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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0082
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
On two wheelers magneto generate either single or 3 phase AC power and regulator rectifier unit(RRU) do regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like EFI, ABS, AHO in emerging markets like India; vehicles are demanding more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from magneto hence regulator rectifier unit(RRU). Higher output power forces challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper how performance of RRU improved with MOSFET based regulator rectifier are discussed in comparison to silicon controller rectifier (SCR) design. The motivation of MOSFET design is described as well as the thermal behaviour and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test result.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0087
Satoshi Ichihashi
Motorcycle usage area keeps expanding in the world. Motorcycle filling with various fuels in all countries and regions has to compliance with emissions and fuel consumption regulations as UN-GTR No.2 (WMTC). In general, motorcycle engine has large bore diameter and high compression ratio due to demands of high performance. Poor fuel quality may cause damage to engine mainly by knocking. Knock control systems performing high-frequency vibration detection strategy like knock sensor, which are equipped on several sport-touring motorcycles, can not come to wide use for reasons of complex construct and cost. This research aims to develop a new concept of combustion control for common motorcycle as an instead.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0083
Michael Zisser, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Reinhard Stelzl, Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Stephan Schmidt, Jakob Trentini, Jan-Philipp Banzhaf, Tim Gegg
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which even the simplest engine setup provides, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essentially for the functionality of the engine.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0084
Shinichi Okunishi, Ken Ogawa
Accurate measurement of air volume is one of the large problems in LPL-EGR system. Measurement of air is difficult, because the intake volume of LPL-EGR system from the EGR valve to combustion chamber is much larger than HPL-EGR. Equally, it is difficulties to measure the correct LPL-EGR rate. By a conventional method, the best ignition timing control is difficult. The measurement of the LPL-EGR rate by using intake O2 sensor has been developed. Around 0% of LPL-EGR rate, this technique is poor accuracy.There is not a use except the LPL-EGR rate measurement. We thought that it was preferable for application of the engine control to use a wide sensor. About the ignition timing control, MFB 50% feedback control is to enable optimum ignition timing control by using the cylinder pressure. We thought about engine control by using the cylinder pressure, and we examined the following application.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0080
Christian Steinbrecher, Haris Hamedovic, Andreas Rupp, Thomas Wortmann
Engine management systems combined with fuel injectors allow a precise fuel metering for a robust combustion process. Stricter emission legislations increase the requirements for these port fuel injection systems (PFI), whereas the price is still the main driver in the emerging low cost 2-wheeler market. Therefore, a holistic mechatronic approach is developed by Bosch, which allows an improved fuel metering over life time and furthermore provides new possibilities for diagnosis without changing the injector itself. This example of an intelligent software solution provides the possibility to further improve the accuracy of the opening duration of an injector. By use of the information contained in the actuation voltage and current, the opening and closing times of the injector are derivable.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0085
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0081
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0088
Bastian Reineke, Jonathan Müller, Stefan Grodde, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes
Alternative engine speed sensing using the electric signals of the alternator In the low-cost segment for 2-Wheelers legislative, economic and ecological considerations necessitate a reduction of the emissions and further improvement in fuel consumption. To reach these targets the commonly used carburetors are being replaced by Engine Management Systems (EMS). One option to provide these systems for acceptable and attractive system costs is to save a sensor device and substitute its measure by an estimation value. In many motorcycles the rotor of the vehicle's alternator is rigidly attached to the crankshaft. Therefore, the voltage and current signals of the alternator contain information about the engine's speed, which can be retrieved by evaluating these electric signals. After further processing of this information inside the ECU the absolute crankshaft position can be obtained.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0086
Tobias Gutjahr
Data-driven plant models are well established in engine base calibration to cope with the ever increasing complexity of today’s electronic control units (ECUs). The engine, drive train, or entire vehicle is replaced with a behavioral model learned from a provided training data set. The model is used for offline simulations and virtual calibration of ECU control parameters, but its application is often limited beyond this use case of offline calibration. Depending on the underlying regression algorithm, limiting factors could include expensive computational calculations and a high memory demand. However, development and testing of new control strategies would benefit from the ability to execute such high fidelity plant models directly in real-time environments. For instance, map-based ECU functions could be replaced or enhanced by more accurate behavioral models, with the implementation of virtual sensors or online monitoring functions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2156
Christian Friedrich, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch
Due to the increasing number of engine setting parameters to be optimized, model based calibration techniques have been introduced to medium speed engine testing to keep the number of engine tests low. Polynomials in combination with d-optimal test plans have been proven to be a good choice for modeling the stationary behavior of selected engine outputs. Model approaches like artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been rarely used for medium speed purposes since they require quite high amounts of testing data for model training. To evaluate the potential of these model approaches radial basis function networks, a subclass of neural networks, as well as Gaussian processes have been investigated as alternatives to polynomials. A manageable amount of tests according to an adapted d-optimal test plan was carried out at a test bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2153
Hubertus Ulmer, Ansgar Heilig, Matthias Rühl, Boris Löw
