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Viewing 271 to 300 of 21651
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
Abstract This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in stator slots with oil flow. Firstly, the basic configuration and features are shown: sealed stator slots to air gap, pressure reservoirs on both side of the slots and slot channels for oil flow. The key to enhance thermal performance of the motor here is based on introducing fluid guiding structure in the slot channels. Next, heat transfer in the channel with guiding structure is investigated by CFD and compared with bare slot channel without guiding structure. For studying the effectiveness of proposed cooling concept, numerical analysis is conducted to compare it with HEV favored oil impingement cooling.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0163
Madhura Medikeri, Thomas Tasky, Johannes Richenhagen
Abstract With the increasing popularity of seamless gear changing and smooth driving experience along with the need for high fuel efficiency, transmission system development has rapidly increased in complexity. So too has transmission control software while quality requirements are high and time-to-market is short. As a result, extensive testing and documentation along with quick and efficient development methods are required. FEV responds to these challenges by developing and integrating a transmission software product line with an automated verification and validation process according to the concept of Continuous Integration (CI). Hence, the following paper outlines a software architecture called “PERSIST” where complexity is reduced by a modular architecture approach. Additionally, modularity enables testability and tracking of quality defects to their root cause.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0196
Varun M. Navale, Kyle Williams, Athanassios Lagospiris, Michael Schaffert, Markus-Alexander Schweiker
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0207
Xiping Ma, Zhenchun Xia, Haotian Wu, Xianan Huang
Abstract Powertrain diagnosis has been demanded with growth & complexity of powertrain electronic control system and enforcement of law & regulation in the last decades. In regulation OBD II, requirement of misfire monitoring has been demanded much more strictly. A variety of diagnosis methods for misfire have been proposed and developed, however most of them either depend greatly on special or expensive sensors or suffer from the disturbance of vibration due to non-misfire reasons. One combination of Frequency Domain Analysis and Fuzzy Logic to perform the misfire diagnosis is proposed. It takes full advantage of property of frequency domain analysis and fuzzy logic, providing accurate and robust detection results, without adding additional hardware diagnosis instruments.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1201
Mohammad Anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
Abstract The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
Abstract According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection concentrates on the development and implementation of embedded software architectures that reside in production vehicle electronic modules. Topics include implementation on multi-core processors, parallel computing environments, multi-processor and multi-ECU systems, and the deployment of AUTOSAR. Expert speakers from the embedded software community are encouraged to share their experiences and opinions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Abstract The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
Thomas Heurung
Abstract Consumer demand for electronics has now placed the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation in cars much in the same way we have see innovation in the mobile device industry. There is now an expectation for automobile OEMs to deliver more innovation to market faster - with no increase in cost. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without passing the cost increases to the consumer. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it's impossible to compartmentalize design domains because they are connected in so many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independent of each other and are not suited to deal with interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0202
Armin Wasicek, Andre Weimerskirch
Abstract Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle's original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle's sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
Abstract The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0203
Brian Anderson, Mark Brooks, Ryan Wilson, Purser K. Sturgeon II
Several wireless systems such as Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) can be found on modern vehicles. In the future, Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology could be integrated into automobiles to increase the efficiency and adaptability of wireless communications systems. SDR is also a powerful tool for designing and testing new communications protocols. However there are also some security considerations associated with SDR. This paper will review some advantages of using SDR technology in the automotive domain as well as potential security issues. The authors are currently conducting research into the use of SDR technology to model wireless systems and investigate security threats in modern vehicular systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Abstract In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring (VHM). We discuss the architecture of the proposed model, and it's implementation in vehicles. Modified AES-CCM is used to provide confidentiality in the network. In the proposed scheme combination of interactive and non-interactive methods are used for reliable message delivery.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Abstract Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the mass-market segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0224
Patrick Shelly
Abstract With the dramatic mismatch between handheld consumer devices and automobiles, both in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features (or versions) are released, vehicle OEMs are faced with a perplexing dilemma. If the connected car is to succeed there has to be a secure and accessible method to update the software in a vehicle's infotainment system - as well as a real or perceived way to graft in new software content. The challenge has become even more evident as the industry transitions from simple analog audio systems which have traditionally served up broadcast content to a new world in which configurable and interactive Internet-based content rules the day. This paper explores the options available for updating and extending the software capability of a vehicle's infotainment system while addressing the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer mobile devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0223
Michael David Johas Teener
