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Viewing 151 to 180 of 22016
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0151
Riaz Ahamed, Suraj Gopalakrishnan, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
This paper presents the design optimization & detailed analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor (IPM) with different rotor topology of permanent magnets for low cost-high performance traction applications such as electric vehicles. The analysis & validation of motor design is done with Finite Element Analysis in addition to analytical methods employed at rudimentary stages of motor design. The design involves embedding of low cost multi-layer non- rare earth permanent magnets with/without a combination of a layer or two of rare earth magnet. The design affords better performance characteristics such as high torque density, higher efficiency and lower cogging torque attributed to multi layer permanent magnet orientation & V-shaped configuration of permanent magnets. The design also takes into consideration of harmonics & other losses in the motor. The manufacturing feasibility and constraints in prototyping & mass production of motor are focused in this paper.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0150
Naveen Kumar Byregowda
The Yield monitoring systems are the part of precision agriculture products. The yield monitoring system consist of Global positioning system (GPS) to measure the speed and the position of the vehicle. Along with GPS, Mass Flow sensors are used to get the information of the Harvested grain flow rate. By combining GPS and mass flow sensor makes yield monitoring system. A simple inductive type impact based mass flow sensor is constructed using simple steel plate and the PCB printed coil. The impact versus impedance and impact versus frequency response have been studied. The aim of the sensor development is to reduce the calibration parameters in the process of measuring Mass flow. The paper discuss about the results of the frequency and impedance changes with respect to the known impact range of the grain. Also the paper deals with the material material selection and the building of the sensor.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0157
Kamalesh Hemant Kankariya
A Micro grid is a part of a distribution network embedding multiple distributed generation systems (mostly non-conventional renewable energy sources like photo voltaic panels, small wind turbines etc.) and storage systems with local loads, which can be disconnected from the upstream network under emergency conditions or as planned. The Micro grid concept naturally arose to cope with the penetration of renewable energy sources, which can be realistic if the final user is able to generate, store, control and manage part of the energy that it will consume. The power connection between Micro grid components can be done through a direct current (DC) link or an alternating current (AC) link. Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realize the emerging potential of distributed generation is to take a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a “Micro grid”.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0154
Bharathimohan M.P, S Neelakrishnan
The main purpose of this paper is to study the wear and corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) coating onto automotive parts such as piston rings, piston and cutting tool etc. Conventionally titanium and its alloys are desirable materials in modern construction and vehicles. They have a high specific strength and very good corrosion resistance, but they have low load bearing capacity and poor tribological properties as, for example, high friction coefficient, low resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear and higher cost. Zirconia has a very low thermal conductivity, which has led to its use as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) in jet and diesel engines to allow operation at higher temperatures. Also they have high specific strength, low friction coefficient and having very good corrosion resistance. So Zirconium coating is preferred over titanium.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0168
Rahul Kumar Singh
Atmega16 is a 8-bit micro-controller which has many function like timer, interrupt, ADC, etc. Atmega16 has one 16-bit timer and two 8-bit timer. By hardware PWM, we can only control 4 servos by using 2 8-bit timers and splitting 16bit timer in 2 8-bit timers. A 8-bit timer gives an approximate resolution of 14 degrees per count which is not satisfactory for high precision robotic application. This project aims at extending the control of servos upto 30 for Atmega16 by bit-banging. The main advantage of this servo controller is that it uses 16-timer which gives it a resolution of about .045 degrees per count which is a good resolution. The Servo Controller uses a heavy call of interrupts. It receives data in form of ID of servo and Angle given to it ending with a end of transmission data.Data is sent to Servo Controller by the uses of UART protocol. Because of that instead of converting all 32 GPIO pins into producing PWM only 30 pin are only used for PWM generation.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0166
Fengxiang Zhao
Compared with the traditional vehicles, electric vehicles have the advantages of small pollution to the environment, high energy utilization rate and low noise. But pure electric vehicles have several big problems that battery capacity is limited, the charging time is long, and battery management is complex. The solar cell can provide clean energy, and the quality of it is light, conveniently installed. Installing solar panels in the pure electric vehicles, can reduce the vehicle battery load, improve the vehicle trip .In this paper, we study energy conversion model of solar panels, it is concluded the relationship with the solar photovoltaic capacity and thermal radiation environmental factors, and study the electric power demand of electrical appliances in under different working conditions.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0169
