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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jennifer Wheeler, Joshua Stein, Gary Hunter
Recent advances in natural gas recovery technologies and availability have sparked a renewed interest in using natural gas as a fuel for commercial vehicles. Natural gas can potentially provide for both reduced operating cost and reductions in CO2 emissions. Commercial natural gas vehicles, depending on application and region, will have different performance and fuel consumption targets and are subject to various emissions regulations. Therefore, different applications may require different combustion strategies to achieve specific targets and regulations. This paper summarizes an evaluation of combustion strategies and parameters available to meet these requirements while using natural gas. One combustion strategy that was evaluated was stoichiometric combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the other strategy tested was based on lean-burn combustion. Testing consisted of parametric variations to quantify the effects of swirl ratio, compression ratio, and dilution ratio, either via EGR or excess air, on the operating limits, engine out emissions, and fuel efficiency of spark-ignited natural engines operating in conditions typical for heavy-duty vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Alberto Boretti
Real driving cycles are characterized by a sequence of accelerations, cruises, decelerations and engine idling. Recovering the braking energy is the most effective way to reduce the propulsive energy supply by the thermal engine. The fuel energy saving may be much larger than the propulsive energy saving because the thermal engine energy supply may be cut where the engine operates less efficiently and because the thermal engine can be made smaller. The present paper discusses the state of the art of hydro-pneumatic driveline now becoming popular also for passenger cars and light duty vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Jongsung Kim, Chjhoon Jo, Yongsik kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Soung Jun Park, Gab Bae Jeon, Jaehun Shim
Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) is the brake system that is actuated by the electrical energy and the motor rotation. It has similar design with Electro-Mechanical Parking Brake (EPB). It uses the gear multiplication structure for the enough torque and screw/nut mechanism for changing rotational movement to linear. The differences with EPB are screw/nut and motor type and some specification of the inner parts because the needed performance of the service braking like braking time is much higher than EPB, and usually EMB includes the force sensor for controlling the actuator and solenoid-lever structure for EPB function. The highly responsive and independent brake actuators lead to enhanced controllability which should result in not only better basic braking performance, but also improvements in various active braking functions such as integrated chassis control, driver assistance systems, or cooperative regenerative braking. Although the EMB system has the potential for numerous advantages and innovations in braking, it has yet to be successfully introduced in series production mainly due to safety and cost concerns.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Klaus Augsburg, Dzmitry Savitski, Lukas Heidrich, Valentin Ivanov
The presented study discusses design of brakes and brake control system for all-wheel drive electric vehicle equipped with individually controlled in-wheel motors (IWM). Initial part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of different packaging of wheel brakes to be mounted together with IWM in the wheel hub. Special attention is given to the implementation of perimeter brake setup. Parameterization and design of specific perimeter brake configuration is introduced. The second part of the paper introduces advanced strategies for brake blending and ABS control. The proposed strategy of blending control realizes brake force distribution targeting the increase of regenerative braking with taking into account the limitations placed by the IWM operation. The ABS architecture is based on the direct slip controller. Its functionality will be illustrated with different case studies investigating the ABS braking with electric motors and hydraulic brake system. The particular attention is also given to the valuation of the brake comfort.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Zhizhong Wang, Liangyao Yu, Yufeng Wang, Kaihui Wu, Jian Song, Ning Pan, Liangxu Ma
The Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System (DEHB) is a wet type brake-by-wire system for passenger vehicles, and is especially suitable for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The basic DEHB comprises four independent brake actuators connected to four hydraulic brakes. The word ‘distributed’ refers to the distributed arrangement of the brake actuators on the vehicle. Each brake actuator comprises an electric motor to provide brake power, a mechanism to translate rotational motion of the motor shaft into translational motion of a piston. The piston moves back and forth in a cylinder under the control of the motor to push the brake fluid into the brake. In this way, braking pressure can be controlled by the motor. Like other brake-by-wire systems, brake pedal simulator and pedal sensors are also used in DEHB. Although the concept of DEHB traces back to 1990s, only a few research papers can be found. This paper gives a review and outlook on the design concepts of DEHB from the following three aspects. 1.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Lu Xiong, Bing Yuan, Songyun Xu, Xueling Guang
