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Viewing 31 to 60 of 60
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0826
Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine startability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount on the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Automation of automobile can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and developed in every countries. Automated driving is introducing according to automated levels from 0 to 5 (0:no automation, 1:driver assistance, 2:partial automation, 3:conditional automation, 4:high automation, 5:full automation). Currently, feasible automation level is considered to be Level 2 or 3, and take-over from automated system to human manual driving is needed when the automated system overs at these levels. In this situation, required time for take-over is an important issue. This study focus on describing driving simulator experimental results of required time for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead when automated driving on the high way and issues take-over request to the driver. The subject driver is under the following driver situations : hands-on or hands-off to the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1111
Ankur Sharma, Harish Kumar Gangwar, dipak dabhole, S.B. Pathak, VIvek Dwivedi, Amit Nigam
Abstract Hill start assistance developed for buses equipped with AMT The AMT (Automatic Mechanical Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of MT (Manual Transmission) and of AT(Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, the AMT removes the clutch pedal, thus the driver can’t perceived the clutch position. So it is difficult to hill-start for the driver with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system(I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Based on the analysis of current electro-hydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for automotive brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly. Upon the experimental results, increasing pressure response time of I-EHB is 53% shorter than that of conventional brake system and reducing pressure response time of I-EHB is 70% shorter than that of conventional brake system. The tracking performance of I-EHB is good.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0824
The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy of the current and previous cycles. Parameters studied include the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the engine speed increases. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the residual gas fraction or the amount of residual fuel. The amount of fuel injected in the previous cycles is found to significantly impact the current cycle PM/PN emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0064
Sandhya Lingadahalli, Sudhakaran Maydiga, Matthew Darin
Dependency on fossil fuels will be a challenge for the future, hence there is a need to develop an alternate technology for vehicle mobility. Current trend in automotive is to focus on developing electrical vehicles and making them more energy efficient. Present technologies for developing electrical vehicles are using Batteries and Fuel-Cells. Power consumption optimization is beneficial not only for future vehicles but also for enhancing fuel economy in the current generation vehicles. Electrical power consumption is an important aspect in the design of an electrical architecture. There are several techniques to increase the energy efficiency of the electrical architecture. One method is by using Partial Networks. Partial Network is based on the different modes of ECU operation - Off, Standby and Active modes. The power consumption varies between the different operational modes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen PhD, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which measures the position and velocity of the targets. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view, hundreds of targets can present. In the vehicle field test, the automotive monopulse radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, which include tunnels and curved roads. The curved tunnel walls work like mirrors which reflect the electromagnetic waves coming out from the radar and reflected by the targets. The unreal targets, which are generated by the reflected electromagnetic waves by the walls instead of the direct waves, must be well identified by the radar peak detection. Multiple reflections by the parallel tunnel walls create many unreal targets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1408
John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Timothy T. Plummer
Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0099
Deepak Venkatesh B, Arockia Selvakumar A
The concept of camless engines enables us to optimize the overall engine efficiency and performance, as it provides great flexibility in valve timing and valve displacement. This paper deals with design of camless engines with pneumatic actuator. The main objective of this research is to build a prototype and test its performance at different engine speeds. Also an extensive research on the sensors is done to detect the various sensors that could be used to identify the crankshaft position. In addition the overview of the proposed camless engine system is focused with the design principles and the components used. The developed pneumatic system is capable of actuating at 1500 rpm and demonstrates the ability of pneumatic actuators to be used in an internal combustion engine with low rpm needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0012
Sebastian Voss, Johannes Eder, Bernhard Schaetz
The growing complex functionalities of automotive vehicles and their safety-criticality including timing requirements demands sound and scalable approaches to deal with the increasing design space. Most often, such complex automotive systems are composed of a set of functions that are characterized by multi-period timing behaviors, e.g. due to environment constraints limiting sensing/acting frequencies, or various worst case execution times of software components. As safety-critical systems must perform the desired behavior within guaranteed time bounds, a valid system configuration is needed including a time-correct schedule that fulfills all timing requirements. Consequently, standards like the ISO26262 require methods and techniques that are needed for a systematic and provably correct development of automotive software that includes precise timing behavior of software components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rests are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all or some of these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, head way settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1219
Hua Bai, Matt McAmmond, Juncheng Lu, Qi Tian, Hui Teng, Alan Brown
Most of the present EV on-board chargers utilize three-stage design, e.g., AC/DC rectifier, DC to high-frequency AC inverter, and AC to DC rectifier, which will limit the wall-to-battery efficiency to ~94%. Instead of using the regular three-stage design, the matrix converter could directly convert the grid AC to high-frequency AC thereby saves one stage and potentially increases the system efficiency, however, the control strategy will be more complex. In addition to the efficiency requirement, the demand on high-power density design requires high switching frequency, which challenges the present power electronics design based on Silicon devices. As the new-generation semiconductor switches, wide-bandgap (WBG) devices, such as GaN HEMTs and SiC MOSFETs recently draw much attention. Compared to conventional Si MOSFETs or IGBTs, WBG devices exhibit much shorter turn-on/off time intervals, close-to-zero reverse recovery loss and much smaller conduction loss.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realised by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces the application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. The aim is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1215
