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Viewing 91 to 120 of 151
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0006
V. S. S. Pavan Kumar Hari, Avanish Tripathi, G Narayanan
High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. This paper proposes a method to determine the mechanical parameters, namely the moment of inertia and frictional coefficient of the induction motor drive. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a $5$hp induction motor drive are presented.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0009
Shimin V V, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
In the current world scenario of increasing environmental issues and oil prices, development of electric vehicles (EV) have gained considerable importance and attention. Power electronics will play a key role in making highly efficient electric vehicles which are low in emissions and having better fuel economy. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of power electronics technology in electric vehicles and also discusses the role of power electronics in achieving the vision of Indian Government in the field of EVs by 2020. The paper concludes with a discussion of expected future trends in power electronics technology that will improve the markets for electric vehicles in coming years.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0011
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Riaz Ahamed
Component level validation plays a very important role in an Electric Vehicles during development of a new platform.. Validating the product for their mission life and finding the early failures that can occur in field and correcting the failures at early stages proves to be very helpful in improving product Reliability and confidence. Product durability test is one of the most important tests in validation. Durability testing is the evaluation of duration of time that a product, part, material, or system can meet its performance requirements against its mission life. Durability is conducted on every component, module and also at system and vehicle level. Transmission is commonly used in all the automobile vehicles to transmit power. Transmission in Electric vehicle is a single gear ratio, two stage transmission transmitting power from motor to axle.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0013
Preeti Agarwal, Vineeta Agarwal
For rural or remote areas the single-phase grid has been considered as an alternative especially when compared with the three-phase solution due to its lower cost feature. The loads connected in a three-phase arrangement present some advantages when compared with single-phase loads especially for motors due to their constant torque, constant power, reduced size, etc. High speed machines are used in different applications such as dental drills and medical surgery tools, compressors and turbochargers, blowers, turbo molecular vacuum pumps, compact electrical power suppliers and micro co-generation gas turbines, aircraft electrical starter generator systems, flywheel energy storages and machine tool spindles and electric propulsion systems. This paper proposes a single-phase to three-phase Cycloinverter capable of generating high frequency three-phase output using self-commutated semiconductor devices.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0012
Dheeraj Narang, Subhash Chavadaki
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and now number more than a billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles. This document gives information about the usage of powered bicycles based on renewable energy systems. The renewable energy which is discussed in this paper is using solar energy. Solar panels are an effective and efficient way of using solar energy. The bicycle uses the solar panels to charge the batteries which intern are used to power a motor, driving the bicycles. It also gives a report on the efficiency of batteries and solar panels. Explanatory material is followed by a worked example.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0017
Jiten Chavda, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande, Rakeshkumar Shankar
This paper presents the speed control of sensored BLDC motor using PWM techniques. The BLDC motor with EV or HEV application uses the position sensor for the operation and speed control of motor. In this paper the simulation of BLDC motor is done using soft commutating technique (Proteus Design Suit & Keil uVision3 software). A prototype is implemented to verify the performance of proposed new approach for control of sensored BLDC motor of 48V, 5A, 250W manufactured for E-BIKES. The speed control and real time measurement is obtained and compared and found satisfactory performance.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0020
Abhishek Shah, Sanjay Phegade
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0022
Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Tanmoy Dey, Kaushik Mukherjee, Narayan Kar
Understanding the merits of six-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IP-MSMs) over their three-phase counterparts, this paper analyses the six-phase machine for optimal parameter and performance considerations. Initially, mathematical model of the six-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory and performance predicted by the model is verified under identical operating conditions with those using a machine designed and tested through finite element analysis (FEA). The developed and verified machine model is then employed to exclusively derive the relation between various machine parameters in order to obtain optimum flux weakening region in the six-phase IPMSM.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0025
