Display:

Results

Viewing 91 to 120 of 21555
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0147
Matthew J. Pitts, Elvir Hasedžić, Lee Skrypchuk, Alex Attridge, Mark Williams
The advent of 3D displays offers HMI designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user’s experience of data with the vehicle, both by utilising depth of field to encode additional information and add context; and by leveraging the user’s emotional response to a novel and exciting technology. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment effectively introduces a new HMI design space, with a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to significantly increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver’s attention away from the road, or by increasing the time taken to assimilate the information presented. Vehicle manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and don’ts’ of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes, used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as NIR wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filters are used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process. RGB and NIR images are captured in entirely two different spectra/wavelength, thereby retaining different information. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate an NIR image from a given optical image. This was undertaken using the compressed sensing framework. The NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem in compressed sensing. The NIR data is considered as missing pixel information and its approximation is done during the image recovery phase. Thus for a given optical image, with NIR data being considered as missing information, the recovered NIR data gives the corresponding NIR image.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Advanced driver assistance systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade the image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low light condition, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, an image enhancement algorithm is proposed that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0370
Modar Horani, Osamah Rawashdeh
Traditional Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) control systems are reactive by design and largely dependent on the on-board sensory data available on a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. The increasingly common Internet connectivity offered in today’s vehicles, through infotainment and telematic systems, makes data available that may be used to improve current HVAC systems. This includes real-time outside relative humidity, ambient temperature, precipitation (i.e., rain, snow, etc.), and weather forecasts. This data, combined with position and route information of the vehicle, may be used to provide a more comfortable experience to vehicle occupants in addition to improving driver visibility through more intelligent humidity, and defrost control. While the possibility of improving HVAC control utilizing internet connectivity seems obvious, it is still currently unclear as to what extent.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1158
Justin Wilbanks, Fabrizio Favaretto, Franco Cimatti, Michael Leamy
This paper presents a detailed design study and associated design considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and a diminishing supply of fossil fuels, all automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of production vehicles. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
This paper is based on a vehicle research project called CULT (Cars Ultra-Light Technology) under the lead of Magna Steyr Engineering (Graz, Austria) which focuses on the development of an ultra-light (600 kg) vehicle (4-seater, A-segment) with a hybrid propulsion system. The Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology of the TU Vienna, was responsible for the complete powertrain development. To reach the project CO2 target of only 49 g/km a downsized CNG DI engine was combined with a 6-gear automated transmission and a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG). The first part of this paper shortly summarizes the final project results by highlighting the CO2 saving potentials obtained by the 12 Volt BSG. The connection of the BSG on the transmission input shaft instead the conventional adaption on the belt-drive of the ICE should maximize the CO2 potentials. This new approach leads to a significantly increased recuperation potential, because the engine drag torque can be de clutched.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU) or pair of ECUs need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics’ high speed dynamics of with PWM signals frequently in the 10-20kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor co-located with analog and digital input and output, FPGAs make it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of 1 microsecond.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0260
Ashlie B. Hocking, John C. Knight, M. Anthony Aiello, Shin'ichi Shiraishi
In domains such as automotive and aviation engineering, software verification is a critical component of software development. Various software verification techniques have been developed including different forms of testing, inspection, static analysis, and formal (mathematical) verification. Formal verification offers the great advantage that it corresponds, at least informally, to testing all possible paths through the software. Despite this advantage, formal verification has not been applied widely. Many reasons for this lack of application have been advanced, including the expected technical difficulty of the formalism and the anticipated cost. In this paper, we present an approach to formal verification in model-based development and report on a case study of its use on an automotive application. We illustrate the technical feasibility, potential results, and reasonable resource demands of the technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0261
Shuai Li, Cheng Chang, Huichao Zhao
