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Viewing 91 to 120 of 22049
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0072
Sridhar Balaguru
Abstract: Hybrid vehicles are normally associated with a challenge of higher vehicle weight due to additional parts like Motor, Battery and controller over conventional engine vehicle. This introduces adverse effects like poor vehicle dynamics, higher fuel consumption, etc. Hence, weight reduction in the conventional vehicle system is essential while converting to hybrid electric vehicle. This paper explains the challenges in hybrid vehicle system's weight reduction along with integration and the actions taken to overcome them. The focus is more towards structural parts like frame, swingarm and wheel weight reduction (~5%) without compromise on strength and stiffness. The solutions were verified through simulation & actual vehicle testing. Digest: The automotive industry in the world, focusses more on "Energy efficient" (EE) & "Green environment" (GE). The demand for EE & GE calls for different vehicle forms. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) plays a vital role among them.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0075
Karthikeyan P, Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Arup Jana, Kumpatla Naidu, Pankaj Sarwe
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy of the passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. One of the options to increase the fuel economy is to electrify the powertrain by having an electric machine (motor) and an energy storage system (battery). There is wide range of Hybrid solutions ranging from Micro Hybrid to Strong hybrids and electric vehicles.. There are multiple configurations in each type of configuration. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the appropriate architecture best suited for the India driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The type of architecture directly determines the overall cost of the hybrid system and will impact the rate of returns to the customer.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0074
Ross Milligan, Tariq Muneer, Ian Smith
Abstract In the UK, a quarter of all CO2 emissions come from transport and approx. 90% of this comes from road vehicles. According to the UK Government (a) at the end of 2013 there were 35 million vehicles licensed for use on the roads of UK and during 2013, over 4300 new ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEV – vehicles with emissions of CO2 below 75 g/km, or fully electric) were registered for the first time, this is 25% up on 2012. This included over 3600 cars and vans eligible for UK government ‘plug-in grants’ this too is up, nearly 50% more than in 2012. The largest increase for individual models were the Renault Zoe and the Nissan Leaf being the most popular electric vehicles available to the European market.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0077
Amit Kumar Baghel, Pawan Kumar, Praveen Kumar PhD
In this paper a thorough analysis of the impact of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, both in current scenario and that in long term with time-line year as 2030 is done. By comparing the Co2 emissions of different vehicles in today’s scenario and by 2030, we can say that EV and HEV will be very much suitable for future transportation. Two more advantages of using EVs and HEVs will be: one the KWh required per km will be less and another is: Renewable sources of energy can also be used for charging the batteries. This will reduce the burden on thermal power plants in countries like India where 6 0% electricity demand is fulfilled by these power plants.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0076
Sudha Bansal
This paper proposes an integrated neuro fuzzy system (INFS) to interface and deliver maximum power from a PV system for battery charging. The full bridge dc/dc converter is used to interface between the PV output and the load. Full bridge ZVS DC/DC converter reduces the switching losses, voltage and current stress of the switching device. The performance of the system is evaluated using proposed controller and compared with the other MPPT algorithm i.e. P&O and fuzzy based approach. With this combination of the system i.e. soft switched dc/dc converter and INFS MPPT algorithm, high efficiency can be easily attained.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0079
Bharat Singh, Mukesh Singh, Anish Jindal, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar
In smart homes, consumers have the advantage of proper management of smart devices by scheduling them in different time slots in a day. Scheduling is done based on the price of electricity offered in a particular time slot which results in better cost and power saving. In this paper, the design of the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS) is presented which gives the choice between comfort or cost saving to the consumers. The role of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) i.e. Solar PV panels in the optimal scheduling of devices and electric vehicles (EVs) is also studied.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0078
Prabhat Pustake, Basab Paul, Syrus Nedumthaly, Pramaan Arcot, Madhan Mohan, Karthikeyan Ethirajan
