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Viewing 121 to 150 of 22015
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0071
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0072
Sridhar Balaguru
Abstract: Hybrid vehicles are normally associated with a challenge of higher vehicle weight due to additional parts like Motor, Battery and controller over conventional engine vehicle. This introduces adverse effects like poor vehicle dynamics, higher fuel consumption, etc. Hence, weight reduction in the conventional vehicle system is essential while converting to hybrid electric vehicle. This paper explains the challenges in hybrid vehicle system's weight reduction along with integration and the actions taken to overcome them. The focus is more towards structural parts like frame, swingarm and wheel weight reduction (~5%) without compromise on strength and stiffness. The solutions were verified through simulation & actual vehicle testing. Digest: The automotive industry in the world, focusses more on "Energy efficient" (EE) & "Green environment" (GE). The demand for EE & GE calls for different vehicle forms. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) plays a vital role among them.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0083
Ezhil Joy
The increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in real time may result in voltage rise or drop at the distribution node (DN). An idea of active and reactive power exchange through EV charging station (CS) for voltage regulation at the DN is presented. A CS is modeled with multiple charging systems which enables EVs of different battery ratings to charge and discharge. The individual charging systems are composed of grid connected bidirectional three phase ac-dc and a series connected dc-dc converter with suitable controllers. The complete CS is externally controlled by a fuzzy controller and an aggregator to handle multiple EVs arrived at the CS. Voltage profile evaluation have been done with different power transfer approaches to foresee the CS behavior. Validation of the study is carried out using a realistic distribution system of a typical city considering 35 EVs of different battery ratings connected at the DN via CS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0085
Bhanwar Lal Bishnoi
The widely adoption of Electric Vehicle (EV) has been identified as a major challenge for future development of smart grids where effective integration of Renewable Energy e.g. Solar Net Metering can make Smart Grid self-healing & sustainable. The ever increasing electric vehicle charging further increases the energy demand. This paper reports the development of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an effective tool to reshape the dynamic load profile of EV charging by adopting appropriate demand side management strategy. This paper presents a total solution for EV charging service platform (AMI-EV) based on Sub GHz RF Mesh Network with Routers and Collectors with Head End System ( HES & MDMS ), power line carrier communications (PLC) and internet communication. The Hybrid of RF & PLC will create high Reliability data availability to HES.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0079
Bharat Singh, Mukesh Singh, Anish Jindal, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar
In smart homes, consumers have the advantage of proper management of smart devices by scheduling them in different time slots in a day. Scheduling is done based on the price of electricity offered in a particular time slot which results in better cost and power saving. In this paper, the design of the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS) is presented which gives the choice between comfort or cost saving to the consumers. The role of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) i.e. Solar PV panels in the optimal scheduling of devices and electric vehicles (EVs) is also studied.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0081
Nupur Rathore, Priyanka Bhartiya, Deepak Fulwani
A photovoltaic source's behaviour is strongly dependent on the weather. Hence, the converters used in conjunction with the PV sources are required to be tested for the different operating conditions of PV. These testing under real conditions are not encouraged on account of the space requirement, cost attached and the fact that repeating the ambient conditions, for the tests, is next to impossible. Therefore an Emulator, which behaves electrically in a similar way as that of a PV source, comes handy to perform these testing. In this paper a DC-DC Buck-boost Converter based Photovoltaic source emulator design is presented. It takes solar radiation and temperature, representing the weather conditions, as user inputs. The computation of operating point is done according to the load resistance and required I-V characteristics of PV source. PI Controller and Sliding mode control schemes have been implemented, separately, on the FPGA based NI GPIC card.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0090
Megha Singh, Ritesh Keshri
With the increase in demand for power, researches are going on to find optional and renewable sources of energy, piezoelectric energy being one of them. Piezoelectric energy harness has emerged as one of the prime methods for transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy. This paper deals with the on-board power sources which can replace the batteries, through wheel dynamics of an electric assisted bicycle, piezoelectric material being embedded in the rim of the front wheel of the bicycle. A brief discussion is also presented on the selection of piezoelectric material. Analytical equivalent models of piezoelectric materials are also provided along with the net dynamic force which will be exerted on the piezoelectric material at the point of contact of the front wheel with the ground. Various simulation results are also included to estimate the net power generated by each piezoelectric crystal.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0091
