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Viewing 31 to 60 of 22057
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0016
Srinivas Gulur, Arun Karuppaswamy Balasubramanian, Vinod John
Design of a suitable thermal model inclusive of the enclosure or cabinet, is an integral part of power electronic thermal management. This stems from the fact that power losses in an inverter may cause severe temperature rise in the enclosed cabinet, causing damage to the inverter. The work presents a thermal enclosure model for 3φ, back to back inverter topology rated 24 kVA which is kept in an enclosure having dimensions 1.524 ∗ 1.066 ∗ 1.828 cubic metre. Effects of the inclusion of the thermal enclosure model with the inverter thermal model have been investigated for the above mentioned inverter topology.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0015
Sachin Singh, Kanwar Pal, Sanjeev Singh
This paper presents a new control scheme for sensorless starting and running of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) while using single current sensor for control of motor torque. The starting is carried out using pulsed starting technique and control is shifted to back EMF sensing method under running condition. The proposed control scheme uses aligning the rotor of PMBLDCM at a known position and then starting the motor by energizing the three phase stator winding through the three phase voltage source inverter (VSI) in a pre defined pulse width modulated (PWM) switching sequence so that the starting current is also controlled within the desired range. After certain speed where the back-EMF is traceable for control of speed, the control is shifted to back-EMF based sensorless operation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0018
Abhijit Kulkarni, Vinod John
Inverters with high voltage conversion ratio are used in systems with sources such as batteries, photovoltaic (PV) modules or fuel cells. Transformers are often used in such inverters to provide the required voltage conversion ratio and isolation. In this paper, a compact high-frequency (HF) transformer interfaced AC link inverter is discussed. A high performance synchronized modulation scheme is proposed for this inverter. This modulation addresses the issue of over-voltage spikes due to transformer leakage inductance and achieves better input dc voltage utilization. The problem of spurious turn-on in the HF inverter switches is also mitigated. The performance of the inverter is validated experimentally with the proposed modulation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0017
Jiten Chavda, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande, Rakeshkumar Shankar
This paper presents the speed control of sensored BLDC motor using PWM techniques. The BLDC motor with EV or HEV application uses the position sensor for the operation and speed control of motor. In this paper the simulation of BLDC motor is done using soft commutating technique (Proteus Design Suit & Keil uVision3 software). A prototype is implemented to verify the performance of proposed new approach for control of sensored BLDC motor of 48V, 5A, 250W manufactured for E-BIKES. The speed control and real time measurement is obtained and compared and found satisfactory performance.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0020
Abhishek Shah, Sanjay Phegade
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0019
Nimesh Vamanan, Vinod John
Classical control and one cycle control are popular methods to generate gating signals for active device in pwm rectifiers. One cycle control has lower control complexity when compared to classical control. However, in one cycle controlled converters there is a phase lag between fundamental voltage and current, which increases when the converter is loaded. In this paper the reason for phase lag is identified and a novel method to compensate for the same is presented. Effects of grid frequency variation on the degree of compensation is studied. The viability of the proposed compensation is validated using simulation and experimental studies.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0024
Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar, C Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Prabhakar
This paper presents the development of a cosimulation platform of induction motor direct torque control drive. This paper provides advanced modeling and simulation tool for induction motor drive. The proposed simulation platform allows a coupled analysis that links finite element analysis (FEA) with the simplorer for the more realistics simulation, analysis and validation. With the help of finite element analysis method (FEM), a three phase induction motor is simulated to obtain the flux-linkage vs. current curve. Thereafter, the constant magnetizing inductance is replaced by the new inductance which is a function of current. The obtained improved model is configured in MATALB/Simulink. In this paper, comparision between the Matlab/simulink and Ansys Maxwell simplorer cosimulation is done based on the direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0021
Amar Singh, Bhupesh Agrawal, Umesh Bisen, Jim Shoemaker, Grant Shane
