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Viewing 61 to 90 of 20967
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2704
Yinbo Cao, Zhongye Xue, Qiqi Miao, Jun Deng, Liguang Li
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is admitted to be one of the most effective measures to improve the fuel economy for the spark ignition (SI) engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has advantages of low fuel consumption and ultra low NOx emissions. But the difficulty in the autoignition control and the narrow operation region inhibit the practical application of this technology. A hybrid combustion mode which combines SI mode and HCCI mode in separated working regions was regarded as a promising technology for HCCI engines. In addition, monitoring and providing feedback to the in-cylinder combustion characteristics is generally considered to be an effective method to improve and to optimize the combustion process. A lot of combustion information is included in the ion current generated by the in-cylinder combustion, and hence the ion current detection technique is considered to be a potential combustion feedback method. A strategy used in the SI/HCCI combustion mode switch based on ion current was established and experimented in a GDI-HCCI engine assisted by negative valve overlap (NVO).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2707
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin J. Lawler, Charles E.A. Finney, Michelle L. Edwards, Robert M. Wagner
Abstract Advances in engine controls and sensor technology are making advanced, direct, high-speed control of engine combustion more feasible. Control of combustion rate and phasing in low-temperature combustion regimes and active control of cyclic variability in dilute SI combustion are being pursued in laboratory environments with high-quality data acquisition systems, using metrics calculated from in-cylinder pressure. In order to implement these advanced combustion controls in production, lower-quality data will need to be tolerated even if indicated pressure sensors become available. This paper examines the effects of several data quality issues, including phase shifting (incorrect TDC location), reduced data resolution, pressure pegging errors, and random noise on calculated combustion metrics that are used for control feedback. Symbolic data analysis is an effective technique for identifying underlying patterns in noisy data, and has been applied to cyclic variability of dilute SI combustion, identifying deterministic effects that underlie the stochastic variations that are present.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2708
Antonino La Rocca, David MacMillan, Paul Shayler, Michael Murphy, Ian Pegg
Abstract Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC. The experimental study shows that increasing the number of pilots improves stability and leads to fuel preparation resulting in higher initial peak rate of heat release.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2744
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Ugo Sorge, Anqi Zhang, Michela Costa
Abstract Diesel sprays from an axially-disposed single-hole injector are studied under both non-vaporizing and vaporizing conditions in a constant-volume vessel. A hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging set-up is used to acquire the liquid and vapor phases of the fuel distribution in a near-simultaneous visualization mode by a high-speed camera (40,000 fps). A diesel injector with k0 factor is used, having the exit-hole diameter of 0.1 mm and the ratio L/d =10. The studies are performed at the injection pressures of 70, 120, and 180 MPa, 25.37 kg/m3 ambient gas density, at the environment temperature of 373, 453 and 900 K. The instantaneous tip penetration of the liquid and vapor phases is extracted from the collected images and processed by a properly assessed software, under the various operating conditions. The AVL FIRE™ code is also used to simulate the spray dynamics. The model is validated on the ground of the collected experimental data. The results dependence upon the cell size of the computational mesh is preliminary discussed.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2613
Mario Farrugia, Andrew Briffa, Michael Farrugia
Abstract A conversion to LPG of a SI engine that was originally carbureted gasoline is reported in this work. The conversion was implemented on a 1988 Skoda 120L with a 1174cc rear engine. The conversion to run on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was carried out using a programmable Engine Control Unit (ECU) that operated a single point fuel injection system. The LPG used was a commercially available mixture of butane and propane. The fuel injection system was designed to operate with the LPG in the liquid state. A circulating pump was used to maintain availability of LPG in liquid state at the inlet to the fuel injector. This made possible the use of similar fuel injection parts as in a gasoline system. Injection of the fuel in the liquid state provided cooling to the intake air as measured during driving of the vehicle and also on chassis dynamometer runs. Engine power output measured on the chassis dynamometer showed equal power between gasoline and LPG around mid RPM of 2500 RPM with a slight decline (4%) in power of the LPG system at 5000 RPM.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2836
Haichao Fu, Yinhui Wang, Xinyan Li, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract An experimental study of particulate matter (PM) emission was conducted on four cars from Chinese market. Three cars were powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and one car was powered by a port fuel injection (PFI) engine. Particulate mass, number and size distribution were measured based on a chassis dynamometer over new European driving cycle (NEDC). The particulate emission behaviors during cold start and hot start NEDCs were compared to understand how the running conditions influence particulate emission. Three kinds of gasoline with RON 91.9, 94.0 and 97.4 were tested to find the impact of RON on particulate emission. Because of time and facilities constraints, only one cold/hot start NEDC was conducted for every vehicle fueled with every fuel. The test results showed that more particles were emitted during cold start condition (first 200s in NEDC). Compared with cold start NEDC, the particulate mass and number of hot start NEDC decreased by a wide margin. The particulate mass and number reductions of hot start NEDC mainly resulted from ECE cycle sections.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2860
