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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1500
Renran Tian, Keyu Ruan, Lingxi Li, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on the in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there is no common standard available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauge following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harnesses was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 7mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani
This paper presents a multi-agent estimation approach to identify unknown parameters of autonomous vehicle environment in presence of communication fault in vehicular network. For some application, e.g. look-ahead road condition estimation, it is required for an agent to have access to other agents’ measurements, particularly frontal vehicles to predict the upcoming situations. By taking the advantage of the hybrid nature of the cooperative estimation problem, short time scale for V2V communication and longer time scale for single agent estimation convergence, the authors provide a multi agent consensus estimation, with an observer to access other agents’ measurements even for out of range agents in faulty network. Furthermore, the described estimation strategy is implemented in an adaptive model predictive collision avoidance policy for unknown road condition driving situation to demonstrate the application of proposed cooperative estimation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1196
Yazhou GUO, Maji LUO, Jia ZOU, Yunpeng LIU, Jianqiang KANG
Traction batteries are operated in severe working conditions of wide temperature range as the vehicles run in different seasons and regions, which effects battery performance deeply. Investigation on the effect of temperature under such circumstances on battery performance is very significant to promote the application of traction battery. In this paper, some tests are conducted on a ternary-material lithium-ion battery at various temperatures. The cycling performance and some significant parameters are evaluated at the whole temperature range, especially at the extreme temperatures (below -10°C or above 45°C). The results show that the battery performance becomes poor obviously at low temperatures, which is reflected in the decreased terminal voltage and the faded discharge capacity, and at too high temperatures (above 45°C), power and capacity also decrease, which happens in the later discharge process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0116
Takayuki Tanaka, Shunsuke Nakajima, Takahiro Urabe, Hideyuki Tanaka
Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimate reference path and vehicle position, and it calculates reference steering wheel angle, and EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derived a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converge lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Because the formula is obtained from vehicle model, we can design controller depending on a vehicle type easily by using known vehicle spec.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0023
Zhengling Lei, Hui Xie, Tielong Shen
Modeling techniques matter a lot in many fields of engine engineering. Models are needed not only for control design but also for energy management. However, problems usually could be encountered during modeling process either because of the system complexity or due to the high cost beyond the affordable range. As a result, a new modeling technique based on offline data and online disturbance estimation approach is proposed in this paper. By employing the proposed modeling technique, models are set up in real time with the online information from input and output. The hard to model part of system dynamics are handled as internal disturbance of the system, while the uncertainties from outside are taken as the external disturbance, and the combination of the two can be estimated online by a kind of active observer called extended state observer (ESO).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0079
Tomohisa Harada, Yoshiyuki Hattori, Shinya Ito, Mitoshi Fujimoto, Toshikazu Hori
Recently, the electromagnetic interference to an AM radio by the noise generated from a power control unit in an HV has become a serious problem. In order to solve the problem, most of noise countermeasures focus on noise sources and noise propagation paths. On the other hand, a countermeasure in the radio receiver has been also proposed. This method detects the HV noise by using a noise sensor, and then, the noise signal is subtracted from AM radio signal which the noise superimposed. In this paper, a new noise suppression method using the digital signal processing in the AM radio receiver is proposed, which does not need noise sensors. The procedure of the method is as follows: First, a receiving AM radio signal containing HV noises is resolved into the in-phase component and quadrature component of a carrier by applying a quadrature demodulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0109
Dariusz Cieslar, Krzysztof Kogut, Maciej Różewicz, Mateusz Orlowski
Enhanced perception algorithms are the key requirement for the introduction of more sophisticated active safety functionalities in urban areas. In order to realize test-driven development from an early stage, either a set of representative and comprehensive test-drive logs needs to be available up front or a sufficiently universal simulation environment for virtual manoeuvres should be employed. In this article a case study of developing a radar-based estimator for target heading is considered. This relatively standard problem serves as an illustrative example to assess the merits of inherently simplified stimulus generated from virtual manoeuvres and its limitation in comparison to real measurements. It is argued that a convenient modelling approach for virtual scene simulation applied from early development stage can further improve the quality and integrity of active safety projects, especially when they involve multiple sensor types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0825
William Fedor, Joseph Kazour, James Haller, Kenneth Dauer, Daniel Kabasin
