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2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1987
Mingming Yin, Serhiy Bozhko, Seang Shen Yeoh
Abstract The future aircraft electrical power system is expected to be more efficient, safer, simpler in servicing and easier in maintenance. As a result, many existing hydraulic and pneumatic power driven systems are being replaced by their electrical counterparts. This trend is known as a move towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA). As a result, a large number of new electrical loads have been introduced in order to power many primary functions including actuation, de-icing, cabin air-conditioning, and engine start. Therefore electric power generation systems have a key role in supporting this technological trend. Advances in modern power electronics allow the concept of starter/generator (S/G) which enables electrical engine start and power generation using the same electrical machine. This results in substantial improvements in power density and reduced overall weight.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1990
Nisha Kondrath, Nathaniel Smith
Abstract In aerospace applications, it is important to have efficient, small, affordable, and reliable power conversion units with high power density to supply a wide range of loads. Use of wide-band gap devices, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) devices, in power electronic converters is expected to reduce the device losses and need for extensive thermal management systems in power converters, as well as facilitate high-frequency operation, thereby reducing the passive component sizes and increasing the power density. A performance comparison of state-of-the art power devices in a 10 kW full-bridge dc-dc buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and at switching frequencies above 100 kHz will be presented in this manuscript. Power devices under consideration are silicon (Si) IGBT with Si antiparallel diodes, Si IGBT with SiC antiparallel diodes, Si MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs, and enhancement-mode GaN transistors.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2023
Timothy Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Mark Bodie, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2028
Maher A. Hasan, Eric Walters, Michael Boyd, Jason Wells, Jon Zumberge, Chad Miller
Abstract Experimental Hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL) testing utilizing signal and/or power emulation imposes a hard real-time requirement on models of emulated subsystems, directly limiting their fidelity to what can be achieved in real-time on the available computational resources. Most real-time simulators are CPU-based, for which the overhead of an instruction-set architecture imposes a lower limit on the simulation step size, resulting in limited model bandwidth. For power-electronic systems with high-frequency switching, this limit often necessitates using average-value models, significantly reducing fidelity, in order to meet the real-time requirement. An alternative approach emerging recently is to use FPGAs as the computational platform, which, although offering orders-of-magnitudes faster execution due to their parallel architecture, they are more difficult to program and their limited fabric space bounds the size of models that can be simulated.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2030
Jon Zumberge, Michael Boyd, Raul Ordonez
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to become highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits of those complex controls and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop plant models and determine the uncertainty of those models to predict performance and stability of the control algorithms. A process of model and control algorithm validation for a dc-dc boost converter circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper is based on MIL-STD 3022 with emphasis on requirements settings and the testing process. The key contribution of this paper is the process for model and control algorithm validation, specifically a method for decomposing the problem into model and control algorithm validation stages.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
Abstract This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2051
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
Abstract The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
CURRENT
2016-09-20
Standard
AMS4970K
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars, wire, forgings up to 4.000 inches (101.60 mm) inclusive and forging stock.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2058
Thibaut Billard, Cedric Abadie, Bouazza Taghia
Abstract The present paper reports non-electrically intrusive partial discharge investigations on an aeronautic motor. Relevancy, robustness and repeatability of partial discharge testing procedures, both on insulating materials characterization and on operating aeronautic equipment are essential to ensure reliability of the aircraft systems. The aim of this paper is to be the very first step of defining such procedures and the associated test equipment. To do so, the paper will start by providing an understanding of partial discharge phenomena and will review typical more electrical aircraft architecture. Key characteristics causing partial discharge risk to increase will be highlighted. The impact of harness length, high performance power electronics and voltage level increase on insulation system is demonstrated.
2016-09-19
Article
The debate seems settled about when self-driving vehicles are coming: bet on sooner. But the industry is also debating whether to skip SAE Level 3 entirely and move directly to Level 4 autonomy.