Riaz Ahamed, Sathish Kumar
EVs will play a very significant role in meeting the challenges of global warming and depletion of oil resources. EVs use 50 percent less energy and cause zero pollution. High-efficiency, silent running and low cost transmission is the critical objective for electric vehicles. The objective of this paper concern the design and optimization of gearbox for electric vehicles. Two stage reduction gearbox with ratio i1 and i2, coupled with traction motor certainly meets the operating range of city cars. This transmission can adopt different gear ratios easily by changing one gear pair. To reduce the overall noise level, more attention given to the design of the casings. The casings are made of general purpose high strength casting Aluminium alloy LM25, which also reduces the overall weight of the transmission. Optimized rib provided in the casing to achieve the required stiffness to withstand the vibrations and modal frequency.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0167
Yogeshwar Kumar Chourasia
Car2x (aka 802.11p or WAVE) is the latest communication protocol in automobile industry. Use of this will ensure road safety by making available the traffic information to each and every automobile equipped with this device.  A dedicated frequency range and bandwidth has been allocated to this protocol.  Uses some layers of existing protocols.  Range of operation: Speed of 200 km/h and distance of 1km.  Tx data rate – 3 to 27 Mbps and bandwidth – 10MHz.  Challenges due to obstacles besides road-side. Can be overcome by adjusting antenna configuration.  3 areas of application- Active/passive safety, Traffic efficiency applications and Infotainment.  All cars are not equipped with Car2x and this can’t be implemented to all getting newly manufactured at the same time. So other cars and pedestrians can be warned by cars with Car2x by beaconing.  Extra beaconing to the driver through some medium located at dashboard is one the focus areas of this project.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0156
Abhishek Shah
This paper focuses on emergency charging of electric vehicle by another healthy electric vehicle. First, the charging ports of both vehicles are connected then the vehicle which has low charge will give charging request another vehicle for charging. Battery voltage is step up or step down to match both battery voltages accordingly. The battery will get charge till the set charge level by user. The user can define the set charge level of based on nearest charging station distance or destination where both the vehicle has to reach. This Car to Car charging will became beneficial when number of electric vehicle on road will increase. National Mission for Electrical Mobility 2020 is the initiative taken by Department of Heavy industry, Government of India and according to NMEM 2020 roadmap there will be 6 -7 million units of electric and hybrid vehicle on road by 2020. Such high number of units will demand for charging infrastructure.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0010
Amitkumar K. S., G Narayanan
Space vector-based advanced bus-clamping pulse width modulation (ABCWM) techniques for neutral-point clamped three-level converters offer superior performance over conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM) and bus-clamping pulse width modulation (BCPWM) under certain operating conditions. However, the digital implementation of ABCPWM methods is quite resource intensive, compared to carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) methods. This paper presents a computationally efficient digital implementation of an ABCPWM technique. The ABCPWM method is shown to be advantageous in terms of reduced switching loss at high lagging power factors and reduced harmonic distortion in the inverter output at high modulation indexes.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0129
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, P L N Prasad, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Range in electric cars is always challenging due to limited capacity of the batteries and the total number of batteries to be used to achieve the same. Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. Underbody drag increases due to air entrapment around these components. Aerodynamic study for baseline model using CFD simulations showed that there was a considerable air resistance due to underbody components. To reduce the underbody drag, different add-ons are used and their effect on drag is studied. A front spoiler (air dam) is used to deflect the incoming air towards sides of the car.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0119
Sivakumar Nadarajan, Rui Wang, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sanjib Kumar Panda
This paper studies the potential of using vibration signatures in detecting stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator. The vibration data collected from the experimental setup under various degrees and severities of the stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator are investigated to identify fault signatures in the vibration signal. Investigation on the vibration signals show that the fault signatures in vibration can be used to detect and diagnose the stator winding short circuit fault in the brushless synchronous generator. Besides this the identified fault signature can also be able to differentiate between the stator winding fault and load unbalance.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0122
