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Viewing 151 to 180 of 21474
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0187
Harald Sporer, Georg Macher, Christian Kreiner, Eugen Brenner
Regardless if it is a newly developed or a redesign of a former explicit mechanical functionality the automotive E&E-Systems continue their success story. The potential concerning product differentiation between competing companies as well as the possibility to optimize existing functionalities are enormous. Due to the fact that we still are at the beginning of connecting the vehicle with its environment the end of increasing electric and electronic functions at our cars is not in sight. Of course this extensive use of E&E-Systems has a direct effect on the required quality of these systems. To achieve high quality during the development of the embedded automotive system methods and techniques from concepts like CMMI or Automotive SPICE are strongly recommended. Some of the main aspects of these concepts are bilateral traceability as well as consistency between the different design abstraction levels starting from a system design down to a detailed software component design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take ten or more years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Analyze vehicle usage parameters with distribution free methods. Engineers are familiar with displaying vehicle data with interval count or percentile histograms. A cumulative time or mileage based histogram provides a direct visual means of characterizing the vehicle history. Combining the histograms from many vehicles results in a complex virtually unreadable plot. An alternative approach is to determine the 5%, median, and 95% usage and plot as a cumulative histogram . These provide design engineers with useful information to develop validation tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0504
Matthew R. DiCecca
An overview of the Additive Manufacturing /3D Printing Market and it’s evolution in the automotive industry, exploring the solutions and benefits realized by using these tools in manufacturing. Identifying when to use traditional manufacturing tools verses additive manufacturing will be addressed. The emphasis will be on applications in traditional manufacturing environments to reduce cycle time, improve manufacturing cost ratios, and increase design-for-manufacturing freedom. Specific examples for In house manufacture of tools, fixtures, molds, patterns, gauges and end use parts will be discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0715
Terry Lynn Chapin, Van Walworth
Purpose Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold – even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Design/Methodology/Approach Specialized molds for rubber injection were designed and built with a series of hot runner layouts and specialized cavity shapes. Regressive short shot techniques were employed to establish how the runners filled and how the cavities filed. The injection series included matched pairs of identical molds with identical runner and cavity layouts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1180
Letao Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Xuezhe Wei, Zechang Sun
Lithium-ion batteries have been increasingly utilized as the energy storage systems in electric, hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in vehicles (EVs/HEVs/PHEVs). To guarantee batteries in a normal operation scenario, parameters and states such as terminal voltage, current, open circuit voltage (OCV), state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), temperature and so on need to be monitored and estimated by battery management systems (BMSs). As a crucial characteristic relationship, the OCV-SOC curve reflects rich information containing SOC, SOH, heat generation, etc. However, due to thermo-dynamic characteristics of Li insertion/extraction process, the OCV-SOC curve exhibits hysteresis (OCV differs between charge and discharge). Generally, this phenomenon can be neglected for some battery types such as LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, but for LiFePO4 batteries, it is very pronounced and non-ignorable due to the very flat feature of the OCV-SOC curve.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1389
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Ifushi Shimonomoto
The need to provide both connectivity and safety to today’s driver presents an enormous challenge to the automotive industry. A holistic solution for this challenge is to minimize driver distraction and enhance driving safety at the design phase. This creates an immediate need for techniques that can objectively evaluate the demand associated with human machine interfaces (HMIs). The study presented here assessed the feasibility of one promising approach for objective evaluation of HMIs, which compares the workload of in-vehicle tasks to the workload associated with “comparison tasks” or “benchmarking tasks.” In this study, participants drove a production vehicle (Ford Explorer 2013) while performing two types of benchmarking tasks as well as radio tasks (which used the vehicle’s embedded system). All the tests were conducted on a 3-mile oval test track. Participants performed all tasks on a straight segment of the track.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements.From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) is one of the most active fields of research for wireless sensor networks. VHM involves the implementation of an autonomous system for actively monitoring the internal parameters including engine temperature, fluid levels, tire pressure, etc. The benefits of VHM include a longer lifetime for the vehicle, lower operational cost, and improved safety. The results of VHM is also used for scheduled maintenance visits. The challenge with using wireless sensor networks to perform VHM tasks stems from various issues with wireless technology. Wireless sensor networks use RF channels which are easy to break into. Hackers can attack the system without physical access. Though there are many obstacles to successfully performing VHM with wireless sensor networks, the benefits that would be realized are much larger. In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0197
Jan Seyler, Nicolas Navet, Loic Fejoz
Context of the work. Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware on IP (SOME/IP) is a proposal on top of switched Ethernet aimed at providing service-oriented communication in vehicles. SOME/IP takes advantage of Ethernet bandwidth, maximum frame size and multicast capabilities to support larger messages and reduce the overhead with regard to legacy protocols such as CAN and FlexRay. SOME/IP nodes are able to dynamically discover and subscribe to available services through the SOME/IP Service Discovery protocol (SOME/IP SD), with efficient routing strategies mixing unicast and multicast communications. Though it remains to be ascertained which use-cases would most benefit from SOME/IP, SOME/IP opens the door to more flexibility in automotive communications, such as the ability to dynamically add new services or migrate existing services. Problem definition and contribution of the paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0254
Chunjing Lin, Sichuan Xu, Zhao Li, Guofeng Chang
Design of a passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (CPCM) in large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion battery applications is detailed. The battery module consists of six 40Ah Li-ion cells connected in series. The passive TMS has three configurations according to the contact area between battery cell and CPCM: surrounding, direct-contacted and indirect-contacted. Physical and thermal properties (i.e. phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity) of CPMC were obtained by experimental methods. Specific heat capacity and heat generation rate of the battery module were measured by an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). Thermal performances of the three kinds of passive TMSs were analyzed through 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent based on experimental measured properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Recently, electric vehicles have received considerable attention since they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate and reliable monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery’s lifespan. To implement an effective battery management system, it is critical that the physical model can adapt to expected parameter changes due to aging over the lifetime of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0292
Pascal Herve