LEV-3 regulation changes will require a 100% SULEV30 fleet average by 2025. While previous applications meeting SULEV30 have been primarily small 4- cylinder engines, the LEV-3 standards will require larger displacement engines to also meet SULEV30. One concept investigated to reduce the cold start engine-out HC emission is to heat the injected fuel during the cold start and initial engine idle period. Improved atomization and increased vaporization of heated fuel will decrease wall wetting and unburnt fuel. This will result in more fuel available to take part in combustion, thus reducing the required injected fuel mass and HC emissions. Heated fuel was used to produce a representative fuel stream temperature profile which was developed with an early prototype Heated DI injector. Heated vs. unheated gasoline cold start emission performance was evaluated on a 3.8L 6-cylinder NA vehicle and a reduction in HC emissions using heated fuel was demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract: An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is not visible in the "off" condition and is minimized in the "on" condition. Introduction: As electronic displays such as TFT's are utilized increasingly in automotive instrument clusters, there is a desire from the OEMs to hide the display opening and present a "seamless" appearance to the user such that the user cannot see any apertures or margin gaps to the display. Background: The most relevant prior art is demonstrated by the BMW instrument cluster. In the BMW application, the Bayer LM296 film with a neutral density transmission factor of 25% is placed over a printed applique. Improved Solution Description: The principles behind the improved seamless solution are: 1. Reduce the reflections of the display opening by using a moth-eye film on the rear surface of the neutral density applique and providing a smooth AR surface on the display polarizer. 2.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tohru Wakabayashi, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Hideki Matsushima, Masato Tanabe, Jun Anzai
Controller Area Network (CAN) is a technology widely adopted among vehicles but its vulnerability has been pointed out recently. Many countermeasures have been proposed, but none of them can be deemed as a generic solution. One reason is that those proposed countermeasures all require a heavy level of modification to the existing in-vehicle system.In order to accomplish this problem, we propose new methods to protect CAN network without affecting the existing system. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method as well as the architecture of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that implements it, report the result of our experiments, and show the effects against spoofing attacks as well as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0091
Hikaru Watanabe, Tsutomu Segawa, Takumi Okuhira, Hiroki Mima, Norishige Hoshikawa
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1212
Yupu Chen, Miaohua huang
Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can not get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0135
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xiangyu zhu, Qipeng Chen
Nowadays researches of automotive electromagnetic field mainly focus on the component level and electromagnetic compatibility, while there is a lack of relevant studies on internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicles. With the increasingly complex internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicle, people are increasingly concerned about its potential impact of human health. This article researches on a type of electric vehicle and the occupants and analyses its electromagnetic radiation effects on human health. Firstly, considering the characters of Pro/E, Hypermesh and FEKO, the “Characteristics grouping subdivision” method is used to establish the entire vehicle body FE model. According to the requirement of MOM/FEM method, the entire vehicle model is optimized to be a high quality body model with simple construction and moderate grid size.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1197
Zhengbin Wu, Rongcheng Weng, Zhiqun zhang, Juan Li
Lithium-ion battery is in an increasing demand for alternative energy vehicles, grid storage systems and consumer electronics for its long cycle life, relatively high energy density and safety. It is important to achieve the accurate dynamic performance of lithium-ion battery for practical applications. Associating the electrochemical phenomena of a battery with electrical and non-electrical components, equivalent circuit models are normally more computation efficient compared to electrochemical models. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit model for lithium-ion battery having inductive and capacitive components with the complex parameters is proposed. The corresponding imaginary part of these complex parameters represents the frequency-dependent dissipation characteristics from different electrochemical and physical aspects in this proposed battery model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1117
Jun Sun, xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo, Yanqiang Zhao
Abstract: In order to overcome hysteresis and dead zone problems caused by friction in the proportional solenoid valve, improve rapidity and stability of the pneumatic system on hydraulic retarder, a closed-loop control strategy based on valve coil current is proposed. The high-frequency low-amplitude dither signal is introduced into the proportional solenoid valve. By adding proper dither signal, the stick-slip motion of the valve will be transformed into a steady one, and the dynamic performance will be improved. Consequently, lower retarder response time during gear changes. The proportional valve coil current is measured as a feedback to construct a closed-loop control strategy. Combining with the closed-loop strategy the PI control algorithm is adopted to make sure that valve current is adjusted to the target value. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal is used as proportional solenoid valve drive signal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1229
Douglas Cesiel, Charles Zhu
Manufacturers have introduced several types of electric vehicles that utilize on-board charging systems; including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREV), and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). These vehicles include an on-board power conversion system that allows the DC propulsion battery to be charged using energy from the AC power grid. The primary component within the charging system is an AC/DC conversion module known as the On-Board Charger (OBC). The efficiency of the charging system directly effects overall vehicle efficiency. Losses in the charging system correspond to AC grid energy that is consumed but does not contribute to increasing the battery state of charge. Reducing losses also reduces the work required of the cooling system during battery charging, and this further improves overall efficiency. Thus, OBC efficiency improvement was an important objective for GM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0655
Farid Bahiraei, Amir Fartaj, Gholm-Abbas Nazri
Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for hybrid and electric vehicles as environmentally friendly means of transport. The main barriers for widely deployment of these batteries in electric vehicles are safety, cost, and poor low temperature performance, which are all challenges related to battery thermal management system (BTMS). Therefore, an effective thermal management strategy is crucial for enhancing the system lifetime and increasing vehicle range. In this study, a coupled thermal-electrochemical model for prismatic cells is primarily developed to simulate the battery cell chemistry and heat generation. This model is also used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive cooling systems. The active cooling system under study utilizes cooling plates and water-glycol mixture as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1194
