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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi L
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Both these events took a toll on the economy as well as industrial activity, around the globe, as well as in India. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0302
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
The idea of grid friendly charging is to use electricity from the grid to charge batteries when electricity is available in surplus and cheap. The goal is twofold: to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid and power generation, and to reduce the cost to the consumer. If prices are known in advance (day-ahead pricing), the optimization only requires picking the cheapest time slots for charging the battery. Further savings can be made by using real time prices that are not known in advance, but the optimization problem then depends on price prediction models. A previous study considered the problem of charging an electric car using day-ahead and real time tariffs as provided by a smart meter tariff. It presented a simple suboptimal approach, which did not include a model of the electricity grid.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0462
Banu Sinanoglu Turan
In order to prepare a project timing plan; the procedure that is recommended by Project Management Institute ®, and followed by project management analysts is that after creating a work breakdown structure, the activities are defined, their sequence and relation are established, milestones are listed and finally the estimates for duration of each activity are made and put into the project plan. By using a Gantt chart or a network analysis, the critical path of the project is calculated and the project duration is finally estimated through the critical path. However, the question of the possibility of meeting the timing plan generally remains unknown. In this paper, this question is addressed via suggesting a process and calculation method for estimating the probability of finishing the project on target using Monte Carlo Simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0501
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
The cost of fuel for commercial trucks takes up a great proposition in the total vehicle operating costs. In order to improve the power performance and fuel economy of a domestic self-dumping truck, an optimization matching method of the powertrain system was presented in this paper. A vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then the power performance and fuel economy simulations were executed according to China National Standard GB/T 12543-2009 “Acceleration performance test method for motor vehicles” and GB/T27840-2011 “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”. Moreover, the simulation results were compared with the road test results, which were measured on proving ground, to verify the validity of the vehicle performance simulation model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1183
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan, Anush Nair, Mithun Manalikandy, Anurag Reghu, Jacob John, Rani V S
Hybrid and electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular these days owing to concerns over exhaustion of conventional fuel sources, pollution from combustion, as well as high carbon foot print of these fuels. Lithium-ion batteries are widely preferred as the source of power for hybrid and electric vehicles because of their high monomer voltage and high energy density. Accurate estimation of the State of Charge of battery is crucial in the electric vehicle. It provides the information on the range of operation of the vehicle. It also ensures the safety and reliability of the battery unit. Accurate State of Charge estimation also enables more optimized battery pack design for the electric vehicle. Conventional methods for State of Charge estimation such as Coulomb counting and open circuit voltage measurement suffer from inaccuracies and is affected by noise during the vehicle operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1189
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson
A major challenge in the development of next generation electric and hybrid vehicle technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0138
Ravi Anand
Image classification can be used in to detect objects of interests. This has a very wide variety of applications such as those in Industrial Quality Control, Medical Image processing, Geographic Information Systems(GIS) and Image based Search algorithms. Multi-spectral and high resolution image processing Sensor platforms that collect large amounts of high-quality GIS data utilize automatic/Rapid feature extraction techniques. This paper surveys different Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods that can be leveraged to achieve more accurate Image Classification with superior performance. We study how Neural Network based approach in AI is used for Image Classification. We compare it with approaches based on Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0162
Kunihiko Suzuki
The purpose of this study is to develop control-oriented modeling methodology and apply to an actual control design in turbocharged spark ignition engines. A grey-box modeling approach was adapted to accelerate the system development time, while providing accurate system dynamics. An engine simulator based on first principles models was utilized to investigate the model deviation procedure. A recursive least squares method with forgetting factor was employed to estimate model parameters related to turbocharger and vehicle/drivetrain behaviors, which seem to be major factors causing delay of turbocharged engine system. The concept was demonstrated through its application to the actual control design, and the reliability of the proposed method was investigated theoretically. According to the model evaluation results, approximated behavior models are in good agreement with time series data yielded by the engine simulator under various transient operations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0188
Nagabhushana Siddalingappa, Vishnu Swaroop
Automotive electronic subsystems have witnessed series of advancements before attaining the current state-of-the-art. Quoting specific milestones, the development of automotive ECU has transitioned from traditional monolithic development to platform based development to the present day development based on product development standards viz. the AUTOSAR. The AUTOSAR standard as is true with any other standards is designed quite generic while encouraging individual implementation meeting its overall objective. The standard is quite voluminous as it encompasses all layers of hardware and software that constitutes ECUs leaving only the application layer. This situation brings in a challenging requirement of having Engineering manpower with profound knowledge of hardware, device drivers, middleware and the operating system in addition to a complete awareness of the AUTOSAR standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0235
