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2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0124
Weicheng Huang, Huayu Zhang, Du Yingmeng, Honghui Wu, Zhikang Fan
Thermal efficiency of conventional automobile engine is only about 30%, and most of other energy is brought away by the exhaust in the form of wasted-heat. Therefore, the heat recovery of engine exhaust has become a hot topic, among which generating electricity through exhaust gas is one of the most important and effective ways. In this research high efficient thermoelectric materials are applied in the thermoelectric generating system. First of all, heat transfer model between car exhaust and cooling water has been established. Then, based on the heat transfer model, in the thermoelectric power generating system the heat transfer area of evaporator has been analyzed and optimized. Finally, based on generating capacity evaluation system, when the engine speed is within the range of common 1700 ~ 2100rpm, when the optimal evaporator area range is 0.8m2 ~0.95 m2 the maximum power output could be achieved.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0135
Rohit Karegaonkar, Sushant Patil, Urvil Parmar
The Current Methodologies of virtual and Automated Testing on touch screen displays are limited, since, minor screen changes and display software updates will cause the automated tests to fail and hence there will be a need to fix them. Addition of new items to a drop-down list, movement of buttons, reusability and conversion of Test scripts for similar devices will be a cumbersome job. The general approach of testing Display manually, is not feasible due to sluggishness, monotony and repetitiveness of work, which can cause manual errors in different volumes at different times, it will also reduce the option of Batch executions of tests 24*7.The automated approach for testing such Displays through XY coordinates pointing on a screen, taking Screen captures and using optical character recognition for verification methods are non-reliable and affects the performance of testing. This makes automating a test difficult, causes a high amount of risk as well as high maintenance costs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0134
Mithun Patil
Goal: Reduce machine test time and finding defects early in V cycle by; Utilizing VR Lab for embedded software functional testing & performance testing. Key Objectives: 1. Controller software testing using virtual environment [SIL+HIL_VIL] 2. Exploring ideas for Vehicle level PV&V using virtual environment 3. Performing exploratory and investigative testing using virtual environment Benefits-Key features: • Single platform support for multiple vehicle of any region • Unsafe field scenario and accidental analysis • Save in time & cost through less proto build, Machine deprecation and logistic • Simulators for Training Achievements: Successfully integrated 4 vehicle to VR world using SIL and HIL Direct Savings: Cost & Time Indirect Saving : Infrastructure Investment, Machine Depreciation, Logistics [Travel & Transport
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0137
Sumit Gupta, Tapan Sahoo, Prateek Patel, Harish Chandra
In Hybrid vehicles the torque split and Gear Shift optimization strategy is generally cycle dependent and behaves significantly different in Real world driving conditions. This project helps us to optimize the torque split and gear shift points simultaneously for Real World and certification drive cycle for Hybrid Electric vehicle. Now the level of trade-off in optimization between certification and Real World conditions can be selected. The methodology evaluates Objective function at each and every operating point for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor-generator (E-machine) corresponding to all possible torque split and gear shift combinations at a particular instant and finally choose one combination with a least value of objective function (which is dependent on emission and fuel consumption, and is restricted under various constraints like drivability, component operational limits etc).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0136
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0130
Abhijeet S Taksale, Priti Shahane, Vishwas M Vaidya, Goutham Dronamraju K V, Vivek Deulkar
Electronic controller unit (ECU) used for controlling sub-systems of complex real life applications like automotive vehicles can pose several challenges. Many times one needs to plan development and testing of controller, when the end vehicle is also under development and hence not available. In such case, hardware in the loop (HIL) approach for testing such controllers emulates the external application environment and allows concurrent development of the electronic controllers. Even when the end vehicle is available, if design iterations are to be carried out using “in-vehicle” testing approach, then the same can be time-consuming. Such an approach may also possess safety hazards if malfunction of the ECU impacts occupants/vehicle safety. Many cases require simulation of a range of use-case scenarios as well as system operation under diverse set of environments.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0129
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, P L N Prasad, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Range in electric cars is always challenging due to limited capacity of the batteries and the total number of batteries to be used to achieve the same. Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. Underbody drag increases due to air entrapment around these components. Aerodynamic study for baseline model using CFD simulations showed that there was a considerable air resistance due to underbody components. To reduce the underbody drag, different add-ons are used and their effect on drag is studied. A front spoiler (air dam) is used to deflect the incoming air towards sides of the car.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0132
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the implementation of sensor less hill assist control system in electric LCV. In manual transmission vehicles without hill assist, the restart at the slope can be done through skilled clutch control. For the vehicles not having clutch (auto transmission or direct drive), the restart of the vehicle at hill is not possible with driver skills alone and needs the hill assist functionality. It involves the costlier sensors and control mechanism for its implementation. The work aimed at implementing hill-assist functionality without the use of gradient sensor and brake actuators. In the absence of brake actuators the holding torque is provided by the traction motor. The PID controller with parameterized vehicle model in loop calculates the holding torque required. The precise vehicle model for the controller built through vehicle tests.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0131
