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1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860610
Werner T. Meyer
Industrial strength lead acid batteries have established a 40-year record of reliability as the preferred power source for underground mining vehicles. Building on that success, Lead Industries Association (LIA) and its members have moved the lead-based power packs into the airports of the world. The new and growing market: battery-powered ground support vehicles, which maneuver and service airliners both on the tarmac and at the gate. Now LIA is sponsoring another new development that is expected to open a third major market for heavy duty electric vehicles - the use of battery-powered yard tractors to handle semi-trailers in dockside, warehouse, piggyback and terminal settings. Working evaluations of an LIA-sponsored prototype indicate that the electric vehicles can operate at significantly lower cost than that of conventional yard tractors.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860623
Yasuji Shibahata, Namio Irie, Hideo Itoh, Kenji Nakamura
Abstract This paper describes the development of a vehicle with four-wheel steering in which the rear wheels can be controlled electronically in addition to the conventional front-wheel steering system. In the method for steering the rear wheels, the side-slip angle at the vehicle's center of gravity is maintained at zero, which improves the basic dynamic properties of the vehicle. This approach allows greater maneuverability at low speed by means of counter-phase rear steering and improved stability at high speed through same-phase rear steering. However, the use of counter-phase rear steering to improve maneuverability gives rise to problems in regard to practicality. In addition, continuously controlled four-wheel steering, using counter-phase at low speed and same-phase at high speed, leads to many other problems regarding practicality because of the strong apparent understeer characteristics.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860569
Toshio Yasui, Mitsuharu Kato
A new microcontroller has been developed which will enable a small scale ECU to be easily designed. This microcontroller has 1-bit data-bus suited for logical operations, and has a unique programmable counter for timing operations. This ECU has built-in peripheral circuits such as power-on-reset which reduces the need for external components.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860126
Hirota Nozawa, Christopher L. Slupek
The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860124
Dietmar Kopitz
The Radio-Data System RDS presented here is the subject of a new Draft CCIR Recommendation, which has been adopted by the October/November 1985 Final meeting of CCIR Study Group 10 <1>. The system is the result of an internationally coordinated reseatch initiative which was carried out within the activities of the EBU over a period of almost 10 years. This work, was concluded in its first phase in 1984 with the publication of the specification of the RDS system <2>. The following presentation summarizes briefly the objectives to be achieved with the RDS system and its coordinated applications. Since several European countries envisage now the implementation of the RDS system, some operational aspects have been investigated, and some questions are considered which were raised in a broad general, or better, the international context, of using the system. Contacts between European industry and the EBU have also provided additional background on further RDS developments.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860144
Kazuro Nishizawa, Miroshi Ishiwata, Kenji Okamoto
The Electronic Governor RED III for diesel in-line injection pumps was developed by Diesel Kiki, and introduced onto the market in 1983 as COPEC(Computed PE Control), which is a system for vehicles in combination with an electro-hydraulic timer. It has been well received by users because of its additional functions, i.e., auto-cruising etc, which enable the improvement of engine performance, drive-ability etc. This report presents firstly an analysis of the stability of the engine-governor system, and secondly an outline of the COPEC system from the point of view of engine stability, reliability, etc. Additionaly a growing need exists for electronic control of various functions, such as generator and construction machine operation. In this paper is also described how the control unit (C/U) answers these various needs, as the second stage of the first generation electronic control system.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860173
Jesse Ortega, Claude Barker, Cary Wilson, Robert Kruse
The decision to improve consumer interface with on-board vehicle systems in the new Buick Riviera presented many challenges. The major challenges were how to display the information and how to optimize the driver's interface with the display. Challenges were met with the development of an interactive and reconfigurable display system based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and transparent membrane switch technologies. Human factors concerns were resolved, design requirements were met, limitations in existing technologies were overcome, and testing has verified that original design goals were met or exceeded.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860174
Yoshinori Tokai, Kunio Fujii
Abstract Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) using plastic thin film substrates were developed for automobiles. They are intended to be used as instruments and navigation displays on a dashboard. The plastic film panels (PFPs) have several excellent characteristics - they are hard to crack, light weight, thin construction, and flexible. The combination of these characteristics permits great versatility of dashboard design. Further, the PFP has a wider viewing angle and smaller parallax than glass panels. The plastic thin film combines a substrate with a polarizer for a twisted nematic (TN) LCD. It provides excellent heat resistance and reliability. When remaining objects are solved, low-priced PFPs will hit the market place in near future.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860178
