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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension utilized electromagnetic actuator, this paper analyze the benchmark cars available on the market, and concludes the target cars which are possible to be equipped with electromagnetic actuated active suspension in the future. And the suspension structure of the target cars are analyzed. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the active suspension. And the traditional mechanisms to transfer the linear motion of the suspension to the rotation motion of the rotary type PMSM are analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1066
Isamu Shiotsu, Kisaburo Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Nishizawa
The new engine starter is developed for the purpose of downsizing and the improvement of the response time. A feed screw is utilized in this device. The behaviors of this device are as follows: The motor shaft connected to the feed screw rotates, then the pinion gear with an internal screw moves along its axis and stops at the end of the screw. The ring gear connected to the engine is located at the same axial position where the pinion gear stops. Therefore the pinion gear is engaged with the ring gear, and the engine is turned over. The conventional starter needs a solenoid actuator to move the pinion gear. On the other hand, this device does not need it, because the rotational movement of the screw is converted to the axial movement of the pinion gear. However, there is a problem that the rotational speed of the motor shaft decreases when the gear pair is engaged. This problem is resolved by adding the coil spring between the pinion gear and the end of the screw.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0572
Stephanie Stockar, Marcello Canova, Baitao Xiao, Wengang Dai, Julia Buckland
Engine downsizing and boosting, coupled with variable valve actuation, have become an industry standard for reducing CO2 emissions in current production vehicles. Because of the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom, the design of control algorithms for the air path system actuators has become a difficult and time consuming process, often involving extensive calibration on engine dynamometers. One possibility to cut the control development time and significantly reduce the time required to bring novel technologies into production is using Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) methods. In the case of the engine air path control problem, SIL simulation tools typically rely on mean-value models, which are not able to predict wave propagation effects in the engine intake and exhaust system. On the other hand, one-dimensional wave action models are characterized by significant complexity and high computation times, preventing their application to SIL and control system verification.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0642
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flows in the piston system. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 x 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began. Each component in the optical system was tested for improvement of image quality; such components include: camera lens, beam expander, beam splitter, and optical filter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0093
Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Jian Wu, Wenlong Sun, Bing Zhu
With the development of modern vehicle chassis control systems, such as Anti-skid Brake System (ABS) , Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and regenerative braking system(RBS) for EVs, etc., there comes a new requirement for the vehicle brake system, that is the precise control of the wheel brake pressure. The electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which has a ability to adjust four wheels’ brake pressure independently, can be a good match with these systems. However, the tranditional control logic of EHB is based on the PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation), which has a low control accuracy of linear electromagnetic valves. Therefore, this paper will do a research of the linear electro-magnetic valve characteristic analysis, and make a compensation control of linear electro-magnetic valves, at last, achieve the popes of precise pressure control of the EHB system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1230
Takaoki Ogawa, Atsushi Tanida, Toshifumi Yamakawa, Masaki Okamura
The physical property of silicon power semiconductor is approaching limit of material. That is used for motor control of electric motor car, which is Hybrid Vehicle (HV) and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV), Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) and so on. With the aim of real practical use after 2020, new material power semiconductor Silicon Carbide (SiC) is being developed. That is expected as a key technology for further improving fuel efficiency for electric motor car. We made power control unit (PCU) that adopted the Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor experimentally this time. SiC power semiconductors have low power loss caused by low conduction loss and low switching loss when switching on and off as described in our papers. We evaluated the power semiconductors temperature at which the boost converter was operated continuously. The switching frequency was 10 kHz and 20 kHz.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0037
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Dirk von Wissel, Johannes Richenhagen
