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Viewing 31 to 60 of 224
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8033
Guoying Chen
According to the vehicle’s driving conditions, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems can adjust not only the stiffness and damping of the suspension but also the height of vehicle body, so that better ride comfort and handling stability will be achieved, which can’t be realized by traditional passive suspension. This paper presents a design and implementation of ECAS controller for vehicle. The controller is aimed at adjusting the static and dynamic height of the vehicle. To exactly track the height of the vehicle and satisfy the control demand of air suspension, a height sensor decoding circuit based on the inductance sensor is designed. Based on it, a new height control algorithm is adopted to achieve rapid and precise control of vehicle height. In order to verify the functions of the controller, we construct a test bench whose excitation source is provided by hydraulic system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8124
Xinyu Ge, Hua Gu, Ying Wang
China becomes to the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume, and automobiles sales keep growing in recent years, although the growing rate is decreased. Given an environmental stress, more stringent emission regulations are drafted to control engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmental friendly new-energy vehicles, such as battery electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid vehicle are promoted by government policies. Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification. The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS) was first adopted by the European Union (EU), and it restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of electronic and electric equipment.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8096
Ilya A. Kulikov, Alexander Shorin, Sergey Bakhmutov, Alexey Terenchenko, Kirill Karpukhin
The paper proposes a method to analyze a trade-off between IC engine and electric battery sizes which is the essential issue of plugin hybrid and range extended electric vehicle design. This method implies a set of maps to be elaborated from batch simulations of hybrid vehicle running a driving cycle. Said maps establish relationships between ICE power, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption, and driving range of a vehicle. From these, one can choose a combination of ICE power and battery energy content meeting specific requirements for fuel economy and driving range. Mathematical model of the vehicle and the hybrid powertrain adopted for driving cycle simulations is described. Besides vehicle dynamics and drivetrain’s powerflows, it addresses battery’s current and voltage restrictions, which define performance of electric drivetrain and have to be taken into account when selecting ICE power.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8122
Jiaqi Xu, Hwan-Sik Yoon, Jae Y. Lee, Seonggon Kim
A neural network-based computer vision system is developed to estimate position of an excavator manipulator in real time. A camera is used to capture images of a manipulator, and the images are used to train a neural network. Then, the trained neural network can estimate the position of the excavator manipulator in real-time. To study the feasibility of the proposed system, an excavator simulator with a webcam is used. The simulation results show that the developed neural network-based computer vision system can estimate the position of the excavator manipulator with an acceptable accuracy.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8104
Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
In this study, we devised the steering assistance control that feedback of the external information from the laser sensor. We have created the emergency avoidance assistance control program by the obstacle detection in the first one, and the cornering assistance control program by the white line detection to second. Improvement in safety by these driving support can be expected. The effect of the created program was to understand by the driving simulator. In addition, we understand the synergistic effect of these steering assist program and chassis control (camber angle control, derivative steering assistance control). In the emergency avoidance assist by the obstacle detection, it made it possible to also be avoided for adding the handle operation at an early stage by the steering assistance in situations where manual operation collide by too late an obstacle avoidance handle operation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8130
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimiliano Ruggeri, Luca Dariz, Michele Selvatici
Automotive industry compartment is undertaking a massive technology revolution. ADAS systems and infotainment promise to change the way that customers mean travel and transportation radically, through several use cases. The key enabling technologies for this trend are Ethernet and its newly standardized physical layer, IEEE 802.3bw 100BASE-T1 (a.k.a. BroadR-Reach). From an architectural point of view, the evolution of the applications that rely on Automotive Ethernet resembles in many ways the evolution that the IT has had in the last decades. In the IT world, increased throughput and computational power to the end-user enabled technologies like multimedia streaming; scalability and availability requirements, together with the increased complexity of IT infrastructure, led to the “Anything as a Service” paradigm and Software Defined Networks.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering, Sean Wyatt
