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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0279
Fumio Narisawa, Masahiro Matsubara, Masataka Nishi, Tomohito Ebina
Abstract Functions and sizes of electronic control and software systems in automotives are being increased to achieve better controllability and reduce fuel consumption. A higher safety level is also demanded, so functional-safety standards are increasingly being introduced to in-vehicle systems. In safety critical systems, failure must be diagnosed and a system transited to a safe state when hardware failure occurs. Therefore, the failure diagnosis part of the basic software that takes charge of signal inputs and outputs processing must be verified for high accountability and explanations to a third party. To diagnose failure, the hardware and software that originally operate independently need to cooperate in principle. Hardware and software cooperating systems are not straight-forward to verify, because the combinations of conditions are too numerous for testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0762
Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito, Tetsuya Nagai, Nobuyuki Iwai, Ryoji Hiraoka
Abstract Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0754
Simona Silvia Merola, Adrian Irimescu, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Crank angle resolved imaging in the UV-visible spectral range was used to investigate flame front characteristics during normal combustion, surface ignition and light knock conditions. ‘Line of sight’ measurements provided information on local wrinkling: the evaluation was based on a statistical approach, with multiple frames taken at the same crank angle during consecutive cycles. This allowed the results during normal combustion to be representative for the specific operational conditions and to a good degree independent from the effects of cyclic variation. Abnormal combustion on the other hand, was investigated on a cycle-to-cycle basis, given the stochastic nature of such phenomena. The experimental trials were performed at fixed engine speed on an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with the cylinder head of a four cylinder 16-valves commercial power unit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0759
Tetsuya Nagai, Ryoji Hiraoka, Nobuyuki Iwai, Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito
Abstract In the real site of engine development, new means are required for optical measurements under a wide variety of conditions including high-loaded operation. We have accordingly developed the new optical probe having less restriction when installing onto the engine as well as having high durability. The shape of connector end of newly developed optical probe that fits to the engine is interchangeable with the M5 sensor used for in-cylinder pressure measurement. The optical module of the optical probe can also be installed in the M10 spark plug or the M8 glow plug. The durability of the newly developed optical probe is; heat up to 400°C, pressure up to 25 MPa, and vibration up to 50 G. The durability of the optical probe was assessed using the engines of commercially available motorcycles. The 110 cm3 engine was used for the time-wise assessment. The 150 cm3 engine was used for the environment-wise assessment. Either one is a single cylinder engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0304
Samveg Saxena, Jason MacDonald, Doug Black, Sila Kiliccote
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) enable improved vehicle efficiency and zero emissions in population centers, however the large loads from EV charging can stress grid systems during periods of peak demand. We apply detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars to quantify the ability for EVs to reduce their charging during periods of peak demand, i.e. as in a demand response program. A managed charging controller is developed and applied within the vehicle-to-grid simulator (V2G-Sim) which charges vehicles during demand response (DR) events only if charging is required to satisfy anticipated mobility needs for a given driver over the next 24 hours. We find that up to 95% of EV charging loads can be removed during DR events without compromising the mobility needs of individual drivers. This value is found by comparing the charging loads of EVs using the managed charging controller against an uncontrolled charging case.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0370
Modar Horani, Osamah Rawashdeh
Abstract Traditional Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) control systems are reactive by design and largely dependent on the on-board sensory data available on a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. The increasingly common Internet connectivity offered in today's vehicles, through infotainment and telematic systems, makes data available that may be used to improve current HVAC systems. This includes real-time outside relative humidity, ambient temperature, precipitation (i.e., rain, snow, etc.), and weather forecasts. This data, combined with position and route information of the vehicle, may be used to provide a more comfortable experience to vehicle occupants in addition to improving driver visibility through more intelligent humidity, and defrost control. While the possibility of improving HVAC control utilizing internet connectivity seems obvious, it is still currently unclear as to what extent.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, Egon Mueller
Abstract Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the noncontact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