The calibration process of modern combustion engines is characterized by a wide range of experimental test runs. Whereas in the past mainly standardized test bench runs were carried out, the new Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and real drive emissions will require additional experimental efforts. In order to provide solutions for a time and cost efficient calibration process, Bertrandt has developed in the work of Burggraf [BUR15] an innovative optimization algorithm. While common Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization approaches are usually based on stationary engine operation points, the Bertrandt tool b.eco (Bertrandt. Engine Calibration Optimization) uses a quasi-stationary measurement procedure. The time necessary for establishing a steady state of the engine can thus be omitted. On the one hand, this leads consequently to a general reduction of time.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2155
Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
Due to growing variant diversity and shortened product development time the calibration task of transmission control unit (TCU) parameters constitutes a challenge in further vehicle development. In future, tools and methods are required for an efficient adjustment of calibration parameters. Model based calibration methods represent a promising approach to calibrate these parameters effectively. For computer-aided calibration a powertrain model is required which simulates the behavior of the system accurately. Additionally the functionality code of the TCU is needed to calculate certain signals for engine- and clutch-control during the gearshift operation. The TCU software requires certain state quantities of the powertrain which have to be simulated explicitly and accurately by the model. Furthermore a residual bus simulation for all input signals of the TCU software has to be implemented, which normally are not provided by the powertrain model.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2154
Ary Armando Alvarez, Eufemio Muñoz
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post Transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PPT PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (WTW GHG) emissions and Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (WTW PEU). The team utilizes the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro platform with modifications such as 2.4L Ecotec engine, a 134 HP electric motor and a 12.6 KW/h battery pack. The vehicle is estimated to have a fuel economy of 58.7 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This paper presents the vehicle’s two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) while performing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified drive cycles: 505, HWFET, US06 City and US06 HWY.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture to be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro donated by General Motors to the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. The process used to implement the hybrid electric vehicle architecture from the stock Camaro will be the primary focus of the research. Beginning with baseline testing, our team will develop a reference for the performance of the vehicle before the architecture has been implemented using the US06 and HWFET drive cycles. Furthermore, the implementation methods and safety considerations are going to be a large focus of integration as we validate the functional operating modes of the architecture. A charge depleting driving mode is tested for energy consumption using three different electric motor control strategies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2157
Huiyan Zhang, Lei Shi, Yi Cui, Kangyao Deng, Xingcai Lu, Junhua Fang, Lei Zhu, Yuehua Qian, Baiqi Huo, Lin Hua
The three-phase sequential turbocharging(ST) system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve the fuel economy performance and reduce the smoke emission of the automotive diesel engine, which has wider range of application than the current two-phase sequential turbocharging system. However, it results in greater difficulty in obtaining strategies because of control variables increasing and more complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control schemes of bypass valve of turbine and fuel injection to improve the transient performance. A mathematical model of optimal control expressing the relationship between ST system parameters and engine performance is established, then a mean value model for diesel engine is built and verified by engine tests for transient process in SIMULINK environment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2216
Brad Richard, Martha Christenson, Deborah Rosenblatt, Aaron Conde
Five Ford Transit Connect vans, operating on alternative fuels and propulsion systems, were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were powered with petrol, low blend ethanol (E10), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and an electric battery. Four test cycles were used representing city driving and cold-start (FTP-75), aggressive high speed driving (US06), free flow highway driving (HWFCT), and a combination of urban, rural, and motorway driving (WHVC). Tests were performed at temperatures of 22°C, with select tests at -7oC and -18°C. Exhaust emissions were measured and characterized including, on all cycles, CO, NOX, THC, TPM (except on WHVC), and CO2. On the FTP-75, WHVC, and US06 cycles additional exhaust emission characterization included N2O, and CH4. On the FTP-75 and WHVC, carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also characterized.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2192
Mohammadreza Anbari Attar, Tawfik Badawy, Hongming Xu
This paper presents a systematic study of multi-hole gasoline direct injector (GDI) coking effects on fuel injection and mixture preparation. Experimental works were carried out in a constant volume chamber and a single-cylinder optical GDI engine. Clean injectors were coked in a designed conditioning cycle. Droplet size and velocities were measured with a Particle Doppler Phase Analyser (PDPA) system. Spray angle, plumes’ penetration length and velocity were quantified using high-speed imaging. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed for investigation of in-cylinder charge stratification at vicinity of spark plug prior to ignition. Experimental data were used to assess differences between clean and the coked injectors to attain better understanding of coking phenomenon.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2159
Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Soot emission from internal combustion engines is strictly regulated and upcoming requirements present a challenge. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity of sooty flames have been used to analyze soot formation and oxidation processes. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. Natural luminosity measurement is a global measurement and highly relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and natural luminosity data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM to minimize the absorption by fuel or PAH. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background natural luminosity signal from the raw LEM data. Temporal offset is found between the LEM and natural luminosity data. The LEM detects ‘soot’ earlier than natural luminosity measurement.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2233
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel N. Clark