Martin Haub, Bernhard Mrosek
This paper describes a LCD dot matrix which is able to display information from various subsystems like Driver Information System Trip Computer Compass Service Interval Counter Today, independent displays are used at various locations within the instrument cluster or in the console. Modern display technology and the down-sizing of electronic packages allow an integration of a sophisticated multi-purpose information system even into the confined space of the cluster. A modular design for the electronics allows a variation of information content from basic to high-line versions. Design proposals based on a 32 × 32 LCD dot matrix are shown and an outlook into the future of high-resolution displays will be given.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860176
M. Owa, T. Matsuda, S. Iida, S. Matsushita, H. Araki
THIS PAPER describes a necessity and development status of internal color printing and its extended application. And achieved reliability and preliminary specifications of two methods of internal printing are described. ALSO NEW MODE OF MONO-COLOR DISPLAY is introduced as full dot matrix wider viewing flat display.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860180
Margaret Galer, Julie Spicer, Colin Holtum
In recent years the number of warning functions in cars has grown rapidly. Traditionally these have been single areas dedicated to specific warning functions. Manufacturers have found it difficult, time consuming and costly to respond to legislative changes or market variations. An information display was developed that is microprocessor driven and provides a single area displaying warning symbols supplemented by an alphanumeric read out. This comprised a 32 × 32 dot matrix and warning frame, backed up by a 14 segment, 10 × 2 character message centre. The Automotive Ergonomics Unit embarked on a joint programme with the company to evaluate the information display. The ergonomics evaluation addressed itself to the recognition of the warning symbols in dot matrix and conventional ISO style format. An experiment was conducted in which 200 drivers tested the readability of 14 warning symbols when presented in dot matrix and conventional ISO style format.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860179
Yoshihiro Nagura, Yuzo Hayashi, Fumiaki Yamanashi
Liquid Crystal Displays have many advantages for automotive usage. Because of these advantages, LCD's should increase in popularity with the automotive manufacturers. There still remains some areas of improvement to increase its usage. Some operating characteristics which need improvement for increased automotive applications are: 1. Improved legibility 2. Wider operating temperature range 3. Higher display density and multifunction display To respond to these requirements with no significant compromise of other characteristics, we have made the following design changes: A. Improved legibility by printing color filters on the polarizer rather than using a separate color film for color display and the use of an interior filter to reduce background transmission and viewing angle dependence. B. Widening of the nematic range of the LC material to improve low temperature response time and reduce temperature dependence of threshold voltage, thus increasing the operating temperature range.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860181
Yukitoshi Yoshida, Fukuji Maruyama, Akira Ishizuka
This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of Fluorescent Indicator Panels from a system interface point of view. Improvements in packaging and mounting, electronic control circuit interfaces, and multicolor displays are described and illustrated. THE FLUORESCENT INDICATOR PANEL (FIP®) is widely used in automotive electronic displays because of its eye-pleasing colors and easy readability and its flexibility in graphics design. The increasing usage has resulted in mechanical improvement to more effectively utilize the space available, electrical improvement for microprocessor control, and optical improvement for multicolor capability.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860383
Frank Zimmermann, Hermann Oetting, Paulus Heidemeyer, Reinhold Haack
The electronic control of a automatic friction clutch represents a novel element for the vehicle drive train, the characteristic of which is freely determinable. It presupposes servo-actuation with a low energy requirement. In the case under review pneumatic negative pressure is applied to the actuating element with the desired function being established in the central control unit as a function of the signals of a few sensors by way of the actuation of two-stage digital solenoid valves. The flexible, automatic clutch function makes for a wide range of applications from series drive trains right through to hybrid drive systems.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860334
Douglas D. Dankel
In just one decade the field of expert systems, a subfield of artificial intelligence, has progressed from an intellectual endeavor pursued by researchers at universities to commercial systems used by major corporations. Expert systems have been developed by Digital Equipment Corporation to configure VAX computers (XCON). SRI International to perform geological exploration (PROSPECTOR), the U.S. Navy to train personnel in the operation of steam propulsion plants (STEAMER), and Intellicorp to help molecular biologists perform nucleotide sequence analysis (SEQ), just to name a few. The hopes and dreams of everyone have been raised by the performance of these and other systems and by the future potential of what expert systems could do. But are these aspirations to be realized? Will expert systems prove to be “white knights” assisting us In solving our problems or will they be “wolves in sheep's clothing” tormenting us as we strive towards our goal?