The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the possibility of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and therewith socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle and it is an established process in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, there are different barriers and conceptual difficulties engineers have to face: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including Radar, Ultrasonic, Video or Lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8071
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Yurii Gutarevych, Vasyl Mateichyk, Valeriy Verbovskiy
Abstract The article discusses the use of the combined heating system with phase-transitional thermal accumulator. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, coolant and motor oil, and emissions of the internal combustion engine during its operation to accumulate the thermal energy. The results of experimental studies of the combined heating system are shown. A system and methods for pre-start and after-start heating of the vehicular engine in the investigated system are developed. The structure of the "combined heating” system to study the impact of its structural and adjustment parameters on the performance of thermal development of the vehicular engine is described. The use of the combined heating system within phase-transitional thermal accumulators is compared with the use of standard systems for a truck engine 8FS 9.2 / 8. It reduces the time of coolant and motor oil thermal development by 22.9-57.5% and 25-57% accordingly.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8080
Yanwu Ge, Ying Huang
Abstract The ever-growing number of interacting electronic vehicle control systems requires new control algorithms to manage the increasing system complexity. As a result, torque-based control architecture has been popular for its easy extension as the torque demand variable is the only interface between the engine control algorithms and other vehicle control systems. Under the torque-based control architecture, the engine and AT coordinated control for upshift process is investigated. Based on the dynamics analysis, quantitative relationship between the turbine torque of HTC and output shaft torque of AT has been obtained. Then the coordinated control strategy has been developed to smooth the torque trajectory of AT output shaft. The designed control strategy is tested on a powertrain simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink and a test bench. Through simulation, the shift time range in which the engine coordinated control strategy is effective is acquired.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8105
Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Mengying Yang, Yongbing Xu, Bo Huang
Abstract Path planning system, which is one of driver assistance systems, can calculate the driving paths and estimate the driving time through the road information provided by information source. Traditional path planning systems calculate the driving paths through Dijsktra's algorithm or A* algorithm but only consider the road information from electronic maps. It is not safe enough for operating vehicles because of the insufficient information of vehicle performance as well as the driver's willingness. This study is based on the Dijsktra's algorithm, which comprehensively considered vehicular active safety constraints such as road information, vehicle performance and the driver's willingness to optimize the Dijsktra's algorithm. Then the path planning system can calculate the optimal driving paths that would satisfy the safety requirement of the vehicle. This study used LabVIEW as a visual host computer and MATLAB to calculate dynamic property of the vehicle.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8142
Jeremy Daily, Rose Gamble, Stephen Moffitt, Connor Raines, Paul Harris, Jannah Miran, Indrakshi Ray, Subhojeet Mukherjee, Hossein Shirazi, James Johnson
Cyber Assurance of heavy trucks is a concern with both new designs as well as supporting legacy systems. Many cyber security experts and analysts are used to working with traditional IT networks and are familiar with a set of technologies, which may not be directly useful in the commercial vehicle sector. To help connect security researchers to heavy trucks, a remotely accessible testbed has been prototyped for experimentation with security methodologies and techniques to evaluate and improve on existing technologies, as well as developing domain-specific technologies. The test bed relies on embedded Linux based node controllers that can simulate the sensor inputs to various heavy vehicle ECMs. The node controller also monitors and affects the flow of network information between the ECM and the vehicle communications backbone.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
In this paper we discuss about the design and development of an “Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)” that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated multi-copter with tilt rotor capability to facilitate easy landing, navigation and maneuver on water. A 3D CAD model has been designed and analyzed. A specific propulsion system has been devised and lab tested. A proof of concept model has been made and tested in the field with its instruments to ascertain its technical/ operational feasibility. This system can also be tailored to collect and store the water samples from the polluted sites for further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is the novel solution to the polluted environment through a complete integrated system. This will be an effective alternative for the conventional water sampling techniques.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2015