Powertrain software development for series production faces multi-faceted challenges related to high functional complexity, high quality requirements, reduced time to market and high development costs. Software architecture tackles the above mentioned challenges by breaking down the complexity of application software into modular components. Hence, design errors introduced during that phase cause significant cost and time deviations. Early and quickly repeated analysis of new and modified architecture artefacts is required to detect design errors and the impact of the subsequent changes in the software architecture. Existing methods like scenario-based analysis of software architecture are rather designed for fundamental analysis of design guidelines. Hence, they involve various stake holders and are time consuming. New design methods are required to trade-off evaluation precision and error detection with short development cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1072
Peter Schaal, Byron Mason, Sotiris Filippou, Ioannis souflas, Mark Cary
The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines an ultra-fast thermocouple with an input reconstruction technique in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature phenomena in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied for use on larger diameter thermocouples but have not been applied to ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouples to investigate cyclic intake temperature behaviour. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1227
Osamu Kitazawa, Takaji Kikuchi, Masaru Nakashima, Yoshiki Tomita, Hajime Kosugi, Takahisa Kaneko
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle(HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1234
Toshikazu Sugiura, Atsushi Tanida, Kazutaka Tamura
The SiC power semiconductor is expected to improve the fuel efficiency of gasoline-electric hybrids and other vehicles with electric powertrains, such as PHVs, EVs and FCVs. The use of SiC power semiconductors in a wider range of models was considered, and the FC Boost Converter of the FC bus was chosen. The SiC diodes which are called the SiC Schottky Barrier Diodes (SiC-SBDs) were installed in the FC Boost Converter which controls the voltage of electricity from the FC stack for FC bus. In the electric current range and temperature of main use, it was confirmed that the forward characteristics (Vf) of SiC-SBDs were smaller than Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs) of conventional products. In other words, the electric conduction loss is less than Si-PiNDs. In SiC-SBDs, a recovery electric current is largely reduced in comparison with conventional Si-PiNDs. As a result, the recovery loss of SiC-SBDs was reduced 90 percent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1207
Hiroki Nagai, Masahiro Morita, Koichi Satoh
Toyota has been a global leader in hybrid vehicle technology since the launch of Prius, the first mass produced hybrid electric vehicle, in 1997. The introduction of the 2nd and 3rd generation Prius (2004, 2009) saw vehicles with significantly improved performance, including fuel efficiency. Toyota introduced Li-ion batteries into its hybrid lineup with the launch of the Prius Alpha (Japan, EU) in 2011.  Adopting a compact Li-ion battery resulted in sufficient cabin space for a 3rd row of seats while maintaining the expected high fuel efficiency of the Prius. Pre and post- vehicle launch, an extensive list of performance tests were run on the Li-ion battery pack, including electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and safety. The evaluations were performed in the lab, in the field (demonstration fleets) and by acquiring vehicles used by customers. The MY16 Prius (4th generation), to be launched in 2015, will offer a Li-ion battery pack.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0035
Amey Zare, Advaita Datar, R Venkatesh, Miwako Hasegawa
Finite State Machines (FSM) commonly act as a foundation in the design of modern day embedded systems. However, FSMs are also used at various stages of software development, from the initial overall concept to the lowest level coding phase. Often, the implementation of these FSMs includes non-deterministic communication with other FSMs and the environment of the underlying system. Inappropriate handling of such communications across multiple FSMs may lead to unexpected behavior of the underlying system during execution. Detecting root cause of such unexpected behavior, is hard and time consuming. In this paper we present an automated technique for detecting and reviewing communicating FSMs. We propose a two-step approach which consists of: a) identification of all possible communicating FSMs in the code, and b) impact of external entities (events, timers etc.) on the state transitions of the identified communicating FSMs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for functioning of passive safety systems precisely and thus directly related to overall vehicle level performance. Most of these sensors and modules are needed to be mounted on vehicle body at locations like pillar or even directly on panels based on its safety functionality and packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior might directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence the sufficient inertance performance level at sensor mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules to meet the vibrational target requirement. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1363
Nobuhiro Ide, Jun Hioki, Hiroki Okada
Because of its convenience high equipment ratio of electronic key system can be seen across all car makers. Ensuring performance of low frequency and ultra high frequency electromagnetic wave is a core technique in this system. Among the most important for this system is ensuring communication in the required area, and the tuning process has been a key factor in the development phase. Many man-hours and cost have been used in the past for this tuning process which was a cut-and-try based on technical experience for the convenience of the required specification in low frequency band. We have succeeded in trimming down the development process by applying our low frequency electromagnetic simulation technique described in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu vallabhaneni, Munenori shinada, Kazuto Sato
