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Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Lu Xiong, Bing Yuan, Xueling Guang, Songyun Xu
At the very beginning part, a detailed analysis on current status of electro-hydraulic brake system is carried out. By analyzing 28 electro-hydraulic brake systems, the paper provides a brief summarization on structural components of typical electro-hydraulic brake systems from the perspective of main functional units. Then a more in-depth analysis is conducted on the key functional units, particularly on Active pressure-building unit and Pedal simulation unit. For instance, in terms of Active pressure-building unit, electro-hydraulic brake system schemes can be divided into two categories according to active power sources: one is pump + high-pressure accumulator, the other electric motor+ reducing mechanism. Then author employs MK C1, the latest electro-hydraulic brake system launched by Continental AG, to illustrate its structural components and working principle. In the second part, the idea of dual-motor electro-hydraulic brake system is proposed. As a new solution, dual-motor electro-hydraulic brake system can actively simulate pedal feeling and merge pedal power (from the driver ) into braking power at the same time, which is a distinctive innovation compared to most current electro-hydraulic brake systems.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Liangxu Ma, Liangyao Yu, Xuhui Liu, Zhizhong Wang, Ning Pan
The paper is focused on the research of the automotive magneto-rheological brake system whose braking force comes from the shear stress of magneto-rheological fluid under the condition of magnetic field. The MRF brake is designed for a small-sized electric passenger car to replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. The brake disk is immersed in the MRF whose yield stress changes as the applied magnetic field. The braking torque of this system can be linearly adjusted by the current in just a few milliseconds without the conventional vacuum booster. This system has a quick response and precise control performance with a low hysteresis. Besides, the system has adopted the original complicated structure to save space and cost. Nowadays, most of the related research of MRF is about the construction of the prototype and the realization of the brake force. However, due to a lack of optimal design and the understanding of MRF, the main research progress is only about the simulation and the braking effect of the prototype can hardly meet the requirement of the vehicle braking.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Alberto Boretti, Stefania Zanforlin
Real driving cycles are characterized by a sequence of accelerations, cruises, decelerations and engine idling. Recovering the braking energy is the most effective way to reduce the propulsive energy supply by the thermal engine. The fuel energy saving may be much larger than the propulsive energy saving because the thermal engine energy supply may be cut where the engine operates less efficiently and because the thermal engine can be made smaller. The present paper discusses the state of the art of hydro-pneumatic driveline now becoming popular also for passenger cars and light duty vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Zhizhong Wang, Liangyao Yu, Yufeng Wang, Kaihui Wu, Ning Pan, Jian Song, Liangxu Ma
The Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System (DEHB) is a wet type brake-by-wire system for passenger vehicles, and is especially suitable for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The basic DEHB comprises four independent brake actuators connected to four hydraulic brakes. The word ‘distributed’ refers to the distributed arrangement of the brake actuators on the vehicle. Each brake actuator comprises an electric motor to provide brake power, a mechanism to translate rotational motion of the motor shaft into translational motion of a piston. The piston moves back and forth in a cylinder under the control of the motor to push the brake fluid into the brake. In this way, braking pressure can be controlled by the motor. Like other brake-by-wire systems, brake pedal simulator and pedal sensors are also used in DEHB. Although the concept of DEHB traces back to 1990s, only a few research papers can be found. This paper gives a review and outlook on the design concepts of DEHB from the following three aspects. 1.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Ning Pan, Liangyao Yu, Zhizhong Wang, Liangxu Ma, Jian Song, Yongsheng Zhang, Wenruo Wei
With the purpose of individual wheel cylinder pressure regulation and independent of engine vacuum, Brake-by-wire (BBW) systems are suitable for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. BBW system has been developed in recent years. Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) system is the first step towards BBW system. Various EHB systems have been proposed by researchers. A typical design includes a high pressure accumulator to supply pressure source and pulse width modulated (PWM) solenoid valves to regulate the brake pressure, such as the product of Bosch and Toyota. The electrically driven booster system uses motor to boost driver brake input, such as the system proposed by Mobis. Continental Teves proposed an EHB system with modified ESC hydraulic unit and electric vacuum pump. This paper proposes a new compact EHB system, arming at decreasing the size and cost without compromise of performance. There are there sections in this paper, the first section of which is system configuration and basic operation principles, the second section is the hydraulic pressure control algorithm to regulate the cylinder pressure, and the last section shows the simulation study to verify the performance of the new proposed EHB and its pressure control algorithm.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Liang Zhou, Chuqi Su