Abstract In recent years the automotive industry is facing unprecedented influx of new technology advancements and ever-increasing consumer demands for media, entertainment and connectivity applications. This drives the automotive industry to deliver the products at a faster pace, thereby reducing time to market which results in issues from end users and dealers. Automotive industries are striving hard to keep pace with these radical changes with increase in software and electronics which in turn necessitates a systematic and effective software engineering approach to deliver high quality product from the core embedded software industry. This paper details how embedded software projects are developed globally and customer issues are collected and analyzed. It also discuss about the method used for performing effective Root cause analysis for identifying the systemic issues and formulating the systemic improvement actions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1108
Hongqing Chu, Yong Chen, Lishu Guo, Bingzhao Gao, Hong Chen
Abstract In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1403
Yi lu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Abstract Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can nowadays be considered as distributed embedded software systems where independent microprocessor systems communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several microprocessors communicating with each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other Electronic Control Units in a vehicle via communication networks and gather vehicle's surroundings via camera, radar or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market, make the development of such systems challenging.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (EARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
According to the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), which is a North American automobile accident database, collision events referred to as multiple-collision accidents, in which multiple collisions occur during travel, account for 55% of all accidents. In addition, multiple-collision accidents in which collision events following the first collision event are more severe than the first event account for 20% of all accidents. In a first collision, the system had simultaneously operated to restrain and protect the vehicle occupant. If the multiple-collision accidents occurs, because the system for restraining and protecting vehicle occupants will have already deployed, the performance of the system can be limited from subsequent collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Advanced Driver Assistive System technologies are currently available in many passenger vehicles that provide safety benefits and will ultimately lead to autonomous, “self-driving” vehicles. One technology that has the potential for having substantial safety benefits is the forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM) system, which is designed to (1) warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, (2) potentiate driver braking responses, and (3) have the ability to apply the vehicle’s brake autonomously to slow, or, in some cases, stop the vehicle prior to a forward collision. Although the proliferation of such technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how this system affects a driver’s overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1412
Xuan Zhou, Walter Niewoehner
The presentation and paper will explain a new algorithm-based approach to fasten future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with simultaneously increasing the reliability. In the past the TTC (time to collision) was used to calculate and forecast traffic situations leading to a collision with an obstacle moving in front of the own vehicle in the same direction or coming towards it. Situations with the trajectories of the involved parties not being in-line (e.g. crossing, lane changing manoeuvres), parties changing the direction of movement, or parties changing the speed are more complex to calculate. The new method developed bases on an algorithm using the data from the area under sensor surveillance (e.g. by radar) to calculate a so-called collision tube. The collision tube describes the relative trajectories of the own vehicle and those of other traffic participants or obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
Abstract Dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. In this paper, a new motor driven clutch actuator with a force-aid lever has been proposed. A spring is added to assist clutch apply that can effectively reduce the motor size and energy consumption. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of this new clutch actuator, and the force-aid lever actuator's principle, physical structure design, and validation results are discussed in details.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1597
Kazuto Yokoyama, Masahiro Iezawa, Hideyuki Tanaka, Keiichi Enoki
Mitsubishi Electric has developed a concept car “EMIRAI 2 xEV” that features an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain for safe, comfortable, and eco-friendly driving experiences in the future. The body of vehicle was exhibited during Tokyo Motor Show 2013 for the first time. xEV is a four-wheel-drive EV that has three motors: a water-cooled front motor and two air-cooled rear motors with integrated inverters. Rear wheels can be driven independently. The degrees of freedom of the actuation can realize improved maneuverability and safety. The vehicle is also equipped with an onboard charger with built-in step down DC/DC converter, an EV control unit, a battery management unit, and an electric power steering. All of the instruments are developed in Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Motion control systems for xEV have been developed on the basis of our proprietary original motor control technology.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and forecasting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices, which can be calculated either from lateral acceleration, lateral load transfer, or roll energy. