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Viewing 1 to 30 of 21091
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0015
N Anandaraj
Fuel level sensor which communicates the fuel level to the dashboard has significant attention of the driver during vehicle usage. The advanced instrumentation provides lot of information on the dashboard display such as information about fuel level, computing mileage, miles to go or miles to empty, fuel economy, average mileage etc. At present the TFR with float arm type and Reed switch type sensors are being used, to have accurate information for this computing, the present sensors are not supporting due to its limitations like non linearity in the design, measuring in form of steps not continuous. The measurement accuracy of the fuel level sensor needs to be focused to relay on the information of the dashboard instrument. Hence it is become vital to have a sensor with better reliability, accuracy and easy to adaptable.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and maneuverability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed. In the situation of the high speed rear end collision where steering is more effective than braking the strategy of control design of rear wheel steering needs to be dynamically updated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0005
Vishakha S Bhagat, Siva Murugesan, Shamsundara B V, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
The paper proposes a design of an Emergency Intimation System (EIS) tailored fit for Indian consumer needs and available infrastructure. EIS is an emergency alert technology devised to assist drivers and passenger in an event of vehicle crash. Majority of deaths are caused by slow accident response time. EIS is aimed to lower this response time and ensure that the required rescue and medical services are made available in time. This device employed to make this emergency alerts will be fitted into the vehicle Electrical and Electronics (E/E) architecture and will have interfaces with crash sensor network, CAN network, GPRS and GPS. In an event of crash this device shall send an SMS to the numbers fed into its memory, comprising of information like Vehicle co-ordinates, airbag deployment status and time stamp. The design of unit makes it capable of retro fitment into the existing vehicles. Key words: Emergency, call, driver assist, design, India
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0002
Saravanakumar Subramanian, Periasamy Thangavel, Fathima Safna M I, Kannan S, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, R Velusamy
In the present scenario, when the vehicle is manoeuvring in the gradient, more clutch and accelerator pedal modulations are needed during stop and go condition. These kinds of pedal modulations are not desirable for many customers as it requires more skilled driving. Failure of doing such actions will even result in engine stalling which becomes an annoyance to such customers. In order to overcome this problem, the low idle speed of the engine can be increased only during the drive off condition. In this paper, we proposed the development and real-time testing of the control algorithm to increase the engine low idle speed during drive off. This proposed algorithm detects the drive off condition and then an offset value is added to increase the low idle speed. Various input conditions are considered to enable or disable the increment of engine low idle speed. The control algorithm has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink tool and tested using ETAS E-HOOKS tool.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0001
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
ADAS systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0009
Anusha Baskaran, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty
Driver safety and Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0007
Medha Santosh Jambhale, J Kale, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf, Arunrajkumar Govindhasamy, Karl-Eric Köstlin
ABSTRACT
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Obstacle detection is a widely studied field in the automotive industry because of the great importance it assumes in preventing passengers from facing any major accidents. This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed breakers are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets where potholes and speed humps lead to accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0012
Torben Mielke, Mircea Negrean, Wei Lu, Jonas Rox, Jan Gacnik
Modern distributed electronic vehicle systems like advanced driver assistance systems are unique selling points for modern cars. These systems integrate different vehicle domains and existing components. When implementing such new billable features, it is the key to change the existing E/E-architecture only where it is mandatory, to avoid unnecessary additional cost per unit. To minimize the required changes to the existing hardware platform when integrating new functionality, vehicle manufacturers need to have in-depth knowledge of their E/E-architecture. This knowledge allows designing distributed systems which can be integrated cost-effectively (i.e. with the least amount of changes) into the existing E/E-architecture. With modern vehicle architectures featuring several bus technologies (e.g. CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet) and several dozens of E/E-components, the required in-depth knowledge of such architectures can only be achieved using model-based analysis and design techniques.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Mukesh Kumar
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers as well as agricultural machines in small house-hold applications in India and other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies makes these engines too expensive. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. The up-gradation of a two cylinder diesel genset engine is achieved with minimum hardware changes in the engine to make it cost effective. The engine is upgraded from Naturally Aspirated to Turbocharged Intercooled configuration with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The changes in hardware include selection of suitable turbocharger, intercooler, and EGR flow rate. Presently, there are very few twin cylinder diesel engines with turbocharging for genset application.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-DesignTM metallic substrates with Longitudinal structured foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behavior in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of PM. Mass flow controllers are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag in real time, at 5 Hz. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a micro bench bag emissions analyser.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