At the very beginning part, a detailed analysis on current status of electro-hydraulic brake system is carried out. By analyzing 28 electro-hydraulic brake systems, the paper provides a brief summarization on structural components of typical electro-hydraulic brake systems from the perspective of main functional units. Then a more in-depth analysis is conducted on the key functional units, particularly on Active pressure-building unit and Pedal simulation unit. For instance, in terms of Active pressure-building unit, electro-hydraulic brake system schemes can be divided into two categories according to active power sources: one is pump + high-pressure accumulator, the other electric motor+ reducing mechanism. Then author employs MK C1, the latest electro-hydraulic brake system launched by Continental AG, to illustrate its structural components and working principle. In the second part, the idea of dual-motor electro-hydraulic brake system is proposed. As a new solution, dual-motor electro-hydraulic brake system can actively simulate pedal feeling and merge pedal power (from the driver ) into braking power at the same time, which is a distinctive innovation compared to most current electro-hydraulic brake systems.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Michael Herbert Putz, Christian Wunsch, Markus Schiffer, Jure Peternel
With linear actuated brakes the actuation force (or actuation torque) rises linearly from 0 to the full actuation force at full braking, causing a very variable motor current. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) of Vienna Engineering (VE) uses a highly non-linear mechanism to create the high pressing force of the pad. The advantage is that the pad moves very fast when the pad pressing force is low and moves slower with increasing pressing force. This non-linear actuation means that the motor is always running at relatively constant load (although the pad pressing force changes highly), resulting in a motor that can be optimized for constant torque and constant rpm, reducing size and costs and increasing efficiency. The normal force in EMBs is often controlled by observing mechanical deformation to conclude to stress or force, commonly using strain gauges. It causes costs of the gauge itself and attaching them to e.g. the caliper and a sensitive amplifier. The full gauge equipment goes into the safety-related brake control system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Liang Zhou, Chuqi Su
In this paper,a strategy for recovery of braking energy in HEV with EMB is proposed, which is less limited to the performance of the 42V vehicle power supply, compared with the conventional recycling strategy without EMB. In the traditional HEV with 42V vehicle power supply, recovery of braking energy is mainly recycled to the 42V battery, directly. As charging current is too large, or charging time is too long can damage the battery, 42V battery is difficult to recycle braking energy effectively ,especially in complex urban condition with vehicle braking frequently and rapidly. But in HEV with EMB,the recovery transfers to the motor of EMB directly, which is utilized dynamically in the process of vehicle braking. Excess electricity transfers to the energy storage unit if the generator is performing a voltage higher than the required voltage of EMB brake motor, otherwise, the energy storage unit to supplement electricity. The kinetic energy of the HEV turned into electrical energy to EMB timely,rather than being stored statically in this process.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Mandeep Singh Walia, Magnus Karlsson, Lars Hakansson, Gaurav Chopra
Mandeep Singh Walia An analysis method to study the potentials in recovering the brake energy from Volvo articulated haulers has been developed. The study is made to find out how and where possible hybrid solutions can be used. The method is based on the mapping of the peak brake power, brake energy and engine energy. The method was developed using adequate signals collected on haulers at three different customer sites. A conceptual study was also carried out concerning the brake energy to understand the actual amount of brake energy that may be stored in the Energy storage systems (ESS). The results indicate that the analysis method developed can map the brake energy generated and also provide an overview of the actual amount of brake energy that can be accumulated in the ESS, which can also guide in an effective selection of the ESS for a particular work site.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Kyung-Jung Lee, Jae-Min Kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Hyun-Sik Ahn
X-by-wire technology replaces mechanical connections with electrical signals, and is indispensable for realizing an intelligent vehicle. The technology has many advantages including reduction of parts, increase in design degree-of-freedom, and safety increase. Especially, the Brake-by-Wire (BBW) system consists of electromechanical actuators and communication networks, instead of conventional hydraulic or electrohydraulic devices, has emerged as a new and promising vehicular braking control scheme. It offers enhanced safety and comfort, cuts off cost associated with manufacturing and maintenance, and eliminates environmental concerns caused by hydraulic systems. The BBW system has recently invoked a lot of interest for both industry and academia worldwide. The FlexRay is an automotive network communications protocol built to be a deterministic, fault-tolerant bus system. It was developed by the FlexRay Consortium as a conjunction with the leading automotive manufacturers. The FlexRay is a new time-triggered communication system for high-performance in-vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Ning Pan, Liangyao Yu, Zhizhong Wang, Liangxu Ma, Jian Song, Yongsheng Zhang, Wenruo Wei