Zhenhai Gao, Xiaoting Zhang, Hongyu Hu, Dalei Guo, Hui Zhao, Huili Yu
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1202
Jihas Khan
With the advent of hybrid and electric cars, battery monitoring system and battery management systems became bundled with more and more sophisticated algorithms and specifications. Validation of the same became a head ache for OEMs and Tier ones considering the massive battery, high voltage and current involved and real loads directly or in directly connected to them. This paper is aimed at providing an intuitive explanation of these challenges and solutions which employ HILS for the component level validation of the same. Conventional validation for these systems produce test results much later in the embedded product development life cycle which calls for an additional over head of cost, resource, time and effort. Proposed solution is finding the accuracy of SOC SOH estimation algorithm in battery monitoring sensor which usually will be clamped to the real battery itself.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1660
Takahiro Okano, Akira Sakai, Yusuke Kamiya, Yoshio Masuda, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicle is on the increase to reduce exhaust gas emissions and help resolve energy issues. Regenerative cooperative brake technology has been adopted in these vehicles. The realization of this technology requires a braking system which can accurately control the hydraulic brake in response to a small change in the regenerative braking. On the other hand, the spread of collision avoidance supprt technology along with the growing safety awareness to the car is progressing at a rapid pace. The realization of this technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Brake system that meets these requirements in the past was present. But to promote further adoption, more simple structure brake system is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music PhD, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to ensure safe and secure operations. Of the various techniques that could be used to update software or firmware on mobile platforms, cellular communications has a massive coverage footprint that ranges from urban to rural locations worldwide. Long Term Evolution (LTE) communications is becoming and will be the standard for global cellular communications for the foreseeable future. Personal cellular base stations such as femtocells, which play a key role in planned LTE coverage, have been shown to be vulnerable to compromise. Updates accomplished through a compromised base station could lead to an update that is compromised.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and it must be solved. In Japan, to reduce the number of accidents caused by drunk driving, the drivers of buses and trucks have been required to carry out an alcohol check before taking the wheel since 2011. We have been studying an alcohol detection system in breath for safe driving since 2008. This paper reports on a portable device that enables checking the sobriety of drivers using a breath-alcohol-detection system. The system consists of a water vapor sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors, for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of this system’s features is that the system detects water vapor from human exhaled breath to prevent false detection by fake gases. Each gas concentration is calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the exhaled breath, we applied AC voltage between the two electrodes of the water sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0039
Karsten Schmidt, Andreas Schulze, Kai R. Richter
New technologies like multi-core and Ethernet provide vastly improved E/E performance, thereby enabling new digital megatrends in many areas: driver assistance, vehicle dynamics, electrification, safety, connectivity, autonomous driving. The new challenge: We must share these computing and communication capacities among all networked vehicle functions and their software. For this, we need suitable system integration concepts and software architectures for the new technologies and we need a good resource planning to minimize the probability of late resource bottlenecks (eg overload, lack of real-time capability, quality loss). Otherwise, we will not be able to harvest the cost benefits of new multi-core / multi-processor platforms. Resource planning is all the more complex the more software suppliers participate in an ECU development. In the past, every single-function ECU project had one expert (or “guru”) who had an overview about the entire project.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0026
Elke Salecker, INGO STUERMER
Huge Simulink controller models often consists of (almost) identical subsystems, very often resulting from copy-and-paste operations and only slight adaptation of the subsystems by the model engineer. Although this “copy-and-paste” approach might help to achieve initial results very fast, in the long-run such subsystem clones create considerable problems. Like code clones, model clones increase the effort for testing and maintenance because they have to be tested individually and all copies have to be identified and updated if the functionality changes. JUST SIMPLIFY is an approach for detecting model clones in a Simulink model automatically based on model metrics calculations. This approach has been implemented in our model metrics and complexity measurement tool M-XRAY. JUST SIMPLIFY allows reducing the effort for model refactoring by avoiding time consuming manual search for model clones. As a result, the effort for testing and for maintaining models can be reduced significantly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1065
Jens Gaechter, Mario Hirz
Besides positive environmental effects, electric or hybrid propulsion technologies provide high torque potential that can be used from the start, which leads to an advantageous vehicle acceleration behavior. An important aspect for efficient operation and benefiting speed-torque characteristics of electric machines states an effective control strategy, which requires the implementation of specific sensors. The aim of the present work is the examination and evaluation of different sensor technologies for the use in such automotive applications to exactly determine the rotor position of synchronous electric motors. In this way, different sensors, e.g. resolver, eddy current sensors or sensor methods based on magneto-resistive effects, have been evaluated on a test bench under changing boundary conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0121
Ulrich Vögele, Christian Endisch
