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Viewing 1 to 30 of 22057
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
Abstract In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of our products. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair costs in earthmoving equipment is cost prohibitive. This technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and improving field "up time" performance. Application challenge: Developing a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environments typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2745
Florian Bauer, Jan Fleischhacker
A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system for Electronic Control Units (ECU) of electro-pneumatic brake systems is presented. The HiL system runs a real-time capable vehicle model comprising of both the vehicle dynamics and the electro-pneumatic brake system. The dynamic behaviour of the vehicle can be simulated either by a real-time multi-body vehicle model or by a simpler system dynamic (double-track) model. To assess the quality of the system dynamic vehicle model, it was compared to the multi-body vehicle model which was validated with comprehensive experimental results. Discrepancies can be seen for highly unsteady manoeuvres. Reasons for these discrepancies caused by the modelling topology of the system dynamic vehicle model will be given. In order to simulate the electro-pneumatic brake system, a real-time model has been developed and validated. The different topologies of brake systems can be assembled from components and integrated into the vehicle model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Massarotti, Pietro Marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall in an FPGA. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the developed CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed. The system is tested and verified for different frequencies to the see range of the applicable frequencies of the design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2841
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
In order to adapt to the quickening rhythm of the society and satisfy human's higher performance requirements of comfort and safety, the kinds of brake assist system has become more and more, smooth transformation of man-machine control is very important for the driver assistance system. At the same time, Brake-by-wire cancels the traditional mechanical connection of the system, the ECU to perceive the driver’s braking intention and send the instructions to the corresponding actuator. Thus, it is necessary to identify the driver's braking intention for Brake-By-wire system and the smooth transition of man-machine mode. This paper establishes recognition model for the driver’s braking intention recognition, which is based on analyzing and summarizing existing research of driver intention recognition.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2840
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
ADAS applications are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing ECU networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) assistants directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior reliably with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage, to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extrememly diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras and maps are simulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2848
Saleh Mirheidari, Abdolreza Fallahi, David Zhang, Kumar Kuppam
Autosar is finding its way into the automotive industry. European automotive manufacturing companies are the early adopters defining, promoting and sourcing Autosar automotive products. Autosar’s goal is to improve automotive electrical/electronics applications as they have reached a high level of complexity. Working with different suppliers and vendors and respect their confidentiality makes the process of application software development even more complicated. Presented in this paper is a creative way of utilizing Autosar to overcome the integration challenges in a multi-party object code based software integration. The run time environment (RTE) files for the application software are generated through a set of scripts to automate the process for consecutive releases. The low level device drivers are configured by one supplier and are being used by the other supplier through a set of Autosar client-server operation calls.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2875
Olof Lindgärde, Lei Feng, Anders Tenstam, Mikael Soderman
CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that both supports optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller denoted “Predictive Energy Buffer Control” controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way. Another focus is the communication between the driver and the control system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2796
Tobias Gutjahr, Holger Kleinegraeber, Thorsten Huber, Thomas Kruse
Abstract The use of design of experiment (DoE) and data-driven simulation has become state-of-the-art in engine development and base calibration to cope with the drastically increased complexity of today's engine ECUs (electronic control units). Based on the representation of the engine behavior with a virtual plant model, offline optimizers can be used to find the optimal calibration settings for the engine controller, e.g. with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This increases the efficiency of the calibration process and reduces the need for expensive test stand runs. The present paper describes the application of Gaussian process regression, a statistical modeling approach with practical benefits in terms of achievable model accuracy and usability. The implementation of the algorithm in a commercial tool framework enables a broad use in series engine calibration.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0001
Shashikiran HK, Bhupesh Agrawal, Neal Clements, Richard Wainwright