With the purpose of individual wheel cylinder pressure regulation and independent of engine vacuum, Brake-by-wire (BBW) systems are suitable for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. BBW system has been developed in recent years. Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) system is the first step towards BBW system. Various EHB systems have been proposed by researchers. A typical design includes a high pressure accumulator to supply pressure source and pulse width modulated (PWM) solenoid valves to regulate the brake pressure, such as the product of Bosch and Toyota. The electrically driven booster system uses motor to boost driver brake input, such as the system proposed by Mobis. Continental Teves proposed an EHB system with modified ESC hydraulic unit and electric vacuum pump. This paper proposes a new compact EHB system, arming at decreasing the size and cost without compromise of performance. There are there sections in this paper, the first section of which is system configuration and basic operation principles, the second section is the hydraulic pressure control algorithm to regulate the cylinder pressure, and the last section shows the simulation study to verify the performance of the new proposed EHB and its pressure control algorithm.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Liangxu Ma, Liangyao Yu, Xuhui Liu, Zhizhong Wang, Ning Pan
The paper is focused on the research of the automotive magneto-rheological brake system whose braking force comes from the shear stress of magneto-rheological fluid under the condition of magnetic field. The MRF brake is designed for a small-sized electric passenger car to replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. The brake disk is immersed in the MRF whose yield stress changes as the applied magnetic field. The braking torque of this system can be linearly adjusted by the current in just a few milliseconds without the conventional vacuum booster. This system has a quick response and precise control performance with a low hysteresis. Besides, the system has adopted the original complicated structure to save space and cost. Nowadays, most of the related research of MRF is about the construction of the prototype and the realization of the brake force. However, due to a lack of optimal design and the understanding of MRF, the main research progress is only about the simulation and the braking effect of the prototype can hardly meet the requirement of the vehicle braking.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Dongmei Wu
With the promotion of electric vehicles, their stability control problem has become increasingly important. Four-wheel-drive electric vehicle can not only control the vehicle stability through hydraulic braking pressure regulation, but also through controlling the motor driving and braking force to generate yaw moment , which are different with the conventional vehicles. In addition, the hydraulic braking system of four-wheel-drive electric vehicle is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB), rather than the conventional hydraulic braking system. With EHB, the braking pressure in four wheel cylinders can be controlled independently and flexibly, rather than depending on the braking pedal. Besides, there are also several pressure sensors in EHB, which can supply the wheel cylinder pressure information, without the need for pressure estimation. As a result, the way to achieve stability control of four-wheel drive electric vehicle will be different with conventional vehicle. Currently, there are not many researches on the stability control of four-wheel-drive electric vehicle with EHB, and most of them are still at the stage of virtual simulation, lacking testing and applications in real system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Didier Regis, Julie Berthon, Marc Gatti
In the last three decades, the integrated circuit industry has followed a steady path of constantly shrinking devices geometries and increased functionality that larger chips provide. These performances and functionality improvements have resulted in a history of new technology generations every two to three years, commonly referred to as .Moore Law. Each new generation has approximately doubled logic circuit density and increased performance by about 40%. Unfortunately these improvements may be reached today at the cost of a loss of reliability and operational lifetime. The increasing integration of embedded systems and the need to support new features requires high-performance and power-efficient processors. This trend pushes toward the use and development of components implemented in advanced CMOS technologies (22nm technology and bellow, the critical feature size of the elementary devices will drop to 5 nm in 2018, for 14 nm technology node). But, critical embedded computing systems have also to fulfill specific safety requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Gregory J. Moore, Frank Puglia, Lawrence Myron, Stephen Lasher, Bob Doane, Joe Gnanaraj, Seth Cohen, Arthur Dobley, Ryan Lawrence
For 70 years Yardney has been a leader in specialty battery and energy systems for military, space, avionics, weapon systems and undersea vehicles. Yardney has evolved since beginning in 1944 in New York City, to Pawcatuck, CT, and since 2013 resides in East Greenwich, RI. The chemistries provided in this time include silver-zinc, magnesium silver chloride, lithium thionyl-chloride, nickel zinc, lithium-ion (Li-ion) and several metal-air technologies. Yardney has made cells from 50 mAh for human implantables to 1000 Ah for submersible vehicles. In addition to battery systems, Yardney also pursues hybrid systems for ground, space, undersea and avionic applications. The beauty of hybrid systems, combining energy sources such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells and solar, is that they can be used to optimize energy and power density, and with proper design lead to longevity of components and an overall cost savings. Where fuel cells can provide the most energy of these specified constituents on a large scale, at a smaller scale they come at a cost due to their inefficiencies and their bulk.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Dave Duncan
DO-254 Verification and Validation (Derived requirements and Robustness testing
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Evan Racine, Zachary Lammers, Street Barnett, John Murphy, Quinn Leland
