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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0304
Samveg Saxena, Jason MacDonald, Doug Black, Sila Kiliccote
Electric vehicles (EVs) enable higher vehicle efficiency and zero emissions in population centers, however the large loads from EV charging can stress grid systems during periods of peak demand. We apply detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars to quantify the ability for EVs to reduce their charging rates during periods of peak demand. Peak demand periods are defined to occur between 12 pm and 6 pm, as specified by Pacific Gas and Electric. A managed charging controller is developed and applied within the vehicle-to-grid simulator (V2G-Sim) which charges vehicles during the demand response period only if charging is required to satisfy mobility needs for upcoming anticipated trips over the next 24 hours. When the managed charging controller is applied at commercial (non-home) locations only, we show that 27-70% of EV charging loads can be removed at 12 pm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0306
Satoru Shinzaki, Hakaru Sadano, Yutaka Maruyama, Willett Kempton
For suppressing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas, and enhancing energy security, renewable power sources, such as solar and wind power sources, are being introduced aggressively. In the meantime, supply of such renewable power sources changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions, and hence, it is difficult to maintain the balance between renewable power supply and corresponding demand. As a means of resolving the imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed. This technology enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing high-power and high-capacity on-board propulsion batteries as fast-responding energy storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
In automotive embedded software developments, as the software functionality are added based on the user preference and technology growth. The software logic were added to the legacy code and the functionality is being visualized. Due to the complexity added to the software, there are chance of introducing a defect to the existing piece of code which makes the functionality to improperly function. In this paper, we will discuss how embedded software projects were developed across globally and how the data is collected. Based on the data collection and applying the statistical method to identify the exact root cause of the problem from injection standpoint, subsequently from escape by review method and testing. By applying the Lean six sigma methodology and Big data analytic method to analyses the data collected, based on analysis performed for data pattern continuous improvement actions were derived.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0301
Takayuki Shimizu, Akihisa Yokoyama, Kazuma Sato, Kunihiko Kumita
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on SAE J2836/2847/J2931. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0885
Mark B. Murphy, John J. Moskwa
This paper details the development of a new dynamic Intake Air Simulator (IAS) for use on single-cylinder test engines, where the gas dynamics are controlled to accurately simulate those on a multi-cylinder engine during transient or steady-state operation. Single-cylinder test engines are used extensively in engine research laboratories, and sparingly in engine development to study charge motion, mixing, combustion, and other in-cylinder events. Even though the final target engine for use of these studies is the multi-cylinder engine, the gas dynamics of the single-cylinder engine varies considerably from this target engine. Charge motion in the cylinder is dominated by momentum, and the dynamics of the intake has a very strong effect on this motion, even in the closed period after intake ends. This can easily be seen by changing intake runner or system geometry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1189
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
A major challenge in the development of next generation electric and hybrid vehicle technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1184
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
The performance, life cycle cost, and safety of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) depend strongly on their energy storage system of vehicle. Advanced batteries such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries are quite viable options for storing energy in EVs and HEVs. In addition, thermal management is essential for achieving the desired performance and life cycle from a particular battery. Therefore, to design a thermal management system, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. The thermal characteristics that are needed include the surface temperature distribution, heat flux, and the heat generation from batteries under various charge/discharge profiles. Therefore, in the first part of the research, surface temperature distribution from a lithium-ion pouch cell (20Ah capacity) is studied under different discharge rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama, Toru Sukigara
Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charging and discharging. In order to analyze the causes of degradation, the changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using synchrotron XRD, TEM, XAS and SEM-EDX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1190
Matthew Shirk, Jeffrey Wishart
As part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC Level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery testing includes constant-current discharge capacity, Electric Vehicle Power Characterization, and Low Peak Power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1195
Kiyotaka Maeda, Masashi Takahashi
To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we derived power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions by tailoring. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and run on seven different types of road at different speeds, and the acceleration data that the battery packs received were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square value of acceleration were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, it has been suggested both experimentally and theoretically that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X and Y axes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular, as it can remove the troublesome plug-in process, provide an inherent electrical isolation and adapt to harsh environments. Charging power regulation, as one of important issues, is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes or the required charging power for batteries increases endlessly. Based on the comparative analysis of traditional regulation methods, this paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected symmetrically) to couple the cascaded resonant topology to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained directly from the voltage sources.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1201
Mohammad Anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1198
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion phosphate battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating automotive components models of ASM (Automotive Simulation Model) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1204