Vishal Nair V, Prasanth P, Srinivasan Raju
This paper focuses on interfacing the Inverter ECU to a Simulated Electrical/Hybrid Car , using a HIL System along with Component level simulations. A Simulation environment along with HIL system is described which can be used to do most of the Software Durability and Stress testing of the Inverter ECU. The paper also describes the extended applications in testing hybrid components.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0121
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the indigenous development of CAN based low-cost cluster controller which drives the non-CAN cluster in a CAN based vehicle. The use of CAN network in vehicle is ever growing and has number of advantages which includes efficient diagnostics, low-cost and reduced wiring harness. The use of CAN network in a module expects the other interconnected modules also to be CAN based. Typical example being development of EV or HEV requires the instrument cluster of the vehicle also to be CAN based, as its information mostly available in CAN (For example SOC of High voltage battery). The indigenously developed controller drives the non-CAN cluster dials based on the CAN message from vehicle control unit. The controller hardware is designed to be universal driver which can drive almost all instrument clusters. This controller also has reverse functionality that converts the physical signal from vehicle to CAN message.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0124
Weicheng Huang, Huayu Zhang, Du Yingmeng, Honghui Wu, Zhikang Fan
Thermal efficiency of conventional automobile engine is only about 30%, and most of other energy is brought away by the exhaust in the form of wasted-heat. Therefore, the heat recovery of engine exhaust has become a hot topic, among which generating electricity through exhaust gas is one of the most important and effective ways. In this research high efficient thermoelectric materials are applied in the thermoelectric generating system. First of all, heat transfer model between car exhaust and cooling water has been established. Then, based on the heat transfer model, in the thermoelectric power generating system the heat transfer area of evaporator has been analyzed and optimized. Finally, based on generating capacity evaluation system, when the engine speed is within the range of common 1700 ~ 2100rpm, when the optimal evaporator area range is 0.8m2 ~0.95 m2 the maximum power output could be achieved.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0123
Tejal Sarda
Instrument Cluster and Load Center software modules are developed traditionally using custom legacy C code development resulting in repetitive work and longer software development time. This paper would detail a novel and Frugal Embedded Software Development Methodology which utilizes reusable, modular and scalable software architecture that is independent of the machine model and type and a configurable framework for instrument cluster and load center to feed machine specific details by the systems engineer. This enables developing and virtual testing of the software quickly without utilizing the embedded software development environment and renders the repetitive development work into a redundant work by offering an automated configurable framework for software development. This method significantly reduces the overall embedded development life-cycle and the number of engineers required to develop these software modules.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0127
Rakhee Vijayan, B. K. Swathi Prasad, A. T. Sriram
This paper deals with simulation of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) configuration with special attention to sliding mode controller (SMC) for boost converter (BC). MATLAB/Simulink software tool is used for the simulations. Proportional-integral (PI) and SMC for fuel cell (FC) side BC is modeled and simulated. The SMC shows slightly faster response and lesser steady state oscillations compared with PI controller. Integration of FC connected to BC along with SMC, DC motor with controllers and battery pack with bidirectional converter are made to verify the motor response in FCHEV configuration.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0126
Zhi Li, Gangfeng Tan, Zizhen Yu, Zhongjie Yang, Zhilei Li, Yuandong Liu, Jing Cai, Haobo Xu
When the vehicle parks in hot environment, the temperature inside the cabin would increase substantially, which has a bad impact on the entering comfort of occupants. Ventilation is an effective cooling means in hot environment and the current method applied in vehicle is apt to open ventilation system transitorily when the car starts, reaching the pre-cooling purpose. However, the working hours of ventilation are limited due to great energy consumption, thus in this research solar power is taken into consideration. In this study, a newly exhaust fan is installed at the rear of the car, combining with the original car cabin blower as ventilation system to improve cooling efficiency. The newly installed fan and the original car cabin blower were driven by the solar power panels. Firstly, the impacts of ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity and other factors on temperature inside the vehicle were analyzed.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0131
Kalpesh Savant, Shravan Kumar Chirlanchi
