Display:

Results

Viewing 121 to 150 of 21566
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1631
Michinori Tani, Atsuhiro Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Matsuzono
Stringent emission regulations for passenger vehicles are demanded. Reducing costs of high-grade exhaust gas after-treatment systems is necessary. The demand for high-precision engine air-fuel ratio control remains high. Higher efficiency in development and shortening of the development period are required, and control system construction that is accomplished in a short period regardless of the developer's technical skills and can harness the hardware potential has become essential. To achieve high-precision control, there is a trial-and-error element in configuration such as feedback-gain settings, and the tradeoff between high-precision air-fuel ratio control and shortening of the development period. We investigated a system based on a control method that constantly performs optimum air-fuel ratio feedback control to suit air-fuel ratio sensor responsiveness that changes with vehicle driving conditions, and eliminates the trial-and-error element.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1633
Donghao Hao, Changlu Zhao, Ying Huang, Xiaoyan Dai, Jiawei Liu
Paper Title: software design of diesel engine control system based on real-time operating system Key Words: Software design; Multi-task template; Diesel engine electronic control system; Real-time operating system Topic group the paper belongs to: Automotive Embedded Software and Electronics Research objective: The requirements for excellent performance and functions of automotive contribute to the much more complex and huge software of control system in automotive. Because of the coupling between driver codes and control codes, it is difficult to modify the software and goes against the extension of control functions as well as cannot guarantee the real-time performance in the traditional framework of control system software. To solve these problems, the embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) has been introduced in the automotive electronic control system by more and more major manufacturers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical model approaches, which need to be applied using a multitude of accurate and repeatable measurements. Advanced components like variable valve trains or direct injection systems result in an increasing number of degrees of freedom and therefore in additionally required measurements. Both leads to higher efforts regarding time, staff and costs, why it becomes crucial to improve measurement techniques in order to reduce the required time and enhance the quality. Many of the models above consider the simulated system being stationary, i.e. the system variables would no longer change with time. Therefore the calibration measurements also have to be conducted at stationary system states to be valid and moreover to be comparable and repeatable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1634
Toru Ishino, Shinichi Takai
Transmission and vehicle control technology is advancing, and the shift operation format for the electronic gear selector is currently diverging from typical shifters, such as the shift lever located near the center console. As a result, automobile manufacturers find technical solutions that bridge the gear selection operations desired by drivers and the technical demands arising from control. A pushbutton-type electronic control gear selector device was developed with a differing operation direction for each gear operation. This enables instinctive operation that makes it easy for drivers to master the shift operation for each driving gear, while providing the same operating capability as a typical shift device. This new electronic control gear selector is scheduled for .
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1642
Shrey Aggarwal, Rama Subbu, Sanjay Gilotra
Testing, validation & evaluation are vital factors in terms of defining vehicle reliability and durability. Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance of the engine. It affects many variables including engine longevity, fuel economy, and engine power. It needs to measured & controlled such that vehicle performance can be improved. Sparks occurring too soon or too late in the engine cycle are often responsible for excessive vibrations and even engine damage. Attempt has been made in our endeavour to develop an electronics & embedded system device which can be used hand-on to measure the ignition timing w.r.t TDC (Top Dead Center). The benefit of this system is its usage in the field since it does not require any test rig or any special fixture to measure the spark angle. The device measures the analog pulses signal generated from the pulser coil & calculate the RPM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1638
Dejan Kihas, Michael R. Uchanski
Due to stringent emissions regulations, engine-out NOx has emerged as a critical signal for control and on-board diagnosis (OBD) of diesel engines and their aftertreatment systems. A physical NOx sensor mounted upstream of NOx aftertreatment devices often provides this essential signal. Recently, numerous researchers and OEMs have used on-ECU computations to estimate the engine-out NOx level. Such work is typically undertaken to either improve OBD monitors or to lower bill of material cost by removing the sensor. These on-ECU NOx estimators are sometimes called inferential sensors or virtual sensors. This paper reviews the literature on-ECU embedded NOx inferential sensors in order to paint a picture of the current state of the art and to identify directions for future work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle’s total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. Using finite element modeling, this paper presents a parametric analysis. For this research purpose, we first built LS-DYNA model of SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg , which is a two-seater. The model has no complex components, but it can provide reasonable crash pulses under full-frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. This paper chooses laser radars as sensors to obtain relevant information, and then presents a algorithm to detect and track vehicles in front. The algorithm determine radar’s ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the obstacles can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the obstacles are vehicles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0316
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Yohei Akashi, Toshihide Satake, Yukiyasu Akemi, Satoru Inoue, Ryotaro Suzuki