Electromechanical Actuation System (EMAS) faces some major technological challenges before it could be fully adopted for primary flight control of aircraft, replacing conventional hydraulic actuation system. One of the challenges is the thermal management of EMAS. The working fluid in conventional hydraulic actuation system acts as a coolant while EMAS does not have a readily available heat sink. Another technical challenge facing EMAS for primary flight control is its highly dynamic demand on aircraft electric power system. Its high peak power demand and regenerative power pose a challenge to aircraft electric power generation and distribution system. The purpose of this study is to analyze EMAS’ transient and dynamic electrical and thermal energy flow under a simulated flight envelope and thermal environment. A laboratory test apparatus was set up to evaluate and characterize the energy flow of an EMA subjected to a simulated dynamic flight control surface load and thermal environment.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Nicholas Ernest, Kelly Cohen, Corey Schumacher, David Casbeer
Next gen UCAVs will require flying at supersonic speeds and the utilization of precise defensive systems, resulting in unreasonable bandwidths and near zero latencies making them unfeasible to be tele-operated as the current CONOPS dictates. Looking forward to increased levels of autonomy in Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) operations it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, “make sense” of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA, the Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm, was created to develop intelligent managers for these advanced unmanned craft through the novel means of a genetic cascading fuzzy system. In this approach, a genetic algorithm creates rule bases and optimizes membership functions for multiple fuzzy logic systems, whose inputs and outputs feed into one another alongside other crisp data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Richard Mourn
The AS-1 Aircraft Systems and Systems Integration Committee is updating AS5643 and related standards and recommendations to accommodate both new develops and lessons learned from programs such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and X-47B UCAS. This paper provides insight into how programs like the F-35, which implements more than 60 AS5643/IEEE-1394 devices per plane, utilize AS5643/IEEE-1394 for a vehicle system network. This unprecedented use of a high speed (491.52Mb/s) serial interface on an aircraft proves the capability of AS5643/1394, and opens the door for higher bandwidth communication between the Control Computer and LRUs. While I/O bandwidth is important, system level deterministic behavior is required for most vehicle system networks and AS5643 coupled with 1394 provides the required deterministic behavior. The paper then explains how 1394’s asynchronous stream capability is used by AS5643 to create a programmable rate-based (time-sliced) protocol that meets the rigorous requirements of advanced aerospace and defense system design all while using COTS silicon.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Viacheslav Pshikhopov, Mikhail Medvedev, Victor Krukhmalev, Roman Fedorenko, Boris Gurenko
The paper describes methods for control of docking of two moving stratospheric airships. One of them (cruiser) implements cruising flight at the defined altitude with defined velocity. The other one (feeder) fulfills the mission of chasing the cruiser with following docking operations. Mathematical model of exact airships are used in the work. Instances of structural and algorithmic implementation based on position-trajectory controller. Simulation of docking control were accomplished with proposed methods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Christopher Ian Hill, Chris Gerada, Paolo Giangrande, Serhiy Bozhko
This paper presents the initial development of a Modelica Library for Electro-Mechanical Actuator system analysis. At present two main system components are described, these are the Power Electronic Converter and Electric Machine, although further components will be added. These models provide the user with the ability to simulate Electric Machine and Power Electronic Converter systems including physical effects, losses and fault conditions. Established modelling programs such as Saber and MATLAB SimPowerSytems are often unable to provide all the aspects required to accurately simulate real systems in an easy to use, flexible manner. Therefore this paper shows how Modelica has been used to create versatile models able to simulate many practical aspects such as Power Electronic Converter losses and Power Electronic Converter faults, Electric Machine losses and Electric Machine faults. Examples are included in order to demonstrate the use of these models within a variety of systems including an Electro-Mechanical Actuator.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Sergey Novikov, Nikita Kudinov
The airships constructors are exploring applications of the systems of many ballonets for roll airship control and attack angle airship control. However, this requires an effective automatic control system each of separately ballonet and for the entire system coordinated automatic control. This is especially necessary for unmanned airships and it makes it relevant the mathematical description, design and research of the systems and control laws for the airships having system of many ballonets. The automatic regulation of the system of many ballonets is a very difficult problem. This is because the some state variables of the separate ballonets are the technically not measurable variables. Mathematical model describes the change of the overpressure in the hull of the airship, and evaluates the process of this change. However, it does not allow calculating the mass of air in each ballonet. It is needs a system of differential equations for each of the ballonets. This is possible either by direct measurement of the volume of ballonets or by their dynamic identification as status variables.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close, Wade Huebsch
