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Viewing 20071 to 20100 of 20966
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690712
F. Y. Hayashi, N. R. Kiehlo
The requirements for control of flammability and related hazards in materials and components used in aerospace avionics systems have been examined using a systems approach. Consideration has been given to a wide range of contributing factors, including acceptable risk, test method, acceptability criteria, confidence level, ignition source, etc.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690737
Paul Stein
This paper describes the features of and the improvements to the modern pneumatic starters for turbo-jet engines including the containment material, improved gear material, wind-milling reengagements and the improved reliability of pneumatic starters. These improvements have had significant effects on weight and performance, and have resulted in a better product with the prospect of improved service life. Advances in design, materials, and other state-of-the-art improvements have accomplished significant reduction in weight of this equipment, and improved operational reliability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690728
G. W. Work, S. Fried
The need for deep diving submersibles, the advantages of batteries located outside the hull as power sources, and the place of silver/zinc batteries in this application are summarized. Environmental and operational factors which affect battery design and performance are discussed along with how the problems were overcome. State-of-the-art capabilities of silver/zinc deep ocean batteries are illustrated from data on several operational cells and batteries. It is concluded that this type of battery is suitable for deep ocean use and has the advantage of being already operational.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690791
S. Herbert Stone
Abstract This paper considers the design and application of the electrohydraulic power unit for direct current installations. It discusses the advantages provided by the packaged power unit and advocates its selection for certain vehicular applications.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690129
Giovanni Caprioglio
The requirements of a vehicle are classified into performance, economy, and convenience factors. Advances in the present battery technology provide the conditions for the competitive existence of electric vehicles for special uses. Several systems being developed in order to overcome the weight limitation of the lead-acid battery are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690130
E. E. Moyer
This paper concerns the charging requirements of series and/or parallel-connected groups of individual cells, with and without connected loads, and the importance of their internal resistance and counter emf when charged from probable energy sources having widely varying voltage and limited current capabilities. Rapid recharging, control means, circuitry, and component devices are discussed. An extensive bibliography covers items of historical and related interest and is useful for further knowledge of specific items such as British and American surveys comparing battery types, fuel cells versus fused-salt electrolyte batteries and combinations thereof, renewable electrode recharging, and so forth.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690393
Roger J. Phaneuf
This paper addresses itself to two basic questions which have been generated by the rapid increase in commercial aircraft complexity and in air traffic density now challenging the entire aviation industry. The on-board capability of general area navigation holds great promise for alleviating some of the difficulties brought about by each of these. In addition to being faced with the problem of how to quantify the advantages of this more flexible navigation capability, there is also a great concern with the question of how best to provide that capability in the cockpit. As a vehicle for examining these two related, but distinct subjects, a moving map display system, developed as a joint project by the Hughes Aircraft Company, United Air Lines, and Jeppesen Company, was installed in a Boeing 727 and operated for approximately 193 flight hours, primarily in the high traffic density environment between the Chicago and New York areas. As a result of the evaluation program, the advantages of navigation without the geographic restrictions of ground based radio aids were further substantiated.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690406
J. A. Lee, R. P. Johannes
This paper reports the results of a limited flight evaluation of Direct Lift Control (DLC) on a modified B-52 aircraft. The evaluation was made in conjunction with concluding flights of the Load Alleviation and Mode Stabilization (LAMS) Program and represents the first flight testing of a blended closed loop DLC system on an aircraft of this size and weight. By allowing the pitch and heave motions in the longitudinal axis to be decoupled, the system provided positive control of altitude displacements while holding pitch attitude constant. In both ILS approaches and aerial refueling tasks, controllability was significantly improved and pilot workload was reduced.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690407
John A. Gorham
This paper describes the operational characteristics, design processes, and test programs established to produce a “fail-operative” automatic landing system for the Lockheed “TriStar.” The operational characteristics are predicated on the anticipated changes in ATC procedures during the 1970's which may lead to increased automation of the airborne elements. The design processes involve the use of new electronic voting techniques and the consideration of the total airplane systems in view of the critical aspects of failure modes and effects. The test program is outlined and the use of many iterative stages of comprehensive test facilities are described. Conclusions are made that unexpected benefits have been derived by the adoption of the total systems approach.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690346
Theodore T. Tanase, John Camp
A new electro-mechanical constant speed drive (EMCSD) is being developed specifically for business aircraft which require up to 15 KVA of conditioned A-C power. The EMCSD offers weight savings generally associated with hydraulic constant speed drives and prices approaching inexpensive inverter systems. The relative weights and prices are shown for all three systems (D-C/inverter, EMCSD and hydraulic CSD) to assist the engineer in choosing the proper electrical power source for his aircraft.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690313