Rory Telford, Catherine Jones, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
Abstract Mass and efficiency are key performance indicators for the development and design of future electric power systems (EPS) for more-electric aircraft (MEA). However, to enable consideration of high-level EPS architecture design trades, there is a requirement for modelling and simulation based analysis to support this activity. The predominant focus to date has been towards the more detailed aspects of analysis, however there is also a significant requirement to be able to perform rapid high-level trades of candidate architectures and technologies. Such a capability facilitates a better appreciation of the conflicting desires to maximize availability and efficiency in candidate MEA architectures, whilst minimizing the overall system mass. It also provides a highly valuable and quantitative assessment of the systemic impact of new enabling technologies being considered for MEA applications.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2012
Frank Feng, Debabrata Pal
Abstract There are many identical large solid-state switching Multi-Purpose Motor Controllers on board of one of the More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). The controllers drive over twice as many different machines with wide torque and speed ranges. The common motor controllers are installed in a central location. The machines are located at diverse and distant positions. Power is delivered and routed from the controllers to machines via a large network comprising of unshielded feeders and multiplexing units. The controllers are required to produce sine wave voltage output to machines, and draw clean power from the source to meet Power Quality (PQ) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) requirements. There are significant aircraft level weight savings with that concept. However, designing such a clean motor controller was a major power density challenge beyond switches, accounting for high torque main propulsion engine start and high speed Cabin Air Compressors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2067
Qingchuan Shi, Kartik Lakshminarashimhan, Christopher Noll, Eelco Scholte, Omer Khan
Abstract Modern aircraft systems employ numerous processors to achieve system functionality. In particular, engine controls and power distribution subsystems rely heavily on software to provide safety-critical functionality, and are expected to move towards multicore architectures. The computing hardware-layer of avionic systems must be able to execute many concurrent workloads under tight deterministic execution guarantees to meet the safety standards. Single-chip multicores are attractive for safety-critical embedded systems due to their lightweight form factor. However, multicores aggressively share hardware resources, leading to interference that in turn creates non-deterministic execution for multiple concurrent workloads. We propose an approach to remove on-chip interference via a set of methods to spatio-temporally partition shared multicore resources.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1978
Philippe Coni, Sylvain Hourlier, Xavier Servantie, Laurent Laluque, Aude Gueguen
Abstract A 3D Stereoscopic Head-Up Display (HUD) using direct projection on a transparent screen is presented. Symbol incrustation in conformity with the landscape is performed through the use of simulated collimation offering a large eye-box, in excess of conventional HUD. The use of spectral glasses for our transparent screen was decided as most commonly used polarizing or active glasses were not adapted. Furthermore it gave ususeful green laser attack protection.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2014
Jonathan M. Rheaume, Charles Lents
Abstract Energy storage options for a hybrid electric commercial single aisle aircraft were investigated. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. A survey of state of the art energy storage options was conducted. Battery, super-capacitor, and flywheel metrics were collected from the literature including Specific Energy (Wh/kg), Volumetric Energy Density (Wh/L), Specific Power (W/kg), Cost ($/kWh), and Number of Cycles. Energy storage in fuels was also considered along with various converters sized to produce a targeted quantity of electric power. The fuel and converters include fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2029
Rolf Loewenherz, Francisco Gonzalez-Espin, Laura Albiol-Tendillo, Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley
Abstract This paper will present a multi-domain (electrical and thermal) model of a three phase voltage source converter and its implementation in Modelica language. An averaged model is utilised for the electrical domain, and a power balance method is used for linking the DC and AC sides. The thermal domain focuses in deriving the converter losses by deriving the analytical equations of the space vector modulation to derive a function for the duty cycle of each converter leg. With this, the conduction and switching losses are calculated for the individual switches and diodes, without having to model their actual switching behaviour. The model is very fast to simulate, as no switching events are needed, and allows obtaining the simulation of the electrical and thermal behaviour in the same simulation package..