Kalpesh Savant, Shravan Kumar Chirlanchi
Runoff Test: - Runoff test is performed in factory for first few limited production build machines. It verifies all the machine functions possible. The Virtual Vehicle RunOff test targets new approach for automation test to perform first level product verification and validation in virtual environment to produce higher quality and productivity. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test helps to perform software PV&V in short duration, eliminating hardware dependency and providing enough confidence before software delivery for real time PV&V. It also helps to reproduce and debug issues. Virtual Vehicle RunOff Test setup needs a product simulation, controller executables and a test script tool. Test script tool will communicate with Product simulation and controller executables to command test cases, verifies the result and generates test report.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0139
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Yuanqi Gao, Haobo Xu, Jiahao Xia, Weiye Xue, Shiping huang
Sweeping Vehicle is an important tool to beautify the city environment with the characteristics of low cruise speed, less driving power consumption, and small operating area, which provides a good application prospect for the development of the electric sweeping vehicle. The characteristics of excellent stability at low speed, efficient energy conversion, convenient operability, and environment-friendly make it the first choice for cleaning road surface. In the study, the structure of vacuum dust collection system without sweeping brush is adopted in the designed electric sweeping vehicle. What is more, no dust particles generate when a sweeping vehicle is dumping. Therefore, it is worthy of the name "clean" vehicle. Firstly, electromotor and exhaust fan model is established, the joint performance between working electromotor and exhaust fan and the electromotor efficiency features are analyzed.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0138
Sashank Vedula, Nabal Kishore Pandey, Raghavendra Nese
Competition to be at the helm of automotive market with regards to fuel economy has led to invention of new optimization techniques. Vehicle parameters although being of primary influence, driving behaviour is an equally important factor that influences fuel consumption considerably. In the current scenario it has become a paramount challenge for automobile OEMs to offer unparalleled fuel economy for a wide range of driving behaviour. Conventional process is to conduct a series of real world trials with drivers of wide range of driver aggressiveness, collect data, calibrate, optimize and validate the same in real world. Few major setbacks in this traditional process like tediousness, accuracy, repetitiveness and most importantly development cost have led to investigating alternative solutions to overcome this challenge. To overcome these challenges, it is very important that majority of calibration activities that are done on road, should be performed in lab.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0140
Mudit Mittal, David Smart
Electronics in automotive industry is ever increasing to enable complex features in the machines, which in turn increases the communication between multiple Electronic Control Units in the vehicle. This increased communication necessitates a very robust and deterministic network. This paper focuses and various methodologies of network modeling and simulation to predict the health of the network. This paper will also detail case studies involving Rate monotonic analysis (RMA) as a simulation method to schedule communication massage table to evaluate the network definition through parameters like repetition rate, priority, etc. This validates the deterministic nature of the bus. This paper will also cover aspects of network diagnosis through replaying vehicle communication network logs to ascertain network behavior against design expectations.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0141
Sharath Neelakanta, Sridhar lingan Sr, Rajasekhar MV
One of the major concerns for Hybrid and electric cars would be its overall crash safety performance. Besides the structural integrity of the vehicle and High voltage battery enclosure, the routing of the High Voltage (HV) cable is extremely critical. Any rupturing of the HV cable during a crash event would expose it to the vehicle body which could result in electrocution of the occupant and extensive damage to the vehicle. A methodology has been developed using virtual simulation tools to address the safety concerns with respect to high voltage cable during any crash event. The primary step was to identify the zone throughout the underbody to route the HV cable, which would be safe in crash events like frontal, side and rear. Different crash scenarios were simulated using a Finite element model to arrive at safe zone for routing HV cable.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0126
Zhi Li, Gangfeng Tan, Zizhen Yu, Zhongjie Yang, Zhilei Li, Yuandong Liu, Jing Cai, Haobo Xu
When the vehicle parks in hot environment, the temperature inside the cabin would increase substantially, which has a bad impact on the entering comfort of occupants. Ventilation is an effective cooling means in hot environment and the current method applied in vehicle is apt to open ventilation system transitorily when the car starts, reaching the pre-cooling purpose. However, the working hours of ventilation are limited due to great energy consumption, thus in this research solar power is taken into consideration. In this study, a newly exhaust fan is installed at the rear of the car, combining with the original car cabin blower as ventilation system to improve cooling efficiency. The newly installed fan and the original car cabin blower were driven by the solar power panels. Firstly, the impacts of ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity and other factors on temperature inside the vehicle were analyzed.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0143