Ji Zhang, Zhi Liao, Zechang Sun
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume,weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications,particularly in electric vehicle and other mobile platforms.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
The capability of heat dissipation in electric machine has great influence on its output performance. Under high output rating the temperature in the machine can raise rapidly due to losses generated in components. To ensure the lifetime and prevent machine failure, power output must be limited as soon as the temperature reaches a certain critical level. The electric machine continuous power density is restricted by this thermal effect. To increase power density and reduce machine size, studies on machine cooling have been intensively conducted over the last decades. This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in the stator slots with oil flows. In this approach the machine stator slots are sealed to air gap after the coils are mounted.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ram Krishnaswami
The evolution of airbag sensing system design has been rapid as electromechanical sensors used in earlier front airbag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential airbag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multi-point electronic sensors, advanced airbag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by airbag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Historically, traditional reconstruction methods and full scale vehicle crash testing were the primary means available to evaluate the field performance of passenger vehicle airbag systems. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of electronic data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to airbag deployment events.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influences the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake, compression and exhaust stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays with the advances in the vehicle control systems, the customers want new and exciting features in their vehicles, which make the vehicle driving characteristics adjustable as they prefers. One of the vehicle controlled systems which can be used to change the vehicle driving characteristics from time to time is the semi-active suspension system. Therefore, the paper presents a rule-optimized fuzzy controller for semi-active suspension system which is continuously adjusts itself according to the road conditions and the drivers’ requirements. The proposed rule-optimized fuzzy controller has three different control modes (Sport, Normal and Comfort), which can be switched using the button and thus adjusted to customer requirements. The Normal Mode is adjusted to provide an overall balance between the vehicle ride comfort and road holding. On the other hand, the Comfort Mode is adapted to leads to a comfort-oriented, softer basic configuration of the damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Both these events took a toll on the economy as well as industrial activity, around the globe, as well as in India. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
This paper presents a novel technology to achieve world lowest power (4W) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp(55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp(6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm, the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0134
Durga Madhab Mishra, Bimal Kant Gupta
Generally, in a two wheeler, headlight or any other electrical device consumes significant amount of current from the battery causing drainage of battery, especially, when the engine is not 'ON' and one of the light or electrical device inadvertently remains 'ON' for some time. Typically, the rider needs to switch on the headlight and other electrical devices during running of the vehicle or in many cases, when he desires the need of light when the vehicle is not running. However, on certain occasions, the rider forgets to switch-off the headlight or other electrical devices after switching-off the ignition switch. Next day, particularly in daylight condition, when the rider enables the ignition switch, the headlight also gets energized as the light switch remains in 'ON' position in the previous ride cycle. It is very much possible that the rider does not come to know about Headlamp also 'ON' due to day condition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
Thomas Heurung
Functional Design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of hardware and software devices such as computer software and increasingly, 3D models. A functional design assures that each modular part of a device has only one responsibility and performs that responsibility with the minimum of side effects on other parts. Functionally designed modules tend to have low coupling. Quite often functional design is interpreted as architecture design or as a planning aid for trade studies. Instead of using it for the design of the architecture and then forgetting all about it when making implementation decisions downstream our recommendation is to use functional design at the beginning of every implementation decision, not just when defining the architecture. In order to clearly focus on the over-all goals the implementation details should not obstruct the view of the design. This means that functional design should be implementation independent as long as possible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0136
Ying Fan
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an analysis technology for improving the reliability of the product. The main process of FMEA is summarized as fellows: firstly to find out the potential failure modes of the product; then to calculate the risk priority number (RPN); finally to determine the risk value order of the subsystems or parts. Risk priority number is a basic method to risk management and harm degree judgment of the product failure. Aiming at a failure mode, with the value of the severity of effect (S), the probability of occurrence (O), and the difficulty of detection (D), the value of RPN is the product of S , O and D. The range of three factors is from 1 to 10 respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru, Kapil Dongare, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and system design is revised to achieve the functional safety. This results in a set of hard rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0143
James Price
Consumer demands place the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation into cars at the same pace (faster time to market with no increase in cost) as the consumer industry does for consumer electronics. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles as well, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without further cost increases. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it’s impossible to compartmentalize design domains because it is connected in many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independently of each other and are not ideally suited to deal with any type of interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
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