Runoff Test: - Runoff test is performed in factory for first few limited production build machines. It verifies all the machine functions possible. The Virtual Vehicle RunOff test targets new approach for automation test to perform first level product verification and validation in virtual environment to produce higher quality and productivity. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test helps to perform software PV&V in short duration, eliminating hardware dependency and providing enough confidence before software delivery for real time PV&V. It also helps to reproduce and debug issues. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test setup needs a product simulation, controller executables and a test script tool. Test script tool will communicate with Product simulation and controller executables to command test cases, verifies the result and generates test report.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0130
Abhijeet S Taksale, Priti Shahane, Vishwas M Vaidya, Goutham Dronamraju K V, Vivek Deulkar
Electronic controller unit (ECU) used for controlling sub-systems of complex real life applications like automotive vehicles can pose several challenges. Many times one needs to plan development and testing of controller, when the end vehicle is also under development and hence not available. In such case, hardware in the loop (HIL) approach for testing such controllers emulates the external application environment and allows concurrent development of the electronic controllers. Even when the end vehicle is available, if design iterations are to be carried out using “in-vehicle” testing approach, then the same can be time-consuming. Such an approach may also possess safety hazards if malfunction of the ECU impacts occupants/vehicle safety. Many cases require simulation of a range of use-case scenarios as well as system operation under diverse set of environments.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0134
Mithun Patil
Goal: Reduce machine test time and finding defects early in V cycle by; Utilizing VR Lab for embedded software functional testing & performance testing. Key Objectives: 1. Controller software testing using virtual environment [SIL+HIL_VIL] 2. Exploring ideas for Vehicle level PV&V using virtual environment 3. Performing exploratory and investigative testing using virtual environment Benefits-Key features: • Single platform support for multiple vehicle of any region • Unsafe field scenario and accidental analysis • Save in time & cost through less proto build, Machine deprecation and logistic • Simulators for Training Achievements: Successfully integrated 4 vehicle to VR world using SIL and HIL Direct Savings: Cost & Time Indirect Saving : Infrastructure Investment, Machine Depreciation, Logistics [Travel & Transport
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0132
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the implementation of sensor less hill assist control system in electric LCV. In manual transmission vehicles without hill assist, the restart at the slope can be done through skilled clutch control. For the vehicles not having clutch (auto transmission or direct drive), the restart of the vehicle at hill is not possible with driver skills alone and needs the hill assist functionality. It involves the costlier sensors and control mechanism for its implementation. The work aimed at implementing hill-assist functionality without the use of gradient sensor and brake actuators. In the absence of brake actuators the holding torque is provided by the traction motor. The PID controller with parameterized vehicle model in loop calculates the holding torque required. The precise vehicle model for the controller built through vehicle tests.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0138
Sashank Vedula, Nabal Kishore Pandey, Raghavendra Nese
Competition to be at the helm of automotive market with regards to fuel economy has led to invention of new optimization techniques. Vehicle parameters although being of primary influence, driving behaviour is an equally important factor that influences fuel consumption considerably. In the current scenario it has become a paramount challenge for automobile OEMs to offer unparalleled fuel economy for a wide range of driving behaviour. Conventional process is to conduct a series of real world trials with drivers of wide range of driver aggressiveness, collect data, calibrate, optimize and validate the same in real world. Few major setbacks in this traditional process like tediousness, accuracy, repetitiveness and most importantly development cost have led to investigating alternative solutions to overcome this challenge. To overcome these challenges, it is very important that majority of calibration activities that are done on road, should be performed in lab.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0135
Rohit Karegaonkar, Sushant Patil, Urvil Parmar
The Current Methodologies of virtual and Automated Testing on touch screen displays are limited, since, minor screen changes and display software updates will cause the automated tests to fail and hence there will be a need to fix them. Addition of new items to a drop-down list, movement of buttons, reusability and conversion of Test scripts for similar devices will be a cumbersome job. The general approach of testing Display manually, is not feasible due to sluggishness, monotony and repetitiveness of work, which can cause manual errors in different volumes at different times, it will also reduce the option of Batch executions of tests 24*7.The automated approach for testing such Displays through XY coordinates pointing on a screen, taking Screen captures and using optical character recognition for verification methods are non-reliable and affects the performance of testing. This makes automating a test difficult, causes a high amount of risk as well as high maintenance costs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0140
Mudit Mittal, David Smart