2016-09-19
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1948
Axel Freiwald, Gunn Hwang
Abstract Vehicle manufacturers are suffering from increasing expenses for fixing software issues. This fact is mainly driving their desire to use mobile communication channels for doing Software Updates Over The Air (SOTA). Software updates today are typically done at vehicle service stations by connecting the vehicles’ electronic network via the On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface to a service computer. These operations are done under the control of trained technicians. SOTA means that the update process must get handled by the driver. Two critical aspects need to get considered when doing SOTA at Electronic Brake Control (EBC) systems. Both will determine the acceptance of SOTA by legal authorities and by the passengers: The safety and security of the vehicle The availability of the vehicle for the passengers The security aspect includes the necessity to protect the vehicle and the manufacturers IP from unwanted attacks.
2016-09-18
Book
Joerg Schaeuffele, Thomas Zurawka
Since the early seventies, the development of the automobile has been characterized by a steady increase in the deploymnet of onboard electronics systems and software. This trend continues unabated and is driven by rising end-user demands and increasingly stringent environmental requirements. Today, almost every function onboard the modern vehicle is electronically controlled or monitored. The software-based implementation of vehicle functions provides for unparalleled freedoms of concept and design. However, automobile development calls for the accommodation of contrasting prerequisites – such as higher demands on safety and reliability vs. lower cost ceilings, longer product life cycles vs. shorter development times – along with growling proliferation of model variants. Automotive Software Engineering has established its position at the center of these seemingly conflicting opposites.
2016-09-16
Article
Eaton’s (St. Louis, MO) new Bussmann series electric vehicle (EV) fuses are specifically designed to protect sensitive electric and hybrid automotive equipment, including high-voltage, high-capacity batteries, power-conversion equipment, contactors, cabling and other auxiliary circuits.
2016-09-16
Article
Manipulator position sensing is a key issue in the study of hydraulic excavator automation. A neural network-based vision system was developed to estimate the boom, arm, and bucket cylinder displacements of an excavator manipulator during a grading operation simulation.
CURRENT
2016-09-16
Standard
AIR6114
This document was prepared by the SAE AS-1B1 IMM Task Group to explain and document background information and design decisions made during the development of AS5726. This handbook is published separately to preserve information that is not required or provided in the AS5726 but may be important to system designers to ensure interoperability between the Micro Munition Host and Micro Munition. As a handbook, it cannot be invoked as a requirement in a contract. The structure and numbering of this document mirrors that of AS5726 for the convenience of readers. Headings such as “Requirements” in this handbook should not be interpreted as invoking requirements.
CURRENT
2016-09-16
Standard
J1752/2_201609
This SAE Recommended Practice defines a method for evaluating the near field electric or magnetic component of the electromagnetic field at the surface of an integrated circuit (IC). This technique is capable of providing a detailed pattern of the RF sources internal to the IC. The resolution of the pattern is determined by the characteristics of the probes used and the precision of the mechanical probe positioner. The method is usable over the 10 MHz to 3 GHz frequency range with existing probe technology. The probe is mechanically scanned according to a programmed pattern in a plane parallel or perpendicular to the IC surface and the data is computer processed to provide a color-enhanced representation of field strength at the scan frequency. This procedure is applicable to measurements from an IC mounted on any circuit board that is accessible to the scan probe. For comparisons, the standardized test board shall be used.
CURRENT
2016-09-16
Standard
J1654_201609
This SAE Standard covers unshielded cable intended for use at a nominal system voltage up to 600 V or 1000 V (AC rms or DC). It is intended for use in surface vehicle electrical systems.
2016-09-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9019
Jan Grüner, Stefanie Marker
Abstract Standardized driving cycles, such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) in Europe or the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) in the U.S. are an important tool to certify new vehicle models. They are used to estimate real world fuel consumption as well as real world emissions. The latter has recently become more important with the stronger focus on green driving, resulting in much stricter emission regulations, while fuel consumption still remains one of the most important aspects in terms of economy and long term costs for the vehicle owner. However these cycles do not reflect the actual behaviour of the driver or regional influences (i.e. topography). Therefore, manufacturers have developed their own usage and test cycles and are able to extract data from the vehicle to analyse the individual driving behaviour and vehicle usage. Apart from that, Naturalistic Driving Observation (NDO) is interested in understanding the driver.
