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Book
2014-10-27
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned, with seventeen, fully illustrated chapters, covers diverse areas of expertise such as the impact of trust, human factors, and evidential integrity in system development.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles. An adaptive control-based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints ; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Hongming Xu, Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian, Miroslaw Wyszynski, Jakub Piaszyk
The cold start performance of diesel engines has been receiving more attention when the European Commission emission regulations directed to include the cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles. The cold start performance of diesel engines is influenced by the ambient conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and engine operating conditions. The present research work investigates the effect of the cold ambient conditions on the engine idle speed stability and the exhaust emissions (gaseous and particle emissions) from the diesel engine during the cold start and followed by idle conditions. The engine startability and idling tests were carried out on the diesel engine in the cold cell at the different ambient temperatures ranges between +20 ºC and -20 ºC. The higher fuel consumption and peak speed observed at very cold ambient temperatures have been compared to those at ambient conditions. The exhaust emissions of the engine were higher at cold start and then it started decreasing during idle.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nicolas Arnault, Guy Monsallier
Cold weather is a challenge for compression ignition engines. As Diesel fuel creates wax crystals and gel when temperature goes down enough (sometimes just below 0°C), it comes to plug the fuel filter and the fuel injection system, leading to undesirable effects like loss of power, engine stall after start or even engine not starting at all. Side effects like fuel feeding pump durability can also be linked to it. Moreover, it has been shown that BioDiesel, and especially FAME coming from Palm, Tallow or Used Kitchen Oil has negative impacts on vehicle cold flow operability. Literature has even identified the key fuel components which impact the cold flow properties. Fuel cold flow properties can be improved through additives, which can be already included in the fuel at the pump, or manually added by the driver. But, obviously this cannot be easily controlled on the field and car manufacturers cannot handle in advanced where the fuel fill-up will be done, nor the quality of the fuel fed in the vehicle tank.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Jianyi Tian
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the resultant pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion at lower temperatures. In this research work, a light-duty, turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed for an investigation of the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at -7°C for at least 8 hours before starting of the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (HC, NOx and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after DOC. The results showed that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at -7°C start than the case at 20°C start. The reduction of NOx and THC by DOC was less during idle period at -7°C cold start.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, He Ma, Jianyi Tian, Akbar Ghafourian
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. Therefore, the study of engine transients has received increasing attention for meeting the new emission legislations. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for the measurement and processing of data during transient engine tests concerning the noise in time-resolved data during the transient which requires proper filtering. A common practice in engine tests is ensemble averaging the data of a number of cycles for the steady state experiments but this method is not suitable for the transient cases. In this study, four alternative automated methods were implemented on in-cylinder pressure data of each individual cycle to compare and analyze the suitability of combustion diagnostic.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Antonino La Rocca, David MacMillan, Paul Shayler, Michael Murphy, Ian Pegg
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. Magnitude and cycle-to-cycle variation of indicated parameter have been used as key indicators of cold idle performance. The utility of different injection strategies, up to three pilot injections before a main, is investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm, a speed representative of idle conditions, and at -20ºC. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis performed for each case. A CFD investigation was then used to visualise the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution, with particular emphasis on how the injection patterns affect the mixture distribution in the proximity of the glow plug. Kiva 3v was used to model the combustion system and fuel injections. A 60º mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. Combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive powerplants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. In modern gasoline combustion concepts the application of direct injection combined with stratification is one of the most promising strategies. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions at the start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEV mode, the transients are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which are harmful to combustion and emission performance. This paper concerned about the GDI engine performances for ISG HEVs during the start-up process. A servo motor was connected directly to the engine output shaft to simulate the ISG. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing, ignition timing and so on, can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Krzysztof Jan Siczek