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860589
Tsugihiro Okada, Toshiki Iijima, Akio Kakinuma
This paper discusses an automatic airconditioner which adopts a new energy saving control method for controlling heat exchange at the heater and the cooler instead of the conventional reheat air-mix one. In this new airconditioner, the cooler does not work when the passenger room is heated and similarly the heater does not work when the passenger room is cooled, minimizing the use rate of the cooler which accounts for the most of the airconditioner's power consumption. Nonetheless, the heat released from the airconditioner to the room can be adjusted smoothly from maximum cooling to maximum heating just the same as in the conventional type. The results of on-vehicle comparison tests of the above two methods have shown that the energy saving control method saves nearly half of the energy which is consumed in a year with the conventional one, with the room being kept around 25°C (77°F)
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860346
Otmar Pilsak
Bosch-Blaupunkt's EVA System is an electronic “Traffic Pilot”, which directs a driver from point “A”, to point “B”, by visual LCD Readout, and verbally, through voice-synthesized directions. The system is completely self-contained within the vehicle, enabling an unlimited number of simultaneous users. EVA can make instantaneous route corrections if the driver misses a directed turn, and re-calculate the optimum route from the point the error was made to the destination. By using a digitized map, stored on a CD disc, and pulse transmitters, the system provides accurate directions by use of the street address of the destination, from any location plotted on the digitized map memory to any other point plotted on the map, quickly, easily and with pin-point accuracy.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860392
Wayne J. Johnson, Jack R. Volk
This paper describes some of the philosophy and requirements for incorporating data networks into vehicles, and describes a proposed protocol that closely matches the needs of an automotive network. Results of a test vehicle implementation of the network are also described.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860183
Fumio Kadoo, Kazuyuki Akeyoshi, Yuichi Saitoh, Kazutoshi Sawada, Shoichi Kudoh, Ikumichi Terada
This paper describes a newly developed cholesteric double layered Guest-Host LCD, which has not only excellent legibility but wide operating temperature range. The characteristic of this LCD is presented. A prototype instrument panel using this LCD is introduced. This instrument panel operates at −30 °C without heating system.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860247
Kenji Katoh, Yoshihiko Imamura, Tokuta Inoue
A methanol fueled, lean burn system has been developed to improve both specific fuel consumption and NOx emissions. A 1.6L four-cylinder engine with increased compression ratio has been used to develop this system. Three major components of the Toyota Lean Combustion System (T-LCS) have been applied: (1) A helical port with a swirl control valve (2) A lean mixture sensor (3) Timed, multi-point fuel injection. A 2250 lb. Inertia Weight test vehicle has been fitted with this engine, and fuel system materials have been modified. This methanol, lean burn system has improved the fuel economy by about 12% still satisfying the 1986 emission standards of the U.S.A. and Japan. Aldehyde emissions have also been evaluated.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860484
F. Bruce Gerhard, Minoru Matsuda, Kazuo Funabashi
NEC has developed an 8-bit CMOS single-chip microcomputer, the uPD78312, for real time control and high speed data processing applications. The uPD78312 features very powerful on-chip input/output hardware which makes it especially suitable for automotive engine control. Included are multi-function pulse input/output hardware and a novel and efficient interrupt handling facility. These combine to make significant reductions in the software overhead in engine control systems. The uPD78312 is the first member of a new family of advanced controller microcomputers, the uCOM-78000 series. This new family has been derived from uCOM-7800 series which includes the uPD78C11. This paper includes a brief description of the uPD78312 and outlines the hardware for an engine control system utilizing the uPD78312 and associated NEC peripheral chips.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860485
Robert L. Anderson
This paper documents the results of an engine dynamometer study into the use of in-cylinder ionization probes on a 1.6L EFI engine. The objective of the investigation was to determine if there is sufficient correlation between ionization probe information and other combustion parameters to allow use of the ionization probe as a sensing element as part of a direct feedback control system to control engine air-fuel ratio and/or spark timing. Specific emphasis was placed on determining performance at lean air-fuel ratios with the goal of controlling the engine near the lean limit of operation. Use of the spark plug as an ionization sensor was also investigated.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860537
Alvon C. Elrod, Michael T. Nelson
The primary objective of this research program was to reduce pumping losses associated with the standard air intake system for spark ignition engines. This was accomplished by controlling the induction of the air/fuel charge with variable valve timing applied to the intake valves. The intake manifold pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure and the timing of the intake valves was electronically adjusted to allow the induction of an air/fuel mixture sufficient to support the required engine load. This variable valve timing allowed flexibility in scheduling the intake valve timing events, simulating throttled operation with improved efficiency. Brake-specific-fuel-consumption (BSFC) was improved significantly, while air/fuel ratios remained stabilized, with no sacrifice in load control.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860552
