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Viewing 91 to 120 of 21475
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
A Catia-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to predict trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured CBU results. Since design data was used for the study, it was hypothesized that the difference between study and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens VSA software, the vehicle was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. The study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0657
Binglu Tu
This innovation is a Developed Anti-Lock Brake System (DABS for short) to automatically and precisely identify, correct and verify the peak-value slip ratio S0'' (i.e. braking force = adhesion force) when ε (namely the utilization ratio of adhesion coefficient, which is defined as the quotient of maximum braking strength divided by adhesion coefficient when ABS works) =1, and control S0'' to output continuously. It is a revision on the theory, method and algorithm of current ABS control that intermittently produces S0''. The objects are to eliminate the hidden unsafety of sideslip or ε<1 due to excessive or insufficient braking force, have more simplified structure and reduced costs than ABS, and improve the eligibility from ε≥0.75 to ε≥0.95.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
With growing incorporation of adhesively bonded joints in automotive industries, the need for fast and reliable nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for testing of adhesive joints has increased. Pulse-echo is considered to be the most suitable technique for NDT of adhesively bonded joints thanks to its relative simplicity, ease for industrial applications, and more importantly, not requiring access to both sides of the component. In a pulse-echo system, the pattern recognition of the ultrasonic backscattered echoes gives us important information about the interrogated object. These information can be size, geometric shape and orientation of the object. Furthermore, some information about the propagation path is obtained from these patterns. In some applications, such as automobile industry, this would not be straightforward to extract these information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping data and also presence of noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1211
Zhuoping Yu, Caitao Jian, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu
This paper is to research the dynamic response of active power source (APS) of electro hydraulic brake (EHB) system, which is a new design system. The dynamic response of APS could impact the effectiveness of brake system, the reason is that the slow-response of APS will cause the slow speed of building pressure and increasing the braking distance. So researching the dynamic response of active power source is very important for brake system. First of all, the part is about the components and working principle of EHB system and some parameters of active power source. EHB systemconsists of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). APS includes motor, master cylinder and retarding mechanism consisting of warm, gear and gear rack. Secondly, this paper proposes a restricted distribution control strategy——the control strategy of restricted distribution (CSRD).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1294
Michael Andrie
The objective of this research is to continue development of a system for measuring in-cylinder pressure using a low cost, non-intrusive valve movement sensor as detailed in SAE paper 2009-01-0245. This research should enable the use of cylinder pressure information to be extended into smaller in-service internal combustion engines particularly when “closed loop” control is required to control combustion. This update details the latest development results for this cylinder pressure concept. The conclusions drawn in the original paper are that a system for measuring in-cylinder pressure using a valve movement sensor were possible at the required accuracy and had the potential to be lower cost than the current best technology. This update strengths these conclusions with motoring and firing test results using the signal output from a low cost Hall-effect sensor. The firing results are then used to calculate key combustion metrics for engine control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1296
Craig Jarrard, Micah Anderson
The paper will outline development and test methodologies applied to an intelligent mechatronic actuator. This actuator technology has similar controls architecture and communication interfaces as other powertrain control modules, and in addition, has similar calibration and application optimization requirements. In lieu of leveraging the typically high investment costs associated with the more conventional commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toolchains for calibration and optimization, this paper will highlight activities to provide a more cost-effective development architecture that offers flexibility, extensibility and customization required to enable automated/unattended testing, as well as mechanisms to acquire, evaluate, and react to actuator performance test results in order to pursue targeted actuator performance optimization. In addition to explaining the elements of the development infrastructure, a roadmap for potential avenues for future improvements will be discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1295
Daryao Singh Khatri
Air intake filter is generally designed to meet the different requirement of engine and vehicle like intake air filtration, air flow rate, engine life, NVH, emission and service requirement. The pressure drop across the air filter increases due to accumulation of dust, metal particles, organic particle etc. during the driving of the vehicle. The service life of the air filter is recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in terms of km covered. The type of dust and its accumulation in the air filter also depend upon traffic condition and environmental condition which may differ from country to country and from region to region especially in Asian countries. Hence, the mileage based service interval of intake air filter may not be optimum for different region to keep the optimum performance of the engine and vehicle for a longer period. An attempt has been made to monitor the condition of the intake air filter in the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1150