The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single moving part (the translating rod) mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven primarily by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variance. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that tries to force the engine to operate at a fixed compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2226
Mohammad Alzorgan, Joshua Carroll, Essam Al-Masalmeh, Abdel raouf Turki Mayyas
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is an essential aspect of the automotive technology in this era of technological revolution, where the goal is to make vehicles more convenient, safe, and energy efficient. Taking advantage of more degrees of freedom available within vehicle “energy management” allows more margin to maximize efficiency in the propulsion systems. It is envisioned by this research that future fuel economy regulations will consider the potential benefits of emerging connectivity and automation technologies of vehicle’s fuel consumption. The application focuses on reducing the energy consumption in vehicles by acquiring information about the road grade. Road elevation are obtained by use of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in order to optimize the controller. The optimization is then reflected on the powertrain of the vehicle. The approach uses a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that allows the energy management strategy to leverage road grade.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2221
Joshua Kurtis Carroll, Mohammad Alzorgan, Corey Page, Abdel raouf Mayyas
Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as a promising future solution for sustainable transportation. This is due to the reduction in energy consumption when compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles. EVs and PHEVs contain an Energy Storage Systems (ESS). This increases the complexity of the system but also provides additional margins and fields for optimization. One of the most important elements of these vehicles is the ESS. The electrochemistry nature of battery systems is inherently sensitive to the temperature shifts. The shifts are controlled by the thermal management system of the traction battery systems, for electric-drive vehicles, which directly affects the overall vehicle dynamics. These dynamics include performance, long-term durability and cost of the battery systems. Hence, thermal management becomes an essential element in the achievement to meet the demand for better performance.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2310
Jeff Yeo, Jeremy Rochussen, Patrick Kirchen
As global energy demands continue to be met with ever evolving and stricter emissions requirements, Natural gas (NG) has become a highly researched alternative to conventional fossil fuels in many industrial sectors. Transportation is one such field that can utilize the benefits of NG as a primary fuel for use in internal combustion engines (ICE). In the context of heavy-duty on-highway transportation applications, diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of NG has been identified as a commercially viable alternative technology. Previous investigations of DIDF have examined the various emissions and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) trends present across the spectrum of DIDF operating space. However, in-cylinder processes are still not well understood and this investigation aims to further understanding in this area.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2175
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Xiao Yu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng, Xiaoye Han, Jimi Tjong
Future clean combustion engines are tending to employ overall lean and diluted mixtures under low temperature combustion along with intensified cylinder charge motion. The diluted cylinder charge causes slower ignition flame propagation and thus an instable combustion phasing. Furthermore, the ignition robustness need to be improved to expand the dilution tolerance thereby allowing a wider engine operation range. In this paper, advanced high energy ignition strategies are investigated on both optical combustion vessels and a single cylinder engine. The implemented ignition strategies include multi-coil high energy ignition via a novel multipole igniter, pre-chamber flame jet spark plug ignition, and high frequency active resonant corona ignition.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8111
Hiral Haria, Monika Ivantysynova
With the need for improvement in the fuel economy along with reduction in emissions due to stringent regulations, powertrain hybridization has become the focal point of research for the automotive sector. Hydraulic hybrids have progressively gained acceptance due to their high power density and low component costs relative to their electric counterpart and many different architectures have been proposed and implemented on both on and off-highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid which offers great flexibility for implementation of power management strategies. But the direct connection of the high pressure accumulator to the system often results in operation of the hydraulic units in high pressure and low displacement mode. However, in this operating mode the hydraulic units are highly inefficient. Also, the accumulator renders the system highly compliant and makes the response of the transmission sluggish.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8009
Michael Brown, Purser Sturgeon
While initial Connected Vehicle research in the United States was focusing almost exclusively on passenger vehicles, a program was envisioned that would enhance highway safety, mobility, and operational efficiencies through the application of the technology to commercial vehicles. This program was realized in 2009 by funding from the I-95 Corridor Coalition, led by the New York State Department of Transportation, and called the Commercial Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (CVII) program. The CVII program focuses on developing, testing and deploying Connected Vehicle technology for heavy vehicles. Since its inception, the CVII program has developed numerous Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure applications for trucks that leverage communication with roadside infrastructure and other light and heavy duty vehicles to meet the objectives of the program.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8093
Ning Xu, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
The range-extended bus can cut the cost of heavy battery and is taken as an ideal transitional powertrain architecture to a pure electric drive. Based on a 12m long city bus and using modeling and simulation, range-extended electric powertrains with different EES(energy storage system) to meet the drive motor electrical power demand were developed, and also corresponding SOC(State of Charge) as well as APU(Auxiliary Power Unit) control strategies were designed. Simulation results were compared and followed: For adding more LiFePO4 batteries, the fuel consumption was lowest which was more than 40% lower than the traditional city bus and further decreased with engine stop during braking, but then frequent engine start/stop happened. When using blend SOC control strategy, fuel consumption changed little, while the accumulated charge per LiFePO4 cell decreased. So for this structure of ESS, blend SOC control strategy were preferred.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
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