Nowadays microbes like bacteria are used to wring out electrical energy trapped in wastewater. Such bacterial batteries use oxygen at the cathode to soak up the harvested electrons. Oxygen is used because of its efficiency during collecting electrons. Unfortunately such mini power plants can be treacherous and sensitive to leak of oxygen and microbes. The oxygen can bubble over to the anode and the bacteria can migrate closer to the cathode to swipe the gas for their own energy production. They can also case risks a short circuit. In the case of such battery it is a real problem the control of gas flow and behaviour. To prevent spillover between electrodes in such batteries, engineers use the complex membrane barriers should be used. Replacing of bubbling oxygen with solid silver oxide that gobbles up electrons allows creating rechargeable bacterial battery. For both fuel cell and microbe-based battery it is needed a place to send electrons, but putting oxygen in there is a real problem.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Balaji Bandaru, L. Navaneetha Rao, P. S. S. Babu, Krishna Kumar Varathan, J. Balaji
The present work describes an approach for simulation of on-road-driving cycles (duty cycles) in transient engine testbed to predict the fuel economy for different vehicles from ICV to HCV. The driving cycles investigated in the current study are generated from the typical experimental data measured from instrumented vehicles in real world traffic conditions ranging from different cities, highways and village roads in India. The measured driving cycle data is analyzed using MATLAB programing, and then sub-divided into several zones depend on the time of operation over the engine operating area. Later, the engine driving cycle data was corrected in terms of speed and torque before simulating in engine testbed, which is essential for minimizing dynamometer influence on the fuel consumption. The power consumed by auxiliary equipment and other losses were considered in the study. The main objective of the work is to develop a procedure to estimate the likely performance, fuel economy and emissions of an upcoming/under development engine or vehicle, by a given drive cycle simulation, without having to go through the costly route of building the vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Akbar Ghafourian
Engine transients have attracted high attentions from researchers due to their high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle driving. More emissions are expected compared to steady states as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has a significant influence on engine transients especially at the start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were investigated in this study. The transient engine tests were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in the cold cell at the different ambient temperatures ranges between +20 and -7 ºC. The engine including, fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the whole transient tests. Instantaneous engine performances including torque and speed, gaseous emissions such as CO, HC and NOx, and particle emissions for its number and size distribution were analysed during each transient test at different ambient conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Harry Dwyer, Seungju Yoon, David Quiros, Mark Burnitzki, Roelof Riemersma, Donald Chernich, John Collins, Jorn Herner
A novel ambient dilution wind tunnel has been designed, tested and used to measure the emissions from “Active Parked Regenerations” of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The HDDT exhaust was routed to the wind tunnel entrance, and a mixing plate was employed to induce rapid mixing with the ambient air inflow. The tunnel geometry consisted of a 4’ by 4’ cross-section, and the tunnel length was 30’. An induction fan created a flow of 9000 ft3/min (CFM), and velocity and temperature traverses indicated that the mixture of exhaust gases and ambient air was homogeneous at the emission sampling location. The sampling probe was located near the exit of the tunnel, and withdrew 6 CFM from the tunnel centerline for PM measurements. A wide variety of emissions measurements and instrumentation was used in the investigation, which included the following: (1) Engine out On-board diagnostics; (2) Exhaust flow PEMS; (3) Tunnel temperature, CO2, mixture dilution ratio, and relative humidity; (4) Real-time PM instrumentation: EEPS, SMPS, DustTrak, and Dekati Mass Monitor; and (5) Gravimetric filter media.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Christopher Atkinson
Pending GHG emissions reduction legislation for medium and heavy duty vehicles will require the development of engines and powertrains with significantly increased mechanical and electronic complexity. Increasing powertrain efficiency will require the simulation, control and calibration of an expanding number of highly interdependent air, fuel, exhaust, combustion and energy transfer subsystems. As a result, engine and powertrain control is becoming significantly more sophisticated to develop and difficult to optimize. The high cost of developing engines and powertrain systems that demonstrate greater fuel efficiency and emissions benefits than the engines of today, is undeniable. The increased calibration burden and the complexity of optimization require the development and adoption of entirely new methods for transient engine calibration and optimization to achieve maximum vehicle fuel efficiency and lowest regulated emissions. Model-based rapid transient calibration offers significant advantages over traditional testing-intensive methods of calibration.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Daofei Li, Huanxiang Xu, Lei Wang, Zhipeng Fan, Wenbo Dou, Xiaoli Yu
Internal combustion engine is expected to be the major power unit to propel vehicles for decades from now on. Therefore, the advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency and to reduce emissions of engine should be continually encouraged and emphasized. For normal driving conditions, nearly half energy of the consumed fuel of engine is wasted, in the form of exhaust heat and coolant heat. In order to recovery the waste heat generated in normal thermodynamic cycle of internal combustion engine, a novel hybrid pneumatic engine concept is proposed, which uses compressed air and fuel as dual energy. During the expansion stroke, additional compressed air is injected, with carefully optimized timing, into the cylinder to absorb the heat released by the fuel, and then the compressed air can do further expansion work. The ideal thermodynamic model of the hybrid pneumatic engine cycle is established and explored, and is used to analyze the influences of the main design parameters on the cycle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Hanlong Yang