Parking assist systems which relieve burden of drivers have been put into practice in the world. Mitsubishi Electric has also been developing several technologies to achieve the system. Peripheral environment around the car in a parking lot is detected with Mitsubishi Electric’s ultrasonic sensors, and an algorithm makes a map of the environment to determine whether or not the car can park at an available space. On the basis of the created map, a smooth and efficient path to drive and park the car is generated with an optimization technique. While the car is moving to the available space, the position and attitude of the vehicle is estimated from wheel speed sensors and yaw rate one. Steering is automatically controlled with a Mitsubishi Electric’s electric power steering system. In particular, this paper focuses on a speed control which can be applied to an automatic driving control including an automatic parking system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be considered nowadays as a distributed embedded software system where independent microprocessor systems, called Electronic Control Units (ECUs), communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several ECUs communicating each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other ECUs in a vehicle, usually, via communication networks and with vehicle’s surroundings via camera, radar, or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market makes the development of such systems challenging. As the number of important for the system road scenarios grows, mathematical modelling and computer simulation become important engineering tasks to assure required quality and compliance to safety standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
According to the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), which is a North American automobile accident database, collision events referred to as multiple-collision accidents, in which multiple collisions occur during travel, account for 55% of all accidents. In addition, multiple-collision accidents in which collision events following the first collision event are more severe than the first event account for 20% of all accidents. In a first collision, the system had simultaneously operated to restrain and protect the vehicle occupant. If the multiple-collision accidents occurs, because the system for restraining and protecting vehicle occupants will have already deployed, the performance of the system can be limited from subsequent collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1412
Xuan Zhou, Walter Niewoehner
The presentation and paper will explain a new algorithm-based approach to fasten future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with simultaneously increasing the reliability. In the past the TTC (time to collision) was used to calculate and forecast traffic situations leading to a collision with an obstacle moving in front of the own vehicle in the same direction or coming towards it. Situations with the trajectories of the involved parties not being in-line (e.g. crossing, lane changing manoeuvres), parties changing the direction of movement, or parties changing the speed are more complex to calculate. The new method developed bases on an algorithm using the data from the area under sensor surveillance (e.g. by radar) to calculate a so-called collision tube. The collision tube describes the relative trajectories of the own vehicle and those of other traffic participants or obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Advanced Driver Assistive System technologies are currently available in many passenger vehicles that provide safety benefits and will ultimately lead to autonomous, “self-driving” vehicles. One technology that has the potential for having substantial safety benefits is the forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM) system, which is designed to (1) warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, (2) potentiate driver braking responses, and (3) have the ability to apply the vehicle’s brake autonomously to slow, or, in some cases, stop the vehicle prior to a forward collision. Although the proliferation of such technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how this system affects a driver’s overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Objective: Investigate statistical effects of repeated measures design in FCW (warning vs. no-warning ) evaluation Background: Repeated measures designs are often used in FCW testing despite concerns that 1st exposure creates expectancy effects which may dilute or bias outcomes Method: 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= no warning; B=FCW). They drove in a high-fidelity, motion-base simulator with a visual distraction task. After some 25 minutes of driving a simulated nighttime rural highway, a high-intensity forward collision threat arose during the distraction task. Response time was analyzed. Results: There was evidence of differential carryover and significant Period 1 vs. 2 effects which dilute the magnitude of difference between FCW and no warning relative to 1st exposure only. Also there was a trend toward slower response with no-warning after FCW exposure as first exposure than after no-warning as first exposure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1658
Xi Luo, Xin Yu, Marcis Jansons
As engine efficiencies continue to rise, heat transfer losses increase in relative importance. Understanding of these phenomena requires accurate in-cylinder wall temperature measurements. A novel dual wavelength infrared diagnostic has been developed to measure in-cylinder surface temperatures with potential temporal resolutions exceeding 1ns. The diagnostic has the capability to measure low amplitude, high frequency temperature variations, such as those occurring during the gas exchange process. A dual wavelength ratio method has also been developed to correct for background scattering reflections. The assumption that scatting reflection effect is constant during an engine cycle has also been provided at all exam engine condition. In-cylinder surface temperatures have been simultaneously measured during motored engine conditions with three independent measurement techniques: thermocouple, laser-induced phosphorescence, and the dual wavelength infrared diagnostic.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1203
Subhashree Rajagopal, Sebastien Desharnais, Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
Eddy-current brakes are contactless magnetic brakes that allow decelerating a vehicle without friction and wear. Electromagnetic brakes are found in variety of applications. However they suffer from a decreasing torque at low and high speed. In this study a novel concept of permanent magnet eddy-current brake is proposed that maintains a flat braking torque profile over a broad speed range. The principle is analytically investigated and numerically validated through finite element simulations using MAXWELL. It is demonstrated that a useably flat braking torque profile can be achieved by altering the path of eddy-currents by magnetic field orientation, thereby, affecting the apparent rotor resistance. Keywords: Eddy-currents, eddy-current brakes, electromagnetic brakes, permanent magnet brakes, MAXWELL
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1211
Zhuoping Yu, Caitao Jian, Songyun Xu, Lu Xiong
This paper is to research the dynamic response of active power source (APS) of electro hydraulic brake (EHB) system, which is a new design system. The dynamic response of APS could impact the effectiveness of brake system, the reason is that the slow-response of APS will cause the slow speed of building pressure and increasing the braking distance. So researching the dynamic response of active power source is very important for brake system. First of all, the part is about the components and working principle of EHB system and some parameters of active power source. EHB systemconsists of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). APS includes motor, master cylinder and retarding mechanism consisting of warm, gear and gear rack. Secondly, this paper proposes a restricted distribution control strategy——the control strategy of restricted distribution (CSRD).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel J. Costinett, Fred Wang