Shiv shankar Prasad, Jahangir Mansoori, Jin Seo Park
A vehicle horn is a sound-making device used to warn others of the approach of the vehicle or of its presence. Some countries require horns by law. Conventional Horns are electromechanical with steel diaphragm and electromagnet acting upon it. Switching of horn is performed by mechanical contact breaker assembly that repeatedly interrupts the current to the electromagnetic. Up-Down Movement of diaphragm with response to the current creates a sound wave across the horn. Conventional Horn faces the problem of wear and tear of mechanical contact and internal parts. Switching of contacts results in Arcing .There is no current and surge voltage protection for the coil of conventional horn. These problems of conventional system might be OK in the general markets. But in specific markets which are using horn frequently, these have to be considered as serious issues. Especially, horns are one of the most abusing parts of vehicle in India.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0303
Gregory Roberts
Vehicle-grid integration, whether involving bi-directional power flows (V2G) or simply modulating charge rates (V1G or G2V) on electric vehicles, has enormous potential to deliver operational and capital cost savings to utilities and grid operators. Plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles can deliver key ancillary services such as spinning reserve, frequency regulation, load shaping, renewables following and emergency backup power. With populations of EVs projected to the millions beyond 2020, and most vehicles spending 23 hours a day or more parked and otherwise going unused, there will be gigawatts of spare mobile storage on the distribution wires, ready for deployment to deliver a more reliable and vastly cheaper grid. This paper will explore the bottlenecks and prospects of vehicle-grid integration and will cite a recent pilot project with a municipal utility in California.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0301
Takayuki Shimizu, Akihisa Yokoyama, Kazuma Sato, Kunihiko Kumita
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on SAE J2836/2847/J2931. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Being the world’s largest auto producer and consumer, China is becoming the most promising but complex market given the country’s rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. Advanced multivariate analysis techniques are then employed to reduce a set of survey responses to key measures of customer preference. Finally, a new network analysis approach is proposed to model customer cross-shopping behavior that can inform the firm about the implied market structure and product competitive positioning. Our proposed approach is demonstrated by using a rich set of market data collected in China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0460
Saket Kansara, Sumeet Parashar, Zhendan Xue
Increased sophistication of engineering simulation tools, availability of computing power and demand for optimization is steering engineers towards multi-objective and multi-disciplinary formulation. It is becoming common to see problem setup with hundreds of input parameters, many objective functions and constraints. While modern optimization algorithms and software tools are able to handle large scale problems and generate even larger datasets, it is a challenge to analyze such large data sets and make effective decisions. Decision making is especially challenging when one has multiple objectives of conflicting nature. Pareto frontier solutions for two or three objective space are easy to visualize and comprehend, however, as the number of objectives increase, it becomes more and more difficult to understand and analyze trade-offs from the results coming out of optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0500
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Torne, Alberto Fraile
This paper is collaboration between the Research Group on Sustainable Means of Transport and Systems (SMITS) of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and the Spanish company, Zytel Automotive S.L. (ZYTEL). The analysis and decision making on design, behaviour and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus has been pursued in this paper. It was modelled a prototype electric vehicle, called Gorila EV, as from the software tool Adams/Car (MSC Software Corporation). The way it decided to tackle this paper was by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). Conduct an analysis of the vehicle by CAE allows increasing the quickness and convenience when getting results and reduce costs incurred testing with real prototypes. In this study it considers urban driving, where the vehicle trajectory is constrained by the infrastructure (road signs) and other vehicles (traffic).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0147
Matthew J. Pitts, Elvir Hasedžić, Lee Skrypchuk, Alex Attridge, Mark Williams
The advent of 3D displays offers HMI designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user’s experience of data with the vehicle, both by utilising depth of field to encode additional information and add context; and by leveraging the user’s emotional response to a novel and exciting technology. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment effectively introduces a new HMI design space, with a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to significantly increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver’s attention away from the road, or by increasing the time taken to assimilate the information presented. Vehicle manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and don’ts’ of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0174
Advaita Datar, Amey Zare
Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques commonly use static analysis to detect property violations in modern software systems. However, besides checking for general programming errors like division by zero, array index out of bound etc., certain program patterns can also be verified in order to detect inconsistencies in the software. For instance, there could be several strongly related program entities, such as groups of variables or data structure members updated together, which are often observed across various parts of a program. We term such strongly related entities as group variables. When only a subset of group variables is updated at some part of a program, it could probably be a result of some inconsistency in implementation which may lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. Therefore, verifying group variables and their write operations is essential to ensure the safety and reliability of software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0240
Nick Smith