Jack R. Sattler
The concept of converting in-production lightweight commercial aircraft to fulfill a specific military role presents significant engineering opportunities. The conversion of the Cessna Super Skymaster, featuring a tandem engine installation, to the role of a forward air control aircraft is an example of such a program. The exact nature of the conversion consists of modifying the basic commercial configuration to the mandatory requirements of the user. Visibility, electrical and electronic systems, and external stores capability are areas requiring special design attention.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690337
Frank T. Gasper, Herbert S. Ross
Dramatic advances in the area of Low Cost Inertial (LCI) platforms have rapidly hastened inertial navigation applicability for today's commercial and business aircraft. Even in the recent past, a navigation system's Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with its extremely precise sensors, has conventionally been considered a prime source of high cost. A “reduced cost system” which would be attractive to the business and private aircraft market place, should begin, therefore, with a stable element of inherent simplicity featuring drastic new low cost designs and innovations in sensors, components, and fabrication techniques. In addition, these features must offer improved reliability, reasonable maintenance concepts, and adequate performance. Finally, in order to insure its acceptance, the design of this low cost IMU must emphasize compatibility with existing aircraft interfaces and procedures.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690339
Richard J. Lukso, Richard E. Spielmaker
This paper describes a new and unique type of static inverter (called a Digital Inverter) for aircraft in the power range 400 Va-4000 Va. The advantages of the inverter are precise frequency control, low weight, stiff load driving capability, and high reliability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690338
N. B. Hemesath, D. H. Meyer, H. M. Schweighofer
The trends in air navigation, as indicated by military developments and current activity in the development of new aircraft for the airlines point to: 1. Continued use of VOR/DME as the basic short-range (continental) navigation aid 2. Inertial navigation systems (INS) as the primary long-range navigation aid and source of improved attitude and heading information 3. Increased digital computation and control for navigation and aircraft flight management. This paper discusses how the INS and digital computer can be used to complement the VOR/DME system to provide improved navigation accuracy and smoother operation in the VOR/DME environment.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690327
George M. Kirkpatrick
This paper reviews the effectiveness of TV-radar in providing pilots with navigational, weather, and traffic data; analyzes the results of a feasibility test conducted by the FAA; discusses safety factors and the need for improving the quality of radar picture transmissions. The future of televised radar depends in great part on low initial cost of equipment, improved ability to supply traffic information simultaneously to numerous aircraft, and greater emphasis on the potential of this important electronic aid in supplying pilots with valuable information.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690326
C. R. Bonnell
An electric outside-in attitude gyro display system was prototyped and flown to compare the display with the contemporary inside-out display developed by Elmer Sperry nearly 50 years ago. The outside-in display system was evaluated to be superior in extreme attitudes and the spiral dive problem. The electric prototype was evaluated also to have alternate power source advantage over air gyros on single engine aircraft. Government regulations relative to attitude gyros and displays are concluded not to conflict with outside-in gyros. A concept of control indicator to performance indicators scan is suggested to be considered in this integration of instruments.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690328
Christopher L. Lair, Kenneth W. Bender
Relative merits of three types of aircraft engine instruments were examined in respect to aircraft changing conditions. The experimental design considered interference, workload, age, and experience. Instruments were comparable so far as instrument size and characteristics would allow. Experimental results and comments indicated the experimental apparatus and failure parameters were comparable to actual aircraft situations. It was discovered that vertical-scale engine instruments required less recognition and scan time. Age and flight experience were not significant in this experimental design.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690261
J. A. Halgren, P. E. Cary
The need for adequate strength in crankshafts is discussed. Heat treat methods that will provide adequate wear resistance or adequate strength, or a combination of both, are described. Details of the heat treat process are presented and the results obtained on several steels are shown. The combinations of heat treatments and materials presented here provide the engineer with several alternatives for ensuring adequate crankshaft design.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690301
W. G. Bair
Total energy systems are being installed increasingly in office and industrial buildings, schools, and shopping centers. This paper surveys existing systems, including operating data, distribution, and types of installations. Several recent equipment developments are mentioned, including a completely packaged engine-generator set heat recovery modules, sets of two or more turbine alternator modules for continuous-duty precise power requirements (such as computers), complete turn-key plants, and installations combining steam and gas turbines.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690072
Yoshizo Miyake
This paper presents a comprehensive review of prototype electric vehicles developed in Japan and the extensive research being done to improve battery and fuel cell power sources. Descriptions and specifications of the various models are included. Commercial as well as academic and government research projects are listed. The development of these vehicles is firmly based on experience gained during the war years and present objectives are concentrated on obtaining greater cruising ranges and the perfection of more reliable and more easily serviceable power supplies.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690053
