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2015-09-22
Book
Samir Khan, Chris Hockley, Paul Phillips, Ian K. Jennions
Today, we are all strongly dependent on the correct functioning of technical systems. They fail, and we become vulnerable. Disruptions due to degradation or anomalous behavior can negatively impact safety, operations, and brand name, reducing the profitability of all elements of the value chain. This can be tolerated if the link between cause and effect is understood and remedied. Anomalous behavior, which indicates systems or subsystems not acting in accordance with design intent, is a much more serious problem. It includes unwanted system responses and faults whose root cause can’t be properly diagnosed, leading to costly, and sometimes unnecessary, component replacements. The title No Fault Found: The Search for the Root Cause was developed to propose solutions to this technical and business challenge, which has become less and less acceptable to the commercial aviation industry globally.
2015-09-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2438
Maria Founti, Yannis Hardalupas, Christopher Hong, Christos Keramiotis, Kumara Gurubaran Ramaswamy, Nikolaos Soulopoulos, Alexander Taylor, Dimitrios P. Touloupis, George Vourliotakis
Engine research is focused on fulfilling the demand for high performance and comfort levels, as well as to satisfy tough vehicular exhaust emission regulations. Diesel engines, in particular, dominate the land transportation sector and their performance optimization is essential. In this regard, novel, sophisticated operating modes incorporate a variety of combinations including multiple injection strategies and excessive exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This diversion from traditional diesel combustion poses difficulties regarding engine control and load flexibility, necessitating fuel-engine synergies identification. Conventional diesel combustion is governed by fuel and air mixing and reaction rates, or in other words, by both kinetically- and mixing- controlled phases. Kinetically-controlled combustion schemes, such as partially-premixed, essentially restrain the diffusion phase, which is largely responsible for soot formation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2473
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Giovanni Meccariello, Maurizio Lazzaro
In internal combustion engines, the direct injection at high pressures produces a strong impact of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall, especially in small-bore sizes used for passenger cars. This effect is relevant for the combustion process resulting in an increase of the pollutant emissions and in a reduction of the engine performances. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior and atomization of the impinging sprays on the wall. The gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside an optically-accessible quiescent chamber using a novel make ready Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up using a high-speed C-Mos camera as imaging system. The arrangement was capable to acquire alternatively the schlieren and Mie-scattering images in a quasi-simultaneous fashion using the same line-of-sight.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2544
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Pierluigi Antonini
Within the “Industria 2015” Italian framework program, the HI-ZEV project has the aim to develop two high performance vehicles: one full electric and one hybrid. The hybrid vehicle is a sport car with an internal combustion engine with a maximum power of 300 kW and an electric motor with a maximum power of 150 kW. It is equipped with a 400 V, 15 Ah storage system. Special batteries are required due to the high values of discharge current needed to supply the electric subsystem (up to 25 times the nominal current). Also a dedicated cooling system has been designed, to avoid a dangerous rising temperature, due to such high currents. The cells used have been the Demon 5Ah OCCL (Oxygen-Cobalt-Carbon-Li-Ion technology). Every single module is composed by 6 cells in series with 22.5V of nominal voltage, while the battery pack is made with 18 modules in series and 3 in parallel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2418
Zheming Li, Xin Yu, Guillaume Lequien, Ted Lind, Marcis Jansons, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter
The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature flame front usually has been used to detect the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. OH* chemiluminescence is self-radiation from the exited states OH (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information. However, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the ground state and it only shows the OH distribution in a thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. So in this work a relatively thick laser sheet (3 mm) was employed to partially compensate the 3D geometry effects from two techniques. In diesel engine, the cycle-to-cycle variation is usually very significant. In order to subtract this cycle-to-cycle variation influence from the comparison of these two techniques, a simultaneous measurement is needed. They were performed in a heavy duty optical diesel engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2454
Zhenkan Wang, Slavey Tanov, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
It has been proven that Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of extremely restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, which leads more smooth combustion, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In this work, a light duty optical engine was used to conduct high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections at different start of injection (SOI) timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2455
Slavey Tanov, Zhenkan Wang, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation. To achieve a longer ignition delay, which increases the overall combustion stability, different fuel injection strategies were applied. In this work, the effect of multiple injections and variable flow swirl on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence were investigated. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is conducted to an optical Direct Injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. PRF 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) was used as PPC fuel. The quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry in order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similar as possible to the flow which would exist in a production engine.
2015-07-01
Article
The system, to be offered on nearly all Ford SUVs globally by 2020, uses real-time video from 1-megapixel wide-angle-lens cameras mounted in the vehicle’s grill and lift gate to help drivers see around corners.
2015-07-01
Article
Its programs include driver brain wave analysis, heart and respiration monitoring, safer autonomous driving, and added driver support.
2015-07-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9142
Henry A. Catherino, Fred Feres
Abstract Deep charge and discharge cycling of 24 Volt battery strings composed of two 12 Volt VRLA batteries wired in series affects reliability and life expectancy. This is a matter of interest in vehicle power source applications. These cycles include those specific operational cases requiring the delivery of the full storage capacity during discharge. The concern here is related to applications where batteries serve as a primary power source and the energy content is an issue. It is a common practice for deep cycling a 24 volt battery string to simply add the specified limit voltages during charge and discharge for the individual 12 Volt batteries. In reality, the 12 Volt batteries have an inherent capacity variability and are not identical in their performance characteristics. The actual voltages of the individual 12 Volt batteries are not identical.
2015-06-29
WIP Standard
AS6254A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers ULDs utilized in finding submerged aircraft. Such ULDs are installed within the aircraft in a manner that they are unlikely to become separated during crash conditions. The low frequency ULD should be attached to the airframe in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations in order to maximize the underwater detection range.
2015-06-29
WIP Standard
J1555
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
2015-06-28
Standard
AS28938A
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2015-06-28
Standard
AS81969/29
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2015-06-28
Standard
AS81969/27
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2015-06-26
WIP Standard
J3105
This document covers the general physical, electrical, functional, testing, and performance requirements for a mechanized (hands free) conductive power transfer system primarily for transit buses using an overhead coupler capable of, but not limited to, transferring DC power. It defines a conductive power transfer method including the curbside electrical contact interface, the vehicle connection interface, the electrical characteristics of the DC supply and the communication system. It also covers the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle connection interface and supply equipment interface.
2015-06-24
WIP Standard
J1939-90
SAE J1939 OBD Traceability Matrix defines the SAE J1939 messages that should be used to meet OBD standardization requirements which may include readiness, data stream, freeze frame, Test Results, In-Use Performance Ratio (IUPR), and vehicle inducements. J1939 messages used to comply with the California Air Resource Board (CARB), Environment Protection Agency (EPA), or European Union (EU) regulated OBD requirements are described.
2015-06-23
Article
Elektrobit releases an easier-to-use toolkit that enables development of multimodal user interfaces with advanced graphics, plus voice-, touch-, and gesture-based commands, for sophisticated human-machine interface (HMI) systems.
2015-06-22
Article
What if cars could find their own parking spaces in a parking garage, and return to the driver all by themselves by using a smartphone app? In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke talks about a new joint project by Mercedes, Bosch, and the car-sharing company car2go.
2015-06-22
Standard
AS81969/15
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2015-06-22
Standard
AS5372/1
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
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