The EMDS(E-motor Drive System), as the core powertrain system of the EV/HEVs, the safety of which is becoming more and more critical. Meanwhile, the newly released ISO 26262 standard rules the functional safety for E/E systems in vehicles, and provides a framework for developing automotive products that are safe from E/E system malfunctions in passenger vehicles. At present China FAW corporation is developing HongQi H7 PHEV which adopts the state-of-the-art P2 hybrid powertrain architecture. This paper mainly presents the functional safety development of the EMDS for that type according to the ISO 26262 standard, including system architectures and item definition, hazard analysis and risk assessment, functional safety concept and technical safety concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology. The power MOSFET is built to reliably withstand extreme conditions. Operating the MOSFET beyond specified limits will however reduce is lifetime. In severe cases immediate catastrophic failure is possible. The Safe Operating Area (SOA) diagram included in MOSFET data sheets summarizes the MOSFET capabilities for many operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
A single malfunction in a product can initiate a costly product recall. With ever increasing reliance on electronic and electric components contributing to the functional safety of next generation vehicles, a malfunction may cause such inconvenience too. Automotive E/E systems perform highly networked functions, including dense system interactions, and with a large number of product variants and features, complexity increases beyond human susceptibility. This is considered to be the main source for systematic faults and does not only affect newly developed systems, like complex driver assistance systems. Also well-known systems often bear a non-negligible safety threat. Safety critical automotive product development starts with a comprehensive and well-coordinated concept phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
ISO 26262 is a standard for functional safety of road vehicles. Automotive manufacturers and suppliers are developing electronic control unit (ECU) that complies with the standard. The standard requires the manufacturers to perform quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of the ECU that is defined as fault rate that is covered by safety mechanisms, and show evidence that the DC is above a specific threshold. We can refer to some generic fault diagnostic methods and their DC value prescribed in the standard. However, it is not practical to claim validity of the DC value if we simply refer to DC in the standard. Also, we have to evaluate the DC value separately, if we introduce a proprietary fault diagnostic method other than the methods described in the standard. In this paper, we propose a novel method for quantitatively evaluating the DC value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0271
Fabian Joerg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Especially in chassis systems, Functional Safety Engineering aligned to an International Standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. Where the ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is cracked by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0269
Andreas Kiep, Marco Puerschel, Chris Spielman
This paper will describe different types of short circuit conditions, how they affect power semiconductor devices, and how to detect and safely mitigate the event. The Safe Operating Area SOA diagram defines a transistor´s boundaries in terms of maximum allowable voltage and maximum allowable current. In normal operation, either the voltage is small, e.g. 1.5 V, (transistor turned ON) or the current is very small, e.g. 1µA (transistor is turned off). Hence, the product of voltage and current, power loss, is relatively small. Unlike during short circuit - one of the severest failure of a power transistor. A short circuit is an electric circuit which allows the electric current to flow through an unintended path. Normally, the resistance of that path is very small, which results in very large short circuit current through the power transistor. In addition, as the resistance is low, a major part of the supply voltage, e.g. battery voltage, may be across the power transistor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Today, the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain – faces a variety of challenges, such as the increasing complexity caused by the interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, pressure to reduce costs and times to market, the need to handle multidisciplinary automotive systems (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems), and the mandate that all these systems comply with functional safety standards such as the ISO 26262 . The approach presented in this paper allows the these challenges to be met in an effective way in order to be competitive on the market. This paper presents a model-based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML for specifying relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types, different views of the available data can be provided that correspond to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, test, production, or even later when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform the hazard analysis iteratively in parallel with the development process. This safety-driven design technique is based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and is demonstrated in this paper using a realistic Shift-By-Wire design concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0280
Falco K. Bapp, Oliver Sander, Timo Sandmann, Viet Vu Duy, Steffen Baehr, Juergen Becker
As state-of-the-art technology, multicores gain more and more importance in automotive and aerospace systems. Not only in infotainment and non-safety-critical applications they are going to be used in near future. Also in safety-critical systems, this technology will be introduced. Various commercial off-the-shelf processors are available that are not built for such applications. In order to ensure a correct system behavior, online monitoring can be used for processors that target infotainment or general purpose applications. The cores and other bus masters within the MPSoC compete about the exclusive use of shared resources like for example a memory controller. It is of high importance to provide guarantees of usage, e.g. in terms of access time and rates, in such cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new feature rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems using the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr, Thomas End