Akshay Kumar Rathore
A wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) charging using current-fed topology is proposed. The main contribution is current-fed technology for inductive power transfer (IPT). Analysis and detail design of current-fed dc-dc wireless power transfer stage is studied and explained. DC-link inductor limits the short circuit current during inverter fault. Stiff current in the input limits the inverter switch current stress. The circuit resonance in transmitter and receiver coils is parallel and series type, respectively. Resonant circuit offers soft-switching at device turn-off that reduces the switching losses. Diodes commutate with zero current switching and reverse recovery losses are eliminated. The converter is analyzed and simulated using PSIM 9.3. A 500W lab-prototype has been designed and developed. Hardware results up to 20 cm air-gap have been demonstrated to validate the proposed analysis and design.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0089
Abhishek Shah
Electrical vehicle batteries are charge at 230 volt AC supply trough Vehicle charger. This vehicle charger and vehicle body are connected to Earth. So customer will not get shock in case of electric leakage current or vehicle body short to 230 volt Ac supply. But what if the house earthing fails or becomes ineffective, customer will get shock when he touches the vehicle body by standing the vehicle. Because the shock current will flow from the costumer body and takes return path from distribution transformer earthing as shown in pictorial representation. The House earthing are not always effective thus there are chances of getting shock. This can be prevented by adopting deferential protection in vehicle.CT Sense , current transform, can be use which will give current input give to controller and controller will compare the IN and OUT current from vehicle charging unit.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0108
Dinesh Ramesh Satpute
This paper proposes a vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocol for cooperative collision warning. Emerging wireless technologies for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to- roadside (V2R) communications such as DSRC are promising to dramatically reduce the number of fatal roadway accidents by providing early warnings. Based on a careful analysis of application requirements, we design an effective protocol, comprising congestion control policies, service differentiation mechanisms. Today’s automotive sensor systems for in-vehicle based target tracking, i.e. radar, lidar, camera, are limited to a field of view which is restricted by distance, angle and line-of-sight. Future driver assistance systems such as predictive collision avoidance or situation aware adaptive cruise control require a more complete and accurate situation awareness in order to detect hazardous and inefficient situations in time.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0128
Prateek Patel, Tapan Sahoo, Harish Chandra
The two major benefits of hybridization of automotive powertrain are realized in the form of engine downsizing and capturing free energy using some form of onboard recuperation system. The design of such systems is mostly driven by iterative simulations. However, this study is about quantitatively deriving the potential of regenerative braking from Indian driving perspective. The calculation results are based on Indian homologation cycle and collection of real world driving data and condensing them into meaningful drive cycles for prominent Indian cities. This study further calculates component and control strategy requirements and quantitatively defines the compromises that would result due to the calibrations in strategy. This enables the engineers to make concrete data driven decisions. (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2010) The study also comprises incorporating safety related considerations in system design e.g. Stability while wheel lock, ABS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0133
Ayush Pandey, Arna Ghosh
In this paper, we present a highly robust controller for velocity control of mobile robots, which could be used for different kinds of mobile robots. The controller design is illustrated with two different kinds of mobile robots one of which is a differential drive robot and another is a non-differential non-ackerman drive mobile robot. Through theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments on robots, various controller design techniques were analyzed viz. using the Root Locus Method in the s-plane, using Bode Plots for Frequency Domain Analysis and using State Variable Feedback Controller Design. Also, we have compared the results obtained with the Deadbeat response for the system. The paper shows comparison with open loop performance of the system and also shows the results of controller design when it is assumed that the mathematical model of the plant is unknown. The relation of these facts with the robust controller design hence obtained is also discussed.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0120
