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2016-04-08
Book
In “Dynamic Wireless Charging Technology”, NextEnergy in Detroit, Michigan explains the difference between static and dynamic electric vehicle charging, and a professor from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology describes their experience with dynamically charging buses already in use in their campus. This episode highlights: • The technology allowing vehicles to be charged while in motion, through wireless power transfer • Why this type of technology will help make vehicles more efficient and easier to charge, as they will require smaller batteries • How the OLEV (Online Electric Vehicle) works following the trail of power transmitting coils
2016-04-08
Book
In “EV Charging and the Vehicle-to-Grid Potential” (10:29), engineers from NextEnergy show how users can take advantage of electric vehicles not only as green transportation, but also as power suppliers. The case study of a bi-directional vehicle-to-home charging project is presented in detail. Qualcomm’s Halo technology for wireless EV charging is also demonstrated in this episode. This episode highlights: • NextHome, an experiment that makes bi-directional charging a reality • How to integrate energy systems to manage energy flows from the car, the house and the grid • How to manage the way we can purchase energy for different purposes when prices are the most affordable
2016-04-08
WIP Standard
J1930
This SAE Recommended Practice supersedes SAE J1930 Apr 2002, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-2. This document is applicable to all light-duty gasoline and diesel passenger vehicles and trucks, and to heavy-duty gasoline vehicles. Specific applications of this document include diagnostic, service and repair manuals, bulletins and updates, training manuals, repair data bases, underhood emission labels, and emission certification applications. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J1930-DA Digital Annexes, which contains all of the information previously contained within the SAE J1930 tables. These documents focus on diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic systems, and therefore also contains related mechanical terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-06
Standard
J2202_201604
This SAE Recommended Practice provides general guidelines on the material selection, construction and qualification of components and wiring systems used to construct wiring systems for Heavy Duty Vehicles The guidelines are limited to primary wiring systems of less than 50 V and includes cable sizes American Wire Gage 20 to AWG 4 on heavy-duty on-highway trucks. The document identifies appropriate operating performances requirements. This document excludes the male to female connection of the SAE J560 connectors.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/11
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the J2735 Signal Request and Signal Status messages in the standard relating to signalized systems status. It primary content will deal with explaining and demonstrating by small working examples how these messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. Particular attention will be paid to the interaction between the SAE work and the relevant NTCIP standards used in the signal control system. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a brief summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
Standard
J3071_201604
This SAE Battery Identification and Cross Contamination Prevention document is intended to provide information that may be applicable to all types of Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) devices. It is important to develop a system that can facilitate sorting by chemistry. The recycler is interested in the chemistry of the RESS. This is true for the recyclers of Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium etc. Thus recyclers of RESS will receive RESS from automotive, commercial, and industrial applications. These RESS have the potential to be contaminated with a RESS of an incompatible chemistry. It is recognized that mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate the introduction of incompatible chemistries into a given recycling stream would also benefit safety and the environment.
2016-04-05
Standard
EIA649-2
This Standard applies to all products produced by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers. This Standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and suppliers/service providers to the extent specified in their agreements with NASA. This Standard may be cited in the CM requirements of NASA Headquarters, NASA Centers, Programs, Projects, and Supplier agreements.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/10
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the current MAP and SPAT message content found in the recently published J2735. It’s primary content will deal with better explaining and demonstrating by small working examples of how suitable messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a briefs summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1170
George Dixon, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart
Abstract The TC48 project is developing a state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The modelling work was used in order to support and justify the design choices made. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The physical embodiment of the design is not reported in this paper. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1161
Akira Mori
Abstract In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1155
Toru Nakamura, Takahiro Misawa, Yusuke Futakuchi, Kensuke Kamichi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1158
Toshiaki Watanabe, Masaya Ishida
Abstract Wireless charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) employing the resonant magnetic coupling method and using induction coils have been intensively studied in recent years. Since this method requires kW class high power to be transmitted using resonant magnetic coupling in the high frequency range, it is necessary to pay attention to the leakage of the magnetic field generated by the coil current, and to its influence on surrounding objects, particularly human bodies. Noting that acceptable values for human body exposure to electromagnetic fields have previously been issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) as guidelines, we have developed a method for predicting product compliance with those guidelines at the basic design development stage.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1182
Andrej Ivanco, Balan Mariappan Selvaraj, Kawshik Murali, Arjun Narayanan, Avik Sarkar, Aviral Singh, Akshay Soni, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1179
