. Current work in three areas is briefly reviewed - the use of man in the control loop, the development of systems which can accommodate large changes in the flight conditions, and use of the flight control system to reduce wind-induced loading.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
A. Hevesh
Phased planar array radars represent a class of equipment employing hundreds or thousands of individually steerable radiating and receiving elements. In the operation of such systems, it is necessary to keep continually ahead of an advancing failure accumulation through maintenance policies geared to replacement-while-in-operation concepts. Several practical maintenance polices are considered: Immediate maintenance Delayed maintenance Cyclic maintenance The effects of these policies on the outage availability are considered and it is shown that each has certain advantages. Immediate maintenance yields the highest system availability, but requires the continued presence of a moderate size maintenance force. Increasing the number of maintenance crews increases the availability of phased array systems, but the added contribution to satisfactory system states shrinks rapidly with the growth of crews. Delayed and cyclic maintenance both involve a more leisurely, planned work pace characterized by periods of relatively low service activity, followed by periods of intense activity to restore the system.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Jack W. Dunlap
Human engineering has demonstrated its utility in all phases of the design process. Examples illustrating the contributions of human engineering in the conceptual, design, and evaluation phases are discussed. Human engineering techniques are employed to test the feasibility of design concepts involving man-machine interactions. Methodologies and techniques are useful in making direct inputs to the design process during both the design and evaluation phases.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
T. Frazer Carmichael
The permanent magnet alternator as applied to automotive battery charging and portable engine service is discussed. Manufacturing procedure, magnetic material selections, and regulation means are described. Out put characteristics of several alternators are presented. Ignition on portable engines using the alternator is described.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
John St. John
Abstract The development of the oscilloscope as an ignition diagnostic tool is described. The end result of this development is a device which, with only four connections to the engine, all accessible, plus a pickup in the exhaust tailpipe, yields all the diagnostic information necessary to evaluate the performance of an internal combustion spark-ignited engine and pinpoints malfunctions requiring correction for proper operation.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
William D. Thompson
Abstract Aerodynamic investigations in tandem twin aircraft are confined mainly to the effects of propeller slipstream variations on longitudinal control, trim, and stability. Slip stream velocities measured at the horizontal tail increase by a factor of three during a transition from a glide to a full throttle climb at 75 mph. Out-of-trim stick forces must be minimized by judicious placement of the elevator trim tab and careful design of the horizontal tail geometry. Rear engine operation is superior to front engine operation in stability, control, and performance, offering 100% more longitudinal stability in climb and 24% more rate of climb at sea level.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
George Yabroudy, Frank Aversano, Remo Savino, Benedict Gaylo
This paper describes the electronic circuit packaging techniques employed in the Signal Conditioning Electronic Assembly (SCEA) which is a critical part of the Project Apollo Lunar Module instrumentation. Mission and equipment requirements are reviewed and the nature of the SCEA circuits is described. Lunar Module packaging concepts, insofar as they affect the SCEA, are discussed. Design problems and the design method employed are covered and hardware descriptions are given for SCEA plug-in subassemblies and their constituent welded cordwood circuit modules. Significant features of the design are: extremely rugged subassemblies, very high welded module part densities, and new microminiature transformer design and fabrication techniques.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Herman Jankowski
The importance of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electronic systems becomes emphasized as interference problems of increasingly serious nature appear. Packaging to avoid electromagnetic interference effects can provide the major suppression capability in a system. A number of general packaging techniques covering magnetic and electric field suppression, and the avoidance of “common impedance” interference, are presented. Techniques are considered for the three major EMC areas of a system: the sources of interference, the transmission media, and the equipments which react erroneously when interference is present. The need for education in EMC as an integral part of an engineer's training is also emphasized.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
H. W. Kaatz, Fred Wilhelm, Leo Tobacman, L. L. Aspelin
