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Viewing 271 to 300 of 21494
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
FM radio receiver characteristics raised a question of reproducibility and objectivity. To solve this, we developed a method to generate a virtual radio environment to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). We developed the incoming wave estimation method which accurately estimates radio wave environment. MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method using array antennas is a method which estimates direction of arrival and delay time; however, it was difficult to apply this method on FM for following reasons: (1) Number of antennas increases, increases the size of array antenna, (2) With narrower antenna interval, electromagnetic coupling between antennas becomes stronger, (3) Estimation of delay time is difficult since FM broadcast wave has frequency property, (4) Separation of direct wave and multipath wave is difficult and it is hard to estimate accurate incoming waves.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0224
Andrew Patterson
With the dramatic mismatch between consumer handheld devices and automobiles in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features are deployed, vehicle manufacturers are faced with a dilemma. If the vehicle full of Embedded Software is to succeed, there needs to be a secure and accessible method to update software in a vehicle’s infotainment and telematics systems, in order to add new features and version updates. This session will explore available options for updating and extending the software capability of an infotainment system, in an effort to address the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
We solved the problem of FM broadcast wave reception reproducibility and objectivity by developing a method to generate a virtual radio environment and to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). A significant technical issue in the Two-stage method is to understand the radio wave characteristics using FM broadcast waves. We developed the incoming wave estimation technique which accurately estimates radio wave parameters. We developed MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) using virtual array antennas, and estimated the FM radio. Evaluation of in-vehicle FM compatibility was realized using the Two-stage method by generating radio environment parameter. Multipath distortion rate was defined as an index to evaluate reception performances of FM broadcast waves, and in-vehicle compatibility of single receiver and diversity receiver was evaluated under the same vehicle and radio environment conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0226
Mahdi N. Ali
Bluetooth communication systems are constrained to use a low cost filtering technology, which requires designers to implement inexpensive noise reduction techniques. Improving Bluetooth sound and audio quality has been a topic of research over the years. Sound and audio quality in vehicles are areas that still require improvements in order to achieve better customer experience when using Bluetooth communication systems. This paper proposes a low cost, simple, and effective method to reduce noise in Bluetooth systems using Kalman Filtering. Our novel method is proposed to be used in vehicular Bluetooth applications. We have created a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to validate the proposed method. Results have demonstrated significant noise reduction and improvement to the processed speech signals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
In recent years, the request for the air flow sensor with the detectability function of reverse-air-flow has increased to monitor the state of the engine intake manifold air because of responding to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulation and improving the fuel efficiency. According to the request, such air flow sensor has been realized and commercialized by using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology: formation of a membrane and heaters to the silicon semiconductor chip. In addition to the detectability function of reverse flow, air flow sensors are required to be highly precise, reliable and strong. This paper describes the newly developed MEMS-based air flow sensor, with those properties including the reverse-flow detectability, which is expected to become a key device for vehicle engine control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs. ASILs are used to specify applicable requirements of the ISO-26262 standard so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk; Smart integrated sensors, such as angular position sensors, are used extensively in automotive safety-critical applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Dr. Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the massmarket segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Dr. Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Current trends in the automotive industry show a path towards the diffusion of automated or even autonomous driving. Due to this development, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will increase in vehicles. The main challenge among this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Considering the rarefaction of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in addition the copper price, OEM’s are looking for innovative solutions to reduce both the cost and weight of wiring harnesses. One promising solution is the substitution of copper with aluminum alloys, which are currently used for high power electrical applications. In this context, LEONI launched a global project to supply automotive harnesses with aluminum wires. LEONI have already developed solutions using aluminum wires assembled to copper terminals by ultrasonic welding, these solutions are already in mass production. This assembly process is adapted for the junction of aluminum wires thanks