Bus bars are very critical components for power distribution in Electric Drive systems. The increase of power electronic components on vehicles, and their interaction, has increased the possibility of noticeable and destructive amplitude harmonics at resonant frequencies to exist in the power distribution network. The presence of stray inductance of bus bars along with the capacitance of the inverters creates a resonant circuit, which in turn can create instability in the system, so it is very critical to understand the performance and placement of Busbars in the system. As impedance is very much influenced by the geometry, shape, and materials of the bus bars, simulation tools can be utilized to accurately predict the impedance and this can be utilized to study the performance of the complete system and further optimize the busbar geometry as per system needs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0002
Abhijit Kulkarni, Vinod John
Second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) based phase-locked loops (PLLs) are used for grid voltage synchronization in single-phase grid-connected power converters. SOGI-PLLs are attractive because of the simple structure and the suitability for implementation in low-end digital controllers. In this paper, a cascaded SOGI-PLL structure is discussed, with full offset rejection capability. A systematic design procedure is proposed for this PLL minimizing the response time and unit vector harmonic distortion. This design achieves minimum settling time for a given level of frequency deviation of the grid voltage. The PLL designed using the proposed method has sufficient harmonic attenuation capability. The analytical predictions are verified experimentally.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0003
Arun Karuppaswamy Balasubramanian, Srinivas Gulur, Vinod John
With the increasing use of grid-connected inverters, any improvement in its reliability is desirable. Usual inverter tests focus primarily on thermal testing of semiconductor devices. However, the passive components are also sensitive to temperature. The life of dc bus electrolytic capacitors and output ac filter capacitors are temperature-dependent. Continuous operation of output filter inductors at high temperatures can cause their insulation to fail. Semiconductor thermal test procedures available in literature can be used for thermal testing of passive components also. But, the methods available in literature are regenerative and require the use of additional converters or passive systems of similar rating as the inverter under test for regeneration. A novel thermal test method is proposed for testing of passive components associated with a three-phase two-level grid-connected inverter.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0004
Ritesh Kumar Keshri, Prabhat Ranjan Tripathi
Estimation of motor torque requires information of motor parameters and becomes crucial to the cases where phase inductance varies with the rotor position. Present paper proposes a simple instantaneous torque estimator for a permanent-magnet brushless dc (PM BLDC) motor drive. Proposed estimator requires information of phase currents from the current sensors and duty ratio applied to the individual phase legs of the VSI. Information of phase inductance is not required. Negligence of phase resistance reduces this estimator to a simplified one with considerable error. Applicability of this estimator even for the sinusoidal phase current supply makes it a general solution for the estimation of instantaneous motor torque for a PM BLDC motor drive. For the validation of the estimator, torque from the Simulink model of PMSM motor with trapezoidal back-emf is considered as a reference.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0005
Sankar Selvakumar
There are several bidirectional converters are proposed to integrate batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cell, electric motors, etc., to control the motoring and regenerative breaking effectively in Electrical Vehicle (EV); however, in regenerative breaking the breaking action is much affected because of a) failure of regenerative breaking at lower back emf, and b) discontinuous input current at the motor end. In addition, the traditional BDC are incapable to switch the power flow direction from one to another instantaneously. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed an instantaneous mode switching bidirectional Boost/SEPIC converter to extract maximum power even under low speed and to switch the power flow direction instantaneously from motoring mode to regenerative breaking mode and vice versa. Finally, the computation results of proposed BDC and traditional BDC are compared.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0006
V. S. S. Pavan Kumar Hari, Avanish Tripathi, G Narayanan
High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. This paper proposes a method to determine the mechanical parameters, namely the moment of inertia and frictional coefficient of the induction motor drive. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a $5$hp induction motor drive are presented.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0007
Anirudh Guha, G Narayanan
Volts-per-hertz (V/f) controlled induction motor drives could exhibit small-signal instability in the low and medium speed range, and particularly under light-load conditions. This results in sustained sub-harmonic oscillations in motor current, torque and speed. This instability is accentuated on account of inverter dead-time. This paper examines improving the stability by connecting an external inductor in series with the stator winding. Further, to avoid an actual external three-phase inductor which could be expensive in the case of high-power drives, a simple control scheme which emulates this series inductor is proposed. This also has the advantage that the value of series inductor could be programmable. This inductive emulation scheme, along with V/f control, is implemented on a TMS320F2812 DSP processor platform to control a 100-kW induction motor drive.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0008
Mohammad Hassan Hedayati, Vinod John