In this paper,a strategy for recovery of braking energy in HEV with EMB is proposed, which is less limited to the performance of the 42V vehicle power supply, compared with the conventional recycling strategy without EMB. In the traditional HEV with 42V vehicle power supply, recovery of braking energy is mainly recycled to the 42V battery, directly. As charging current is too large, or charging time is too long can damage the battery, 42V battery is difficult to recycle braking energy effectively ,especially in complex urban condition with vehicle braking frequently and rapidly. But in HEV with EMB,the recovery transfers to the motor of EMB directly, which is utilized dynamically in the process of vehicle braking. Excess electricity transfers to the energy storage unit if the generator is performing a voltage higher than the required voltage of EMB brake motor, otherwise, the energy storage unit to supplement electricity. The kinetic energy of the HEV turned into electrical energy to EMB timely,rather than being stored statically in this process.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Mandeep Singh Walia, Magnus Karlsson, Lars Hakansson, Gaurav Chopra
Mandeep Singh Walia An analysis method to study the potentials in recovering the brake energy from Volvo articulated haulers has been developed. The study is made to find out how and where possible hybrid solutions can be used. The method is based on the mapping of the peak brake power, brake energy and engine energy. The method was developed using adequate signals collected on haulers at three different customer sites. A conceptual study was also carried out concerning the brake energy to understand the actual amount of brake energy that may be stored in the Energy storage systems (ESS). The results indicate that the analysis method developed can map the brake energy generated and also provide an overview of the actual amount of brake energy that can be accumulated in the ESS, which can also guide in an effective selection of the ESS for a particular work site.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Klaus Augsburg, Dzmitry Savitski, Lukas Heidrich, Valentin Ivanov
The presented study discusses design of brakes and brake control system for all-wheel drive electric vehicle equipped with individually controlled in-wheel motors (IWM). Initial part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of different packaging of wheel brakes to be mounted together with IWM in the wheel hub. Special attention is given to the implementation of perimeter brake setup. Parameterization and design of specific perimeter brake configuration is introduced. The second part of the paper introduces advanced strategies for brake blending and ABS control. The proposed strategy of blending control realizes brake force distribution targeting the increase of regenerative braking with taking into account the limitations placed by the IWM operation. The ABS architecture is based on the direct slip controller. Its functionality will be illustrated with different case studies investigating the ABS braking with electric motors and hydraulic brake system. The particular attention is also given to the valuation of the brake comfort.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Jongsung Kim, Chjhoon Jo, Yongsik Kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Soung Jun Park, Gab Bae Jeon, Jaehun Shim
Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) is the brake system that is actuated by the electrical energy and the motor rotation. It has similar design with Electro-Mechanical Parking Brake (EPB). It uses the gear multiplication structure for the enough torque and screw/nut mechanism for changing rotational movement to linear. The differences with EPB are screw/nut and motor type and some specification of the inner parts because the needed performance of the service braking like braking time is much higher than EPB, and usually EMB includes the force sensor for controlling the actuator and solenoid-lever structure for EPB function. The highly responsive and independent brake actuators lead to enhanced controllability which should result in not only better basic braking performance, but also improvements in various active braking functions such as integrated chassis control, driver assistance systems, or cooperative regenerative braking. Although the EMB system has the potential for numerous advantages and innovations in braking, it has yet to be successfully introduced in series production mainly due to safety and cost concerns.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Nicholas Ernest, Kelly Cohen, Corey Schumacher, David Casbeer
Next gen UCAVs will require flying at supersonic speeds and the utilization of precise defensive systems, resulting in unreasonable bandwidths and near zero latencies making them unfeasible to be tele-operated as the current CONOPS dictates. Looking forward to increased levels of autonomy in Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) operations it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, “make sense” of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA, the Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm, was created to develop intelligent managers for these advanced unmanned craft through the novel means of a genetic cascading fuzzy system. In this approach, a genetic algorithm creates rule bases and optimizes membership functions for multiple fuzzy logic systems, whose inputs and outputs feed into one another alongside other crisp data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Viacheslav Pshikhopov, Mikhail Medvedev, Victor Krukhmalev, Roman Fedorenko, Boris Gurenko
The paper describes methods for control of docking of two moving stratospheric airships. One of them (cruiser) implements cruising flight at the defined altitude with defined velocity. The other one (feeder) fulfills the mission of chasing the cruiser with following docking operations. Mathematical model of exact airships are used in the work. Instances of structural and algorithmic implementation based on position-trajectory controller. Simulation of docking control were accomplished with proposed methods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yvan Wilfried Tondji Chendjou, Ruxandra Botez