Yukihiko Hagino, Yoshiro Furuishi, Yasuyuki Makigawa, Naotake Kumagai, Makoto Yoshikawa
A Vehicle Vibration Control System by Active Control has been developed. The experimental results using a 4-cylinder gasoline engine installed in a car showed that at the position of the driver's seat, the acceleration of the vibration was reduced by 16 dB. This system operates stably and at low cost because of having a feedforward system, so many applications can be expected in the near future as methods for vehicle vibration reduction.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860596
Kazuhiro Higashiyama, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Katsunori Oshiage
Since 1979, Nissan Motor Company's, Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS) has been meeting various vehicle and engine needs. These needs include fuel economy, smooth operation, powerful acceleration, and a minimum of exhaust emmissions. The system has been regularly enhanced with the introduction of up-to-date sensors and actuators and improved control strategy and programs. This paper describes the various new control technology that has been added to the ECCS in recent years. It refers to the fail-safe or back-up system and self-diagnosis system, both of which have been very important for system reliability due to the increasing use of electronic control.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860594
Naoki Tomisawa, Hiromasa Kubo, Shoji Furuhashi
Air-fuel ratio learning control has generally been adopted in automobile engines at present. For this control, it is important that learning at a high speed be minutely performed to cope with a driving state which may vary considerably at high speed. This report describes a process for attaining this objective, in which regular learning, having a high learning detection precision, and presumptive learning for the transient region and the region where air-fuel ratio feedback is not affected are performed at a high speed while monitoring the progress of such learning.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860593
Dietrich E. Bergfried, Ulrich Mayer, Richard Schleupen, Peter Werner
Increasingly stringent requirements regarding exhaust emission, fuel consumption, driveability and comfort have led to an accelerated introduction of electronically controlled systems, the complexity of which can best be handled by microcomputers, these being the basis of all modern electronic control units. These electronic control units are usually installed in the passenger compartment, due to the need for moderate conditions in respect of temperature, vibration, moisture and dust. However because of the increasing variety of systems the available space for the installation of these control boxes has become smaller and smaller whilst the complexity of the wire harness has led to increased costs and electromagnetic interference problems. As a result there is an increasing demand for electronic control units (ECU) which can be installed in the engine compartment.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860592
Yoshitaka Hata, Masaharu Asano
This paper reviews new engine control technologies and future trends, particularly in mechanical and electrical engine control components, the application of modern control theory, and new advances in sensor technologies. A system which utilizes engine cylinder combustion information is representative of these new trends. Like other such sensor systems, the combustion sensor still has problems which must be overcome before practical application is possible. The factors and problems involved in developing this sensor will be discussed, along with how the relationship between sensing information and engine performance can be used to improve engine performance.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860412
Yuen-Kwok Chin, Francis E. Coats
Designers of engine controllers have usually used an experimental trial-and-error approach to determine the best reference basis for compensating the engine dynamics. This paper investigates the nature of engine dynamics, in particular whether the dynamics are time based or crank-angle based. First, available time-based dynamics for a 5.7-L V8 TBI engine and a 3.1-L V6 PFI engine are reviewed. Next, transformation formulae between time based and crank-angle based dynamics are derived. Crank-angle based dynamics for the two engines are computed using these formulae and the results are evaluated relative to the time based dynamics. Lastly, the reference basis for a 2.5-L L4 TBI engine operating in the idle-speed region is examined. All dynamics, except fuel dynamics, are less varying in the crank-angle domain than in the time domain.
1986-03-01
Technical Paper
860106
Yoshiyuki Ishida, Kosuke Ito, Yuji Kita, Shunichi Kadowaki
The new RB20 engine series comprises in-line, 6-cylinder, 2-liter gasoline engines with an all-new design that succeed the L20 engine (1)*, whose performance has been upgraded numerous times since it was first released 20 years ago. The RB20 engine series includes a single-overhead-cam (SOHC) engine and a double-overhead-cam (DOHC) engine, each of which also has a turbocharged version, making a total of four different engine variations. This range of variations is intended to meet the broad, diversified needs of today's market. The main development theme set for the new engine family was to achieve “improved performance that would appeal to the senses”. Thus emphasis was not merely put on obtaining high performance figures, but on making real improvements in engine response and quietness that the driver could actually feel. This paper focuses on two of the four engine variations - the DOHC engine with and without a turbocharger.
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