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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1223
Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola PhD
An approach is being pursued for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). The twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance has led to a SHEV powertrain using energy storage as a means for filtering drive cycle power demands on the engine, rather than an energy source for supplying all-electric range. The concept is intended to minimize, if not eliminate, the battery in the SHEV without resorting to full range proportional control of the engine and generator. An initial optimization study reported for a cross-over SUV SHEV showed a 3.5 kWh Li-ion battery pack was still required. In new research, a sports car class SHEV was studied, which is the topic of this manuscript. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size even more because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the battery size in the SUV. In this manuscript, a controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ to be realized with a light ESS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1191
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
The parameters of battery electrochemical model based on porous electrode theory are complex, which is suitable for off-line analysis. The parameters of equivalent circuit model (ECM) are few and composed of electrical components (resistances, inductances, capacitances, Warburg impedance, constant phase element…), whose operation is fast, and more suitable for the on-line estimation of the vehicle power battery performance, such as SOC, SOH and temperature. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy battery model which can comprehensively depict the internal state of the battery is developed in the paper firstly. The model is based on the porous electrode theory, and it can obtain a complete spectrum of the cell impendence. Then the effect of battery key parameters (the radius of particle, electrochemical reaction rate constant, solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficient, conductivity) to the simulated impedance spectroscopy are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy PhD, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm. Preliminary measurements indicated that this range breaks into three different zones, each with its own unique possible failure characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Automotive OEM’s are investing large sums in the development of (hybrid) electrified vehicles and networked automotive systems (such as Car2x systems). Future aims towards autonomous driving and currently ongoing replacement of traditional mechanical systems with modern embedded systems lead to significantly increasing complexity of these systems. Premium cars in 2009 implied more than 90 electronic control units (ECU) with close to 1 Gigabyte software code implemented. For 2018 30% of the overall vehicle costs are predicted to stem from vehicle electronics. At the same time, the higher degree of integration and the safety-criticality of the control application raise new challenges. Evidence of correctness of the different applications, possibly running on the same computing platform, has to be guaranteed. On one hand, the development of such systems has to face many cost challenges and is required to support the demands of time-to-market (first time right).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0164
Smitha K.P., Priti Ranadive, Naveen Boggarapu, Rakesh A
The automotive industry today follows Model Based Development (MBD) for developing modern automotive applications. This method involves creating models for a given system under design and then using tools like Matlab/Simulink to auto-generate code for target platforms. This method is popular since maintenance of MBD based applications is simple and less time consuming as compared to maintaining application code. Thus, MBD facilitates correct designs and easy maintenance of automotive applications. However, there are legacy automotive applications that are not developed using models. It is difficult to accommodate and test any changes in such application codes since it requires extensive testing. Additionally, for application code generated from models, many a times, code is changed during testing and these changes are not reflected in the model. Hence, there is a need to convert legacy automotive application codes to models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0469
Ning Wang, Yafei Liu
The Chinese government initiated the “Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicles” program for electric vehicles from the year of 2009 to 2012. The demonstration results indicate that an integral supporting system is required in the promotion of electric vehicles, including the government policies, charging infrastructure, after-sales service, business models and consumer awareness. Through the analysis of related literature and summary reports from 25 demonstration cities, a partial least squares (PLS) path model with 5 major factors and 13 observation indicators was developed to assess the city readiness of electric vehicle supporting system. The 5 factors consist of government policies and investment, charging infrastructure construction and operation, business models and maintenance service system, consumer awareness training, operation scale and environmental benefits. Then based on the PLS results 25 cities are divided into 6 groups with the clustering analysis model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0886
Joseph Pritchard, Wai K. Cheng
The use of secondary air in the SI engine exhaust is an effective means to control the HC emissions and to facilitate the catalyst light-off in the engine start-up process. The effects of the secondary air on particulate matter oxidation in the exhaust have been studies in a gasoline direct injection engine under cold idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The engine operates at lambda of 0.8 and 0.9; the exhaust lambda (the air fuel ratio after the secondary air addition) varies from the same value as the engine lambda (no secondary air) to lambda = 1.2. The spark timing has been set at 10 and 15 degrees atdc. Significant reduction of particulate number (up to 80%) and particulate volume (up to 90%) have been observed. The temperature of the exhaust is deemed too low for particulate oxidation using the classical Strickland-Constable correlation. The particulate oxidation is attributed to the action of the radicals derived from the oxidation of the exhaust species (HC, CO and H2).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensors simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility suit perfectly to the rapidly changing testing needs of today’s advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating always bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0198
Hironobu AKITA, Nobuaki MATSUDAIRA, Chao CHEN, Takasuke ITO, Shigeki OHTSUKA
