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2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0071
Christian Schweikert, David Witt, Dirk Schweitzer, Marco Nicolo, Liu Chen
Abstract The market potential for products such as scooters and small motorcycles is already self-sustaining. However, other applications for small engines can be more fragmented with a wide variety of requirements for the engine control unit. Consequently, the engine control unit can be designed to accommodate more features than are necessary for a given application to cover a broader market. The flip side of this approach is to design the engine control unit for a limited application reducing the market size. Neither approach creates a cost efficient product for the producer. It either supplies the market with an electronic control unit that has features not being utilized (wasted costs) or a unit that has limited capabilities reducing the economies of scale (higher costs). When these designs are developed using discrete components these inefficiencies are exacerbated. Integration of these functions at the semiconductor level can mitigate these costs, improve the thermal performance and expand the functional capabilities to include additional vehicular control aspects in the electronic control unit.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0007
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander K. Rowton, Keith D. Grinstead, Paul J. Litke, Marc D. Polanka
Abstract In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. In cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ piezo-electric pressure sensing elements and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure as well as to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions. The pressure sensors were installed and adjusted to ensure cylinder volume after sensor installation matched the engine's original configuration within reasonable manufacturing tolerances. A series of tests at four throttle settings ensued to determine if either device altered the combustion volume or the engine's performance. Performance measurements were obtained over a range of engine speeds from 4000 rpm to 6000 rpm.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0069
Ken Fosaaen
Abstract Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and are far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost. The performance of a novel low-cost, low-power, narrow-band resistive-based oxygen sensor was compared with the stock oxygen sensor and several other commercially available oxygen sensors on a 2014 Honda Grom 125E motorcycle.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0107
Takahiro Masuda, Kouji Sakai, Yuki Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi Kaku, Hirobumi Nagasaka
Abstract This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and a simple mechanical valve train. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starters than conventional systems, and it is especially effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems, having intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generate capabilities have been proposed for motorcycles. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is the downsizing of electric motors for starting-up. However, there are many limitations to downsize the electric motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize the forward-rotational torque of the electric motors to compress the air-fuel mixture gas in the cylinders. Our studies exceeded the limitations of downsizing the electric motors by mainly using the engine combustion energy instead of the electric energy to go over the first compression top dead center.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0027
T Manikandan, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Samaraj Dhinagar
Abstract The proposed paper is on electrical energy conservation in a two wheeler. Electrical energy generation adds a 12% load torque on an engine and hence saving electrical energy would ultimately reduce the consumption of fuel. Load Control Module (LCM) is a single intelligent device which is placed in between electrical energy generation and consumption. The module controls and distributes energy to the corresponding loads depending on parameters like battery voltage, engine RPM, overhead light illumination levels and load usage time. The module prioritizes battery charging for prolonging the life of the battery. The Module has a microcontroller and load drivers and it is programmed with a novel algorithm for prioritization and energy distribution with respect to input conditions. A vehicle fitted with the Load Control Module was tested in city driving cycle (CDC) condition as per ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) standard and it was found that the electrical loading decreased to about 30% when compared to vehicle with uncontrolled loading.
2014-11-07
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned, with seventeen, fully illustrated chapters, covers diverse areas of expertise such as the impact of trust, human factors, and evidential integrity in system development.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9079
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup. It is observed that at 4 MPa injection pressure, the tip penetration length of ethanol sprays is shorter than that of gasoline sprays, likely due to lower injection velocity and increased nozzle loss associated with higher density and increased viscosity of ethanol, respectively.
2014-10-22
Article
Meeting diverse customer demands is a vexing challenge that will require heavy amounts of engineering work. Development teams will have to give drivers more personal options while they also determine how to ensure that autonomous driving platforms mimic the ways humans sometimes break traffic laws.
2014-10-22
Article
The company unveiled reconfigurable clusters and wireless device charging technologies as part of its second-generation “Tech Truck” at the recent IAA Commercial Vehicles event in Hannover, Germany.
2014-10-22
WIP Standard
AIR1351J

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the general requirements for and the listing of manufacturers identification that appear on electrical/electronic wiring devices and accessories as required by individual product specifications. Supplier markings from previous submitted listings are maintained for component traceability.

2014-10-22
WIP Standard
AS22520/34
Hand crimp tool used to crimp M39029/83-450 thru 453, 507, and -508 connector contacts
2014-10-22
WIP Standard
AS7997A
This specification covers constant displacement hydraulic motors, generally remotely mounted, using hydraulic fluid under pressure as the energy transfer medium for driving various accessories. Hydraulic motors shall be suitable for use in aircraft hydraulic systems conforming to and as defined in MIL-H-5440 and MIL-H-8891 as applicable.