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications, where large workspace is required and with limited higher manipulability to one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position of the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produce the rectangular workspace. In this paper full kinematic model of 6DOF general CNC machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE softwares. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0503
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Haobo Xu, Xin Li, Zhaohua Wang, Can Wang
Plenty of dust particles which are generated when a swapping vehicle is dumping harm to workers’ health. In the study, the designed vacuum dust control system could effectively capture easily raised dust particles in the air in the premise of not impacting the dumping process so as to improve the unloading work environment. Firstly, longitudinal motion trajectory model of dust particles in the dumping process is established. Based on the side collision probability model of dust particles, lateral velocity distribution of dust particles is obtained. What’s more, the scope of lateral dust particles is determined. Taking into account coupling of the dust control system and the working state of the vehicle, the suction mouth is arranged at the edge on the outside of hatch cover. Centrifugal horizontal dust removal system designed in the research is fixed in the middle of the filter cover part and discharging hatch cover area.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1182
Mehrdad Mastali Majdabadi Kohneh, Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
The lithium-ion batteries generate significant amount of heat during the high discharge rates which can lessen the battery life and even cause some safety issues like battery explosion. Therefore, the batteries have to satisfy performance, safety, and long-term durability requirements of the vehicle energy storage systems. In order to achieve this goal, thermal management of the battery pack is necessary to prevent overheating and uneven heating across the entire pack during the charging and discharging. Mathematical modeling of the batteries is an efficient way to study the thermal behavior of batteries in different working situations. However, because of the complicated nature of the electrochemical models, thermal models mostly exclude the electrochemical details of the batteries. As a result, simple relations for the heat generation of the batteries have been considered which are mainly based on the experimental data or Ohmic heating.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1181
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Timur Aliyev, Anthony Rick, Brian Sisk
Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery pack can be employed by a battery management system (BMS) to balance a variety of operational considerations, including optimization of pulse capability and avoiding damage/aging to the battery. Consideration of cell-to-cell performance variability of lithium-ion batteries is critical to correct estimation of the battery pack power limit as well as proper sizing of the individual cells in the battery. Further, understanding of cell variability is necessary to protect the cell and other system components, e.g. fuse and contactor, from over-current damage. In this work, we present the use of an equivalent circuit model for estimation of the power limit of lithium battery packs by considering the individual cell variability under current or voltage constraints. We compare the power limit estimation by using individual cell characteristics compared to the estimate found using only max/min values of cell characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1185
Brian Sisk, Timur Aliyev, Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Negin Salami, Kem Obasih, Anthony Rick
Competitive engineering of battery packs for vehicle applications requires a careful alignment of function against vehicle manufacturer requirements. Traditional battery engineering practices focus on flow down of requirements from the top-level system requirements through to low-level components, meeting or exceeding each requirement at every level. This process can easily produce an over-engineered, cost-uncompetitive product. By integrating the key limiting factors of battery performance, we can directly compare battery capability to requirements. Here, we consider a power-oriented microhybrid battery system using coupled thermal and electrochemical modeling. We demonstrate that using dynamic resistance acquired from drive cycle characteristics can reduce the total size of the pack compared to typical static, fixed-duration resistance values.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1183
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan, Anush Nair, Mithun Manalikandy, Anurag Reghu, Jacob John, V S Rani
Hybrid and electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular these days owing to concerns over exhaustion of conventional fuel sources, pollution from combustion, as well as high carbon foot print of these fuels. Lithium-ion batteries are widely preferred as the source of power for hybrid and electric vehicles because of their high monomer voltage and high energy density. Accurate estimation of the State of Charge of battery is crucial in the electric vehicle. It provides the information on the range of operation of the vehicle. It also ensures the safety and reliability of the battery unit. Accurate State of Charge estimation also enables more optimized battery pack design for the electric vehicle. Conventional methods for State of Charge estimation such as Coulomb counting and open circuit voltage measurement suffer from inaccuracies and is affected by noise during the vehicle operation.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 21555

Filter