Ramdas Ugale
Abstract Emerging markets like India is very cost sensitive for small engines like motorcycle. Capacitive discharge Ignition (CDI) with carburetor is popular low cost solution with good engine performance. CDI system accumulates charge inside the ignition capacitor, until a point at which a signal allows to release discharge of the stored charge to the spark plug through high tension coil. This paper will focus on single spark digital two teeth DC CDI solution and below design challenges with two sparks. 1 Higher power dissipation in step up fly back converter2 Need higher CPU speed, flash size and restrictions on engine map profile for advance angles This paper will elaborate above problems and their solutions with test results for optimizing solution cost and achieve performance. Solutions include, exploring 8 bit microcontroller peripherals usage and smart software to boost MCU performance for engine dynamic conditions and to achieve lower losses in flyback converter.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2899
Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Geca, Grzegorz Baranski
Abstract City buses are equipped with an increasing number of electrical devices that are designed to improve the driver work and increase passengers' comfort. The alternator must therefore meet the requirements of increased levels of electric energy demand. In this paper, the focus is set on the amount of chemical energy in the fuel transformed into electric energy by the alternator, especially in the case of urban transport. The article presents the results of operating states of the alternator in the city bus while driving. During the study waveforms of rotational speed and load current of power generation system were recorded. The results of measurements made it possible to draw histograms showing the share of working time in different points of the alternator work. Only about 43% of the total working time corresponds to the bus stop and the operation of the idle speed of the alternator 2250 rpm. The remaining time corresponds to the average speed about 4200 rpm and does not exceed 6600 rpm.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2896
Krzysztof Jan Siczek
Abstract Conditions of the bacterial battery have been presented in the article. The models of different design configurations of bacterial battery and its assembly with electric circuit has been elaborated. The obtained values of voltage and currents obtained in such models has been compared with the case of similar circuit using lithium-ion battery and presented in the paper.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2894
Boru Jia, Zhengxing Zuo, Huihua Feng, Guohong Tian, A. P. Roskilly
Abstract The free-piston engine generator (FPEG) is a novel type of energy conversion device; it integrates a two stroke combustion engine and a linear electric machine into a single unit. As an alternative to conventional engines, the FPEG is a promising power generation system due to its simplicity and high thermal efficiency and has attracted considerable research interests recently. This paper presents the development for a spark-ignited free-piston engine generator prototype, and the design of major sub-systems is introduced. The electrical linear machine is operated as a motor to start the engine and switched to a generator after successful ignition. Ignition is one of the most crucial problems for the generating process, thus a unique control sub-system to generate ignition signals at the correct ignition timing based on the piston position was completed. Then experiments of the starting process were carried out with the prototype. The results indicate that with a fixed motor force of 110N, the maximum in-cylinder gas pressure can reach 12 bar and the compression ratio can reach 8:1.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2901
Albert Albers, Kevin Matros, Matthias Behrendt, Johannes Henschel, Heidelinde Holzer, Wolfram Bohne
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy. Those findings led to recommendations regarding the selection of suitable starting-systems and the design of the starting-strategy.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2748
Dehao Ju, Tingting Zhang, Jin Xiao, Zhen Huang
Abstract In order to quantitatively investigate the macroscopic characteristics of flash-boiling atomization, the spray injected through a plain-orifice nozzle under atmospheric conditions was directly imaged and analyzed by the multi-threshold algorithm. The spray images were acquired at various times after the start of actuation using a high-speed visualization system. The light intensity level of images implies the local relative mass concentration of droplets in the spray. Transient contour plots of spray images at various thresholds were analyzed and compared with turbulent round jets of diesel. A new term, transient continuous cone angle, was defined to characterize the flash-boiling spray. The relative mass concentration distributions and continuous cone angles of the sprays during the start, development and end periods of the atomization were discussed for two different sprays. The grayscale levels of sprays in the outer and end regions of the sprays were lower compared to those in the center regions, because the droplets at the outer and end regions were well-atomized by the volatile nature of the material and the friction between the injected droplets and the surrounding gas.