2014-10-22
WIP Standard
J2698
1.1 This SAE Recommended Practice covers the design and application of primary on-board wiring distribution system harnessing for surface vehicles. This document is intended for single phase nominal 120 VAC circuits that provide power to truck sleeper cab hotel loads so that they may operate with the main propulsion engine turned off. The power supply comes from alternative sources such as land-based grid power, DC-AC inverters and auxiliary power generators. The circuits may also provide power to improve vehicle performance through charging batteries or operating cold-weather starting aids. 1.2 This document is not intended to provide guidance for electric or hybrid electric vehicle wiring circuits. Refer to SAE J1673 for high voltage automotive wiring assembly design. 1.3 Engine block heaters are 120 VAC devices that are used on a multitude of vehicle platforms in addition to trucks with sleeper cabs. Generally, the engine block heater circuit is wired independent of hotel loads. SAE J2698 does not apply to independently wired engine block heater circuits.
2014-10-21
Article
Pay attention to pop culture for engineering inspiration, says Chrysler Group's President and CEO of Motorsports and the company’s Senior Vice President of Product Design, Ralph Gilles, during his SAE Convergence keynote address.
2014-10-21
Standard
J2931/4_201410
This SAE Technical Information Report SAE J2931/4 establishes the specifications for physical and data-link layer communications using broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) between the plug-In electric vehicle (PEV) and the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) DC off-board-charger. This document deals with the specific modifications or selection of optional features in HomePlug Green PHY v1.1 (HomePlug GP1.1) necessary to support the automotive charging application over Control Pilot lines as described in SAE J1772™. PLC may also be used to connect directly to the Utility smart meter or home area network (HAN), and may technically be applied to the AC mains, both of which are outside the scope of this document.
2014-10-21
WIP Standard
J3082
This SAE document provides the minimum requirements for High Power two conductor jumper cable plug and receptacle for the truck-trailer jumper cable systems. It includes the test procedures, design, and performance requirements.
2014-10-21
WIP Standard
AIR4982A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been prepared to provide information regarding options for optical control of fluid power actuation devices. It is not intended to establish standards for optical fluid power control, but rather is intended to provide a baseline or foundation from which standards can be developed. It presents and discusses approaches for command and communication with the actuation device via electro-optic means. The development of standards will require industry wide participation and cooperation to ensure interface commonality, reliability, and early reduction to practice. To facilitate such participation, this document provides potential users of the technology a balanced consensus on its present state of development, the prospects for demonstration of production readiness, and a discussion of problem areas within this technology. The intent is to inform the user/designer of the options available for interfacing photonics (optics) to hydraulic power control actuators used in aerospace applications.
2014-10-20
Book
Kirsten M. Koepsel
Electronic parts are used throughout industry to run everyday products, such as cell phones, and also highly technical products, such as aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. Unlike cell phones, which are often replaced every year, the highly technical products may remain in service from 20 to more than 80 years. But what happens if the original electronic part, with a life cycle of 18 months, is no longer available? Some manufacturers have discovered that they have unwittingly purchased counterfeit ones. Counterfeit Electronic Parts and Their Impact on Supply Chains examines how these items are negatively affecting the aviation, spacecraft, and defense sectors and what can be done about it. As the inflow of counterfeit electronic parts does not appear to be slowing down, Counterfeit Electronic Parts and Their Impact on Supply Chains investigates the possible solutions to combat the issue, including legislation and standards, and other solutions that are government driven but that may be impacted by continuing budget cuts.
2014-10-17
Article
Advanced Thermal Solutions’ portable chiller systems and liquid-to-air heat exchangers aid in controlling fluid temperatures in looped liquid cooling systems.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
J1939-16
This document defines a process for devices to follow when automatically detecting the baud rate of an SAE J1939 network.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
AS25050B
This specification covers the chromaticity and transmission requirements of equipment light transmitting ware in the descending order of transmission. It is intended for use in military aircraft lighting.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
J2302
This procedure measures the resistance to radiant heat flow of insulating materials in sleeve form. The sleeve's effectiveness (S{sub}E) is determined by measuring the difference in surface temperature of a flat black, single- diameter ceramic cylinder with and without the standard diameter sleeve at the specified temperature, position, and distance from the radiant heat source.
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