to flat welding flat. For tubular terminals and high power junctions, other process must be investigated. One of the targeted processes is the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) and tests are performed by LEONI using the equipment of the firm BMAX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Both the increasing power requirements and the integration of safety-critical electrical systems present a challenge for the development and validation of future automotive electrical networks. In particular, the layout of alternators, storage devices, and converters, and also the robust and optimum design of the electrical distribution system are based on a profound understanding of the electrical power consumption. For this reason, considerable effort has been made to develop models of electrical systems and loads as well as their respective use-profiles. Unfortunately, even for a mid-sized vehicle, the number of loads leads to a tremendous number of possible combinations of on- and off-states. Furthermore, the simultaneous operation of some loads is highly improbable or excluded, whereas the operation of other loads is positively correlated. In addition, in most cases the use of certain loads depends on the operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun ZHOU, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens system are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that no edge thinning limit reduction observed in three levels’ pre-strain coupon tests and the pre-straining does not affect the edge thinning limit. Basic theory of DIC, experimental setup, test plan and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, DAJUN ZHOU, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, xinfeng shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Rubber seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing requirements for these components regarding e.g. pressure or new refrigerants comes the requirement for ensuring surface properties according to the specification of the application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of problems, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical or not, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue NARAINEN, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influences the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake, compression and exhaust stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. The NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under investigation by the ISO WG8 DRT Task Force. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
This paper is based on a vehicle research project called CULT (Cars Ultra-Light Technology) under the lead of Magna Steyr Engineering (Graz, Austria) which focuses on the development of an ultra-light (600 kg) vehicle (4-seater, A-segment) with a hybrid propulsion system. The Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology of the TU Vienna, was responsible for the complete powertrain development. To reach the project CO2 target of only 49 g/km a downsized CNG DI engine was combined with a 6-gear automated transmission and a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG). The first part of this paper shortly summarizes the final project results by highlighting the CO2 saving potentials obtained by the 12 Volt BSG. The connection of the BSG on the transmission input shaft instead the conventional adaption on the belt-drive of the ICE should maximize the CO2 potentials. This new approach leads to a significantly increased recuperation potential, because the engine drag torque can be de clutched.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0754
Simona Silvia Merola, Adrian Irimescu, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Crank angle resolved imaging in the UV-visible spectral range was employed for investigating flame front characteristics during normal combustion, as well as surface ignition and light knock conditions. Measurements performed at the ‘line of sight’ provided information on local wrinkling evaluated based on a statistical approach, with multiple frames taken at the same crank angle during consecutive cycles. This allowed for the results during normal combustion to be representative for the specific operational conditions and to a good degree independent from the effects of cyclic variation. Abnormal combustion on the other hand, was investigated on a cycle-to-cycle basis, given the stochastic nature of such phenomena. The experimental trials were performed at fixed engine speed on an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with the cylinder head of a four cylinder 16-valves commercial power unit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0223
Michael David Johas Teener
With the explosion of demand for connectivity and multimedia in the automobile, the need for standards-based A/V networking that can be easily deployed is now well-established. The IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) task group has developed a series of network enhancements that provide the components for highly reliable audio and video applications. This paper and presentation outlines these new technologies and their benefits when used for in-vehicle applications. Over the last ten years, consumer demand had driven a large increase in audio and video features and options in the automobile. Once only found in luxury cars, features such as DVD playback, backup cameras, and navigation have become commonplace options in many mainstream automobiles. Rear Seat Entertainment (RSE) units are growing in sophistication with more sources and choices at your fingertips. Each of these options has added to the need and desire for a common networking architecture in the automobile.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0101
Piyapong Premvaranon, Jenwit Soparat, Apichart Teralapsuwan, Wuttipong Sritham, Chi-na Benyajati, Nathapol Taweewong