Rolling resistance contributes ~8% impact on energy efficiency of an automobile. This paper emphasises on how power consumption in an electric vehicle architecture is minimized by reducing rolling resistance through optimization of design parameters in front axle unitised bearing. Optimum bearing design selection can result upto 10% lesser power consumption hence increasing vehicle efficiency. Suitable testing results and calculations establish the claims in reduction of power consumption. The effect of higher energy losses due to rolling resistance are prominent in Electric-Vehicles as compared to IC-Engine cars due to significantly lower power-train losses which overshadow rolling resistance losses in conventional cars.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0082
Mukesh Singh, Rubi Rana, Kuljeet Kaur
In this paper, frequency regulation in the smart grid environment is achieved by controlling the charge and discharge rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) battery. The aggregators at the charging station (CS) level are designed which help in coordinating the group of EVs. EVs will charge or discharge based on the need of the grid for frequency regulation. It has been verified that EVs in V2G environment will stabilise the grid in terms of frequency if the coordination among the EVs are achieved through aggregators. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposal. It is finally verified that controlled charging and discharging of EVs battery can stabilise the grid in terms of frequency.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0083
Ezhil Joy
The increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in real time may result in voltage rise or drop at the distribution node (DN). An idea of active and reactive power exchange through EV charging station (CS) for voltage regulation at the DN is presented. A CS is modeled with multiple charging systems which enables EVs of different battery ratings to charge and discharge. The individual charging systems are composed of grid connected bidirectional three phase ac-dc and a series connected dc-dc converter with suitable controllers. The complete CS is externally controlled by a fuzzy controller and an aggregator to handle multiple EVs arrived at the CS. Voltage profile evaluation have been done with different power transfer approaches to foresee the CS behavior. Validation of the study is carried out using a realistic distribution system of a typical city considering 35 EVs of different battery ratings connected at the DN via CS.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0080
Kannan Thirugnanam
Due to increasing peak power demand and decreasing quality of power delivery to consumers, the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are highly acceptable for grid support. If the EVs are exchange active and reactive power to grid during parking hours, then the peak power demand has reduced and quality of power delivery has improved. The EVs are discharged at a place to be called as a Grid Supporting Station (GSS). The GSS have multiple Discharging Units (DUs) which transfers active and reactive power from EVs’ batteries to grid. In this paper, a fuzzy based control method is described for EVs which regulate the active and reactive power for grid support. The active and reactive power flow from EVs to grid based on the node voltage and amount of energy available in the GSS. Each DU is designed for a maximum power handling capacity of 80VA. The performance of the GSS is analyzed with five set of EVs which is connected through point of Common Coupling (PCC) of distribution node.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0081
Nupur Rathore, Priyanka Bhartiya, Deepak Fulwani
A photovoltaic source's behaviour is strongly dependent on the weather. Hence, the converters used in conjunction with the PV sources are required to be tested for the different operating conditions of PV. These testing under real conditions are not encouraged on account of the space requirement, cost attached and the fact that repeating the ambient conditions, for the tests, is next to impossible. Therefore an Emulator, which behaves electrically in a similar way as that of a PV source, comes handy to perform these testing. In this paper a DC-DC Buck-boost Converter based Photovoltaic source emulator design is presented. It takes solar radiation and temperature, representing the weather conditions, as user inputs. The computation of operating point is done according to the load resistance and required I-V characteristics of PV source. PI Controller and Sliding mode control schemes have been implemented, separately, on the FPGA based NI GPIC card.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0086
Sumedha Sharma, Amit Dua, Surya Prakash, Neeraj Kumar, Mukesh Singh
Smart Grid (SG) is envisioned to become one of the leading technologies of the modern era by replacing the traditional electric grid with a modern information and communication infrastructure. SG can be integrated with distributed renewable energy (RE) resources to reduce congestion on the transmission lines. In this paper, a Central Energy Management System (CEMS) is proposed which primarily includes RE along with necessary energy storage infrastructure such as electric vehicles (EVs), and battery energy storage system (BESS). The main aim of CEMS is to control the flow of energy in the grid. It consists of information and communication technology to enable a two-way communication between the utility, and consumer. The objective of the current proposal is to implement a real-time green energy management system in SG environment to make a balance between demand and supply.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0084