Yogesh Sherki, Nikhil Gaikwad, Jayalakshmi Chandle, Anil Kulkarni
Earthquake is one of the major natural calamity. So prediction of the reach of earthquake event to the various locations could result in minimizing the disaster due to it. An early warning system for earthquake mainly issues an alarm to have a time margin for evacuating peoples to the safe place or shutting down key facilities like major industrial work etc. to avoid major consequences. This paper contains the design of sensor system and the techniques used for detection and processing of the received signals. The main difference between our method and conventional methods of earthquake location tracking is the addition of two planer Azimuth angle. Conventionally the triangulation method only used for tracking the earthquake location. But this method is not much accurate since it considers the average speeds of the P and S waves. The speed of seismic waves varies immensely depending upon the contents of soil, rocks or water etc. below the earth surface.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0125
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, integral motor compressor, evaporator & condenser assembly, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. . Conventional Car can use engine's waste heat for heating or defrosting, while the Electric vehicle has no waste heat to use, so that it faces greater difficulties in heating mode. In order to promote the application of electric vehicles and to reduce environmental pollution, it is important to research how to improve battery`s capacity and develop efficient energy storage battery, as well as reduce the energy consumption of the electric car`s accessory equipment.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0142
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0143
Rupen Singla, Anubhaw Kirti, Nishit Jain, Sandeep Mandal, Tapan Sahoo
Keyless entry feature is one of the basic feature which has to be provided even in the lowest variant of entry level cars. From low cost bench setup to multi-purpose automated Hardware-in-loop setup, different test setups, test results and significant cost saving initiatives are explained through this paper. Detailed cost and manpower analysis of different setups is done for cost optimization of future testing setups. The work discusses why, when and under which boundary conditions simple low-cost test solutions provide a better alternative in terms of economy, duration and quality compared to mid and full HIL systems.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0148
C Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
This paper presents an overview of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor. The stator flux linkage is estimated by integrating the terminal voltage minus stator voltage drop. The dc offset at the input of integrator occurs due to use of feedback current sensors. Even a small dc offset at the input signal of integrator causes the output to ramp signal, due to which the estimation of flux and sector selection are incorrect. The basic integration technique used for estimation of flux is backward Euler integration method. The experimental verification of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor using DSpace 1103 is presented in full paper.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0147
Anoop N. N
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2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0149
John G. Arvanitis
The battery model accuracy is one of the major keys for building high fidelity battery storage energy systems and hybrid energy systems. Any proposed model must account for thermal variations because of the crucial effect of temperature in transport and kinetic phenomena of electrochemical systems. This paper proposes an effective fractional approach method for increasing the accuracy of a model and estimating faster the required parameters using the Matlab Curve Fitting toolbox taking into account of thermal dependence. It is based on existing work on Electrical Circuit Model Layered Technique parameter estimation. The new approach applied on lithium (LiFepo4) cell under different operating conditions revealed dependences of the equivalent circuit elements on state of charge, average current, and temperature. The proposed process is useful for creating a high fidelity model capable of predicting electrical current/voltage performance and estimating run-time state of charge (SOC).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0136
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0137
Sumit Gupta, Tapan Sahoo, Prateek Patel, Harish Chandra
In Hybrid vehicles the torque split and Gear Shift optimization strategy is generally cycle dependent and behaves significantly different in Real world driving conditions. This project helps us to optimize the torque split and gear shift points simultaneously for Real World and certification drive cycle for Hybrid Electric vehicle. Now the level of trade-off in optimization between certification and Real World conditions can be selected. The methodology evaluates Objective function at each and every operating point for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor-generator (E-machine) corresponding to all possible torque split and gear shift combinations at a particular instant and finally choose one combination with a least value of objective function (which is dependent on emission and fuel consumption, and is restricted under various constraints like drivability, component operational limits etc).