Active hood system helps in increasing the space between the hood inner and the engine compartment by pushing the hood upwards during a pedestrian impact. Such systems should detect all the pedestrian impacts ranging from 6YO-child to 95th%-male. To carry out rational sensor evaluation tests, a pedestrian detection impactor (PDI-2) was developed to represent the hard to detect pedestrian. To shorten the time of total experimental verification cycle and to increase the efficiency of the sensor simulation logic, a PDI-2 FE model was developed as accurately as possible to match the physical entities such as CG, weight and inertia properties. It is then evaluated with two standard pendulum tests; the results have good correlation with the physical tests. Vehicles with different sensor configurations were impacted with PDI-2 and pedestrian human models of different size & postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
The high-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would prove to be the most beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor; without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplementary restrain system that will decide the air-bag deployment. A mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is developed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results are shared of the lab experiment performed on a lower capacity motor and verified with the simulation results. Along with the comparison of the simulated data and sensor set-up results, a concluding linear relation is formulated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1113
Thorsten Arndt, Alex Tarasow, Christian Bohn, Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Higher demands on comfort and efficiency require a continuous improvement of the shift progress. During the launch and shift progress the clutch control is used to get a smooth and efficient behavior. In this short time of acting the shifting behavior can be rated. Many control concepts use a clutch characteristic to calculate the actuator signal based on the clutch torque. Therefore, a high quality of this characteristic is necessary. Because of the dynamic process during clutch engagement the clutch characteristic needs further information to reach a high accuracy for the control algorithm. In this paper an existing clutch torque characteristic is extended to a characteristic map where the clutch torque becomes a function of the current pressure in the clutch and the clutch slip. The extension of the torque characteristic describes the slip based dependencies, e.g. the friction coefficient.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0044
Sung Yul Chu, Sung Eun Jo, Kyoungbok Lee, Kwang Chul Oh, Jong Rim Lee
On-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicle requires various sensors to detect malfunctions of the systems. The PM (Particulate Matter) sensor is one of the apparatus for OBD which gather information which would be a critical factor for determining a crack of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The main function of the PM sensor is to detect PM which penetrates cracked DPFs and convert the amount of PM to electrical values. PM sensor control unit (SCU) receives those analog signals and converts them to digital value through hardware and software solutions. A capacitive sensing method would be a stable solution because it is based on detecting not raw analog signals but electrical charges or a time constant going through the capacitive load. Therefore, it would be converted reasonable value of capacitance even the amount of raw PM is significantly low.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
In novel areas, such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To keep up with the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for the engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools like spreadsheet tools are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability. At the other side of the spectrum, rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited ability to adapt to changes. As organizations become more agile, the need for flexible and agile data management increases; as products become more complex and developed in larger and more distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, consistent, and coherent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0641
Thomas De Cuyper, Sam Bracke, Jolien Lavens, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only in the performance, but also in the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors. An inlet valve has been equipped with 7 TFG sensors in a row.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1115
Thomas Huth, Stefan Pischinger
The demand for lower CO2 emissions requires more than an optimization of every single component but the complete system. Therefore not only the transmission has to be optimized but also the interaction of powertrain components. For the widely spread automatic transmission the main losses are caused by the actuation system, which can be reduced with an on-demand actuation system. In this paper a new on-demand electro-mechanical actuation with validation results on a clutch test bench is presented. The electro-mechanical actuator shows simulation an increase of the efficiency by 4.1 % compared to the conventional hydraulic actuation in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle). This increase is based on the powerless end positions of the actuator (engaged and disengaged clutch). The thermal tension and wear are compensated with a disk spring. This allows a stable control over service life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0074
Michael Jensen
Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1170