Recent engine developments have increased altitude performance of light aircraft. Operation at altitudes above 15,000 ft demands changes in the air operated instrument systems and fuel systems in order to assure dependable operation throughout the new altitude ranges. The first section, on pneumatic systems, deals with the requirements and considerations leading to the conversion from vacuum to pressure operated gyro, autopilot, and de-icer boot systems. The second section, on fuel systems, is intended to aid in the solving of the present fuel systems vapor lock problem. A discussion on aviation gasoline includes a tabulation of most of the hydrocarbons, including the classes of hydrocarbons used in this fuel, together with the vapor pressure, boiling point, and heating value of each. A description of the ASTM distillation tests and the Reid vapor pressure equipment is included, since these characteristics affect the volatility and vapor locking tendency. A qualitative description of how vapor lock occurs in the suction piping and its accessories is included.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
L. W. Weixelman
Fuel gaging systems in over 90% of small civil aircraft use the automotive float type sender with an electrical indicator. Considering such factors as dihedral, summing, temperature, variation in specific gravity of fuel used, and input voltage, the accuracy is approximately ±5% of full scale and ±10% of the reading. A more accurate system is highly desirable for weight control, flight planning, and possible c. g. consideration. Among other gaging systems available are improved float types at moderate costs, capacitive systems with good accuracy at comparatively high initial cost and increased maintenance, and a mass sensing system at moderate cost. The pros and cons of each system are discussed. Factors contributing to errors in readout and often overlooked are variations in height versus volume of fuel tanks because of manufacturing tolerances, and changes in shape and relative position of tanks under different loading when in flight.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
K. L Fletcher
New packaging concepts for avionics equipment are evolving as a result of extensive use of microcircuits and thin film circuits. These components, essentially planar in configuration, have naturally led to the development of new planar packaging systems. A system of this type currently being implemented uses planar circuit boards of a unique new design and also provides a method of packaging these boards in separate planar sections. Two or more of these sections, each with its own connector and dust cover, may constitute a complete airborne function such as VOR or VHF communication. The sections, which are shorter than standard ARINC units because of increased packaging efficiency, also facilitate equipment installation in smaller aircraft.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
G. A. Lucchi
A number of design parameters are traded off in the design of an airborne weather radar system. The inter-relative effects of design tradeoffs can be meaningfully approximated by application of the standard range equation which takes into account such items as peak transmitter power, width of the transmitted pulse, target area and reflectivity characteristics, transmitter wavelength, antenna gain, and the receiver overall noise figure. Selection of that radar system which is best suited to the particular aircraft to be equipped not only increases the utility of the aircraft, but also the safety of operation within given weather margins. Optimal allowances made for such installational limitations as reflector size, radome design, and temperature environments enhance both the performance and the reliability of the radar.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
Henry W. Gayek
New electronic devices such as the silicon rectifier, transistor, silicon controlled rectifier, and miniature electromagnetic relay are changing the complexion of aircraft d-c generating systems. Their application has resulted in the introduction of a static equivalent of the familiar carbon pile regulator and of the overvoltage relay, as well as a unique protector against feeder faults. As developed by General Electric, these new products provide better voltage regulation, improved engine starts, and better system protection. They are smaller, lighter, and longer-lived than the older electromechanical devices. Brushless d-c generators, also made possible through the use of modern semiconductors, bring relief from old-time maintenance problems of brush and commutator wear. All these new products represent new trends in aircraft d-c systems.
Technical Paper
1967-02-01
J. C. Forrest
This paper describes the considerable advances made in the Doppler radar and Doppler navigation system state-of-the-art since the early 1960's. A detailed comparison is made between the earlier Dopplers and today's vintage. A new Doppler-inertial system, currently being developed for the military, is described and where pertinent compared to a comparable pure inertial system. The analysis concludes that using this approach adequate navigation accuracy can be achieved for subsonic and supersonic transports at approximately one-third the cost of a comparably reliable inertial installation.
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