With the evolution of automotive features, larger flash program size has been required even at the local electronic control units (ECUs). As a fast flash programming interface, Ethernet is adopted as a global data port from the external source. However, it has a peer-to-peer type network topology, and cannot be applied to the bus type network topology between the domain controller and the local ECUs. On the other hand, high speed CAN-FD has been studied recently for this bus type topology, but its data rate is limited at the range of several mega bps due to the signal waveform distortion caused by the multiple reflections at the non-terminated stubs. This paper describes a novel distortion cancelling technique for the bus type topology, in which digital signal processing technology compensates the complicated signal distortion caused by the multiple reflections. Moreover, this complex signal processing block is located only at the domain controller, not at the local ECUs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Both the increasing power requirements and the integration of safety-critical electrical systems present a challenge for the development and validation of future automotive electrical networks. In particular, the layout of alternators, storage devices, and converters, and also the robust and optimum design of the electrical distribution system are based on a profound understanding of the electrical power consumption. For this reason, considerable effort has been made to develop models of electrical systems and loads as well as their respective use-profiles. Unfortunately, even for a mid-sized vehicle, the number of loads leads to a tremendous number of possible combinations of on- and off-states. Furthermore, the simultaneous operation of some loads is highly improbable or excluded, whereas the operation of other loads is positively correlated. In addition, in most cases the use of certain loads depends on the operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
The nature of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric & hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate trade studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical FMEA report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0253
Qiao Zhang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
Energy storage and power management are of critical importance to various electric vehicles, including pure, hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Of all the energy storage devices, batteries are one of the most widely used. However, battery alone has faced several challenges, including low power density, short cycling life, challenges in thermal management in high power-load conditions. Super-capacitor (SC) on the other hand, has much higher power density and has emerged as an attractive pairing for batteries. As a result of the hybridized energy storage, it allows a downsized battery for reduced weight, and allows battery to operate without large current spike for extended life. Since battery and SC have different dynamic characteristics, an overall energy management strategy should be designed for the system to coordinate power flows between different energy sources.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
In automotive embedded software developments, as the software functionality are added based on the user preference and technology growth. The software logic were added to the legacy code and the functionality is being visualized. Due to the complexity added to the software, there are chance of introducing a defect to the existing piece of code which makes the functionality to improperly function. In this paper, we will discuss how embedded software projects were developed across globally and how the data is collected. Based on the data collection and applying the statistical method to identify the exact root cause of the problem from injection standpoint, subsequently from escape by review method and testing. By applying the Lean six sigma methodology and Big data analytic method to analyses the data collected, based on analysis performed for data pattern continuous improvement actions were derived.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0887
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular, as it can remove the troublesome plug-in process, provide an inherent electrical isolation and adapt to harsh environments. Charging power regulation, as one of important issues, is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes or the required charging power for batteries increases endlessly. Based on the comparative analysis of traditional regulation methods, this paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected symmetrically) to couple the cascaded resonant topology to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained directly from the voltage sources.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
James Price
Functional Design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of hardware and software devices such as computer software and increasingly, 3D models. A functional design assures that each modular part of a device has only one responsibility and performs that responsibility with the minimum of side effects on other parts. Functionally designed modules tend to have low coupling. Quite often functional design is interpreted as architecture design or as a planning aid for trade studies. Instead of using it for the design of the architecture and then forgetting all about it when making implementation decisions downstream our recommendation is to use functional design at the beginning of every implementation decision, not just when defining the architecture. In order to clearly focus on the over-all goals the implementation details should not obstruct the view of the design. This means that functional design should be implementation independent as long as possible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0163
Madhura Medikeri, Thomas Tasky, Johannes Richenhagen
With the increasing popularity of seamless gear changing and smooth driving experience along with need for high fuel efficiency, transmission system development has rapidly increased in complexity, and so has the transmission control software. For this reason, extensive testing and documentation along with quick and efficient development methods are required. FEV responds to these challenges by developing and integrating a transmission software architecture called “PERSIST” with an automated verification and validation process called “Nightly Build”. The “PERSIST” architecture divides the software and reduces complexity while making it more modular. The FEV software development process incorporates AUTOSAR standards and safety standards such as ISO 26262 in a structure that aids in the reusability of functions and components, thereby reducing development and testing time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0169
Kazuyuki Nakata, Maya Seki, Ryoichi Nishikawa, Soju Matsumoto, Shinichiro Murakami, Yukio Yoshino
Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper (doi:10.4271/2013-01-0425). Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer’s tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0170