Guang-Il Jeong, Zhenyao Xu, Donghee Lee, Jin-Woo Ahn
This paper presents a novel single-phase 4/4 poles hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM) intended for high speed operation used in hammer drill. This single-phase hybrid SRM with special non-uniform air-gap design is driven by the simplest converter, unipolar converter, which allows the motor to operate at high speed with low switching loss. Compare with the conventional single-phase SRM, it has an increased torque density and relatively low torque ripple by properly making use of the cogging torque generated by permanent magnets. The proposed hybrid SRM design has the self-start capability due to the parking function of permanent magnets. To verify the effectiveness of the design, finite element analysis software (ANSOFT) is employed to get the electrical characteristics of the proposed motor. Based on the analysis, a prototype motor is manufactured and operated to catch the experimental results.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0023
Shaikh Imran Munaf Pinjari
The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of three phase induction motor that feeds from LV side of distribution transformer and auto recloser operates on the HV side of the same transformer. Due operating cycle (0.2s-10s-13s) of recloser motor subjected to single phasing for a moment as it open the line & again closes the line the induction motor may be stalled or ride though as reported in recent literature. As per recent literature the 10 hp star connected loaded three phase induction motor connected to delta star distribution transformer is stalled during second closing sequence (0.2s-10s-13s). The symmetrical component theory is applied and performance of induction motor discuss in three condition 1) Operation of at steady state condition 2) During single phasing due to auto recloser operation.3) During stalled or Locked rotor condition.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0032
Bhupesh Agrawal, Jim Shoemaker, Shashikiran HK
Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) Synchronous Motors are considered as good candidate for hybrid electric vehicle traction drive application due to their unique merits like high power density, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. It is very critical for an IPM machine design to have less torque ripple, iron losses, high power density and high efficiency but these critical performance parameters are sensitive to design parameters. It is critical to understand the sensitivity of airgap, magnet angle and base speed on the performance of IPM Machine. A study was carried out by varying these parameters and variations in the critical performance parameters are reported in this paper. A design guideline is proposed to help designers in their approach to achieve the optimal design of IPM motors.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0037
Jiten Kishorbhai Chavda, Varsha Shah
India is developing country with tremendous growth in automobile sector. 8 to 9 million new two wheelers and over a million four wheelers are every year come on the road. Penetration of EVs, HEVs(full forms) and PHEVs has large scope with good environment friendly support and energy saving prospectus. Initial and replacement cost of battery is one of the biggest economic criteria for the same. Hybrid power source for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs gives enhance performance which increase life of battery and reduce overall cost of battery operated vehicles. Accurate parameter estimation for battery used in electrical vehicles is essential for designing the hybrid power source with fuel cell and battery or ultra-capacitor and battery to improve the performance of battery operated EVs, HEVs and PHEVs.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0034
Rakesh Roy, Ankit Dalal, Praveen Kumar
The main objective of this paper is to perform the steady state analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) to check their behaviour and to analyze its controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications. Based on the rated power of the machine, battery ratings are chosen. According to that maximum current will be derived, which will give maximum torque. From the maximum torque, the base speed is determined. The minimum torque reference will come as a ratio of maximum torque. From the speed-torque characteristics that minimum torque will give the maximum speed of the motor. So, from the overall analysis, the usable area of speed-torque characteristics of PMSM is determined. This process is done for different PMSM of different geometry and the controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications are compared for all models.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0045
Harald Dietel, Norbert Scholz
Mobile electric drives, power inverters, batteries and battery management systems, electric power management and safety, cabling and connection technologies.Patented and simple to operate electric 'Power take-off' for off-highway vehicles. Electrical system design, embeded controller software, model based software development, vehicle dynamic modelling. Torque and speed control. Integration know-how. All integrated motor drive unit with IP69K protection. High power and torque density thru active winding cooling. Speacial inverter design for demanding mobile applications. Various drive configurations. Excellent weight to torque ration. Brushless PM motors.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0060
Shyam Kulkarni, Amitabh Vaidya, R Naveen