As the significance of emission regulation and the need of energy efficiency are increasing the need of hybrid vehicles is going-up. The integral part of hybrid vehicle architecture is high power density IPM machines but thermal management is key design criteria of these motors. These motors can be either air or oil cooled based on the power rating and losses generated in machine at operating points. In oil cooled machines, achieving optimum oil flow rates in critical regions at different speeds of the rotor is a major challenge in designing an electric motor. As the rotor speeds reach high values to about 10,000rpm the oil flow prediction from different rotor shaft bores becomes increasingly difficult due to significant centrifugal effects at such speeds at these bores. This paper discusses in detail the analysis methodology to predict the oil flow behavior from two parallel circuits namely the rotor and the stator up to high speeds of rotor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0022
Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Tanmoy Dey, Kaushik Mukherjee, Narayan Kar
Understanding the merits of six-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IP-MSMs) over their three-phase counterparts, this paper analyses the six-phase machine for optimal parameter and performance considerations. Initially, mathematical model of the six-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory and performance predicted by the model is verified under identical operating conditions with those using a machine designed and tested through finite element analysis (FEA). The developed and verified machine model is then employed to exclusively derive the relation between various machine parameters in order to obtain optimum flux weakening region in the six-phase IPMSM.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0027
Shashikiran HK, Bhupesh Agrawal, Jim Shoemaker
With high elevation in magnet prices in recent times, switched reluctance machine (SRM) are gaining importance, due to the simple and rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range at constant power. SR machine operates due to the variable reluctance in the air gap, hence displays a highly nonlinear inductance behavior. This makes it impossible to carry out predictions that are accurate with liner formulations. Consequently, it becomes necessary to use the finite element method (FEM), which can handle nonlinear magnetic properties in material and minute geometry and also transient currents. This paper will discuss the virtual modeling and verification procedure established for SR machine to confirm the dynamic drive characteristics including the losses in the machine, at different switch timing w.r.t. operating speed. Keywords: Switched reluctance machine (SRM), Dynamic drive characteristics
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0028
Amit Kumar Singh, C Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
Induction motors are presently used in many electric vehicle applications. As a result, their control methods have received a lot of attention. One of the efficient method of induction motor control is the direct torque control (DTC). In this paper, a design method for direct torque control of induction motor has been developed. A Verilog hardware description language is used to implement the developed DTC model on Nexys 2 FPGA kit. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) has many coherent advantages such as fast response, reliable, flexible,robust against load variations and programmable architecture. The same algorithm is designed and simulated using Matlab/simulink tool to make comparison with the designed model on FPGA which shows reduction in flux and torque ripples. Also, the simulated results are validated experimentally.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0025
Guang-Il Jeong, Zhenyao Xu, Donghee Lee, Jin-Woo Ahn
This paper presents a novel single-phase 4/4 poles hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM) intended for high speed operation used in hammer drill. This single-phase hybrid SRM with special non-uniform air-gap design is driven by the simplest converter, unipolar converter, which allows the motor to operate at high speed with low switching loss. Compare with the conventional single-phase SRM, it has an increased torque density and relatively low torque ripple by properly making use of the cogging torque generated by permanent magnets. The proposed hybrid SRM design has the self-start capability due to the parking function of permanent magnets. To verify the effectiveness of the design, finite element analysis software (ANSOFT) is employed to get the electrical characteristics of the proposed motor. Based on the analysis, a prototype motor is manufactured and operated to catch the experimental results.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0031
Kamalakannan Durairaju, Krishna Vasudevan, Varada Iyengar Narayanan, N S Ramanathan
The proposed concept in this paper is about how to achieve flux control at higher speeds in automotive alternators with PM rotors. The use of high energy magnet (NdFeB) in the rotor helps to achieve high power density and high efficiency in the alternator. The PM flux control at high speed is done by implementing a mechanical flux weakening arrangement which uses a simple worm wheel and DC motor to perform this phenomenon of flux control. The open circuit performance of standard claw pole alternator for different field currents at various speeds has been predicted. The components of the mechanical arrangement which has been used for achieving rotation have been discussed. Further, a suitable variable flux permanent magnet machine (VFPM) is designed with the same dimensions as that of the standard claw pole machine. The open circuit performance of VFPM is predicted and is compared with the conventional machine.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0026
Shailendra Kumar Gupta, Rakesh Srivastava, Som Nath Mahendra