Adrian Patzak, Florian Bachheibl, Andreas Baumgardt, Gurakuq Dajaku, Oleg Moros, Dieter Gerling
Abstract State-of-the-art electrical drives for electric vehicles (EV) run on a battery voltage above 60 V (HV). This paper presents an alternative approach for use in future EVs: The Intelligent Stator Cage Drive (ISCAD) - an extra-low voltage drive for highest performance at battery voltages below 60 V (LV). First of all, the novel drive components are introduced with references to previously published papers on more concept details. A highly parallel set-up is chosen for maximum current capability and extremely low resistances. The novel 60-phase induction machine is made of solid aluminum bars instead of copper windings in the stator and a common squirrel cage rotor. The MOSFET-based inverter individually supplies every single stator bar in order to shape an extraordinarily smooth air gap magnetic field.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1177
Aditya Dhand, Keith Pullen
Abstract There are different types of energy storage devices which are used in today’s hybrid and electric vehicles. Batteries, ultra capacitors and high speed flywheels are the most commonly used ones. While batteries and supercapacitors store energy in the form of electric energy, the flywheel (FW) is the only device that keeps the energy stored in the original form of mechanical energy the same as the moving vehicle. The flywheel needs to be coupled to the driveshaft of the vehicle in a manner which allows it to vary its speed independently of the moving vehicle in order to vary its energy content. In other words a continuously variable transmission (CVT) is needed. The common mechanical variators used in automotive applications, namely the rolling traction drives and the belt drives, have the disadvantage that their speed ratio range defined as the maximum to minimum speed ratio is generally not sufficient for flywheel energy storage system (FESS).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1205
Chih-Hung (Erik) Yen, Taeyoung Han, Shailendra Kaushik, Bahram Khalighi
Abstract As one of many pack-level battery simulation approaches developed within the General Motors-led Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project, the system approach treats the entire battery pack as a dynamic system which includes multiple engineering disciplines for simulation. It is the most efficient approach of all the CAEBAT battery pack-level approaches in terms of computational time and resources. This paper reports the application of the system approach for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The results using the system approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1204
Dongchang Pan, Sichuan Xu, Chunjing Lin, Guofeng Chang
Abstract As one of the most crucial components in electric vehicles, power batteries generate abundant heat during charging and discharging processes. Thermal management system (TMS), which is designed to keep the battery cells within an optimum temperature range and to maintain an even temperature distribution from cell to cell, is vital for the high efficiency, long calendar life and reliable safety of these power batteries. With the desirable features of low system complexity, light weight, high energy efficiency and good battery thermal uniformity, thermal management using composite phase change materials (PCMs) has drawn great attention in the past fifteen years. In the hope of supplying helpful guidelines for the design of the PCM-based TMSs, this work begins with the summarization of the most commonly applied heat transfer enhancement methods (i.e., the use of thermally conductive particles, metal fin, expanded graphite matrix and metal foam) for PCMs by different researchers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1202
Jihas Khan
Abstract With the advent of hybrid and electric cars battery monitoring systems and battery management systems have become bundled with more and more sophisticated algorithms and specifications. The validation of these systems are a head ache for OEMs and Tier ones considering the massive battery, high voltage and the current involved with the real loads directly or in directly connected to them. This paper is aimed at providing an intuitive explanation of these challenges and solutions which employ HILS for the component level validation of the above units. . Conventional validation for these systems produce test results much later in the embedded product development life cycle which calls for an additional over head of cost, resource, time and effort. A Proposed solution is to find the accuracy of SOC, SOH estimation algorithm in the battery monitoring sensor which usually will be clamped to the real battery itself.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1200
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Dong Gao
Abstract Whether the available energy of the on-board battery pack is enough for the driver’s next trip is a major contributor in slowing the growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs). What’s more, the actual capacity of the battery pack depend on so many factors that a real-time estimation of the state of charge of the battery pack is often difficult. We proposed a big-data based algorithm to build a battery pack dynamic model for the online state of charge estimation and a stochastic model for the energy consumption prediction. And the good performance of sensors, high-bandwidth communication systems and cloud servers make it convenient to measure and collect the related data, which are grouped into three categories: standard, historical and real-time data. First a resistance-capacitance ( RC )-equivalent circuit is taken consideration to simplify the battery dynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1199
Yao Hong, Cheol W. Lee
Abstract This paper begins with a baseline multi-objective optimization problem for the lithium-ion battery cell. Maximizing the energy per unit separator area and minimizing the mass per unit separator area are considered as the objectives when the thickness and the porosity of the positive electrode are chosen as design variables in the baseline problem. By employing a reaction zone model of a Graphite/Iron Phosphate Lithium-ion Cell and the Genetic Algorithm, it is shown the shape of the Pareto optimal front for the formulated optimization takes a convex form. The identified shape of the Pareto optimal front is expected to guide Design of Experiments (DOE) and product design. Compared with the conventional studies whose optimizations are based on a single objective of maximizing the specific energy, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach offers more flexibility to the product designers when trade-off between conflicting objectives is required.
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