Nand Arora, Mukesh Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar, Anish Jindal
This paper provides a Smart Meter (SM) system for Smart Homes (SH) which can measure the active energy consumption of each device installed in the building. This system also enables the user to control the devices of SH as per their requirements. It keeps full record of the rated current of each device and automatically switches off the device in case the current through it exceeds the safe limit. It also provides the information of the tariff of different utilities which are connected to the SH. This SM has an additional feature of automatic switching to the power supply with minimum tariff at any instant of time. Further, this SM can also regulate the charging facility for the Electric Vehicles (EVs).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0087
Kashyap Lilabhai Mokariya, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
Electric Vehicle will be a necessity in several years because of the increase in prices of crude oil. The energy storage will play a major role in day to day life. In modern days it can be done effectively and efficiently using batteries .One of the ways to use the batteries in efficient way is to utilize the battery of a car. A car is usually parked for more than 20 hours a day on an average scale. The energy stored in the battery can be utilized to perform various functions on a grid. This paper focuses on the various aspects of vehicle to grid integration. These include charging a battery to its discharging. Four quadrant operation of battery is explained and results are simulated and discussed in matlab simulink environment.The advantages and limitations of V2G are also discussed.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0085
Bhanwar Lal Bishnoi
The widely adoption of Electric Vehicle (EV) has been identified as a major challenge for future development of smart grids where effective integration of Renewable Energy e.g. Solar Net Metering can make Smart Grid self-healing & sustainable. The ever increasing electric vehicle charging further increases the energy demand. This paper reports the development of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an effective tool to reshape the dynamic load profile of EV charging by adopting appropriate demand side management strategy. This paper presents a total solution for EV charging service platform (AMI-EV) based on Sub GHz RF Mesh Network with Routers and Collectors with Head End System ( HES & MDMS ), power line carrier communications (PLC) and internet communication. The Hybrid of RF & PLC will create high Reliability data availability to HES.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0091
Akshay Kumar Rathore
A wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) charging using current-fed topology is proposed. The main contribution is current-fed technology for inductive power transfer (IPT). Analysis and detail design of current-fed dc-dc wireless power transfer stage is studied and explained. DC-link inductor limits the short circuit current during inverter fault. Stiff current in the input limits the inverter switch current stress. The circuit resonance in transmitter and receiver coils is parallel and series type, respectively. Resonant circuit offers soft-switching at device turn-off that reduces the switching losses. Diodes commutate with zero current switching and reverse recovery losses are eliminated. The converter is analyzed and simulated using PSIM 9.3. A 500W lab-prototype has been designed and developed. Hardware results up to 20 cm air-gap have been demonstrated to validate the proposed analysis and design.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0092
Brijesh Kumar Kushwaha, Gautam Rituraj, Praveen Kumar
This paper presents an experimental study of an Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT) system using a full bridge converter operating at variable frequency and variable load. Equivalent circuit models for ICPT systems are used to represent the total impedance seen by the source, by combining the primary and secondary network is described. For achieving the maximum efficiency, a condition is derived. A variable frequency controller is used to control the switching frequency of the converter to transmit the power through inductive coils are described. The modeling of ICPT system, design criteria and its controller details are discussed. Efficiency curves are plotted with respect to variation in frequency and load. The problem of frequency deviation that makes an inefficient power transfer has been investigated. The results obtained from this study provide a foundation and understanding for future design and control of ICPT systems.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0088
Aditya M. Deshpande, Kartik U. Deshpande
India is the third largest market for the automobiles. But less than 1% of total automobiles on-road in India are Electric vehicles, one of the factor is lack of charging infrastructure in India. This paper refers how to increase charge stations by utilizing electricity from electric poles and convert it into DC to charge the electric vehicles, while charging rate is limited through a controller which takes the input from electronic data capture machine. Hence every electric pole has a potential of becoming charge station. This improvement in charging infrastructure will foster the growth of electric vehicles in Indian market.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0089