Measurements of the inertial properties are needed during the design of aircrafts. Furthermore, the knowledge of these measurements is one of the most problems to be solved while studying aircraft rotational motion or even designing aircraft flight control systems. This is the reason why accurate methods for computing aircraft inertial properties have received sustained interest over the years. This paper firstly presents a structural analysis of a drone - the UAS-S4 ETHECATL. Mass, center of gravity position and mass moment of inertia are numerically determined through Raymer and DATCOM statistical-empirical methods, coupled with mechanical calculations. Then, experimental tests are performed using the pendulum method, in order to validate the numerical predictions. When experimentally determining the mass moment of inertia, the bifilar torsion pendulum is used for the moment vertical axis and the simple pendulum for the moment longitudinal and transversal axes determination. A nonlinear dynamic model is developed for rotational motions about the center of gravity of the system under tests.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, any failure on one of the sensors is likely to occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used. This research platform was designed, manufactured, instrumented, and flight tested by researchers at the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoitre dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on inherently vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle’s data links.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Prashant Vadgaonkar, Ullas Janardhan, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Performance of Avionics systems is dictated by the timely availability and usage of critical health parameters. Various sensors are extensively used to acquire and communicate the desired parameters. In the Present day’s scenario, sensors are configured with wired approach. Number of sensors is growing due to automation, increasing the accuracy of intended Aircraft functions. Sensors are distributed all over the Aircraft and they are connected through wired network for signal processing and communicating. LRU’s which are integrating various sensors also use wired approach for communication. The Key driver for Airline operational cost is fuel. Fuel quantity is a direct function of weight. Weight of cables contributes significantly to the overall weight of the aircraft. Use of wired network approach poses challenges in terms of cable routing, stray capacitances, noise and mechanical structure. This paper describes various merits and demerits of wired sensors and their interface techniques.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Mike Boost
Rechargeable lithium batteries are essentially ubiquitous in our daily lives and in virtually every industry from pocket key fobs to billion dollar space programs, in benign as well as extreme environments. Cell production in 2012 was estimated at 4.4 billion cells and expected to double by 2016. However within civil aviation, lithium batteries are still in the early stages of deployment. The general consensus within the industry is that the use of lithium batteries within civil aviation will increase substantially in the coming years. Within the past decade the use of rechargeable lithium batteries has been certified on several platforms including Airbus, Cessna and Boeing. Airframe manufacturers are highly focused on the potential for the lithium technology to reduce the weight and thus increase range for their aircraft. However, there are numerous considerations within the lithium battery design that must be addressed to achieve optimal safety, more specifically lithium cell determination and electronic design.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Vincent Metzger, Douglas Parker, Alain Philippe, Sebastien Claudot
Vanessa Pagot, Douglas Parker, Sébastien Claudot, Alain Philippe, Vincent Metzger Fiber Optics Department Esterline | Connection Technologies | SOURIAU SOURIAU – RD 323 – 72470 CHAMPAGNE - FRANCE vmetzger@souriau.com, +33 601 353 001 (Mobile) dparker@souriau.com, 1-805-312-6039 ABSTRACT: Photonics communication is becoming more dominant in aircraft, shipboard and ground army applications. In the early 90’s, Physical contact connection technology (butt-joint termini) was not foreseen as the most reliable interconnect solution for harsh environment applications subjected to contamination. Nevertheless physical contact technology has proven its high reliability once mated. The technology, with multimode fibers, is now widely used in civilian aircraft in pressured environment for over 20 years with very good return on experience. Today, the FTTx Telecom market is using singlemode fiber over long distance in mass rollouts, leading to passive optical component availability such as splitters which incredibly decreases the cost and increases the reliability level.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Massimo Conte, Michele Trancossi
This paper presents the definition of a novel system for autonomous landing and docking, which has been conceived and developed inside the MAAT project, to allow an effective control during autonomous docking of cruiser and feeder in movement. In particular, this paper is a fundamental technological spin off the MAAT project. It is a new instrumental system for governing relative positioning between a movable target and air vehicles, such as helicopters, airships and multi-copters. In particular, a short time to market application relates to helicopter equipment (both manned and unmanned) to ensure autonomous landing capability even in case of reduced visibility. The proposed solution is based on infrared emitters allowing controlling both position and jaws angle. It is in advanced testing phase have concluded a preliminary testing phase using a quadcopter which has landed on a small platform mounted on an unmanned with capability of landing also in movement. The proposed solution is an effective alternative to more sophisticated vision based systems, which ensures higher affordability, higher simplicity and reduced costs.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Manxue Lu