George Dixon, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart
The TC48 project is developing a beyond state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system. The design aspects of the TC48 powertrain system are discussed, particularly the sizing of the motor and battery pack.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0159
Luting Wang, Chong Cao, Bo Chen
This paper studies the bi-directional power flow control between Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) and an electrical grid. A grid-tied charging system that enables both Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging/discharging is modeled using SimPowerSystems in Matlab/Simulink environment. A bi-directional AC-DC converter and a bi-directional DC-DC buck-boost converter are integrated to charge and discharge PEV batteries. For AC-DC converter control, Predictive Current Control (PCC) strategy is employed to enable grid current to reach a reference current after one modulation period. In addition, Phase Lock Loop (PLL) and a band-stop filter are designed to lock the grid voltage phase and reduce harmonics. Bi-directional power flow is realized by controlling the mode of the DC-DC converter. Simulation tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of this bi-directional charging system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0098
Malavika Menon, Sunil Kakaye, Sudharsan Sundaram
The world today is moving more towards convenience and luxury. Auto manufacturers are being constantly challenged to provide innovative additions to a conventional vehicle in terms of attractive features. This paper describes one such invention proposed to add convenience and novelty to the use of two wheelers. The proposed system is called a “Keyless Scooter”. Derived from the idea of keyless entry in four wheelers, this system aims at extending this luxury to a larger band of population in India, i.e. users of two wheeled vehicles. The system eliminates the use of a mechanical lock and key arrangement. All functions carried out by the mechanical arrangement of lock and key are replaced with equivalent electronic systems. A “keyless scooter” is one in which a user can approach it with a key fob in his/her pocket or bag and unlock the handlebar, start the vehicle, open the luggage box, etc. without having to insert a key physically into a lock body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0155
Jaroslav Pekar, Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Anthony D'Amato, Engin Ozatay, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equipped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. Many authors reported application (or simulation only without in-vehicle validation) of linear or nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0018
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Sushovan Basu
Use of fixed-point arithmetic in the software is known to require less memory and throughput of the electronic control module. Yet the application of fixed-point software in industrial systems is limited. Developments in the microcontroller and the memory technologies can be one reason for the use of floating-point arithmetic over fixed-point arithmetic in the software. The other difficulties commonly known include iterative simulations of the software to make sure the required numerical acuracy is obtained and the associated laborious and time consuming software development. An input-tracing algorithm is presented which traces the source of data to the selected arithmetic operation in the software. Input paths are then traced back to the selected arithmetic operator from the source of data. While tracing back the method performs interval arithmetic on the source data based on the arithmetic operations encountered in the traced paths.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0152
Pierre Michel, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technology mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied and their study tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving on the side electrified vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles, all midsize, one HEV, one BEV and a conventional are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
The #1 priority in vehicle security is to harden the “root of trust”; from which everything else – the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security – is derived. If the root of trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root of trust will effectively be an encryption key – a digital signature for each vehicle — that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, “formal” analysis techniques can be applied to ensure that this secure storage can’t be (A) read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs; or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0129
Ashlie B. Hocking, M. Anthony Aiello, John C. Knight, Shinichi Shiraishi, Masahiro Yamaura, Nikos Arechiga
For many crucial applications, establishing important properties of Simulink models by testing is either extremely resource intensive or impossible, and proof of the properties is highly desirable. Many Simulink models rely upon discrete-valued functions for which the function values are defined as a lookup table of correspondences between values in the domain and range. Such tables arise in applications for which no known closed-form algebraic definition exists. For example, a discrete-valued function might be defined for the physical performance of a device such as a servomotor where the values of the function are determined by laboratory measurement. In general, the proof of a property for a model that includes a discrete-valued function has to be by case analysis. For a single function and with mechanical support, case analysis is manageable.
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