Modern Automotive platforms support hundreds of end-customer features across thousands of configurations, and suffer high rates of design change. This creates an overwhelming design challenge that is highly error prone and impossible to optimize for minimum cost. A change of paradigm is needed. This session shows how synthesis technology can be applied to vehicle electrical system design, delivering detailed designs that are known to be correct. The process is rapid, and can be combined with dynamic metrics to guide engineers towards optimized solutions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1196
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood
Fast charging is attractive to electric vehicle (EV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large EV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e. years). The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL’s development of BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles – to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. Herein the authors shall present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative, proposing guidelines for visual-manual tasks in vehicle-embedded systems in 2013 [1] and announcing plans for portable and aftermarket (PAD) devices guidelines in 2014 and for voice-based task guidelines in 2015. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving have been under investigation by the ISO Driving Distraction working group (ISO TC22/SC13/WG8 DRT Task Force).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0305
Sven Bohn, Robert Feustel, Michael Agsten
The increasing number of electric vehicles (EV) is discussed several times. About 270,000 EVs were registered by the end of 2013 world-wide and several new models entered the US market in 2014. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) started as niche market with two vehicles in 2010 and reached 14 models from nine different automakers in 2014. On the one hand, an increasing number of PEVs has a positive environmental impact due to various reasons. On the other hand it has a substantial impact to the power grid which cannot be omitted. Individual electricity consumption of PEVs can match the average household consumption, which increases the load on distribution grids drastically. Charge power ranges from 1 to 80 kW, and is usually provided by a service connection to the low-voltage distribution grid. In addition to that, the electricity is not consumed continuously over 24 hours but rather 2 to 8 hours, simultaneously to the existing household peak load times from 6 p.m. to 12 p.m.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0300
Sven Bohn, Michael Agsten, Anamika Dubey, Surya Santoso
Electric vehicles (EVs), both plug-in hybrid and fully electric, are gradually gaining market acceptance. In recent years, this trend is accelerated due to advances in battery technologies coupled with generous federal incentives and customer acceptance. Hence, the penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is expected to increase in near future. The connectivity of PEVs to the power distribution grid is a relatively new and unknown area for automakers (OEMs). OEMs are concerned if their vehicles will be able to charge at any time and under any circumstances. Therefore, it is required to address concerns regarding the impacts of PEV charging on the power distribution system and to clarify the interface requirements between OEM and distribution system operator (DSO). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of PEV on a typical utility distribution system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1195
Kiyotaka Maeda, Masashi Takahashi
To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we derived power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions by tailoring. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and run on seven different types of road at different speeds, and the acceleration data that the battery packs received were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square value of acceleration were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, it has been suggested both experimentally and theoretically that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X and Y axes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1192
Xudong Xu, Xuezhe Wei, Jiangong Zhu, Jing Yang, Yaofeng Liu, Hong Gao
Lithium-ion battery charging strategy affects the charging time of electric vehicles, energy efficiency of the entire vehicle, service life and safety. This paper focuses on the lithium iron phosphate battery, based on the battery internal mechanism and the working conditions, taking charging time, effective full-charge capacity and energy efficiency in charging process as the evaluation indexes. Firstly, through a lot of comparative experiments, the evaluation indexes’ variations of the constant-current constant-voltage charging strategy in different temperatures and charging currents have been studied in the paper, analyzing the respective characteristics of constant current charging phase and constant voltage charging phase in the whole charging process and their own contributions, finding out the superiority of the constant current charging strategy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1185
Brian Sisk, Timur Aliyev, Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Negin Salami, Kem Obasih, Anthony Rick
Competitive engineering of battery packs for vehicle applications requires a careful alignment of function against vehicle manufacturer requirements. Traditional battery engineering practices focus on flow down of requirements from the top-level system requirements through to low-level components, meeting or exceeding each requirement at every level. This process can easily produce an over-engineered, cost-uncompetitive product. By integrating the key limiting factors of battery performance, we can directly compare battery capability to requirements. Here, we consider a power-oriented microhybrid battery system using coupled thermal and electrochemical modeling. We demonstrate that using dynamic resistance acquired from drive cycle characteristics can reduce the total size of the pack compared to typical static, fixed-duration resistance values.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker PhD
Developing software components in compliance with ISO 26262 is a challenging task. The ISO standard recognizes model-based development as a preferential development approach and recommends the use of model-based design in order to reduce possible software errors and improve software quality. The ISO standard recommends which techniques and methods should be used, but not how they should be applied or how these methods and techniques can be mapped to a company-specific development process. This paper describes a straightforward approach for achieving ISO 26262-compliant model-based software components in 10 steps. These steps include test-focused requirements, test coverage on integration level, modeling guidelines and model reviews, definition of the tool chain, as well as development process and software unit specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0290
Amin Tahmasbi-Sarvestani, Hadi kazemi, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
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