David R. Grove
The development of a windshield antenna for automobiles is discussed. A review of the program since 1957 is presented, then the author describes various problems encountered in constructing an acceptable windshield antenna.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690052
Russell G. Whittemore
A typical electrically heated, tempered backlight is described and its merits listed. Design criteria including line or stripe spacing, width, and location, together with bus construction and electrical reinforcement are discussed. Defogging and deicing capabilities are reviewed. Variations in power output with ambient temperature are particularly noted. This new product appeared on some 1968 American automobiles as an option, and on additional 1969 models. It is an important contribution to safety because of improved visibility to the rear.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690046
Sotiris S. Kitrilakis, Edward F. Doyle
Three steam engine driven prototype portable generator sets ranging in power from 100 W (e) to 1500 W (e) are described. To a large extent, these sets have demonstrated the potential capability of the Rankine cycle for low noise, low exhaust emissions, high reliability, acceptable efficiency, and multi-fuel operation. Design criteria used in the development of these units and their general applicability to reciprocating Rankine cycle systems are discussed. Recent developments make this power cycle attractive for commercial applications in present sizes as well as in scaled-up versions.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690029
Alan Herman
In recent years the phenomenal growth in the number of research submersibles has given rise to the need for research into trainers for submersible pilots and scientific observers similar to those used by aviators in Link-type trainers. This paper presents the design approach being taken by the NAV-TRADEVCEN in building a device which will be used as a research tool for future trainers. The system which includes a vehicle that moves in a tank of water containing bathymetric models is described. Details of a sophisticated optical system which is used to scale the view realistically as seen through an underwater TV and an optical port are presented. How the vehicle is provided with 6 deg of freedom of motion and is navigated using simulated sonar guidance systems and other instrumentation standard on Alvin-type submersibles is discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690011
Douglas W. Taylor
In this paper hybrid integrated circuits are defined by comparing them with monolithic (single chip) IC’s and conventional discrete component circuits. Some of the currently popular hybrid IC construction techniques are reviewed. The utility of hybrid IC’s for automotive applications is discussed and this leads to consideration of some of the basic problems in applying electronics to automobiles.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690207
Edward J. Dowgiallo, Daryl H. Bomkamp, Robert A. Rightmire, James W. Sprague
High energy density secondary battery systems are being considered for application in military electrical vehicular propulsion. Battery evaluation is carried out with a facility which controls tests by automatically maintaining electrical levels and changing modes of operation at preset limits. Lithium-chlorine cells tested and reported on demonstrate development improvement in energy output and efficiencies. Cell cycle life and rates are approaching goals for system applications. Responses of the system to milk truck and random military programs are analyzed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690206
R. A. Rightmire, J. W. Sprague, W. N. Sorensen, T. H. Hacha, J. E. Metcalfe
A sealed, secondary fused salt battery has been developed which has promise as a battery for electric automobiles. The battery uses active carbon plate cathodes, solid aluminum-lithium alloy anodes, and a fused lithium chloride-potassium chloride electrolyte. Cathode capacity is enhanced by the chemisorption of electrochemically active additives onto the carbon surface. The battery operates between 662 and 932 F. The best energy density achieved to date on a cell is 37.6 w-hr/lb. An improved carbon cathode being developed should enable an energy density of 70 w-hr/lb to be achieved. Insulation bus bars and internal heating coils are expected to add 15% to the weight of the battery. A five-cell battery of sub-optimum design has operated satisfactorily for short cycles. Parasitic leakage currents of less than 0.3% energy loss per hour have been demonstrated. Cycle life of over 1000 has been attained on electrodes.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690203
George A. Dalin, Frederick P. Kober
A hybrid battery consisting of paralleled air-zinc and nickel-zinc batteries is considered for propulsion of electric vehicles. The operating lives of these couples in relationship to catalyst and separator composition are discussed. Performance data are presented and used to calculate energy density and power density as a function of the relative sizes of the two component batteries.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690204
Romeo R. Witherspoon
Although the zinc-air battery system has been known for many years for its excellent energy storage characteristics (50–60 Whr/lb), the system has been limited in its applications by the low power output capability (< 1.0 W/lb). More recently, efforts have been made to increase the power output and maintain the good energy storage characteristics of this system. A mechanically rechargeable, 1-kW zinc-air battery has been designed, built, and tested which achieved a power density of 14–26 W/lb and an energy storage capacity of 30 Whr/lb. The battery weighed 72 lb and was used to replace 260 lb of lead-acid batteries as the power source in a 1-hp two seater Cushman electric cart.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690205
Galen R. Frysinger
The integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a molten electrolyte battery both electrically and thermally produces a highly efficient power source with a fast transient response. Since most practical high pulse applications utilize electronic chopping circuits, microsecond and millisecond response characteristics of a power source are of importance. Ceramic monoblock construction of a hybrid package can be designed with optimum response characteristics as well as the ability to accept high reverse power flow.
Viewing 20071 to 20100 of 20966

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