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Fraile, Juan-Bautista Arroyo, Javier Luesma
This paper is part of the development of electric vehicle racing “Zytel-Zero” which was developed in the laboratories of the I3A (Aragón Institute for Engineering Research) by the research group in Sustainable Transport Systems (SMITS). It is a continuation of an earlier work in which a MACI (reciprocating internal combustion engine) powered vehicle was transformed for a high-performance autonomy electric vehicle. The main objective of the paper is the integration of all systems and components in this electric vehicle, designing and building those subsystems for correct operation, and commissioning and preparation of the control system. It has been working on control systems, especially the batteries and the several sensors of the vehicle itself. Thus, the specific objectives are to overhaul the system power supply vehicle, built into the core functions of the automated vehicle control system of the main variables and preserve all the security system during operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama
Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charging and discharging. In order to analyze the causes of degradation, the changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using synchrotron XRD, TEM, XAS and SEM-EDX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1204
Ji zhang, Zechang Sun
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume,weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications,particularly in electric vehicle and other mobile platforms.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1205
Xiaohe Ma, Shuai Wang, King Jet Tseng, Rong Su, Viswanathan Vaiyapuri, Chandana Gajnayake, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sivakumar Nadarajan
The concept of More Electric Aircraft (MEA) demands a highly optimized airframe power system which is achieved by replacing pneumatic and hydraulic systems with energy efficient electrical systems. The More Electric Engine (MEE) is a key step towards MEA, where more electrical power will be drawn from gas turbine shaft using the conventional gear driven electrical machine, which is known to present inefficiencies and reliability issues. Embedding electrical machine directly at the engine shaft would eliminate the unreliable driveline and gear box along with potentially improving the reliability and efficiency of the whole system. However it presents significant challenges to electrical machine design considering competing requirements and aspirations of more electric aircrafts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel Costinett, Fred Wang
A boost converter is presented in this paper for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Power density of the boost converter is critical to achieving design goals of size reduction, performance increase, and minimization of cost. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. Additionally, a power density-targeted design for the boost inductor is discussed, which allows optimization of weight and power loss across multiple candidate core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. The design procedure demonstrates that an ungapped powder core inductor with high flux density achieves smaller size than the gapped inductor using either amorphous or nanocrystalline material.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1203
Subhashree RAJAGOPAL, Sebastien Desharnais PhD, Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
Eddy-current brakes are contactless magnetic brakes that allow decelerating a vehicle without friction and wear. Electromagnetic brakes are found in variety of applications. However they suffer from a decreasing torque at low and high speed. In this study a novel concept of permanent magnet eddy-current brake is proposed that maintains a flat braking torque profile over a broad speed range. The principle is analytically investigated and numerically validated through finite element simulations using MAXWELL. It is demonstrated that a useably flat braking torque profile can be achieved by altering the path of eddy-currents by magnetic field orientation, thereby, affecting the apparent rotor resistance. Keywords: Eddy-currents, eddy-current brakes, electromagnetic brakes, permanent magnet brakes, MAXWELL
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1208
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja Rahman, Nitin Patel, Peter Savagian
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the secon-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. The second-generation of Volt electric propulsion system is built on two electric machines; both interior permanent magnet type. While hybrid-electric vehicles are gaining in popularity in hopes of addressing cleaner, energy sustainable technology in transportation, materials sustainability and rare earth dependence mitigation has not been the first priority in the hybrids available on the market today.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1206
Manabu Yazaki
In recent years, the application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies to a wide range of vehicles, from small to large vehicles and sedans to SUVs, has been expanding rapidly. Market demand for quiet drive is strong, and HEV systems are able to operate using motor drive alone, eliminating engine vibration and noise. To reduce torque fluctuation in order to reduce vibration and noise, distributed winding is used in the stators of the drive motors employed in many existing electric vehicles (EV) including HEV. However, because the coil ends of distributed windings are large, space for fitting is restricted. Concentrated winding is one method of reducing the size of the motor, because the coil ends can be made smaller. As winding resistance is lower in concentrated winding than in distributed winding copper loss is reduced, and the coils are effective under high-torque conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1207
Makarand Kane, Swanand Kulkarni