The paper has been written focusing on stand-alone renewable energy based generation. Dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator has been taken as an alternative to self-exited induction generator for stand-alone projects. The paper discusses the construction details, operating principle and feasibility studies of a dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator in stand-alone renewable energy generation. In wind power, fresh water or sewage water stream based power generation, the turbine is driven at variable speed causing either over voltage or under voltage. The paper utilizes the principle of induction regulation for voltage control. Such controllers for dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator has not been proposed yet. Use of Induction regulator could make the renewable generation free of any electronic component(converters) making the system affordable in remote areas though permanent magnets have been used.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0032
Bhupesh Agrawal, Jim Shoemaker, Shashikiran HK
Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) Synchronous Motors are considered as good candidate for hybrid electric vehicle traction drive application due to their unique merits like high power density, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. It is very critical for an IPM machine design to have less torque ripple, iron losses, high power density and high efficiency but these critical performance parameters are sensitive to design parameters. It is critical to understand the sensitivity of airgap, magnet angle and base speed on the performance of IPM Machine. A study was carried out by varying these parameters and variations in the critical performance parameters are reported in this paper. A design guideline is proposed to help designers in their approach to achieve the optimal design of IPM motors.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0029
Makarand M. Kane, Naga Chaithanya, Kishor Bodnapu
With the advent of NEMMP (National Electric Mobility Mission Plan), increase in both production and demand of hybrid and electric vehicles is expected in coming years. Mild hybrid vehicles (MHV) are sought as one of the most plausible options among alternative-fuel-vehicles. There are two prime goals behind development of MHV – a) increase in fuel efficiency b) maintaining overall low cost of vehicle. The present work has considered a vehicle in small car segment as pilot vehicle. In the pilot-vehicle, electric power is used for threefold applications – a) eliminating idling energy losses with regenerative braking b) engine cranking and c) assisting engine during peak power demand. Thus, this application poses special requirements of starting torque and peak power – the starting torque being as high as 4 times the rated torque and extended range of peak power region.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0030
Kamalakannan Durairaju, Krishna Vasudevan, Varada Iyengar Narayanan, N S Ramanathan
Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are being used in numerous applications. Some of requirements need a single machine to operate, below and above the rated speeds. As there is no direct field control method in a permanent magnet (PM) rotor, injection of negative direct axis current is done to implement a flux weakening, which in turn, helps to achieve speeds beyond the rated speed. An alternative method for flux weakening is of great interest currently and different variable flux permanent magnet (VFPM) configurations have been studied. A new method of VFPM arrangement is proposed in this paper. Further, the design of components associated with VFPM assembly is also discussed. The performance comparison of conventional PMSM and VFPM is carried out. With the help of variable flux arrangement, operating speed of machine is extended to 2600 rpm from 1100 rpm. Further very good improvement in power factor and efficiency is observed in variable flux arrangement.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0035
Mukund Kulkarni, Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Vinten Diwakar
There is currently a trend in the automotive industry to replace combustion engines with electric motors or a combination of an electric motor and a combustion engine, thereby substantially reducing the environmental impact of automobiles by reducing or completely eliminating car emissions. In this paper various strategies for positioning of smoke sensor within the battery pack assembly for smoke detection are deliberated. Proper placement of the smoke sensor results in two important design objectives: to detect smoke as soon as the fire ignition and to achieve full coverage by using a minimum number of sensors. The challenge lied in designing and development of a suitable smoke sensor which meets stringent vehicular dynamic applications such as varying ambient operating temperatures, humidity, vibrations, mechanical shock, dust, etc. As the active fire protection is getting more and more important for electric vehicles in general and more so in battery pack assembly.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0036
Ram Krishan Sharma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