This article attempts to provide a big picture of systems engineering in both philosophy and engineering perspectives, discusses current status and issues, trends of systems engineering development, future directions and challenges, followed by certain examples.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Noriko Morioka, Hidefumi Saito, Norio Takahashi, Manabu Seta, Hitoshi Oyori
Aircraft system architecture has been continuously changing to improve aircraft efficiency, operability, reliability and safety. Airlines always expect the improvement by any possible approaches, because it is very important for not only safe operation of the aircrafts, environmental consideration such as reduction of CO2 and noise emissions, but also economical reason such as efficient aircraft operation and fuel cost saving. It takes huge effort to change the aircraft system architecture, but along with technology advancement of power electronics, electrification of the system has been gradually introduced into the commercial aircrafts. Conventional aircraft systems have long used a four power drive source: mechanical power, hydraulic power, pneumatic power and electric power. Then concept of More Electric Aircraft (MEA) emerged, replacing mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic aircraft system power sources with electrical power. With the controllability of electric systems, an MEA system will efficiently and adequately manage energy and power throughout the entire aircraft mission.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close, Wade Huebsch
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is an aerial vehicle that is ballistically launched, and then transforms into an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). It was desirable for a surveillance equipped HP to change its trajectory, and ultimately the point of impact, by departing from its ballistic trajectory after being launched. The exact control surface sizes, location, and actuation along with the control strategies were needed. A method was investigated to utilize deflectable control surfaces in conjunction with a guidance system to maneuver to HP to a desired point of impact while ensuring that the projectile remains statically and dynamically stable. Dual feedback control methods were devised to control heading and pitch using deflectable vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. These control methods were tested and tuned using the Six Degree of Freedom (6DoF) system in Simulink. A cruciform tail section, analyzed in previous work for a 40 mm HP, was utilized so that the HP was statically and dynamically stable.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Prashant Vadgaonkar
Today's digital avionics systems leverages the maximum use of the Embedded COTS to fit the need of small form factor, low power, reduce time to market, reducing development time and efficient use of DO-254 for compliance of product. Without the use of Embedded COTS Hardware the time to market is more, compliance efforts are high and complexity of the design increases dramatically. COTs are very useful for Development Assurance Level C and below, new trend is to use it for Level A and B as well, where we can get enormous benefit on efforts on compliance and time to market. COTS modules are entering in digital avionics systems as COM (Computer On Module)/SOM (System On Module)/SIP (System In Package) with huge advancement in semiconductor and packaging industry. Digital systems like cockpit (Drive for Digital Cockpit), Air data management and Fuel Quantity Gauging and Indicating Systems etc. leveraging the COTS for their redesigns, to invent/evolve new products in digital avionics segment.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Christopher Ian Hill, Chris Gerada, Paolo Giangrande, Serhiy Bozhko
This paper presents the initial development of a Modelica Library for Electro-Mechanical Actuator system analysis. At present two main system components are described, these are the Power Electronic Converter and Electric Machine, although further components will be added. These models provide the user with the ability to simulate Electric Machine and Power Electronic Converter systems including physical effects, losses and fault conditions. Established modelling programs such as Saber and MATLAB SimPowerSytems are often unable to provide all the aspects required to accurately simulate real systems in an easy to use, flexible manner. Therefore this paper shows how Modelica has been used to create versatile models able to simulate many practical aspects such as Power Electronic Converter losses and Power Electronic Converter faults, Electric Machine losses and Electric Machine faults. Examples are included in order to demonstrate the use of these models within a variety of systems including an Electro-Mechanical Actuator.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Shweta Sanjeev, Goutham Selvaraj, Patrick Franks, Kaushik Rajashekara
In a More Electric Aircraft, there is a need to integrate power electronics with the starter generator system. The power electronics operates in the hostile engine environment. This requires use of power devices and passive components that are capable of operating at high temperatures (200-250 C). Wide band gap materials such as Silicon-Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) are used as power devices to provide the power conversion at high temperature. In this project, a 50 kVA high temperature bi-directional converter provides the power conversion for starter generator system at 200 C, which can be directly mounted on the engine compartment. The converter is a three phase PWM active rectifier, based on SiC MOSFET. During starter mode, the converter acts as an inverter providing AC voltage to the motor to start the engine During generator mode it functions as an active rectifier converting the AC voltage to 540V DC (+/-270V DC). The DC output of the converter provides power to the platform’s HVDC loads, DC-AC inverter fed AC loads and 28V DC loads.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Sergey Novikov, Nikita Kudinov