Due to recent oil price crisis and an ever-increasing public awareness on environmental issues, an interest in electric vehicles (EV) has increased tremendously in Thailand and other Asian countries over the last few years. In this study, a prototype of 9-metre battery electric vehicle (BEV) bus was chosen as a vehicle of interest to undergo a series of field test by operating the lead acid battery powered electric bus in order to estimate a power demand of the bus as well as to evaluate a battery performance characteristic Two different types of battery were employed in this study i.e. a flooded-type deep cycle lead acid battery and a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. The effect of different driving modes available from the drive motor i.e. normal, max power, max range, as well as regenerative braking feature would be investigated while an influence of drivers were also taken into account to ensure the repeatability of the obtained results.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0123
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Petch Wuttimanop, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Sanya Klongnaivai, Pornporm Boonporm, Nuksit Noomwongs
The road related accident is major problem around the world and especially in Thailand. Generally, root cause of car accident come from vehicle, road and human factor. Furthermore, the most important part that account the safety of vehicle is human. With experiences and careful driver, the accident could be diminished. The monitor system would help the regulator to manage the driver and improve the safety on the road. Conventionally, the IMU - inertia measurement unit is used. Recently, the satellite navigation system has  more accurate and performance as proofed in earlier investigation for driver behavior detection. In this study, the consumer grade U-blox M8N satellite navigation receivers were tested with Racelogic Velocity Box system within controlled condition tested track. The vehicle dynamic (longitudinal acceleration and lateral acceleration) has evaluated.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0124
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Nuksit Noomwongs, Pornporm Boonporm, Petch Wuttimanop, Sanya Klongnaivai
The road related accident is major problem around the world and especially in Thailand. Generally, root cause of car accident come from vehicle, road and human factor. Furthermore, the most important part that account the safety of vehicle is human. With experiences and careful driver, the accident could be diminished. In this study, the consumer grade U-blox M8N satellite navigation receivers were tested with Racelogic Video V-Box system within controlled condition tested track. The incidents were virtually reviewed. Furthermore, the incident detection algorithm were proposed and tested alongside with receivers. As results, the vehicle dynamic from both receivers were correlated with virtually count. With incident detection algorithm that cut off at 0.25g in both lateral and longitudinal accelerations were detected and the number of incidents were same as references.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
The method of analyzing the best thin-wall-tubed cross-sectional shape of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed in this study by ways of simulation and validation in any case following SAE rules. We performed using ANSYS-Explicit Dynamics method for simulation and compared the result like energy absorption among six cross-sectional shaped circle, square, hexagon, cone, square pyramid and hexagonal pyramid. The results show that at the certain deformation, the circle-shaped absorbs energy higher than others. Cone, square pyramid, hexagonal pyramid, hexagon and square can absorb the energy compare to circle as 68.5%, 53.9%, 47.8%, 30% and 1.8% respectively. We compared the result of circle cross sectional case to the quasi static experiment and found that it was in the same trend.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0102
Jenwit Soparat, Wuttipong Sritham, Apichart Teralapsuwan, Chadchai Srisurangkul, Chi-na Benyajati
In order to cope with expected fossil energy shortage and to alleviate environmental issues, electric vehicles (EV) have been considered as one of the main alternative solutions in many countries including Thailand. To develop an electric vehicle, there were 4 important topics that should be considered i.e. motor, brake system, chassis structure, and battery. For battery, principally a group of battery cells would be packed together within a rigid structure, which was enclosed with electric insulator plates for a safety reason. However, with an ongoing trend of batteries being compact in size and high in current capacity, temperatures developed inside these batteries during charging/discharging could become a significant issue. Therefore, the present study focused on a design of a battery cooling system operating on an indoor air circulation.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0058
Robin Smit, Phil Kingston
The environmental impacts of road traffic are commonly evaluated at different scales using transport and emission models and, in the case of air pollution, dispersion and exposure models. As models are simplifications of reality, their limitations and accuracy should be clearly established. The development of reliable motor vehicle emission inventories is needed to ensure sound policy decisions. Similarly, local-scale traffic management measures (e.g. intelligent traffic light control, dynamic speed limits) often have relatively small effects on traffic emissions, so sensitive and accurate models are needed to predict the extent of their environmental impacts. A dedicated version of the COPERT vehicle emissions software was recently developed for Australia to adequately reflect local fleet composition, fuel composition and driving characteristics. The software was released in October 2013.
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