Abhishek Shah
Electrical vehicle batteries are charge at 230 volt AC supply trough Vehicle charger. This vehicle charger and vehicle body are connected to Earth. So customer will not get shock in case of electric leakage current or vehicle body short to 230 volt Ac supply. But what if the house earthing fails or becomes ineffective, customer will get shock when he touches the vehicle body by standing the vehicle. Because the shock current will flow from the costumer body and takes return path from distribution transformer earthing as shown in pictorial representation. The House earthing are not always effective thus there are chances of getting shock. This can be prevented by adopting deferential protection in vehicle.CT Sense , current transform, can be use which will give current input give to controller and controller will compare the IN and OUT current from vehicle charging unit.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0093
Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram
Despite the major improvements in battery performance over recent years and the development of hybrids and plug in hybrids to solve the problem of range anxiety, the market penetration of electric vehicles remains stubbornly low. Even though the fuel costs of EVs are much lower than the alternatives the high price of EV batteries is one of the problems which still deters buyers. With the increasing popularity of electric vehicles, "range anxiety" is now being replaced by "charging anxiety". The Electric Highway give EV users "Range Confidence" that recharging is available should they want to travel between towns/ communities or make long distance road trips. Knowing that Charging is easy and convenient helps to encourage people and businesses to buy and drive plug in Electric vehicles. Increasing the market demand for electric vehicles helps reduce the impact upon the environment and dependency on foreign oil.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0108
Dinesh Ramesh Satpute
This paper proposes a vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocol for cooperative collision warning. Emerging wireless technologies for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to- roadside (V2R) communications such as DSRC are promising to dramatically reduce the number of fatal roadway accidents by providing early warnings. Based on a careful analysis of application requirements, we design an effective protocol, comprising congestion control policies, service differentiation mechanisms. Today’s automotive sensor systems for in-vehicle based target tracking, i.e. radar, lidar, camera, are limited to a field of view which is restricted by distance, angle and line-of-sight. Future driver assistance systems such as predictive collision avoidance or situation aware adaptive cruise control require a more complete and accurate situation awareness in order to detect hazardous and inefficient situations in time.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0119
Sivakumar Nadarajan, Rui Wang, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sanjib Kumar Panda
This paper studies the potential of using vibration signatures in detecting stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator. The vibration data collected from the experimental setup under various degrees and severities of the stator winding short-circuit faults in the brushless synchronous generator are investigated to identify fault signatures in the vibration signal. Investigation on the vibration signals show that the fault signatures in vibration can be used to detect and diagnose the stator winding short circuit fault in the brushless synchronous generator. Besides this the identified fault signature can also be able to differentiate between the stator winding fault and load unbalance.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0120
Yogesh Sherki, Nikhil Gaikwad, Jayalakshmi Chandle, Anil Kulkarni
Earthquake is one of the major natural calamity. So prediction of the reach of earthquake event to the various locations could result in minimizing the disaster due to it. An early warning system for earthquake mainly issues an alarm to have a time margin for evacuating peoples to the safe place or shutting down key facilities like major industrial work etc. to avoid major consequences. This paper contains the design of sensor system and the techniques used for detection and processing of the received signals. The main difference between our method and conventional methods of earthquake location tracking is the addition of two planer Azimuth angle. Conventionally the triangulation method only used for tracking the earthquake location. But this method is not much accurate since it considers the average speeds of the P and S waves. The speed of seismic waves varies immensely depending upon the contents of soil, rocks or water etc. below the earth surface.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0125
Gajanan Kale, Vamsi Pathapadu, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, integral motor compressor, evaporator & condenser assembly, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. . Conventional Car can use engine's waste heat for heating or defrosting, while the Electric vehicle has no waste heat to use, so that it faces greater difficulties in heating mode. In order to promote the application of electric vehicles and to reduce environmental pollution, it is important to research how to improve battery`s capacity and develop efficient energy storage battery, as well as reduce the energy consumption of the electric car`s accessory equipment.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0127