Adaptive estimation approach for air-path controls in Turbocharged Diesel Engines Due to more stringent emission regulations as well as the customer requirements on performance improvement, the model-based controls in diesel engines are becoming more and more common and necessary. In fact, as diesel engine systems become more complicated with additional hardware, such as throttle, EGR, VVT, VGT, the dynamics of the systems with more freedom of multiple actuators become much more sophisticated. The advanced model-based and coordinated controls become almost the only effective way to improve the system performance. In most of the model based approaches, feedback controls and estimation methods based on real-time dynamics are the key techniques. However since the system has sensors and actuators which have parts-to-parts variations as well as degradation over useful life, therefore any identification of those slow changes and compensation of the controls over the system life cycle is critical for long term control performance, system reliability and diagnostic monitoring.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Philipp Scherer, Marcus Geimer
It was investigated how the energy efficiency of heavy equipment can be determined and evaluated. The wide range of applicability of heavy equipment, as well as the existence of one or more power take-offs require, a special approach for evaluating the energy efficiency of these machines. Therefore, different types of heavy equipment vehicles were equipped with sensors and measurement instrumentation throughout the whole powertrain. With these vehicles, field tests were realised in order to receive perception about the life cycles and the exact kinematic paths of these vehicles as well as to observe the power- and energy flows throughout the powertrain. Parameters were varied in order to receive information about the impact of environmental effects on the energetic- and temporal shares of the kinematic paths. For the analyzation of these measurements a software package has been developed. This package provides features to analyze the kinematic paths of the performed field tests. Furthermore it is possible to show the energy flows within the powertrain for selected time periods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jennifer Wheeler, Joshua Stein, Gary Hunter
Recent advances in natural gas recovery technologies and availability have sparked a renewed interest in using natural gas as a fuel for commercial vehicles. Natural gas can potentially provide for both reduced operating cost and reductions in CO2 emissions. Commercial natural gas vehicles, depending on application and region, will have different performance and fuel consumption targets and are subject to various emissions regulations. Therefore, different applications may require different combustion strategies to achieve specific targets and regulations. This paper summarizes an evaluation of combustion strategies and parameters available to meet these requirements while using natural gas. One combustion strategy that was evaluated was stoichiometric combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the other strategy tested was based on lean-burn combustion. Testing consisted of parametric variations to quantify the effects of swirl ratio, compression ratio, and dilution ratio, either via EGR or excess air, on the operating limits, engine out emissions, and fuel efficiency of spark-ignited natural engines operating in conditions typical for heavy-duty vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Quon Kwan, Leverson Boodlal
In this particular field operations test study, the authors demonstrated that telematics can be used to monitor and improve safe and fuel-efficient driving behavior in trucks. Telematics was used to monitor various driver performance parameters: unsafe events (sudden accelerations and hard braking expressed as Yellow and Red events, depending on severity), vehicle speed, engine speed in revolutions per minute (RPM), and fuel economy (miles per gallon). The drivers consisted of two groups: drivers of day cabs and drivers of sleeper cabs. The drivers of both groups were monitored during a baseline period during which no feedback, coaching, or rewards were provided. Then, the drivers of both groups were monitored during an intervention period, consisting of five stages, during which drivers were provided with feedback, coaching, and rewards. As the result of monitoring unsafe events and of driver intervention, drivers of sleeper cabs showed a 55% reduction from the baseline in less severe (Yellow) unsafe events and a 60% reduction from the baseline in more severe (Red) unsafe events.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Antoine Delorme, Jason L. Robert, William Eli Hollowell, Andre M. Strobel, Jason T. Krajewski
Abstract In the recent years, Automated Manual Transmissions have become more popular for class 8 heavy trucks. Besides the benefits of smoother gear changes and reduced driver fatigue, AMTs can also greatly reduce fuel consumption by using optimized shifting strategies and advanced controls. The Detroit DT12 AMT demonstrated its ability to save fuel over a standard AMT, due in part to its eCoast feature. eCoast relies on intelligent and advanced electronic controls to safely allow the vehicle to coast on downgrades. While the engine is idling, the drag parasitic energy losses are decreased and the vehicle can fully use its momentum to travel further up and down hill. As one could expect, the type of route profile can greatly affect the fuel savings due to eCoast, since more hilly terrains might offer more opportunities to activate eCoast than flatter roads. In addition, when combined with different vehicle and driving parameters such as vehicle weight and driver desired cruise set speed, the fuel consumption reduction of eCoast is always there, but becomes a more complicated function.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are a key component in many on- and off-road aftertreatment systems to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions limits. Efficient thermal management and regeneration control is critical for reliable and cost-effective operation of the combined engine and aftertreatment system. Conventional DPF control systems predominantly rely on a combination of filter pressure drop measurements and predictive models to indirectly estimate the soot loading state of the filter. Over time, the build-up of incombustible ash, primarily derived from metal-containing lubricant additives, accumulates in the filter to levels far exceeding the DPF's soot storage limit. The combined effects of soot and ash build-up dynamically impact the filter's pressure drop response, service life, and fuel consumption, and must be accurately accounted for in order to optimize engine and aftertreatment system performance. This work applied a radio frequency (RF) sensor to directly monitor diesel particulate filter soot and ash levels, thereby enabling direct feedback control of the filter based on its actual loading state.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Daofei Li, Lei Wang, Huanxiang Xu, Zhipeng Fan, Xiaoli Yu