Predictive velocity control can be used to enable efficient driving regarding fuel efficiency and driving time. Commonly, velocity optimization algorithms only take static information, like road slope and curvature, into account and neglect dynamic information, like traffic lights and other traffic participants, although the information is available through sensors or could be made available by vehicle-to-vehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Thus, static optimization algorithms do not provide optimal solutions in dynamic environments, caused by driver or assistance systems intervention. Because the incorporation of dynamic information increases the complexity of the problem to find an optimal control policy, its use in real-time applications is often prohibited. An algorithm is presented which allows a fast computation of all optimal speed profiles with regard to time and fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1204
Dongchang Pan, Sichuan Xu, Chunjing Lin, Guofeng Chang
As one of the most crucial components in electric vehicles, power batteries generate abundant heat during charging and discharging processes. Battery thermal management system (BTMS), which is designed to ensure the temperature of all battery cells within a safe range and maintain an even temperature distribution from cell to cell, is vital for the high efficiency, long calendar life and reliable safety of the power batteries. Conventional BTMSs such as air cooling and liquid cooling require extra power and may not meet the requirements at stressful and abuse conditions, especially at high density of heat generation and at high operating or ambient temperatures. With the desirable features of low system complexity, high energy efficiency and good battery thermal uniformity, thermal management using composite phase change materials (PCMs) has drawn specific attention in the last decade.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0154
Pritesh Jain, Purushottam Bhumre, Saakshi Jain
This paper describes the Common Automobile Program (CAP) that can be implemented to improve mass transportation. CAP is the use of automated electric vehicles using smart navigation and control technologies to improve mass transportation. In CAP, common vehicles are used by different passengers, thus, reducing the on-road traffic and also the parking space required. Various low-cost stations are to be built along specified paths and the vehicle can be used at the convenience of the commuter. Currently, buses and trains require the passengers to wait at the station and a significant amount of time is spent at intermediate stops. The vehicle in CAP runs directly from origin to destination and also eliminates the waiting time at stations. Passengers do not wait for vehicles; instead vehicles wait for the passengers. The journey starts as the passenger enters the station and selects the destination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging motorcyclists’ use of technologies (i.e., texting, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older motorcyclists (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study sought to provide an overview of the types of technologies that motorcyclists use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, and motorcyclist demographics by surveying a convenience sample of typical motorcyclists in the United States. The sample included 91 riders (78 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (mean= 50.5, SD= 10.8). Surveyed motorcyclists answered questions about riding experience and training, technologies they use while riding, ease and frequency of use of those technologies, issues with the technologies, as well as riding behaviors and habits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1213
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
The current battery technologies allow an EV with 300 mile range (BEV 300), but the cost of such a vehicle hinders the large scale adoption of this vehicle by consumers. DOE has set aggressive cost targets for battery technologies. At present, no single technology might meet the cost, energy and power requirements of a BEV 300, but a combination of multiple batteries with different capabilities might meet this criteria. This study looks at how such a combination can be implemented in the vehicle simulation model and compares the vehicle manufacturing cost and operating costs of these options. Preliminary analysis shows that there is an opportunity to modestly reduce BEV 300 energy storage system cost, by about 8%, using a battery pack combining an energy battery and a power battery. The baseline vehicle considered in the study uses a single battery sized to meet both power and energy requirements in a BEV 300.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0104
Khalil Maalouf, David Stull, Keith Nicholas
In copper wire, real time crimp monitoring has traditionally been based on force measurement during the crimp cycle. The force attributed to molding the copper wire into the terminal is a significant portion of the total force needed to form the crimp. Therefore, any wire deviations from the norm is translated into a force pattern aberration that can be detected using basic signal pattern analysis. As the industry is contemplating replacing copper wire with aluminum wire, in order to save on weight and material cost, the traditional force monitoring becomes ineffective in detecting wire faults in the crimp. The reason is that aluminum is a softer material than copper, and most of the force exerted during the crimp cycle is consumed by forming the copper terminal itself. The small force deviation due to aluminum wire fault becomes much more difficult to detect. Therefore, a new technique is needed to monitor crimped aluminum wires.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1209
Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Passively parallelizing two energy storage systems, one is energy type and the other is power type, requires minimal modifications of auto makers and thus a cost-effective method to enable advanced start stop technology. Traditional lead acid battery, lithium-ion battery, capacitor, are all candidate chemistries for dual energy storage solutions. However due to the dual nature of the technology the open circuit potential, resistance, and some other control variables should match in order to achieve optimal performance. In this work we use coupled equivalent circuit model and electrochemical model to study a few options of dual systems, namely the lead acid with NMC/LTO, lead acid with LFP-Graphite, and lead acid with capacitor. A few charging and discharging pulses are designed and simulated to evaluate the regen receiving capability and cranking capability of different chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1639
An investigation into two new control strategies for the vehicle Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) are made for a possible replacement of current non-optimal slip control method. In an emergency braking situation, there is a maximum braking force that can be applied at the wheel in which the vehicle does not slide and lose steering control. This maximum braking force is dictated by a number of uncertain conditions and parameters e.g. road type, tire condition, tire temperature, etc. Current ABS in use today attempt to provide the maximum braking force by providing an increase in brake pressure until the wheel slides, then lets off the pressure and repeats. This algorithm is not ideal and non-optimal as it simply reacts to wheel sliding in order to provide the maximum braking force. Furthermore, for most drivers, the subjective brake pedal feedback from this strategy is poor. This paper/work applies two techniques in order to maximize the braking force without any tire sliding.
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