Rakhee Vijayan, B. K. Swathi Prasad, A. T. Sriram
This paper deals with simulation of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) configuration with special attention to sliding mode controller (SMC) for boost converter (BC). MATLAB/Simulink software tool is used for the simulations. Proportional-integral (PI) and SMC for fuel cell (FC) side BC is modeled and simulated. The SMC shows slightly faster response and lesser steady state oscillations compared with PI controller. Integration of FC connected to BC along with SMC, DC motor with controllers and battery pack with bidirectional converter are made to verify the motor response in FCHEV configuration.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0128
Prateek Patel, Tapan Sahoo, Harish Chandra
The two major benefits of hybridization of automotive powertrain are realized in the form of engine downsizing and capturing free energy using some form of onboard recuperation system. The design of such systems is mostly driven by iterative simulations. However, this study is about quantitatively deriving the potential of regenerative braking from Indian driving perspective. The calculation results are based on Indian homologation cycle and collection of real world driving data and condensing them into meaningful drive cycles for prominent Indian cities. This study further calculates component and control strategy requirements and quantitatively defines the compromises that would result due to the calibrations in strategy. This enables the engineers to make concrete data driven decisions. (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2010) The study also comprises incorporating safety related considerations in system design e.g. Stability while wheel lock, ABS.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0121
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the indigenous development of CAN based low-cost cluster controller which drives the non-CAN cluster in a CAN based vehicle. The use of CAN network in vehicle is ever growing and has number of advantages which includes efficient diagnostics, low-cost and reduced wiring harness. The use of CAN network in a module expects the other interconnected modules also to be CAN based. Typical example being development of EV or HEV requires the instrument cluster of the vehicle also to be CAN based, as its information mostly available in CAN (For example SOC of High voltage battery). The indigenously developed controller drives the non-CAN cluster dials based on the CAN message from vehicle control unit. The controller hardware is designed to be universal driver which can drive almost all instrument clusters. This controller also has reverse functionality that converts the physical signal from vehicle to CAN message.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0122
Vishal Nair V, Prasanth P, Srinivasan Raju
This paper focuses on interfacing the Inverter ECU to a Simulated Electrical/Hybrid Car , using a HIL System along with Component level simulations. A Simulation environment along with HIL system is described which can be used to do most of the Software Durability and Stress testing of the Inverter ECU. The paper also describes the extended applications in testing hybrid components.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0123
Tejal Sarda
Instrument Cluster and Load Center software modules are developed traditionally using custom legacy C code development resulting in repetitive work and longer software development time. This paper would detail a novel and Frugal Embedded Software Development Methodology which utilizes reusable, modular and scalable software architecture that is independent of the machine model and type and a configurable framework for instrument cluster and load center to feed machine specific details by the systems engineer. This enables developing and virtual testing of the software quickly without utilizing the embedded software development environment and renders the repetitive development work into a redundant work by offering an automated configurable framework for software development. This method significantly reduces the overall embedded development life-cycle and the number of engineers required to develop these software modules.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0124
Weicheng Huang, Huayu Zhang, Du Yingmeng, Honghui Wu, Zhikang Fan
Thermal efficiency of conventional automobile engine is only about 30%, and most of other energy is brought away by the exhaust in the form of wasted-heat. Therefore, the heat recovery of engine exhaust has become a hot topic, among which generating electricity through exhaust gas is one of the most important and effective ways. In this research high efficient thermoelectric materials are applied in the thermoelectric generating system. First of all, heat transfer model between car exhaust and cooling water has been established. Then, based on the heat transfer model, in the thermoelectric power generating system the heat transfer area of evaporator has been analyzed and optimized. Finally, based on generating capacity evaluation system, when the engine speed is within the range of common 1700 ~ 2100rpm, when the optimal evaporator area range is 0.8m2 ~0.95 m2 the maximum power output could be achieved.
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