The airships constructors are exploring applications of the systems of many ballonets for roll airship control and attack angle airship control. However, this requires an effective automatic control system each of separately ballonet and for the entire system coordinated automatic control. This is especially necessary for unmanned airships and it makes it relevant the mathematical description, design and research of the systems and control laws for the airships having system of many ballonets. The automatic regulation of the system of many ballonets is a very difficult problem. This is because the some state variables of the separate ballonets are the technically not measurable variables. Mathematical model describes the change of the overpressure in the hull of the airship, and evaluates the process of this change. However, it does not allow calculating the mass of air in each ballonet. It is needs a system of differential equations for each of the ballonets. This is possible either by direct measurement of the volume of ballonets or by their dynamic identification as status variables.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida, Nikita Kudinov, Elena Portnova
During the development and study of airships controlled movements are applied computer simulation methods, since the size of these air vessels do not allow to apply physical modeling. Computer model is needed to simulate not only the shape and movement of the airship, but also the conditions (parameters) of the flight environment. It is atmospheric conditions typical for the air vessel route [R. Neydorf, V. Krukhmalev, N. Kudinov, V. Pshikhopov «Methods of Statistical Processing of Meteorological Data for the Tasks of Trajectory Planning of MAAT Feeders», SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2266, 2013]. Atmospheric environment settings depend on the geographical position, the planned heights of flight of the aircraft, calendar and time periods (time of year, month, and time of day). In addition, the atmospheric parameters depend on the spontaneously emerging phenomena of weather conditions. As a result these variables have both a regular component and a random component. The first determined by both geographical conditions, and calendrical and time conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
David Gras, Christophe Pautrel, Amir Fanaei, Gregory Thepaut, Maxime Chabert, Fabien Laplace, Gonzalo Picun
Power systems are continuously looking for high efficiency systems especially for high temperature applications where self-heating margin is very small. In applications such as Intelligent Power Modules (IPM), Motor Drives, and Power Inverters, high efficiency, high voltage and high temperature Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) power transistors are being used in several industries including aeronautics & aerospace, automotive, and down-hole. In this paper, we present a highly integrated, high-temperature solution for driving such power transistor. The solution is composed of the XTR26010 (High-Temperature Intelligent Gate Driver) with the XTR40010 (High-Temperature Isolated Two Channel Transceiver) for isolated gate drive, and XTR30010 (High-Temperature PWM Controller) with XTR2N0825 (High-Temperature 80V N-Channel Power MOSFET) for isolated power supply. XTR26010 is a high-temperature, high reliability isolated power transistor driver integrated circuit, designed with a high focus on offering a robust, reliable, compact and efficient solution for driving a large variety of high-temperature, high-voltage, and high efficiency power transistors.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Abstract Rapid advances in cloud-based computing, robotics and smart sensors, multi-modal modeling and simulation, and advanced production are transforming modern manufacturing. The shift toward smaller runs on custom-designed products favors agile and adaptable workplaces that can compete in the global economy. This paper and presentation will describe the advances in Digital Manufacturing that provides the backbone to tighten integration and interoperability of design methods interlinked with advanced manufacturing technologies and agile business practices. The digital tapestry that seamlessly connects computer design tools, modeling and simulation, intelligent machines and sensors, additive manufacturing, manufacturing methods, and post-delivery services to shorten the time and cost between idea generation and first successful product-in-hand will be illustrated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Didier Regis, Julie Berthon, Marc Gatti
In the last three decades, the integrated circuit industry has followed a steady path of constantly shrinking devices geometries and increased functionality that larger chips provide. These performances and functionality improvements have resulted in a history of new technology generations every two to three years, commonly referred to as .Moore Law. Each new generation has approximately doubled logic circuit density and increased performance by about 40%. Unfortunately these improvements may be reached today at the cost of a loss of reliability and operational lifetime. The increasing integration of embedded systems and the need to support new features requires high-performance and power-efficient processors. This trend pushes toward the use and development of components implemented in advanced CMOS technologies (22nm technology and bellow, the critical feature size of the elementary devices will drop to 5 nm in 2018, for 14 nm technology node). But, critical embedded computing systems have also to fulfill specific safety requirements.
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