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0161
Karthikeyan Ethirajan
Rolling resistance contributes ~8% impact on energy efficiency of an automobile. This paper emphasises on how power consumption in an electric vehicle architecture is minimized by reducing rolling resistance through optimization of design parameters in front axle unitised bearing. Optimum bearing design selection can result upto 10% lesser power consumption hence increasing vehicle efficiency. Suitable testing results and calculations establish the claims in reduction of power consumption. The effect of higher energy losses due to rolling resistance are prominent in Electric-Vehicles as compared to IC-Engine cars due to significantly lower power-train losses which overshadow rolling resistance losses in conventional cars.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0160
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0159
Wei Liu
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used widely, low pollution; quickly replenish energy are acknowledged as the ideal power supply of car. For batteries, however, about 40% ~ 50% of the energy dissipates as heat energy, the current through the single-phase heat transfer of cooling water to cool the fuel cell. In working process, the following disadvantages would appear: uneven distribution of temperature in the fuel cell, if the local temperature is too high, this will worsen the performance of the fuel cell. In order to ensure the fuel cell in the best working temperature range between 80 ℃ ~ 90 ℃ and keep efficient work. Of this study is to design a two phase water cooling system. First of all, the analysis of thermal power characteristics of fuel cell under different road conditions. Then heat transfer model of the heat exchange system is established and the expander features of recovery of waste heat.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0165
Mark Simon Schudeleit
This publication focuses on the limits and potentials of 48V hybrid systems, which are espe-cially due to the cost advantages an attractive alternative, compared to established high volt-age HEVs and thus will gain relevant market shares in the future. Firstly, at market overview is given which shows the current known 48V hybrid concepts and demonstrators. These topologies will be analyzed and evaluated regarding the system power and the battery capacity as well as their implemented hybrid functions. The potential in fuel savings and CO2 reduction is calculated followed by the customer-relevant dimensioning of the electric motor and the battery. For both measured data of the real customer operation is used. Subsequently, the CO2 saving potentials of the customer-oriented dimensioned powertrain will be presented for the NEDC and the customer operation.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0158
Naveen PR
The paper involves the architecture of Hybrid electric vehicle aimed especially for the design and development of the hybrid powered formula car with optimized targets such as Fuel economy, better acceleration with satisfactory top speed of around 140 kph. The required characteristics of both the electric vehicle and ICE vehicle and the design has been going so far with the following concepts such as regenerative braking, Smaller ICE for less fuel consumption, potential balance, stability in terms of weight distribution and with less electrical losses. This Paper also involves the study of steady power and dynamic power load decompositionand its effect over the driving characteristics of the vehicle. Various configurations are iterated for the targeted vehicle such as series- parallel as wellas various complex configurations in which the solvation is brought up by the discrete simulation Methods using MATLAB Simulink, The Mathworks Inc.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0164
Riaz Ahamed, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P., Clement Jones, Suraj Gopalakrishnan
In design of electric traction motor, temperature rise in the motor plays a crucial role in determining the performance characteristics of the motor. The operating life of any motor is dependent on its primary and secondary insulation capability. The life of insulation depends on losses in a motor which contributes to the temperature rise. This paper presents the encapsulation (potting) process carried out on traction motor with different epoxy based potting materials and mass production feasibility are also focused. The encapsulation process affords better heat transfer from the coils to the frame enhancing winding rigidity, create total protection against moisture and prevent corrosion thereby improving the performance and life of the traction motors in applications such as electric vehicles. This process enables entire stator winding to be filled with encapsulation material without air bubbles to avoid thermal hotspots.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0162
Fabian Ruecker, Ilka Bremer
Electric vehicle (EV) lifetime strongly depends on the intensity of battery degradation. Simulation models that include battery ageing mechanisms are used to benchmark these influences on total depreciation during one charging process. A nonlinear programming algorithm has been used to optimize EV charging. An energy price signal is included and the total operational costs for EV charging are minimized. It can be shown, that the interior point algorithm evaluates the optimal solution to charge every single vehicle with desired battery energy capacity and is suitable for prediction purposes in fleet applications. This is shown for a case study incorporating 22 EVs for delivery services.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0153
Min Hua
The technology research of power battery’s performance, life and cost is the precondition for the development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the promotion of plug-in hybrid cars in the further market is depended on whether the power battery is cost-effective. This study chooses mixed type as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle power system, based on two mechanical coupler of hybrid dynamical systems, on the one hand, to achieve the operation modes of the engine, motor, power battery switch, on the other hand, to raise the utilization ratio of energy for the whole power system. The research results show that different driving mode can be chosen according to different conditions. Through the control strategy, the real-time control engine start-up or shut down can be achieved, and the vehicles are able to achieve the best fuel economy and emissions in any cases.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0152
Riaz Ahamed, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
The use of 3-Ф Induction Motor with copper rotor for traction applications has been increasing in recent years. Copper die cast rotor has better conductivity than aluminium rotor and its efficiency at higher speeds is almost equivalent to permanent magnet motors. This paper presents the design and analysis of high power density copper rotor electric motor for EV applications. The first step involved in motor design is selection of main dimensions that meet output power requirements. Based on constraints imposed by power and space availability, optimised size of stator frame has been selected for the design. On finalization of main dimensions, stator and rotor slots have been selected; slot dimensions are further optimized to avoid the saturation in tooth and yoke areas of stator and rotor laminations. Higher grade non- oriented steel laminations of lower thickness have been used in stator and rotor to reduce the core losses at higher frequencies.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 22015

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