Hybrid and electric vehicles are being explored as future transportation alternatives to curb emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In small car segment, as far as hybridization is concerned, the space and safety constraint demands use of lower voltage viz. 48 V as compared to >100-volt-systems used for vehicles in other segments. 48 V systems also have advantage of reduced copper weight due to reduced current. As 48 V systems become prevalent and replace conventional 12 V systems, the auxiliary 12 V loads would necessitate implementation of several DC-DC converters. As this is redundant design, it is better to re-design at least some of the 12 V auxiliary systems to 48 V such as the radiator fan motor. However, the issues faced in the existing PMDC Motor with regard to efficiency and sizing has generated interest to investigate better alternatives for the motor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1197
Chao Chen, Franz Diwoky, Zoran Pavlovic, Johann Wurzenberger
A Linear and Time-invariant (LTI) Reduced Order Method (ROM) has recently been proposed for battery thermal problems in system-level simulations. In this method, a couple of Foster networks or state space models are applied to estimate the volume-averaged module/cell temperature or local temperature at specific positions in a battery pack. When the parameters prescribed to the Foster network or state space model are identified by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, it has been shown that the LTI ROM is able to provide identical results as those from CFD. In this work, an LTI model of a fluid-cooling EV battery module with twelve series connected Li-Ion cells is presented. The model consists of two LTI sub-systems: one is called self-heating sub-system which describes the temperature response to the heat dissipated from the reaction layers and electrodes of the cells.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1200
Guiyuan Li, Changfu Zong
One of key problem in electric vehicle research is the performence of motor control, which has a direct impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, a model of vector control of asynchronous motor for drive system in electric vehicles was established based on matlab/simulink, a fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller was designed and the implementation methods of feedback decoupling and voltage space vector pulse width modulation were given. Finally, a comparison between the system with fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller and the system with normal PID controller was carried out. The simulation results show that the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter for vector control induction motor drive system with fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller is effective to improve steady-state and dynamic performance of drive system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1201
Mohammad anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon LEE, Tae Hoon SONG, YangGi LEE, HangChul KO, Un Ko
This paper focuses on the Barrier net system of the European vehicle(wagon). Recently, Car maker has being developed the wagon for European market. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of enough luggage space in order to minimize injuries of passengers at the accident. This is also a requirement of EU regulations(ECE R-17). Our company has adopted this system to small size car for the first time dependent on advanced foreign company’s technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to overcome our weak technologies, especially for patent circumvention or new mechanism which is entirely independent with previous system, and cost effectiveness(Barrier Net).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0140
Aleksandar Hrnjak
In the auto industry there are many electromechanical systems and components and each system has a different purpose. This paper will explain sensitivity and integration of electromechanical systems up to 0.5 KW such as closure systems or similar actuators (power liftgate systems, power sliding door system, sun-roof system, window regulators, cinch latch… etc.) We can split these systems in two major groups as: 1) System with Strong Motor (SM system) 2) System with Weak Motor (WM system) Both systems can have the same purpose and different performance. SM system has less mechanical components and a stronger motor, while WM system has more mechanical components and a weaker motor. In this paper I will explain what advantages and disadvantages are between the systems, such as: 1. System integration 2. Systems sensitivity and reaction 3. Systems packaging and mass 4. Systems noise level 5.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0287
Javier Adolfo Alcazar, David Weber
A method to merge onto highways using V2V communications is proposed. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC are capable of broadcasting vehicle’s GPS data to neighboring vehicles. The vehicle entering the highway shares traffic information, via DSRC, with other vehicles traveling in the highway; such information allows speed adaptation to merge into the traffic flow. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC can provide smoother traffic flow and fewer collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0132
Sibi Visht Sankara Narayanan, Diane Peters PhD
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer’s power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept’s feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer’s single drive wheel, which allows us to dispense with the need for a differential.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
AUTOSAR 4.0.3 is now being deployed by many of the world’s top automotive OEMs and seeing increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, migration, configuration, integration, generation, and in the final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. The presentation gives an overview how to successfully adopt an AUTOSAR design methodology and how to manage the digital interaction  between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0224
Andrew Patterson
With the dramatic mismatch between consumer handheld devices and automobiles in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features are deployed, vehicle manufacturers are faced with a dilemma. If the vehicle full of Embedded Software is to succeed, there needs to be a secure and accessible method to update software in a vehicle’s infotainment and telematics systems, in order to add new features and version updates. This session will explore available options for updating and extending the software capability of an infotainment system, in an effort to address the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer devices.
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