Electronics in automotive industry is ever increasing to enable complex features in the machines, which in turn increases the communication between multiple Electronic Control Units in the vehicle. This increased communication necessitates a very robust and deterministic network. This paper focuses and various methodologies of network modeling and simulation to predict the health of the network. This paper will also detail case studies involving Rate monotonic analysis (RMA) as a simulation method to schedule communication massage table to evaluate the network definition through parameters like repetition rate, priority, etc. This validates the deterministic nature of the bus. This paper will also cover aspects of network diagnosis through replaying vehicle communication network logs to ascertain network behavior against design expectations.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0139
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Yuanqi Gao, Haobo Xu, Jiahao Xia, Weiye Xue, Shiping huang
Sweeping Vehicle is an important tool to beautify the city environment with the characteristics of low cruise speed, less driving power consumption, and small operating area, which provides a good application prospect for the development of the electric sweeping vehicle. The characteristics of excellent stability at low speed, efficient energy conversion, convenient operability, and environment-friendly make it the first choice for cleaning road surface. In the study, the structure of vacuum dust collection system without sweeping brush is adopted in the designed electric sweeping vehicle. What is more, no dust particles generate when a sweeping vehicle is dumping. Therefore, it is worthy of the name "clean" vehicle. Firstly, electromotor and exhaust fan model is established, the joint performance between working electromotor and exhaust fan and the electromotor efficiency features are analyzed.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0145
Raghavendra Nese, Nabal Kishore Pandey, Satish Thimmalapura
With increasing share of intelligent controllers coming onboard in a vehicle and with continuous pressure for reducing vehicle development time & cost while maintaining reliability & quality from the system, a big push is seen to move from Road to Lab to Desk development for system development and validation. Every OEM is currently focusing on using virtual environment to complete the virtual validation of the controllers before hitting the road. This process is cost efficient and reduces the time for function development and brings high level of function maturity before testing it in the vehicle. Plant modelling is an important part of the virtual validation which includes modelling of vehicle, powertrain components, and its environment including driver and road. The current paper deals with defining a systematic approach for vehicle plant model development which can be used for vehicle virtual testing & calibration.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0146
Feng Xiao, Chuanxue Song
Under the double pressures of energy saving and environment protection, the various forms of electric vehicle has become the focus of research in current automotive industry. The four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicle with in-wheel Motors has become a more promising one. With the promotion of electric vehicles, their stability control problem has become increasingly important. Compared with the traditional vehicles, the torque distribution method among the four wheels for the 4WD electric vehicles is more comparative flexible, and the different distribution methods may have different impacts on the stability of the vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper presents an optimal torque distribution control method for the electric vehicle, which is equipped with four in-wheel motors, in order to improve the stability of the vehicle.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0141
Sharath Neelakanta, Sridhar lingan Sr, Rajasekhar MV
One of the major concerns for Hybrid and electric cars would be its overall crash safety performance. Besides the structural integrity of the vehicle and High voltage battery enclosure, the routing of the High Voltage (HV) cable is extremely critical. Any rupturing of the HV cable during a crash event would expose it to the vehicle body which could result in electrocution of the occupant and extensive damage to the vehicle. A methodology has been developed using virtual simulation tools to address the safety concerns with respect to high voltage cable during any crash event. The primary step was to identify the zone throughout the underbody to route the HV cable, which would be safe in crash events like frontal, side and rear. Different crash scenarios were simulated using a Finite element model to arrive at safe zone for routing HV cable.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0144
Du Yingmeng, Jun Wang, Weicheng Huang, Zhikang Fan
When the vehicle parks in direct sunlight conditions, the cabin would form a high-temperature thermal environment in hot weather. Drivers would turn on the air-conditioning with relatively high gear in the most conditions to reduce the cabin temperature, which could affect the life of equipment, resulting in energy waste and increasing emissions. This study adopted solar energy in the ventilation system. When the car parks the cabin blower was driven by a solar panel mounted on the car roof to discharge heat inside the cabin real time, achieving the purpose of pre-cooling. Firstly, heat transfer model and ventilation cooling model for the cabin were established according to the theory of heat transfer, and models were modified through experiments. Then the effects of solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature and other factors on the cabin temperature were evaluated.
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