Rupen Singla, Anubhaw Kirti, Nishit Jain, Sandeep Mandal, Tapan Sahoo
Keyless entry feature is one of the basic feature which has to be provided even in the lowest variant of entry level cars. From low cost bench setup to multi-purpose automated Hardware-in-loop setup, different test setups, test results and significant cost saving initiatives are explained through this paper. Detailed cost and manpower analysis of different setups is done for cost optimization of future testing setups. The work discusses why, when and under which boundary conditions simple low-cost test solutions provide a better alternative in terms of economy, duration and quality compared to mid and full HIL systems.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0142
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0145
Raghavendra Nese, Nabal Kishore Pandey, Satish Thimmalapura
With increasing share of intelligent controllers coming onboard in a vehicle and with continuous pressure for reducing vehicle development time & cost while maintaining reliability & quality from the system, a big push is seen to move from Road to Lab to Desk development for system development and validation. Every OEM is currently focusing on using virtual environment to complete the virtual validation of the controllers before hitting the road. This process is cost efficient and reduces the time for function development and brings high level of function maturity before testing it in the vehicle. Plant modelling is an important part of the virtual validation which includes modelling of vehicle, powertrain components, and its environment including driver and road. The current paper deals with defining a systematic approach for vehicle plant model development which can be used for vehicle virtual testing & calibration.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0144
Du Yingmeng, Jun Wang, Weicheng Huang, Zhikang Fan
When the vehicle parks in direct sunlight conditions, the cabin would form a high-temperature thermal environment in hot weather. Drivers would turn on the air-conditioning with relatively high gear in the most conditions to reduce the cabin temperature, which could affect the life of equipment, resulting in energy waste and increasing emissions. This study adopted solar energy in the ventilation system. When the car parks the cabin blower was driven by a solar panel mounted on the car roof to discharge heat inside the cabin real time, achieving the purpose of pre-cooling. Firstly, heat transfer model and ventilation cooling model for the cabin were established according to the theory of heat transfer, and models were modified through experiments. Then the effects of solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature and other factors on the cabin temperature were evaluated.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0147
Anoop N. N
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2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0146
Feng Xiao, Chuanxue Song
Under the double pressures of energy saving and environment protection, the various forms of electric vehicle has become the focus of research in current automotive industry. The four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicle with in-wheel Motors has become a more promising one. With the promotion of electric vehicles, their stability control problem has become increasingly important. Compared with the traditional vehicles, the torque distribution method among the four wheels for the 4WD electric vehicles is more comparative flexible, and the different distribution methods may have different impacts on the stability of the vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper presents an optimal torque distribution control method for the electric vehicle, which is equipped with four in-wheel motors, in order to improve the stability of the vehicle.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0149
John G. Arvanitis
The battery model accuracy is one of the major keys for building high fidelity battery storage energy systems and hybrid energy systems. Any proposed model must account for thermal variations because of the crucial effect of temperature in transport and kinetic phenomena of electrochemical systems. This paper proposes an effective fractional approach method for increasing the accuracy of a model and estimating faster the required parameters using the Matlab Curve Fitting toolbox taking into account of thermal dependence. It is based on existing work on Electrical Circuit Model Layered Technique parameter estimation. The new approach applied on lithium (LiFepo4) cell under different operating conditions revealed dependences of the equivalent circuit elements on state of charge, average current, and temperature. The proposed process is useful for creating a high fidelity model capable of predicting electrical current/voltage performance and estimating run-time state of charge (SOC).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0148
C Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
This paper presents an overview of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor. The stator flux linkage is estimated by integrating the terminal voltage minus stator voltage drop. The dc offset at the input of integrator occurs due to use of feedback current sensors. Even a small dc offset at the input signal of integrator causes the output to ramp signal, due to which the estimation of flux and sector selection are incorrect. The basic integration technique used for estimation of flux is backward Euler integration method. The experimental verification of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor using DSpace 1103 is presented in full paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0151
Riaz Ahamed, Suraj Gopalakrishnan, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
This paper presents the design optimization & detailed analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor (IPM) with different rotor topology of permanent magnets for low cost-high performance traction applications such as electric vehicles. The analysis & validation of motor design is done with Finite Element Analysis in addition to analytical methods employed at rudimentary stages of motor design. The design involves embedding of low cost multi-layer non- rare earth permanent magnets with/without a combination of a layer or two of rare earth magnet. The design affords better performance characteristics such as high torque density, higher efficiency and lower cogging torque attributed to multi layer permanent magnet orientation & V-shaped configuration of permanent magnets. The design also takes into consideration of harmonics & other losses in the motor. The manufacturing feasibility and constraints in prototyping & mass production of motor are focused in this paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0150