Connected vehicle technologies aim to tackle some of the biggest challenges of transportation industry in the areas of safety, mobility, and environment. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) or Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications enables a vehicle to: sense threats and hazards with a 360 degree awareness of the position of other vehicles; calculate risk; issue driver warnings; or take preventive actions to avoid and mitigate crashes. Evolving wireless technologies and associated multi-antenna systems contribute to an ever-increasing need for performance testing in order to ensure a highly reliable performance and seamless quality. Dangers of poor performance must be carefully evaluated and managed: it is imperative that potential risks are quantified, mitigated and managed to be at very low levels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0467
Jiangqi Zhou
Application of N-in-one mould technology in autobody closure panels is rare. This paper introduces a method satisfying multi-dimension requirements (involving the fields of product and manufacture engineering) based on concurrent engineering, and the successful development of a set of N-in-one dies for hood outer panel. Compared with the traditional one, mold development period is shortened by 15%, 7% reduction in cost, and 50% reduced in manufacturing cost. The case study shows that the appearance quality of parts is better than standard products. Some valuable guidelines for operation reliability and material selection flexibility design are proposed to better develop innovative stamping process. The future work of so called multi-dimension CE is also presented
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
The goal of this work is to develop a tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench for type approval testing. The WLTC database was used as input data. This database was created with the help of a number of European countries that collaborated and provided real world driving measurements. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behaviour. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two different stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1187
Nils Lohmann, Peter Haussmann, Patrick Wesskamp, Joachim Melbert, Thomas Musch
Battery aging is a main concern within hybrid and electrical cars. Determining the current state-of-health (SOH) of the battery on board of a vehicle is still a challenging task. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is an established laboratory method for the characterization of electrochemical energy storages such as Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) cells. EIS provides a lot of information about electrochemical processes and their change due to aging. Therefore it can be used to estimate the current SOH of a cell. Standard EIS methods require the excitation of the cell with a certain waveform for obtaining the impedance spectrum. This waveform can be a series of monofrequent sinusoidal signals or a time-domain current pulse with a dedicated Fourier spectrum. However, any form of dedicated perturbation is not generally applicable on board of an electric vehicle. This work presents a new passive spectroscopy method, which obtains the impedance spectrum directly out of real driving data.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1186
Michael Safoutin, Jeff Cherry, Joseph McDonald, SoDuk Lee
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance and energy efficiency of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer directly to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by adding and removing a fixed quantity of charge at currents between 0.2C and 2C and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 25C.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1198
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion phosphate battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating automotive components models of ASM (Automotive Simulation Model) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1188
Seongjun Yun, SungJin Park, Daekwang kim, Junyong Lee, Sejun Kim, Kwang-Yeon Kim
The fuel economy of a vehicle can be improved by recuperating the kinetic energy when the vehicle is decelerated. However, if there is no electrical traction component, the recuperated energy can be used only by the other electrical systems of the vehicle. Thus, the fuel economy improvement can be maximized by balancing the recuperated energy and the consumed energy by electrical systems of the vehicle. Also, suitable alternator and battery management is required to maximize the fuel economy. This paper describes a design optimization process of the alternator and battery system equipped with recuperation control algorithms for a mid-sized sedan based on the fuel economy and system cost. A vehicle model using AVL Cruise is developed for driving cycle simulations and validated with experimental data. The validated model is used for the parametric study and design optimization of the alternator and battery system with single and dual energy storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1199
Zhenli Zhang, Anthony Rick, Brian Sisk
The microhybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) has increasingly received attention since it holds promise for significant increases in fuel economy vs. traditional gasoline vehicles at a lower price point than hybrid vehicles. Passive parallel connection of the traditional 12V lead acid battery and a high power lithium ion battery has been identified as a potential architecture that will facilitate fuel economy improvements with minimal changes to the electrical network. Enabling a passive dual-battery connection requires a design match between the two batteries, including characteristics such as battery size and resistance, so that the performance can be optimized. In this work we have developed a hybrid model that couples electrochemical model of lithium ion battery (NMC-Graphite as an example) and an equivalent circuit model of lead acid battery in order to study the behavior of 12V dual-battery microhybrid architectures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu
Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM’s. Tula’s Dynamic Skip Fire DSF technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders. Validation of the Tula DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. At Tula, the testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM HIL API standard. Following the HILAPI standard allows Tula the flexibility of both choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0202
Armin Wasicek, Andre Weimerskirch
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle’s original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip-tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing tuned control units in a vehicle is required to report that circumstance for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle’s sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Dr. Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the massmarket segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Dr. Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Current trends in the automotive industry show a path towards the diffusion of automated or even autonomous driving. Due to this development, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will increase in vehicles. The main challenge among this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, EGON MUELLER
Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the non-contact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0466
Boxiao Chen, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor
Greenhouse gas emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the light duty vehicle (LDV) and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries recently due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the LDV and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. An analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal costs and CO2 emissions for both sectors. The model includes electric vehicles, as well as conventional, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles that can be fueled by either gasoline or NG.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric
Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications, where large workspace is required and with limited higher manipulability to one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position of the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produce the rectangular workspace. In this paper full kinematic model of 6DOF general CNC machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
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