Ground leakage current and electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise are important challenges during design of grid-connected power converters. Use of common-mode (CM) choke helps to mitigate these issues. In this paper an integrated CM inductor (ICMI) is proposed. In the proposed ICMI, the LCL filter boost inductor and the CM choke are combined into a single component. This results in size and cost reduction of the overall power converter. The proposed ICMI is fabricated in the laboratory. Experimental test are carried out on a 5kW single-phase grid-connected power converter, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed ICMI.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0010
Amitkumar K. S., G Narayanan
Space vector-based advanced bus-clamping pulse width modulation (ABCWM) techniques for neutral-point clamped three-level converters offer superior performance over conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM) and bus-clamping pulse width modulation (BCPWM) under certain operating conditions. However, the digital implementation of ABCPWM methods is quite resource intensive, compared to carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) methods. This paper presents a computationally efficient digital implementation of an ABCPWM technique. The ABCPWM method is shown to be advantageous in terms of reduced switching loss at high lagging power factors and reduced harmonic distortion in the inverter output at high modulation indexes.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0009
Shimin V V, Varsha Shah, Makrand Lokhande
In the current world scenario of increasing environmental issues and oil prices, development of electric vehicles (EV) have gained considerable importance and attention. Power electronics will play a key role in making highly efficient electric vehicles which are low in emissions and having better fuel economy. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of power electronics technology in electric vehicles and also discusses the role of power electronics in achieving the vision of Indian Government in the field of EVs by 2020. The paper concludes with a discussion of expected future trends in power electronics technology that will improve the markets for electric vehicles in coming years.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0011
Sathiyaraj Asaithambi, Amitabh Vaidya, Riaz Ahamed
Component level validation plays a very important role in an Electric Vehicles during development of a new platform.. Validating the product for their mission life and finding the early failures that can occur in field and correcting the failures at early stages proves to be very helpful in improving product Reliability and confidence. Product durability test is one of the most important tests in validation. Durability testing is the evaluation of duration of time that a product, part, material, or system can meet its performance requirements against its mission life. Durability is conducted on every component, module and also at system and vehicle level. Transmission is commonly used in all the automobile vehicles to transmit power. Transmission in Electric vehicle is a single gear ratio, two stage transmission transmitting power from motor to axle.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0012
Dheeraj Narang, Subhash Chavadaki
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and now number more than a billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles. This document gives information about the usage of powered bicycles based on renewable energy systems. The renewable energy which is discussed in this paper is using solar energy. Solar panels are an effective and efficient way of using solar energy. The bicycle uses the solar panels to charge the batteries which intern are used to power a motor, driving the bicycles. It also gives a report on the efficiency of batteries and solar panels. Explanatory material is followed by a worked example.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0014
Avi Vyas, Amit Kumar, Trapti Katiyar, J P Joshi, Dinesh Singh, Pratik Jain, Himanshu Shah
In this paper, the design methodology and implementation of a digitally controlled, synchronous gate driven and flexible Electronic Power Conditioner (EPC) have been discussed. With incorporation of an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) as its controller, forward topology with active clamp Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) Technique and synchronous rectification, this dc-dc converter offers flexibility in its output load voltages. Furthermore, each of the output is being sensed and corrected individually through the digital controller in the form of the FPGA. The converter has been designed to cater to the 15W C-band Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) at the transmitting section of communication payloads in satellites. These SSPAs have a nominal input power requirement of 45W though the converter has been designed to deliver output power in the range of 20W to 60W.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0013
Preeti Agarwal, Vineeta Agarwal
For rural or remote areas the single-phase grid has been considered as an alternative especially when compared with the three-phase solution due to its lower cost feature. The loads connected in a three-phase arrangement present some advantages when compared with single-phase loads especially for motors due to their constant torque, constant power, reduced size, etc. High speed machines are used in different applications such as dental drills and medical surgery tools, compressors and turbochargers, blowers, turbo molecular vacuum pumps, compact electrical power suppliers and micro co-generation gas turbines, aircraft electrical starter generator systems, flywheel energy storages and machine tool spindles and electric propulsion systems. This paper proposes a single-phase to three-phase Cycloinverter capable of generating high frequency three-phase output using self-commutated semiconductor devices.
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