Electric vehicles contain complicated circuits connected by different cables. Vehicle has both High Voltage & Low Voltage connections. Load current varies from 5A in low current applications to around 200A load during fast charging. Hence, various sizes of cables are required to meet the safety and thermal requirements. Current carrying capacity in the cable is very important aspect in the electric vehicles from safety and life perspective. Wrong cable selection can be very dangerous in case of continuous current applications. If the size of the cable is less than required maximum continuous current rating of the circuit, over load current may lead to temperature rise, melting of the cables and also cause short circuits. This may cause fire hazards and stall the intended operation. Hence many factors are to be considered while selection of cables If the size of the cables is more than the current rating of the circuit, cables will not be fully utilized which is uneconomical.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0061
Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Varun Mohan, Vinod Shigarkanthi, Rahul Jangid
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy for passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. Amongst different possible hybrids the mid hybrid systems seem to be viable option for Indian market considering the cost involved. One of the key requirements for the hybrid system is the right size of the motor for a mild hybrid vehicle which directly decides the size of the entire hybrid system including battery and power electronics. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the correct sizing of the electric motor under Indian driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The motor sizing for emerging markets is a trade-off study between cost involved versus the level of electrification. Hence the sizing of the electric machine is both critical and challenging.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0054
Hruday Konduri
This paper introduces different types of architectures in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.It is intended to provide a fundamental level of understanding of modelling and designing by using Simulink to design efficient components in HEV. Modeling different power train architectures including battery electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and plug-in-hybrid vehicles,constructing power loss models of every components including conventional engines, traction motor, driveline by using simulink.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0056
Abhishek Kumar Saxena, Jaydeep Shah, Ambica Tyagi
Batteries mounted on electric vehicles (EVs) are often damaged by high peak power and rapid charging/discharging cycles, which are originated from repetitive acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. To reduce battery damage, the battery/ultracapacitor (SC) hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been considered as a solution because the SC can act as a buffer against large magnitudes and rapid fluctuations in power increasing the overall efficiency of an electric vehicle. In this paper we propose a HESS system for the hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and also state some control strategies for the hybrid electric vehicle. Environmentally-friendly and renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important in industrial, commercial and residential applications. The shift to electric mobility has become necessary on account of fast depletion of fossil fuels, rapid increase in energy costs, impact of transportation on the environment and concerns over climate change.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0067
Shrikant Uttam Gunjal
A Hybrid Vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries, which can be fully charged through normal wall sockets, is termed as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). It stands in between the conventional Hybrid and the All Electric Vehicle. This paper throws light on what exactly is a Plug-in Hybrid, its classification, what are its advantages, what are the challenges, the Future of Plug-ins, etc. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (referred to as PHEV hereafter) is just a normal hybrid but what makes it different from the other hybrids is its method of recharging the batteries. A PHEV, unlike a normal hybrid, can be charged from a regular wall socket. A PHEV is defined by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 as a vehicle that draws motive power from a battery with a capacity of at least 4 kilowatt hours, can be recharged from an external source of electricity for motive power and is a light-, medium-, or heavy-duty motor vehicle or non-road vehicle.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0075
Karthikeyan P, Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Arup Jana, Kumpatla Naidu, Pankaj Sarwe
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy of the passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. One of the options to increase the fuel economy is to electrify the powertrain by having an electric machine (motor) and an energy storage system (battery). There is wide range of Hybrid solutions ranging from Micro Hybrid to Strong hybrids and electric vehicles.. There are multiple configurations in each type of configuration. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the appropriate architecture best suited for the India driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The type of architecture directly determines the overall cost of the hybrid system and will impact the rate of returns to the customer.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0071
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0072
Sridhar Balaguru