Nikhil Bhadani
Wide varieties of vehicle Engine Management Systems are designed by different Tier#1 suppliers to meet highly complex requirements with the help of electronics. Emerging technologies and features of Engine Management Systems require a number of strategies for reducing the overall timing for verification with high quality testing. Analysis and decoding of data especially for highly critical and complex such as gasoline direct injection (GDi) engine fuel delivery output, high pressure fuel pump (HPFP), spark control output and different varieties of engine position signals are time consuming. This paper introduces Virtual Engine Control Module (VECM) technology to solve the problem of decoding complex signals and high level verification. A proposed test bench setup consists of VECM, ECM, simulator and real actuator load with complete software flashed inside the ECM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
In recent years, the request for the air flow sensor with the detectability function of reverse-air-flow has increased to monitor the state of the engine intake manifold air because of responding to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulation and improving the fuel efficiency. According to the request, such air flow sensor has been realized and commercialized by using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology: formation of a membrane and heaters to the silicon semiconductor chip. In addition to the detectability function of reverse flow, air flow sensors are required to be highly precise, reliable and strong. This paper describes the newly developed MEMS-based air flow sensor, with those properties including the reverse-flow detectability, which is expected to become a key device for vehicle engine control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs. ASILs are used to specify applicable requirements of the ISO-26262 standard so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk; Smart integrated sensors, such as angular position sensors, are used extensively in automotive safety-critical applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0279
Fumio Narisawa, Masahiro Matsubara, Masataka Nishi, Tomohito Ebina
Electronic control and software systems in automotives are being increasing both in its functions and sizes to achieve better controllability and reduction of fuel consumptions. The higher safety level is also demanded, and introduction of the functional-safety standard is progressing to the in-vehicle system in recent years. In safety critical systems, it is necessary to diagnose failure and to transit a system surely to a safe state, even if failure of hardware occurs. Therefore, verification of the failure diagnosis part of the basic software which takes charge of signal inputs and outputs processing is highly required for high accountability and the explanatory to a third party. In order to diagnose failure, the hardware and software which are originally operating independently need to cooperate in principle. Verification of hardware and software cooperating systems are not straight-forward, because the number of combinations of conditions will be too much for testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0306
Satoru Shinzaki, Hakaru Sadano, Yutaka Maruyama, Willett Kempton
For suppressing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas, and enhancing energy security, renewable power sources, such as solar and wind power sources, are being introduced aggressively. In the meantime, supply of such renewable power sources changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions, and hence, it is difficult to maintain the balance between renewable power supply and corresponding demand. As a means of resolving the imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed. This technology enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing high-power and high-capacity on-board propulsion batteries as fast-responding energy storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1179
Christopher J. Brooks, Eric Kreidler
Vehicle drivetrain electrification is one of the many future challenges that automakers face. While there are many different EV system configurations, the one constant is the need for better electrochemical storage. Initially, this paper will discuss existing electrochemical systems and their potential to meet future vehicle requirements. We will then examine beyond Li-ion systems and their potential to replace current technology. Lithium-O2 batteries form lithium peroxide (Li2O2). This product formed on the electrocatalyst happens to be a wide band-gap semiconductor/insulator. This has ramifications for discharge, charge, and battery design. During discharge, the poor electronic conductivity of Li2O2 limits the amount and rate at which product can be formed. Under a constant discharge, the resistance of the electrode increases, causing a voltage drop that becomes sufficiently large and stops any further reaction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1190
Matthew Shirk, Jeffrey Wishart
As part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC Level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery testing includes constant-current discharge capacity, Electric Vehicle Power Characterization, and Low Peak Power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0175
Vinay Ranganath
Objective: Hardware-in-the-loop testing facilitates the decrease in development time of traction motor controller. Accuracy and fidelity of the plant model (motor and inverter) plays an important role in testing the functionality of motor controller software. The switched motor-inverter model is required when the controller has to be tested for sudden transients like faults. In most cases, the average-value model, which uses the duty cycle information of inverter switches is sufficient. In the present work, 1) The switched induction motor-inverter model has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink. This works on instantaneous values of PWM signals of inverter switches 2) The average-value induction motor-inverter model has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink. This works on duty cycle information of PWM signals of inverter switches The advantages and disadvantages of both the models for HIL application has been discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take ten or more years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Analyze vehicle usage parameters with distribution free methods. Engineers are familiar with displaying vehicle data with interval count or percentile histograms. A cumulative time or mileage based histogram provides a direct visual means of characterizing the vehicle history. Combining the histograms from many vehicles results in a complex virtually unreadable plot. An alternative approach is to determine the 5%, median, and 95% usage and plot as a cumulative histogram . These provide design engineers with useful information to develop validation tests.
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