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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
Sreelakshmi C, Krishnan kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya deshpande, Krishnan kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
We solved the problem of FM broadcast wave reception reproducibility and objectivity by developing a method to generate a virtual radio environment and to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). A significant technical issue in the Two-stage method is to understand the radio wave characteristics using FM broadcast waves. We developed the incoming wave estimation technique which accurately estimates radio wave parameters. We developed MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) using virtual array antennas, and estimated the FM radio. Evaluation of in-vehicle FM compatibility was realized using the Two-stage method by generating radio environment parameter. Multipath distortion rate was defined as an index to evaluate reception performances of FM broadcast waves, and in-vehicle compatibility of single receiver and diversity receiver was evaluated under the same vehicle and radio environment conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
FM radio receiver characteristics raised a question of reproducibility and objectivity. To solve this, we developed a method to generate a virtual radio environment to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). We developed the incoming wave estimation method which accurately estimates radio wave environment. MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method using array antennas is a method which estimates direction of arrival and delay time; however, it was difficult to apply this method on FM for following reasons: (1) Number of antennas increases, increases the size of array antenna, (2) With narrower antenna interval, electromagnetic coupling between antennas becomes stronger, (3) Estimation of delay time is difficult since FM broadcast wave has frequency property, (4) Separation of direct wave and multipath wave is difficult and it is hard to estimate accurate incoming waves.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0251
Yoshikazu Nishida, Satoru komoda, Naoki Maruno
"The mounting of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) calls for the configuration of highly robust control systems. When mounting LIBs on the vehicle, it is important to accurately ascertain and precisely control the state of the battery. In order to achieve high durability, it is important to configure highly reliable systems capable of dependably preventing overcharging as well as to have control technology based on software that can contribute to extended battery life. The system configuration applies an overcharge prevention system that uses voltage detection with an emphasis on reliability together with a method for varying the range of state of charge (SOC) control in the vehicle according to the battery state in order to assure durability. In order to achieve this, battery-state detection technology was developed for the purpose of correctly detecting and judging the battery state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Vipul Kumar, Shubhranshu Garg, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators so that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator it can be judged that what type it is, whether a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0261
Shuai Li, Cheng Chang, Huichao Zhao
The EMDS(E-motor Drive System), as the core powertrain system of the EV/HEVs, the safety of which is becoming more and more critical. Meanwhile, the newly released ISO 26262 standard rules the functional safety for E/E systems in vehicles, and provides a framework for developing automotive products that are safe from E/E system malfunctions in passenger vehicles. At present China FAW corporation is developing HongQi H7 PHEV which adopts the state-of-the-art P2 hybrid powertrain architecture. This paper mainly presents the functional safety development of the EMDS for that type according to the ISO 26262 standard, including system architectures and item definition, hazard analysis and risk assessment, functional safety concept and technical safety concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology. The power MOSFET is built to reliably withstand extreme conditions. Operating the MOSFET beyond specified limits will however reduce is lifetime. In severe cases immediate catastrophic failure is possible. The Safe Operating Area (SOA) diagram included in MOSFET data sheets summarizes the MOSFET capabilities for many operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
A single malfunction in a product can initiate a costly product recall. With ever increasing reliance on electronic and electric components contributing to the functional safety of next generation vehicles, a malfunction may cause such inconvenience too. Automotive E/E systems perform highly networked functions, including dense system interactions, and with a large number of product variants and features, complexity increases beyond human susceptibility. This is considered to be the main source for systematic faults and does not only affect newly developed systems, like complex driver assistance systems. Also well-known systems often bear a non-negligible safety threat. Safety critical automotive product development starts with a comprehensive and well-coordinated concept phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0266
Rolf Schneider, Dominik Reinhardt, Dominik Juergens, Georg Hofstetter, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Graf
Within the German funded project ARAMiS the project partners intended to get ready for the future of electronics for mobility and integration of safety related functionality on upcoming multicore based hardware platforms. ARAMiS therefore also included work on several demonstrators one of which was an multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Specifically on this demonstrator the partners Audi, BMW, EFS and Infineon were working together to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. Thereby BMW and Audi intentionally implemented different integration solutions to gain both experience and real live data on different approaches including an hypervisor concept as well as using AUTOSAR-based methods for later comparison.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0268
Pablo Oliveira Antonino, Mario Trapp, Ashwin Venugopal
Safety requirements are crucial artifacts in the specification of safety-critical systems, since, as recommended by standards such as ISO 26262 and the DO-178C, they must result from a safety analysis of the architecture and must ultimately be addressed by architecture elements. Because of the key role of safety requirements in safety engineering, it is important to assure that they meet certain quality attributes. In particular, the “completeness” and “consistency” of safety requirements have been widely discussed, as industrial evidence has shown that the lack of guidance on how to specify safety requirements that are traceable to the architecture and to failure propagation models is one of the main reasons for their incompleteness and inconsistency, and, consequently, a root cause of safety incidents. For example, industry practitioners have revealed to us that it is common to document traceability ad-hoc, just prior to submitting a product for certification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0260
Ashlie B. Hocking, John C. Knight, M. Anthony Aiello, Shin'ichi Shiraishi
In domains such as automotive and aviation engineering, software verification is a critical component of software development. Various software verification techniques have been developed including different forms of testing, inspection, static analysis, and formal (mathematical) verification. Formal verification offers the great advantage that it corresponds, at least informally, to testing all possible paths through the software. Despite this advantage, formal verification has not been applied widely. Many reasons for this lack of application have been advanced, including the expected technical difficulty of the formalism and the anticipated cost. In this paper, we present an approach to formal verification in model-based development and report on a case study of its use on an automotive application. We illustrate the technical feasibility, potential results, and reasonable resource demands of the technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new feature rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems using the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr PhD, Thomas End PhD