Abstract Braking energy recovery can significantly contribute to fuel economy and emission reduction, particularly for commercial vehicles driving in urban environment. By using the compressed air storage, rather than expensive and vulnerable batteries, this paper proposes a pneumatic hybrid system with an integrated compressor/expander unit (CEU) for commercial vehicles, in order to achieve stop/start function and braking energy recovery. During braking, the compressed air is recovered by CEU working in compressor mode and is charged to the air tanks. When the vehicle starts from stop, the CEU works as an expander to crank the engine with compressed air. The compressed air can also be used to supply the air tank of brake boost system, thus reducing its energy consumption. The mathematical models of energy conversion units, including the two modes of CEU and the air brake system, are established and analyzed. A preliminary case study of an urban bus application shows that, in an urban driving cycle, the compressed air recovered from braking is sufficient both for engine cranking and air brake system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Hiroyuki Ishizaka, Kazuo Tanaka, Motoyasu Tanaka, Yusuke Tanaka
Abstract For the purpose of reducing fuel consumption, a hybrid heavy duty truck was considered. Generally, HV (Hybrid Vehicle)'s energy is regenerated from deceleration energy in urban area. Hybrid heavy duty truck's energy is regenerated from potential energy on highway. Under this circumstance, some portion of energy may not be accumulated, because capacity of HV battery is limited. In order to maximize accumulating energy in the next descent, HV battery's energy shall be adequately reduced beforehand. This can be achieved by optimizing motor assist torque considering road's altitude and gradient. In this paper, performance of the algorithm is discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Tyson McWha
Abstract Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator. Four commercial drivers were asked to perform a series of tests simulating typical driving scenarios on a closed course test track.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Demetrio Cortese
Abstract Using a Model-based approach to the embedded software development process contributed significantly in reducing the development time while also supporting a high quality level of the software code implementation. However, based on our experience with CNH Industrial application scenarios, involving multiple suppliers from vehicle ECU to the engine ECU, it only addressed the need of the implementation phase without any consistent influence in other software development life-cycle phases such as requirements and specification. Mandatory functional safety requirements, new complex functionalities, and reducing time to delivery while maintaining high quality level of software are driving factors in our new software development projects. Ideally the adoption of international standards, as for example the ISO 12007, and the safety standards, as the ISO 26262, ISO 25119 and ISO 13849, should represent a consistent guide to develop software. In this approach, the adoption of them should satisfy both the development guidelines and recommendations while at the same time to meeting application scenario requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Michael Sprengel, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract A novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid transmission architecture is presented in this paper with benefits over conventional designs. This novel configuration combines elements of a hydrostatic transmission, a parallel hybrid, and a selectively connectable high pressure accumulator using passive and actively controlled logic elements. Losses are reduced compared to existing series hybrid transmissions by enabling the units to operate efficiently at pressures below the current high pressure accumulator's pressure. A selective connection to the high pressure accumulator also allows for higher system precharge which increases regenerative braking torque and energy capture with little determent to system efficiency. Finally operating as a hydrostatic transmission increases transmission stiffness (i.e. driver response) and may improve driver feel in certain situations when compared to a conventional series hybrid transmission. To explore the novel blended hybrid architecture six transmissions were modeled and simulated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Pietro Marani
Abstract The new X-by-Wire systems under study for commercial and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as for Agricultural Tractors, are increasingly real autonomous systems, capable to autonomously control a vehicle functionality, actuating the operator's commands, or managing in a complete autonomy a machine function. These application need an higher Performance Level from the functional safety point of view, due to the risk of a malfunction consequence. The paper deals with a new concept hydraulic spool valve that allow the design of new safer and more compacted hydraulic circuit architectures, ensuring higher safety performance levels. The architecture presents advantages both from performance (precision, fastness), both from operational point of view. The paper will focus in particular on safety and control topics. The new patented valve presents a secondary rotary type actuator connected to a sleeve interposed between the spool and the valve body, thus composing a roto-translating valve.
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