Abstract: Hybrid vehicles are normally associated with a challenge of higher vehicle weight due to additional parts like Motor, Battery and controller over conventional engine vehicle. This introduces adverse effects like poor vehicle dynamics, higher fuel consumption, etc. Hence, weight reduction in the conventional vehicle system is essential while converting to hybrid electric vehicle. This paper explains the challenges in hybrid vehicle system's weight reduction along with integration and the actions taken to overcome them. The focus is more towards structural parts like frame, swingarm and wheel weight reduction (~5%) without compromise on strength and stiffness. The solutions were verified through simulation & actual vehicle testing. Digest: The automotive industry in the world, focusses more on "Energy efficient" (EE) & "Green environment" (GE). The demand for EE & GE calls for different vehicle forms. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) plays a vital role among them.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0083
Ezhil Joy
The increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in real time may result in voltage rise or drop at the distribution node (DN). An idea of active and reactive power exchange through EV charging station (CS) for voltage regulation at the DN is presented. A CS is modeled with multiple charging systems which enables EVs of different battery ratings to charge and discharge. The individual charging systems are composed of grid connected bidirectional three phase ac-dc and a series connected dc-dc converter with suitable controllers. The complete CS is externally controlled by a fuzzy controller and an aggregator to handle multiple EVs arrived at the CS. Voltage profile evaluation have been done with different power transfer approaches to foresee the CS behavior. Validation of the study is carried out using a realistic distribution system of a typical city considering 35 EVs of different battery ratings connected at the DN via CS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0085
Bhanwar Lal Bishnoi
The widely adoption of Electric Vehicle (EV) has been identified as a major challenge for future development of smart grids where effective integration of Renewable Energy e.g. Solar Net Metering can make Smart Grid self-healing & sustainable. The ever increasing electric vehicle charging further increases the energy demand. This paper reports the development of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an effective tool to reshape the dynamic load profile of EV charging by adopting appropriate demand side management strategy. This paper presents a total solution for EV charging service platform (AMI-EV) based on Sub GHz RF Mesh Network with Routers and Collectors with Head End System ( HES & MDMS ), power line carrier communications (PLC) and internet communication. The Hybrid of RF & PLC will create high Reliability data availability to HES.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0079
Bharat Singh, Mukesh Singh, Anish Jindal, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar
In smart homes, consumers have the advantage of proper management of smart devices by scheduling them in different time slots in a day. Scheduling is done based on the price of electricity offered in a particular time slot which results in better cost and power saving. In this paper, the design of the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS) is presented which gives the choice between comfort or cost saving to the consumers. The role of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) i.e. Solar PV panels in the optimal scheduling of devices and electric vehicles (EVs) is also studied.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0081
Nupur Rathore, Priyanka Bhartiya, Deepak Fulwani
A photovoltaic source's behaviour is strongly dependent on the weather. Hence, the converters used in conjunction with the PV sources are required to be tested for the different operating conditions of PV. These testing under real conditions are not encouraged on account of the space requirement, cost attached and the fact that repeating the ambient conditions, for the tests, is next to impossible. Therefore an Emulator, which behaves electrically in a similar way as that of a PV source, comes handy to perform these testing. In this paper a DC-DC Buck-boost Converter based Photovoltaic source emulator design is presented. It takes solar radiation and temperature, representing the weather conditions, as user inputs. The computation of operating point is done according to the load resistance and required I-V characteristics of PV source. PI Controller and Sliding mode control schemes have been implemented, separately, on the FPGA based NI GPIC card.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0090
Megha Singh, Ritesh Keshri
With the increase in demand for power, researches are going on to find optional and renewable sources of energy, piezoelectric energy being one of them. Piezoelectric energy harness has emerged as one of the prime methods for transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy. This paper deals with the on-board power sources which can replace the batteries, through wheel dynamics of an electric assisted bicycle, piezoelectric material being embedded in the rim of the front wheel of the bicycle. A brief discussion is also presented on the selection of piezoelectric material. Analytical equivalent models of piezoelectric materials are also provided along with the net dynamic force which will be exerted on the piezoelectric material at the point of contact of the front wheel with the ground. Various simulation results are also included to estimate the net power generated by each piezoelectric crystal.
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