BS III norms (BS IV in 18 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future later then sooner. OEs have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be tough to say there have been little work been done specifically on after treatment systems which has been focused Indian market and driving conditions. Performance challenges with catalyst systems have been well known to OEs as well system supplier.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion.Swirl, squish and tumble are three forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put in the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a model of the physical plant of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature. To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, crystalline aluminosilicate etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope. This paper presents the performance studied under simulated conditions in a laboratory reactor as well as on a chassis dynamometer for mass emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0089
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Michele Miccio, Thomas Koerfer
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand delivers a novel air path control approach, developed by FEV, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Around 30% of the global warming is caused by the green house gases emitted from automobiles, out of which 60% is contributed by passenger cars. Globally, this scenario has taken prime importance for all organizations to reduce the Emission levels of their products. Many technologies have been developed in order to address Diesel engine emissions, out of which NOx reduction has been a top priority due to it toxicity. Extensive work on Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) has played a key role in reducing NOx emission (30% ~ 50% reductions). Relatively EGR with intercooling has shown greater improvement in BSFC and NOx reduction at higher load points in HSDI engines. EGR Cooler, merely a heat exchanger, cools the recirculated gas which in turn reduces the in-cylinder charge temperature and increases the EGR flow Rate as compared to hotter EGR. Selection of EGR system for a particular engine is critical.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram T, Kalyan Hatti
A methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system II (OBD II) is derived with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the system as per the requirement of commercial vehicle technology. This paper will give an overview of approach to the development of OBD II design concept / strategy as per requirement for variants of vehicles & engines keeping India specific design critique with regulatory requirements, compilation of design & development plan with supplier as a partner using a reliability tool DFMEA, DVVP & On road trials or vehicle level test. Paper will include, format of DFMEA, DVVP and vehicle level test results used during the development of OBD II.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
To meet OBD norms for oxygen sensor component in exhaust path, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to engine stop state of vehicle due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and lambda in the engine becomes “infinitely lean” or only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here are two transitions of lambda changes can be realized by oxygen sensor signal during engine running to engine stop, i.e. rich to infinitely lean and lean to infinitely lean.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. A range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of EGR is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Aftertreatment system design involves multiple trade-offs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0105
Prakash Kamat, Yogesh Aghav, Nitin Gokhale, M N Kumar
An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that it attacks local in-cylinder emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0106
Amartya Ghosh, Vasudevan C, Senthur Pandian, Sachin gogia
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 5mg/km in the NEDC cycle starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel particulate filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Now, the major challenges for DPF technology adaptation are: 1) Soot mass estimation and loading for the DPF 2) DPF Regeneration - Process involving soot mass burning inside a DPF(temperature based/ under fuel post injection) This paper deals with the most important aspect of the regeneration of DPF – Regeneration Interval and factors affecting the same. Regeneration interval: kilometers of driving a vehicle after which the DPF will reach the maximum limit of soot mass present inside it.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0108
Vijay Narkhede, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji, Touquire A Sidiquie
Diesel engines are becoming increasingly popular because they are inherently more fuel efficient. While the CO and HC impurities are significantly lower than in gasoline engines, the design strategy for reduction of Particulate Matter and Nitogen Oxides remains a major challenge for environmental catalysis. The catalyst system of choice with BS 3 fuel with 350 ppm of S available in most parts of the country, is the Vanadia Tungsten Titania (VWT) system which is resistant to poisoning by the S in the fuel.However under urban driving conditions on Indian roads, the major obstacle is the low engine out temperatures which are below the normal operating window (250 to 400 C) for VWT – SCR. The objective of the present investigation is to develop low temperature SCR catalyst systems that outperform the existing commercial catalytic systems during the cold start and low load conditions.
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