2014-10-10
WIP Standard
J1939DA
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012. The data fields included in J1939DA for PGNs are: PGN Parameter Group Label Acronyn EDP DP PF PGN Length PS PGN Description Multipacket Transmission Rate PGN Data Length Default Priority PGN Reference PGN Document The data fields included in J1939DA for SPNs are: SPN SPN Name SPN Description SPN Length Resolution Offset Data Range Operational Range Units SLOT Identifier SPN Type SPN Reference SPN Document The J1939 Digital Annex is current through Second Quarter 2014 and can be purchased separately or as part of the SAE J1939 Standards Collection on the Web.
2014-10-09
Article
Not all hands-free technologies are alike, and poorly designed ones can increase driver distraction. That was one of the findings of an AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety study, the results of which it released Oct. 7.
2014-10-09
Standard
ARP4103A
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
2014-10-08
Article
As populations in sprawling urban areas rise, commuting will become a bigger challenge. Connected cars are likely to leverage connectivity to help commuters reach destinations using different modes of transportation, further driving development teams to collaborate more extensively within their companies and with outsiders from many fields.
2014-10-08
WIP Standard
ARP6336
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides technical recommendations for the application, design and development of lighting for Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of UA lighting for the type or size of aircraft and the operation in the National Aerospace System for which the aircraft is intended.
2014-10-08
Standard
AIR6226
Most of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer Actuators (THSA) feature a dual structural load path, the primary load path being loaded, the secondary load path being normally unloaded, or both load paths sharing in parallel the Horizontal Stabilizer load. This document describes existing methods for detecting rupture or disconnection of loaded load paths as an overview for those specifying or designing Horizontal Stabilizer Trim Actuators in order to compare existing solutions as reference for implementation in new aircraft programs.
2014-10-07
Magazine
Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
2014-10-06
Article
Under a long-term partnership announced Oct. 3, AKKA Technologies Group engineers will work with the company's 3DEXPERIENCE platform to develop the next generation of its autonomously driving Link&Go concept car using Dassault Systèmes applications to ideate, design, simulate, and validate on a single collaborative platform hosted on the Cloud.
2014-10-06
Standard
AS24001A
No scope available.
2014-10-03
WIP Standard
AS8472
This document defines methods to exchange data about the health of a fiber optic network.
2014-10-02
Article
Earlier this year, SAE International published an Information Report categorizing and defining various levels of automated driving. Now it is offering a handy and free two-page document at http://www.sae.org/misc/pdfs/automated_driving.pdf to illustrate and summarize the categories.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
AS23053/1
This detail specification establishes the requirements for a range of similar electrical insulating sleevings that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
AS23053/11
This detail specification establishes the requirements for a range of similar electrical insulating sleevings that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
AS23053/10
This detail specification establishes the requirements for a type of electrical insulating sleeving that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
AS23053/12
This detail specification establishes the requirements for a range of similar electrical insulating sleevings that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat.
2014-10-02
WIP Standard
AS23053/13
This detail specification establishes the requirements for a type of electrical insulating sleeving that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 20967

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