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is an aerial vehicle that is ballistically launched, and then transforms into an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). It was desirable for a surveillance equipped HP to change its trajectory, and ultimately the point of impact, by departing from its ballistic trajectory after being launched. The exact control surface sizes, location, and actuation along with the control strategies were needed. A method was investigated to utilize deflectable control surfaces in conjunction with a guidance system to maneuver to HP to a desired point of impact while ensuring that the projectile remains statically and dynamically stable. Dual feedback control methods were devised to control heading and pitch using deflectable vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. These control methods were tested and tuned using the Six Degree of Freedom (6DoF) system in Simulink. A cruciform tail section, analyzed in previous work for a 40 mm HP, was utilized so that the HP was statically and dynamically stable.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Srikanth Gururajan, Silvia Cascianelli, Marcello Napolitano
A measurement device that is extremely important for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) guidance and control purposes is the airspeed sensor. As the parameters of feedback control laws are conventionally scheduled as a function of airspeed, an incorrect reading (e.g. due to a sensor fault) of the Pitot tube could induce an incorrect feedback control action, potentially leading to the loss of control of the UAV. In this paper, building on prior research, the authors compare two models for Pitot tube free airspeed estimation. The analysis was carried out based on multiple flight records is acquired from the West Virginia University YF-22 scale model in order to assess their performance. The objective of this study is to establish the accuracy and reliability of the two airspeed estimation techniques for eventual use as the basis for real-time fault detection of anomalies occurring on the Pitot tube sensor. The first technique is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that utilizes the nonlinear kinematic relations between GPS, Inertial Measurement Unit and Air Data System signals.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida, Nikita Kudinov, Elena Portnova
During the development and study of airships controlled movements are applied computer simulation methods, since the size of these air vessels do not allow to apply physical modeling. Computer model is needed to simulate not only the shape and movement of the airship, but also the conditions (parameters) of the flight environment. It is atmospheric conditions typical for the air vessel route [R. Neydorf, V. Krukhmalev, N. Kudinov, V. Pshikhopov «Methods of Statistical Processing of Meteorological Data for the Tasks of Trajectory Planning of MAAT Feeders», SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2266, 2013]. Atmospheric environment settings depend on the geographical position, the planned heights of flight of the aircraft, calendar and time periods (time of year, month, and time of day). In addition, the atmospheric parameters depend on the spontaneously emerging phenomena of weather conditions. As a result these variables have both a regular component and a random component. The first determined by both geographical conditions, and calendrical and time conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yvan Wilfried Tondji Chendjou, Ruxandra Botez
Measurements of the inertial properties are needed during the design of aircrafts. Furthermore, the knowledge of these measurements is one of the most problems to be solved while studying aircraft rotational motion or even designing aircraft flight control systems. This is the reason why accurate methods for computing aircraft inertial properties have received sustained interest over the years. This paper firstly presents a structural analysis of a drone - the UAS-S4 ETHECATL. Mass, center of gravity position and mass moment of inertia are numerically determined through Raymer and DATCOM statistical-empirical methods, coupled with mechanical calculations. Then, experimental tests are performed using the pendulum method, in order to validate the numerical predictions. When experimentally determining the mass moment of inertia, the bifilar torsion pendulum is used for the moment vertical axis and the simple pendulum for the moment longitudinal and transversal axes determination. A nonlinear dynamic model is developed for rotational motions about the center of gravity of the system under tests.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Puvan Arumugam, Chris Gerada, Serhiy Bozhko, He Zhang, W.U.Nuwantha Fernando, Antonino La Rocca, Stephen Pickering
Aircraft platforms are presently being increasingly modernized due to the global effort towards having a more environmentally responsible transport network. Future aircraft platforms are expected to be more fuel efficient and also simpler to service and maintain. The way towards this goal has been identified as a move towards “more electric” systems by replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic sources of power with electrical counterparts. This can lead to an increased reliance on electrical power for a range of primary functions including actuation, de-icing, cabin air-conditioning and engine start. A more electric power generation system plays a key role in this technology and this paper focuses on the design of a starter/generator for such systems. One of the challenges often encountered in the design of a starter/generator for aero-engines is the need to satisfy the two fundamental functions, namely to energize the engines during start-up and to generate power during normal engine operation.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, any failure on one of the sensors is likely to occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used. This research platform was designed, manufactured, instrumented, and flight tested by researchers at the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoitre dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on inherently vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle’s data links.
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