Abstract With the explosion of demand for connectivity and multimedia in the automobile, the need for standards-based A/V networking that can be easily deployed is now well-established. The IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) Task Group1 and several other related IEEE Working Groups have developed a series of network enhancements that provide the components for highly reliable audio and video applications. This paper outlines these new technologies and their benefits when used for in-vehicle applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Abstract For tubular terminals and high power junctions, the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) could be a technical solution to produce aluminum - copper assembly. LEONI has launched a study to evaluate this technology. Besides, the lifetime of vehicle components is an issue that manufacturers should consider during all the development phases from the conception to the validation in service. Consequently, the quality of the interface aluminum-copper obtained by MPC is evaluated in terms of microstructure, of electrical and mechanical properties and to describe the corrosion behavior.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Abstract Due to the development towards automated or even autonomous driving, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will be required in vehicles. The main challenge for this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably. The transformation of these structures and functional principles from nature into technical solutions is combined within the keyword ‘bionic’.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Abstract Modern vehicle design involves configuration of various sensors and actuators spread across the vehicle. These sensors and actuators placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with Electronic Control Units (ECUs). As long as wires are used for these connections, cost and time required for installation and maintenance are major concerns for OEMs. A wireless sensor network (WSN) can reduce length of wiring harness and can save time as well as cost of its installation. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way to build a strong, secured wireless network in vehicle. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that, sensor and actuator data is available only to required ECUs and not to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and actuators in the vehicle are segregated according to their location.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0306
Satoru Shinzaki, Hakaru Sadano, Yutaka Maruyama, Willett Kempton
Abstract In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of these sources on a power grid grows, it will become more difficult to maintain balance between renewable power supply and coincident demand, because renewable power generation changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions. As a means of resolving this imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed, because it enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing on-board batteries as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug-in vehicle with a capability of backfeeding to the power grid, by integrating a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter (on-board charger) and a digital communication device into the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
Abstract Historically aluminum was recognized as a valuable material to achieve weight reduction targets in engines, vehicle chassis and suspension. Aluminum needs to be also considered in new areas like vehicle electrification to support the overall weight reduction targets. The use of aluminum helps to improve fuel economy and brings down CO2 emissions by reducing weight. This benefit is an attractive option for the wiring harness to replace heavier copper conductors. In addition to large cross section wires for power cable, where aluminum conductors are already in use, the intermediate aluminum cable cross section of 2.5mm2 to 6.0 mm2 provides a good potential for car implementation to hit weight saving targets. The major implementation roadblocks for aluminum technology are the surface oxides Al2O3 which are an insulator and the potential galvanic corrosion of aluminum in combination with the always present copper terminal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
Abstract The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations which will directly lead to increased thermal resistance and limited energy handling capability. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0759
Tetsuya Nagai, Ryoji Hiraoka, Nobuyuki Iwai, Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito
Abstract In the real site of engine development, new means are required for optical measurements under a wide variety of conditions including high-loaded operation. We have accordingly developed the new optical probe having less restriction when installing onto the engine as well as having high durability. The shape of connector end of newly developed optical probe that fits to the engine is interchangeable with the M5 sensor used for in-cylinder pressure measurement. The optical module of the optical probe can also be installed in the M10 spark plug or the M8 glow plug. The durability of the newly developed optical probe is; heat up to 400°C, pressure up to 25 MPa, and vibration up to 50 G. The durability of the optical probe was assessed using the engines of commercially available motorcycles. The 110 cm3 engine was used for the time-wise assessment. The 150 cm3 engine was used for the environment-wise assessment. Either one is a single cylinder engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0754
Simona Silvia Merola, Adrian Irimescu, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Crank angle resolved imaging in the UV-visible spectral range was used to investigate flame front characteristics during normal combustion, surface ignition and light knock conditions. ‘Line of sight’ measurements provided information on local wrinkling: the evaluation was based on a statistical approach, with multiple frames taken at the same crank angle during consecutive cycles. This allowed the results during normal combustion to be representative for the specific operational conditions and to a good degree independent from the effects of cyclic variation. Abnormal combustion on the other hand, was investigated on a cycle-to-cycle basis, given the stochastic nature of such phenomena. The experimental trials were performed at fixed engine speed on an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with the cylinder head of a four cylinder 16-valves commercial power unit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Abstract In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
Abstract As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Abstract Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. To identify and assess key indicators of young driver performance (including situation awareness), we previously developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to a set of common and potentially serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver's gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
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