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0280
Falco K. Bapp, Oliver Sander, Timo Sandmann, Duy Viet Vu, Steffen Baehr
As state-of-the-art technology, multicores gain more and more importance in automotive and aerospace systems. Not only in infotainment and non-safety-critical applications they are going to be used in near future. Also in safety-critical systems, this technology will be introduced. Various commercial off-the-shelf processors are available that are not built for such applications. In order to ensure a correct system behavior, online monitoring can be used for processors that target infotainment or general purpose applications. The cores and other bus masters within the MPSoC compete about the exclusive use of shared resources like for example a memory controller. It is of high importance to provide guarantees of usage, e.g. in terms of access time and rates, in such cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0270
Shuhei Yamashita
ISO26262 : Automotive Functional Safety Standard provides a guide for safety design by introducing structured approach of making ‘Safety Concept’. And it’s important to recognize that this specific idea of the standard :Safety Concept includes not only FSC and TSC (Functional Safety Concept / Technical Safety Concept) but also architectural design in both Hardware and Software. And during these Safety Concept making processes SR (Safety Requirement) derivation and detailing, SR allocation for system elements and ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrity Level) assignment on the element according to SR allocation have to be performed correctly. Further, in the processes so-called Decomposition and Coexistence of Safety Elements are also needed to be treated appropriately according to effective analysis. This time in the paper a new method for Safety Concept description which is expected to support automotive E/E engineers to achieve Safety Concept making processes properly is proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah YMLAHI OUAZZANI, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, Fault Injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase. This leads us to explore the benefits of safety analyses (FMEA, FTA, CPA or FFI Analysis…) for the definition of the test plan and particularly define efficient FI tests cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Today the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain - has to cover a variety of challenges: (1) increasing complexity because of interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, (2) pressure on cost reduction and faster time to market, (3) multidisciplinary of automotive systems has to be handled (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems) and (4) all these systems have to be compliant to functional safety standards like the ISO 26262 . The presented approach in this paper allows the handling of these challenges in an effective way to be competitive on the market. In this paper we present a model based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML to specify relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types different views on the available data can be provided corresponding to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, test, production, or even later when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform the hazard analysis iteratively in parallel with the development process. This safety-driven design technique is based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and is demonstrated in this paper using a realistic Shift-By-Wire design concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0276
Doug Barnes, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
The demands of functional safety analysis of software at the system level are clearly required by the ISO 26262 standard. For practicing software engineers, demonstrating adherence to these requirements is no small task. The task is made more difficult due to complex software development that merges software components from multiple sources into a single ECU (Electronic Control Unit) application. This paper will identify the functional safety analysis requirements as specified by the ISO 26262 standard. The tasks for applying the requirements to a simple development (single development source) will be described. Support of the identified tasks in complex development arrangements (multiple development sources, including internal and external, model based and “home grown code”) will be illustrated through a hypothetical development model, based on real-world examples. The illustration will be extended to show the full software analysis at the system level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Chulhoon Jang, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)’s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For that reason the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0498
Matt Gynn, Jamie Steele
This study explores the process changes and challenges encountered during the transition to Virtual Automotive maintenance and service operations—for example, training existing manpower on new tools, the overall schedule adjustments, and to check the item applicability. The confirmation process was reworked significantly, while the final evaluation and reporting process was able to be maintained. Problems were encountered with the organization of the digital part data, the increase in workload of Virtual simulations over physical checks, and the limitations of current simulation technologies. Virtual tools are much slower than physical checks. Ideas for future enhancements of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and simulation systems are explored.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0495
Shohei Mikami, Georgi Chakmakov
Designing a lightweight and high-strength engine product is universally important from the standpoints of fuel consumption, power, and cost; however, it is difficult to find an optimal solution accomplishing these characteristics in products such as the cylinder heads that are simultaneously affected by a thermal load and various mechanical loads. We focused on an optimization means called “nonparametric optimization” and created a method of cylinder head design that utilized it. Our optimization process was divided into topological optimization and shape optimization. In the topological optimization process, we searched for a structure with the highest theoretical stiffness in the given design space. This provided an efficient structure when pursuing both lightweight and high-strength characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process. Strain energy and displacement of the combustion chamber were used as the parameters for controlling stiffness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0490
Ryosuke Saito
We discuss the achievement of accurate and rapid appearance evaluation of a commodity from a design perspective. In design development, it is important to evaluate the quality of products in accordance with the customer’s viewpoint. Appearance evaluation using an actual model, such as a Mock-Up Model, is the optimal means. However, in order to respond to flaws or design changes quickly, we use a digital model. Therefore, we developed a graphic tool, TOPS, which can be used to obtain correct rendering results equivalent to an actual model, enabling a high level of precision and efficiency in digital design development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0657
Binglu Tu
This innovation is a Developed Anti-Lock Brake System (DABS for short) to automatically and precisely identify, correct and verify the peak-value slip ratio S0'' (i.e. braking force = adhesion force) when ε (namely the utilization ratio of adhesion coefficient, which is defined as the quotient of maximum braking strength divided by adhesion coefficient when ABS works) =1, and control S0'' to output continuously. It is a revision on the theory, method and algorithm of current ABS control that intermittently produces S0''. The objects are to eliminate the hidden unsafety of sideslip or ε<1 due to excessive or insufficient braking force, have more simplified structure and reduced costs than ABS, and improve the eligibility from ε≥0.75 to ε≥0.95.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 21488

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