The development of technology for Powertrain Electrification is increasingly progressed according to the conversion of vehicle development paradigms to energy issues, environmental regulations; As a result, Battery being an important part of Vehicle Electrical System requires to be modeled accurately. As Battery behavior is challenging to model. Hence, the most effective way of the development of Battery based Hybrid Systems is using battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to significantly reduce development costs and time in vehicle-level environments for the development and evaluation of control strategies. Therefore, in the present study, a battery in loop simulation model was developed and tested. It was noted through the test that the developed battery HILS could be used as a method to assess the accuracy of Vehicle electrical system by incorporating actual battery in the system using Rapid Control Prototyping Hardware.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0033
Arindam Das, Anirban Konwar, Ankit Dalal, Praveen Kumar
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are increasingly being used for electrical vehicle application due to their high torque density. Performance of interior magnet PMSM motor depends on the magnet shape and the flux guides in the rotor. Rotor surface profiling affects the reluctance in the machines thus changes the direct (Ld) and quadrature (Lq) axes inductances of the motor. Effects of different magnet configuration, rotor surface profiling and variations in flux guides on important performance parameters like output torque, torque ripple and cogging torque have been investigated in this paper. PMSM motor used in Toyota Prius 2004 has been used as standard motor. Total magnet volume in the motor has been kept constant to ensure that the change in the performance of the motor is only due to the factors under investigation. Change in direct and quadrature axes inductances with the change in rotor configurations are also reported in the paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0034
Rakesh Roy, Ankit Dalal, Praveen Kumar
The main objective of this paper is to perform the steady state analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) to check their behaviour and to analyze its controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications. Based on the rated power of the machine, battery ratings are chosen. According to that maximum current will be derived, which will give maximum torque. From the maximum torque, the base speed is determined. The minimum torque reference will come as a ratio of maximum torque. From the speed-torque characteristics that minimum torque will give the maximum speed of the motor. So, from the overall analysis, the usable area of speed-torque characteristics of PMSM is determined. This process is done for different PMSM of different geometry and the controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications are compared for all models.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0040
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Raghunathan T
This paper describes the characterization of a Ni-MH cell with nominal voltage of 1.2V with 6AH capacity from a manufacturer FOREVER along with the modelling of its electrical equivalent. The cell level modelling can be very well extended to the Battery pack level, which will help in vehicle simulations. The possible equivalent circuits R-RC (one resistor series with a parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination), R-RC-RC (one resistor series with two parallel Resistor and Capacitor combination) were discussed. In this analysis, the experimentation was conducted to collect the State-of-Charge (SOC) characteristics through Open circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. The data obtained is used to fit to the electrical equivalent circuit under consideration. Finally the developed cell model is evaluated against the actual cell test results. The level of closeness to the actual values of various models is compared for the further development to the pack level.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0039
Sayali Ashok Pingle, Jaydeep Shah, Deepali Hatkar
ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates the use of energy storage devices as a key to reduce frequency fluctuations which are abundant in nature .These frequency fluctuations are caused due to excessive storage of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid leading to fluctuations in supply. In integrated systems like Hybrid network of conventional and renewable power source including a solar plant, wind farm and NAS battery, a pump hydroelectric storage plant is modeled. The grid frequency is not of a fixed value but it keeps changing within a narrow range allowable variation of grid frequency is in small range of (±) 0.5 Hz. Battery energy storage systems (BESS s) are used to regulate frequency, act as spinning reserve improve power quality metrics, support voltage, and help to peak shave and level load . Currently, 30% of all electric power generated uses power electronics technologies somewhere between the point of generation and end use.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0038
V S S Naga Karthik Tunuguntla, Kannan Subramanian, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli, Aravapalli Sriniwas, Ganesh Kumar Ramakrishnan
Designing a new product with a novelty involved in it, is called Product Design. This new product has to be sold by an Original Equipment Manufacturer to its customers. Development of this novel product design (Product Development Process) should be efficient & exhibit reliable operation across its lifetime fulfilling its customer expectations. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) helps in achieving the same by a structured approach for product or process design. This paper demonstrates the DFSS (DMADV) implementation for the design of Thermal architecture to a xEV's energy storage system with unique& appropriate tools for analysis in each phase.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0044
Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Mukund Kulkarni, Vinten Diwakar
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play an important role in sustainable mobility thanks to the efficient energy utilization and zero–emission when in use. The battery has a great impact on the performance of electric vehicles, basically determining the driving range. As a consequence, the choice of the battery technology and its effective utilization is of paramount importance. Li-ion chemistry is very sensitive to overcharge and deep discharge, which may damage the battery, shortening its lifetime, and even causing hazardous situations. This requires the adoption of a proper Battery Management System (BMS) to maintain each cell of the battery within its safe and reliable operating range. In addition to the primary function of battery protection, a BMS should estimate the battery status in order to predict the actual amount of energy that can still be delivered to the load.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0037
Jiten Kishorbhai Chavda, Varsha Shah
India is developing country with tremendous growth in automobile sector. 8 to 9 million new two wheelers and over a million four wheelers are every year come on the road. Penetration of EVs, HEVs(full forms) and PHEVs has large scope with good environment friendly support and energy saving prospectus. Initial and replacement cost of battery is one of the biggest economic criteria for the same. Hybrid power source for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs gives enhance performance which increase life of battery and reduce overall cost of battery operated vehicles. Accurate parameter estimation for battery used in electrical vehicles is essential for designing the hybrid power source with fuel cell and battery or ultra-capacitor and battery to improve the performance of battery operated EVs, HEVs and PHEVs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0043
ChiruVenkat Reddy, Vikrant Singh, Rashed Rabaa
At low temperatures, the internal resistance of a Li-ion cell is very sensitive to its temperature and SOC. As such, conventional equivalent circuit based models often fail to predict the power obtainable from a cell under low ambient temperature conditions. Electrochemistry based models have shown good promise to model cell dynamics at low temperatures (subzero temperatures). In the current study, we use a previously developed electrochemistry based cell model, and couple it with electrical solver to carry out electro–thermal simulations. Full module level simulations with cell and associated electrical circuitry are carried out and cranking power (in short duration ~ 10-15 sec) deliverable from module estimated.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0041
Rajasekhar MV, Parandhamaiah Gorre
Unlike fuel tanks as energy sources, high voltage batteries acts as energy sources for hybrid electric vehicles. These traction batteries have to operate under varied environments and provide energy to electric power train for vehicle propulsion. With the demand for production intent hybrid electric vehicles, the battery pack development for series production has been one of the focus areas in recent times. This paper details a systematic approach on the steps to be followed while developing a battery pack considering the vehicle requirements. These parameters include pack structural design, thermal management, cell protection, battery control monitoring, charging and testing parameters which needs to be considered for effective battery pack development.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0042
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Jithesh VC
Battery is the primary and only source of power in the electric vehicle. Electric vehicle batteries differ from normal starting, lighting, and ignition batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Traction batteries are designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, energy to weight ratio and energy density. These batteries facilitate the noiseless, pollution free and economical operation of electric vehicles. But this can be dangerous under some conditions and can pose a safety hazard if punctured or charged improperly since they contain a flammable electrolyte and are also kept pressurized. The development of safe, high voltage batteries is regarded as a major challenge. Thus in these batteries the gases are retained within the battery as long as the pressure remains within safe levels.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0048
Sumit Gupta, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
This paper deals in methodology creation of HEV plant model using Matlab-Simulink for testing the HCU (Hybrid control Unit) logics in dSpace Hardware-in-loop environment. Hybrid Controller requires certain inputs, which further process it and gives output. Inputs are provided in close loop environment by modeling all the Engine and Vehicle signals like Vehicle Speed, Engine Speed, Accpedal, Brake, clutch, Boost pressure, Rail Pressure, Motor torque, Battery SOC etc in plant model. Transfer functions are defined in plant model to convert the physical signals into digital, Analog and PWM signals for actual controller input. The model is able to test the Hybrid functions like stop start, recuperation, torque assist etc.Also it is used for vehicle performance and FE simulations with better accuracy as compared to conventional simulation.
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