Panos D. Prezas, L. Somerville, P Jennings, A McGordon, J. K. Basco, T. Duong, I. Bloom
As electrified vehicles become more common in the market place, consumers would expect to have similar experiences as cars powered by an internal-combustion engine. This is especially true when it comes to “refueling” the vehicle. Refueling an internal combustion vehicle takes up to 10-15 min. On the other hand, fully charging a lithium-ion battery system can take 1-2 h. To meet the expectations set by the internal combustion engine, the battery system would have to be charged at the 4-to-6-C rate. Additionally, if a motorist runs out of gasoline on the highway, 20 L of fuel can be quickly added to the tank, partially refilling the tank and enabling the motorist to get to his next destination. The results of our investigation on the effects of fast-charging commercially-available lithium-ion cells on performance, life and physical condition of the electrodes in the cells in both scenarios, full and partial charging, will be presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) is a software development process that helps developers build more secure software and address security compliance requirements while reducing development cost. The SDL process has been developed to appropriately outline the development process specifically for the consumer electronics oriented mindset. Unfortunately this approach does not always correlate to an appropriate approach from the automotive OEM mindset. This paper will analyze the current SDL process in detail and provide suggestions with improvements to the overall SDL process creating an Automotive Security Development Lifecycle (ASDL).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Agenda: - Trends - Challenges - PREEvision approach - A practical example - Summary and outlook
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
In the field of electric mobility, one of the key issues is to improve the safety for pedestrians in urban areas with help of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Due to cruising range restrictions, nowadays electric vehicles are mainly operated in urban areas where risk potential for pedestrian collision is increased. Furthermore low noise emissions, in comparison to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, lead to a reduced acoustic perception through pedestrians. The paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity reference trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects by means of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). The velocity reference trajectory is determined from accelerator pedal input.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0462
Chunlei Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Konghui Guo, Fangwu Ma, Dong Chen
With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1495
Motomi Iyoda, Tom Trisdale, Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat, William Rose
EDR (Event Data Recorder) is a function of recording vehicle status at the timing of accident. Toyota introduced EDR from August 2000 one after the other. Now about 70% of Toyota vehicles in North America have EDR. This is more than about 50% EDR coverage of all vehicles in North America. There is EDR regulation in USA, so we record EDR data based on the regulation. We think this is the minimum requirement and we record additional necessary data required from accident reconstruction. They are, (1) additional pre-crash data, (2) additional side crash recording system, (3) roll over recording system, (4) pedestrian protection PUH (Pop Up Hood) recording system, (5) non-crash triggered recording system VCH (Vehicle Control History), etc. Commercially available tool is necessary for EDR data retrieval, based on the regulation in USA. So we adopted BOSCH CDR (Crash Data Retrieval). All Toyota EDR can be retrieved using CDR for all over the world including North America.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0459
Jian Zhao, Jing Su, Bing Zhu, Jingwei Shan
Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is a system which monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals from Anti-lock Brake System (ABS). In this paper, a practical indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to the relationship between the tire pressure and the tire circumferential vibration. Firstly, the error of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares algorithm. Then, the measuring error is eliminated and the vibration noise is further extracted from the from the wheel speed signal. Using the vibration noise, the resonance frequency of the tire vibration system was extracted by Maximum Entropy Spectral Estimation (MESE) based on Auto-regressive (AR) model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1415
William T. Neale, James Marr, David Hessel
This paper presents a methodology for generating photo realistic computer simulation environments of nighttime driving scenarios by combining nighttime photography and videography with video tracking and projection mapping technologies. Nighttime driving environments contain complex lighting conditions such as forward and signal lighting systems of other vehicles, street lighting, and retro reflective markers and signage. The high dynamic range of nighttime lighting conditions make modeling of these systems difficult to render realistically. Photography and video, especially when using high dynamic range imaging, can produce realistic representations of the lighting environments, but without a computer generated environment, the scenarios that can be represented are limited to the specific scenario recorded.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1214
Hillol Kumar Roy, Andrew McGordon, Paul A Jennings
Battery sizing has significant importance for the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Although several research has been done over the years for the battery sizing, no research has focused on battery system efficiency which affects fuel economy. This paper has investigated battery system efficiencies of different optimum battery sizes which were optimised using two design optimisation methodologies. The first methodology considered a single driving pattern at a time, whereas, the second methodology considered different driving patterns simultaneously for the optimisation. The study considered a simulation model of a power-split HEV for the optimisation of battery size along with internal combustion engine, motor, and generator. An electric-assist charge sustaining supervisory control strategy was considered as the energy management. The maximum speed, acceleration, and gradeability were considered as design constraints.
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