A cost-effective SiC based hybrid switch and an improved inductor design procedure for boost converter in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are presented in this paper. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. The operation of the hybrid switch is tested in double pulse test experiment and compared with the single IGBT. Additionally, the boost inductor design is discussed, which allows the optimization of weight and power loss across different core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. Both the powder material and nanocrystalline material are considered in the inductor design procedure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1603
Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim, Ahmed A. Hamouda
As the world is going through an evolutionary development in most of the science fields, there is an essential and exceptional demand for higher efficiency power generators to recover the thermal losses. Recently thermoelectric materials have attracted extensive attention for this purpose. The recent advancement in nanotechnology has a remarkable impact on thermoelectric materials development. This resulted in nano structured materials whose thermoelectric properties exhibit a great challenge to its bulk form, such as Silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Silicon nanowires are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without significant decrease in the electrical conductivity. In the present work silicon nanowires have been implemented in fabricating a thermoelectric device which can be employed in different applications, such as engines, to recover part of the energy lost in these applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0251
Yoshikazu Nishida, Satoru Komoda, Naoki Maruno
"The mounting of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) calls for the configuration of highly robust control systems. When mounting LIBs on the vehicle, it is important to accurately ascertain and precisely control the state of the battery. In order to achieve high durability, it is important to configure highly reliable systems capable of dependably preventing overcharging as well as to have control technology based on software that can contribute to extended battery life. The system configuration applies an overcharge prevention system that uses voltage detection with an emphasis on reliability together with a method for varying the range of state of charge (SOC) control in the vehicle according to the battery state in order to assure durability. In order to achieve this, battery-state detection technology was developed for the purpose of correctly detecting and judging the battery state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0172
Won Kyung Ham, Sangchul Park, JiMyoung Park, Minsuk Ko, Min-Ho Yoo
Abstract Presented in this research is methodology for modeling the behavior of an automotive ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to verify in a production system. The methodology of this paper is to verify the defects of ECU products during in a real operation, before the defective ECU equipped to an automobile. The performance of an ECU operation is dependent on not only the specification of a hardware device, but also a software program installed in the memory of an ECU. The software program of an ECU is able to be validated before installation, but the validation process is usually executed in a very controllable environment. In order to consider the software program which is frequently changeable in practice, the verification methodology of ECU products as the hardware device and software program integrated is required for detecting defective ECU products caused by inappropriate software program during in manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0493
Ying Wang, Ye Wang, You Qu, Sumin Zhang, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. However, most of the commercial tools are lack of elaborate lens/sensor models for the vehicle mounted cameras. This paper presents the system-based camera modeling method integrated virtual environment for vision-based ADAS design, development and testing. We present how to simulate two types of cameras with virtual 3D models and graphic render: Pinhole camera and Fisheye camera. We also give out an application named Envelope based on pinhole camera model which refers to the coverage of Field-of-Views (FOVs) of one or more cameras projected to a specific plane.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0926
Tianyun Li, Min Xu, David Hung, Shengqi Wu, Siqi Cheng
Abstract Comparing with port-fuel-injection (PFI) engine, the fuel sprays in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines play more important roles since they significantly influence the combustion stability, engine efficiency as well as emission formations. In order to design higher efficiency and cleaner engines, further research is needed to understand and optimize the fuel spray atomization and vaporization. This paper investigates the atomization and evaporation of n-pentane, gasoline and surrogate fuels sprays under realistic SIDI engine conditions. An optical diagnostic technique combining high-speed Mie scattering and Schlieren imaging has been applied to study the characteristics of liquid and vapor phases inside a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The effects of ambient temperature, fuel temperature, and fuel type on spray atomization and vaporization are analyzed by quantitative comparisons of spray characteristics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1403
Yi lu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
We have developed a bench test method to assess the driver distraction caused by workloads of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that the method can assess not only visual-manual tasks but also auditory-vocal tasks. The workloads are evaluated from performances of both pedal tracking (PT) and detection response task (DRT) during while performing secondary tasks. We can conduct the method with simple apparatuses such as a gaming pedal and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted at three different regions and different experimenters in the US in the same procedure. We used two kinds of visual-manual tasks and two kinds of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two different levels of workload for each of all the kinds of tasks.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1426
Drew A. Jurkofsky
Photogrammetry from images captured by terrestrial cameras and manned aircraft has been used for many years to model objects, create scale diagrams and measure distances for use in traffic accident investigation and reconstruction. Due to increasing capability and availability, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), including small UAS (SUAS), are becoming a valuable, cost effective tool for collecting overhead images for photogrammetric analysis. The metric accuracy of scale accident scene diagrams created from SUAS imagery has yet to be compared to conventional measurement methods, such as total station and laser measurement systems, which are widely used by public safety officials and private consultants. For this study, two different SUAS were used to collect overhead imagery for photogrammetric processing using PhotoModeler software.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 21566

Filter