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2031
Michal Sztykiel, Steven Fletcher, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
Abstract There is a well-recognised need for robust simulation tools to support the design and evaluation of future More-Electric Engine and Aircraft (MEE/MEA) design concepts. Design options for these systems are increasingly complex, and normally include multiple power electronics converter topologies and machine drive units. In order to identify the most promising set of system configurations, a large number of technology variants need to be rapidly evaluated. This paper will describe a method of MEE/MEA system design with the use of a newly developed transient modeling, simulation and testing tool aimed at accelerating the identification process of optimal components, testing novel technologies and finding key solutions at an early development stage. The developed tool is a Matlab/Simulink library consisting of functional sub-system units, which can be rapidly integrated to build complex system architecture models.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Abstract Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Obstacle avoidance system and Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment. However these approaches are standalone in nature and have limitations in coverage, performance and are dependent on onboard equipment.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1982
Michelle Bash, Steven Pekarek, Jon Zumberge
Abstract The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1985
Fei Gao, Serhiy Bozhko, Patrick Wheeler
Abstract The paper will deal with the problem of establishing a desirable power sharing in multi-feed electric power system for future more-electric aircraft (MEA) platforms. The MEA is one of the major trends in modern aerospace engineering aiming for reduction of the overall aircraft weight, operation cost and environmental impact. Electrical systems are employed to replace existing hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical loads. Hence the onboard installed electrical power increases significantly and this results in challenges in the design of electrical power systems (EPS). One of the key paradigms for future MEA EPS architectures assumes high-voltage dc distribution with multiple sources, possibly of different physical nature, feeding the same bus(es). In our study we investigate control approaches to guarantee that the total electric load is shared between the sources in a desirable manner. A novel communication channel based secondary control method is proposed in this paper.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1986
Qian Li, Balakrishnan Devarajan, Xuning Zhang, Rolando Burgos, Dushan Boroyevich, Pradeep Raj
Abstract The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has gained popularity in recent years. As the main building blocks of advanced aircraft power systems, multi-converter power electronic systems have advantages in reliability, efficiency and weight reduction. The pulsed power load has been increasingly adopted--especially in military applications--and has demonstrated highly nonlinear characteristics. Consequently, more design effort needs to be placed on power conversion units and energy storage systems dealing with this challenging mission profile: when the load is on, a large amount of power is fed from the power supply system, and this is followed by periods of low power consumption, during which time the energy storage devices get charged.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1987
Mingming Yin, Serhiy Bozhko, Seang Shen Yeoh
Abstract The future aircraft electrical power system is expected to be more efficient, safer, simpler in servicing and easier in maintenance. As a result, many existing hydraulic and pneumatic power driven systems are being replaced by their electrical counterparts. This trend is known as a move towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA). As a result, a large number of new electrical loads have been introduced in order to power many primary functions including actuation, de-icing, cabin air-conditioning, and engine start. Therefore electric power generation systems have a key role in supporting this technological trend. Advances in modern power electronics allow the concept of starter/generator (S/G) which enables electrical engine start and power generation using the same electrical machine. This results in substantial improvements in power density and reduced overall weight.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1990
Nisha Kondrath, Nathaniel Smith
Abstract In aerospace applications, it is important to have efficient, small, affordable, and reliable power conversion units with high power density to supply a wide range of loads. Use of wide-band gap devices, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) devices, in power electronic converters is expected to reduce the device losses and need for extensive thermal management systems in power converters, as well as facilitate high-frequency operation, thereby reducing the passive component sizes and increasing the power density. A performance comparison of state-of-the art power devices in a 10 kW full-bridge dc-dc buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and at switching frequencies above 100 kHz will be presented in this manuscript. Power devices under consideration are silicon (Si) IGBT with Si antiparallel diodes, Si IGBT with SiC antiparallel diodes, Si MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs, and enhancement-mode GaN transistors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1991
Syed J. Khalid
Abstract Aircraft subsystems essential for flight safety and airworthiness, including flight controls, environmental control system (ECS), anti-icing, electricity generation, and starting, require engine bleed and power extraction. Predictions of the resulting impacts on maximum altitude net thrust(>8%), range, and fuel burn, and quantification of turbofan performance sensitivities with compressor bleed, and with both high pressure(HP) rotor power extraction and low pressure(LP) rotor power extraction were obtained from simulation. These sensitivities indicated the judicious extraction options which would result in the least impact. The “No Bleed” system in Boeing 787 was a major step forward toward More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and analysis in this paper substantiates the claimed benefits.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling applications using forced air produced by axial fans, the main objective in fan design is to generate high static pressure head, high volumetric flow rate, and high efficiency over a wide operating range of rotational speed (1x∼3x) and ambient pressure (0.2∼1 atm). In this paper, a fan design based on a fan diameter of 86 mm, fan depth (thickness) of 25.4 mm, and hub diameter of 48 mm is presented. The blade setting angle and the chord lengths at the leading and trailing edges are varied in their suitable ranges to determine the optimal blade profiles. The fan static pressure head, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity are calculated at various ambient pressures and rotational speeds. The optimal blade design in terms of maximum total-to-total pressure ratio and efficiency at the design point is obtained via CFD simulation.
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