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is unclear how they can be compared and how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices, in different critical maneuvers, for a heavy 8x4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Abstract This paper presents the engineering aspects of an integrated, monolithic, angular position sensor to be developed as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) in accordance with ISO-26262[1]. The sensor is a Hall-effect-based angular sensor, used in a wide range of automotive, safety-critical applications such as accelerator pedal position, throttle-valve position, or any other application requiring the accurate measurement of the angular position of a mechanical part. The assumed safety requirements allocated to this sensor have to be developed according to ASIL-C. The mapping between technical safety requirements and architecture elements, as conveyed by the technical safety concept, will be first presented. Failure mode effect and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA)[2], supporting the safety mechanism specification will be discussed next; here a safety mechanism selection guide is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Abstract Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the mass-market segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Abstract Due to the development towards automated or even autonomous driving, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will be required in vehicles. The main challenge for this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably. The transformation of these structures and functional principles from nature into technical solutions is combined within the keyword ‘bionic’.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Abstract Modern vehicle design involves configuration of various sensors and actuators spread across the vehicle. These sensors and actuators placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with Electronic Control Units (ECUs). As long as wires are used for these connections, cost and time required for installation and maintenance are major concerns for OEMs. A wireless sensor network (WSN) can reduce length of wiring harness and can save time as well as cost of its installation. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way to build a strong, secured wireless network in vehicle. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that, sensor and actuator data is available only to required ECUs and not to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and actuators in the vehicle are segregated according to their location.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
Abstract Historically aluminum was recognized as a valuable material to achieve weight reduction targets in engines, vehicle chassis and suspension. Aluminum needs to be also considered in new areas like vehicle electrification to support the overall weight reduction targets. The use of aluminum helps to improve fuel economy and brings down CO2 emissions by reducing weight. This benefit is an attractive option for the wiring harness to replace heavier copper conductors. In addition to large cross section wires for power cable, where aluminum conductors are already in use, the intermediate aluminum cable cross section of 2.5mm2 to 6.0 mm2 provides a good potential for car implementation to hit weight saving targets. The major implementation roadblocks for aluminum technology are the surface oxides Al2O3 which are an insulator and the potential galvanic corrosion of aluminum in combination with the always present copper terminal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Shubhranshu Garg, Vipul Kumar, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
Abstract There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators. So that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator, its type can be judged. Whether it is a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler for all. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0249
Kannan Subramanian, Ganesh Kumar Ramakrishnan, Sindhuja Renganathan, Karthik Vssnt, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is gaining traction across all geographies to help meet increasing fuel economy regulations and as a pathway to offset concerns due to climate change. But HEVs and EVs have so far been a nascent market for India. These technologies have primarily shifted towards Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for energy storage due to its high energy and power densities. In order to make actual business sense of these technologies, of which, battery is a major cost driver, it is necessary for these batteries to provide similar performance and life expectancy across the operating boundary of the vehicles, as well as provide the requirements at a competitive cost. In other words, the LIBs have to sustain the normal life cycle requirements and withstand wide range of storage temperatures that the conventional gasoline/diesel vehicles have been good at and still ensure good life.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0248
Hiroyasu Baba, Koji Kawasaki, Hideomi Kawachi
Abstract We have developed Li-ion battery heating system which is direct resistance heating for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) by use of an inverter and a motor. One relay is added between a positive terminal of Li-ion battery and one-phase (e.g. U-phase) of a three-phase motor. When additional relay is turned on, the motor coils, IGBTs (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) and diodes in the inverter and a smoothing capacitor for the inverter constitute buck-boost DC to DC converter. IGBTs are controlled to repeat charging and discharging between the battery and the smoothing capacitor. We made a system prototype and examined battery heating capability. And also we optimized charging and discharging frequency from impedance and current to improve heat generation. This method can increase battery temperature from −20 degrees C to 0 degrees C in 5 minutes and can extend EV driving range.
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