Naveen Kumar Byregowda
The Yield monitoring systems are the part of precision agriculture products. The yield monitoring system consist of Global positioning system (GPS) to measure the speed and the position of the vehicle. Along with GPS, Mass Flow sensors are used to get the information of the Harvested grain flow rate. By combining GPS and mass flow sensor makes yield monitoring system. A simple inductive type impact based mass flow sensor is constructed using simple steel plate and the PCB printed coil. The impact versus impedance and impact versus frequency response have been studied. The aim of the sensor development is to reduce the calibration parameters in the process of measuring Mass flow. The paper discuss about the results of the frequency and impedance changes with respect to the known impact range of the grain. Also the paper deals with the material material selection and the building of the sensor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0153
Min Hua
The technology research of power battery’s performance, life and cost is the precondition for the development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the promotion of plug-in hybrid cars in the further market is depended on whether the power battery is cost-effective. This study chooses mixed type as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle power system, based on two mechanical coupler of hybrid dynamical systems, on the one hand, to achieve the operation modes of the engine, motor, power battery switch, on the other hand, to raise the utilization ratio of energy for the whole power system. The research results show that different driving mode can be chosen according to different conditions. Through the control strategy, the real-time control engine start-up or shut down can be achieved, and the vehicles are able to achieve the best fuel economy and emissions in any cases.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0152
Riaz Ahamed, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
The use of 3-Ф Induction Motor with copper rotor for traction applications has been increasing in recent years. Copper die cast rotor has better conductivity than aluminium rotor and its efficiency at higher speeds is almost equivalent to permanent magnet motors. This paper presents the design and analysis of high power density copper rotor electric motor for EV applications. The first step involved in motor design is selection of main dimensions that meet output power requirements. Based on constraints imposed by power and space availability, optimised size of stator frame has been selected for the design. On finalization of main dimensions, stator and rotor slots have been selected; slot dimensions are further optimized to avoid the saturation in tooth and yoke areas of stator and rotor laminations. Higher grade non- oriented steel laminations of lower thickness have been used in stator and rotor to reduce the core losses at higher frequencies.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0154
Bharathimohan M.P, S Neelakrishnan
The main purpose of this paper is to study the wear and corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) coating onto automotive parts such as piston rings, piston and cutting tool etc. Conventionally titanium and its alloys are desirable materials in modern construction and vehicles. They have a high specific strength and very good corrosion resistance, but they have low load bearing capacity and poor tribological properties as, for example, high friction coefficient, low resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear and higher cost. Zirconia has a very low thermal conductivity, which has led to its use as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) in jet and diesel engines to allow operation at higher temperatures. Also they have high specific strength, low friction coefficient and having very good corrosion resistance. So Zirconium coating is preferred over titanium.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0156
Abhishek Shah
This paper focuses on emergency charging of electric vehicle by another healthy electric vehicle. First, the charging ports of both vehicles are connected then the vehicle which has low charge will give charging request another vehicle for charging. Battery voltage is step up or step down to match both battery voltages accordingly. The battery will get charge till the set charge level by user. The user can define the set charge level of based on nearest charging station distance or destination where both the vehicle has to reach. This Car to Car charging will became beneficial when number of electric vehicle on road will increase. National Mission for Electrical Mobility 2020 is the initiative taken by Department of Heavy industry, Government of India and according to NMEM 2020 roadmap there will be 6 -7 million units of electric and hybrid vehicle on road by 2020. Such high number of units will demand for charging infrastructure.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0159
Wei Liu
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used widely, low pollution; quickly replenish energy are acknowledged as the ideal power supply of car. For batteries, however, about 40% ~ 50% of the energy dissipates as heat energy, the current through the single-phase heat transfer of cooling water to cool the fuel cell. In working process, the following disadvantages would appear: uneven distribution of temperature in the fuel cell, if the local temperature is too high, this will worsen the performance of the fuel cell. In order to ensure the fuel cell in the best working temperature range between 80 ℃ ~ 90 ℃ and keep efficient work. Of this study is to design a two phase water cooling system. First of all, the analysis of thermal power characteristics of fuel cell under different road conditions. Then heat transfer model of the heat exchange system is established and the expander features of recovery of waste heat.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0160
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
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