2016-09-15
WIP Standard
AS5756/7A
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-09-15
WIP Standard
AIR5575A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses the often overlooked relationship between hot stamp marking and the environmental conditions that contribute aircraft wiring problems and discusses current beliefs of military service experts, regulatory agencies and industry standard writing bodies about the potential hazards imposed by the hot stamping process.

Although prominent members of the aerospace community are taking aggressive measures to phase out the hot stamping of interconnecting wire, the process lingers on, particularly within the operations of smaller manufacturers, modification shops, and operator maintenance facilities. In recent years, non-impact marking processes have been developed that can mark virtually all of the common wire types used in aerospace interconnect applications. The purpose of this document is to encourage full conversion to non-impact marking processes in order to reduce the probability of causing damage to the wire insulation.

2016-09-15
WIP Standard
ARP5369B
These guidelines have been written to provide process information regarding the hot stamp method of marking wire identification directly on aerospace wires and cables. This document is not intended to encourage the use of hot stamp marking or to endorse the related process. This method of marking wire identification may be prohibited on any aerospace vehicle wiring that is required to conform to the provisions of MIL-W-5088L or AS 50881. Methods which do not deform wire or cable insulation, such as Ink Jet, Dot Matrix or UV Laser marking are encouraged as a means of minimizing the possibility of insulation damage, particularly on insulation constructions of less than 0.010 in wall thickness. In recognition that the present use of hot stamp wire marking is widespread and may continue for an extended period, the guidelines provided in this document are intended to provide process control information necessary to minimize the possibility of insulation damage.
2016-09-14
Article
Increasing its presence in a region some are beginning to refer to a “Silicon Valley – East,” Germany-based auto supplier Bosch this week opened an expanded technical center in Pittsburgh, PA, doubling the size of its longstanding technical facility at another site in the city that has become a hotbed of autonomous-vehicle and robotics development.
2016-09-14
Article
A high-fidelity test bed is used to conduct cyber assurance testing for commercial vehicles including long-haul trucks.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS50861B
This specification covers polyvinyl chloride insulated single conductor electric wires made with tincoated copper conductors or silver-coated copper alloy conductors as specified in the applicable detail specification. The polyvinyl chloride insulation of these wires may be used alone or in combination with other insulating or protective materials.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS81044B
This specification covers single conductor electric wires made as specified in the applicable specification sheet with tin-coated, silver-coated, or nickel-coated copper or copper alloy conductors insulated with crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene. The crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene may be used alone or in combination with other insulation materials as specified in the specification sheet.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AIR4886A
The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for Real-Time Communication Protocols (RTCP). Systems for real-time applications are characterized by the presence of hard deadlines where failure to meet a deadline must be considered a system fault. These requirements have been drive predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace type military platforms and commercial aircraft, but are generally applicable to any distributed, real-time, control systems. These requirements are primarily targeted for the Transport and Network Layers of peer to peer protocols, as referenced in the Open System Interconnect Reference Model (2.2.1 and 2.2.2), developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). These requirements are intended to complement SAE AS4074 (2.1.1) and AS4075 (2.1.2), and future SAE communications standards.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS15532A
The emphasis in this standard is the development of data word and message formats for AS15531 or MIL-STD-1553 data bus applications. This standard is intended as a guide for the designer to identify standard data words and messages for use in avionics systems and subsystems. These standard words and messages, as well as the doumentation format for interface control document (ICD) sheets, provide the basis for defining 15531/1553 systems. Also provided in this standard is the method for developing additional data word formats and messages that may be required by a particular system but are not covered by the formats provided herein. It is essential that any new word formats or message formats that are developed for a 15531/1553 application follow the fundamental guidelines estalbished in this standard in order to ease future standardization of these words an messages. The standard word formats presented represent a composite result of studies conducted by the U.S.
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