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2015-09-20
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2015-05-20
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun YANG
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1465
Sho Nikaido, Shota Wada, Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose
1. Background and purpose There are various contributing factors to accidents of bicycles, it is considered that cyclists often do not observe the traffic regulation that requires cyclists to stop before a stop line at an intersection. As a countermeasure to this type of accident, cycling assist systems that activate a warning system for cyclists have been researched and developed. This assist system warns the cyclist about the danger of a collision. Such an assist system needs to provide a warning with appropriate timing. It is necessary to clarify cycling characteristics in developing a countermeasure for traffic accidents at an intersection without signals. The findings of this study can be used for the future construction of an assist system that will encourage cyclists to observe traffic regulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
We have developed a bench test method to assess the driver distraction caused by workloads of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that the method can assess not only visual-manual tasks but also auditory-vocal tasks. The workloads are evaluated from performances of both pedal tracking (PT) and detection response task (DRT) during while performing secondary tasks. We can conduct the method with simple apparatuses such as a gaming pedal and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted at three different regions and different experimenters in the US in the same procedure. We used two kinds of visual-manual tasks and two kinds of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two different levels of workload for each of all the kinds of tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1403
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Marek Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be considered nowadays as a distributed embedded software system where independent microprocessor systems, called Electronic Control Units (ECUs), communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several ECUs communicating each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other ECUs in a vehicle, usually, via communication networks and with vehicle’s surroundings via camera, radar, or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market makes the development of such systems challenging. As the number of important for the system road scenarios grows, mathematical modelling and computer simulation become important engineering tasks to assure required quality and compliance to safety standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
This paper presents and discusses the continuous evolution of the developments in the area of collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems have been on the market for a decade, and the development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, collision avoidance systems now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. The development up to date, along with future challenges, are described and discussed according to challenge areas; e.g. detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Also, ways of assessing system effects are discussed. Numerous studies have been made predicting the effect of different systems, and the real world effects of these systems have been shown to be significant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract: The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technology can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but it can’t be applied extensively currently due to high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which base on driver behavior and vehicle status, such as acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. But acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with drive and vehicle change. In order to study the effect of different drives and vehicle types on braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange test content.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina
Objective: Investigate statistical effects of repeated measures design in FCW (warning vs. no-warning ) evaluation Background: Repeated measures designs are often used in FCW testing despite concerns that 1st exposure creates expectancy effects which may dilute or bias outcomes Method: 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= no warning; B=FCW). They drove in a high-fidelity, motion-base simulator with a visual distraction task. After some 25 minutes of driving a simulated nighttime rural highway, a high-intensity forward collision threat arose during the distraction task. Response time was analyzed. Results: There was evidence of differential carryover and significant Period 1 vs. 2 effects which dilute the magnitude of difference between FCW and no warning relative to 1st exposure only. Also there was a trend toward slower response with no-warning after FCW exposure as first exposure than after no-warning as first exposure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, Hans-Christian Reuss, Michael Grimm, A. Al-Janabi
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna raj Nair m k
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux
Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to fulfill the particulate matter threshold. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the DPF soot mass trapped increases. Some manufacturers made the choice a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering DOC and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1598
Milad Jalaliyazdi, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
In this paper, the problem of stability control of an electric vehicle is addressed. To this aim, it is required that the vehicle follows a desired yaw rate at all driving/road conditions. The desired yaw rate is calculated based on steering angle, vehicle speed, vehicle geometric properties as well as road condition. The vehicle response is modified by torque vectoring on front and/or rear axles. This control problem is subject to several constraints. The electric motors can only deliver a certain amount of torque at a given rotational speed. In addition, the tire capacity also plays an important role in the stability control. It limits the amount of torque they can transfer without causing wheel over spinning. These constraints make Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach a suitable choice, because it can explicitly consider the constraints of the control problem, in particular the tire capacity, and help to prevent tire saturation, which is often the onset of vehicle instability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0133
Clark Kinnaird
As many automotive functions migrate from purely mechanical to electrically-driven, the use of efficient brushless DC motors is becoming prevalent. This paper discusses the design of a BLDC controller, including the technical tradeoffs, hardware implementation, and testing results. Brushless DC motors are well suited to automotive applications due to their reliability and high efficiency. In applications such as oil pumps, water pumps, and turbo blowers where the motor lifetime and power dissipation are key parameters, these motors solve many design challenges. This design example examines the specific requirements for a compact solution for a water pump, but the design methodology and tradeoffs also apply to other motor control applications where efficient control of motor speed is needed. Like many applications, this design uses sensorless commutation algorithms, reducing cost and size.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0143
James Price
Consumer demands place the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation into cars at the same pace (faster time to market with no increase in cost) as the consumer industry does for consumer electronics. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles as well, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without further cost increases. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it’s impossible to compartmentalize design domains because it is connected in many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independently of each other and are not ideally suited to deal with any type of interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0201
Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Phil Barber, Stuart Burgess PhD
We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle . The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A nonlinear adaptive observer structure with a finite and exponential time converging regressor uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A novel system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and ADAS systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0203
Brian Anderson, Mark Brooks, Ryan Wilson, Purser K. Sturgeon II
There are several wireless interfaces in modern vehicles to include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), and the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS). Each of these could serve as an attack surface where direct physical access may not be needed to gain some influence over a part of the vehicle's operation. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is extremely useful in performing research into new protocols and protocol variations because of its extreme flexibility and configurability. In addition, researchers may use SDR technology to investigate and gain control over portions of the communication process that are typically proprietary. This presentation will review previous and projected uses of SDR technology to investigate wireless security threats on vehicles, including research on DSRC and cellular (3G and LTE) technology that is being carried out by the authors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0209
Lihil Uthpala Subasinghe, Dilan Mendis, Tharindu Chandima, Nirosh Jayaweera, Sasiranga De Silva
Fault detection and diagnosis for automobile engines are very important to ensure reliable operation of the engine. Most of the faults in an automobile engine cannot be detected in real time. Detecting faults and its’ location, without dismantling the engine is very difficult. On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in modern vehicles can be used to detect engine faults up to some extent. However, OBD systems are not accurate enough in certain conditions and technicians have difficulties when interpreting information. OBD method cannot be used for old vehicles because those vehicles do not have OBD systems. Hence, these factors necessitate the development of intelligent and accurate diagnosis method for troubleshooting automobile engine faults. Therefore in this research, a mathematical model was developed to identify engine faults through the simulation of Instantaneous Angular Speed Fluctuation (IASF) of crank shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya deshpande, Krishnan kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0225
Satoru Komatsu, Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
We solved the problem of FM broadcast wave reception reproducibility and objectivity by developing a method to generate a virtual radio environment and to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). A significant technical issue in the Two-stage method is to understand the radio wave characteristics using FM broadcast waves. We developed the incoming wave estimation technique which accurately estimates radio wave parameters. We developed MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) using virtual array antennas, and estimated the FM radio. Evaluation of in-vehicle FM compatibility was realized using the Two-stage method by generating radio environment parameter. Multipath distortion rate was defined as an index to evaluate reception performances of FM broadcast waves, and in-vehicle compatibility of single receiver and diversity receiver was evaluated under the same vehicle and radio environment conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0222
Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Satoru Komatsu
FM radio receiver characteristics raised a question of reproducibility and objectivity. To solve this, we developed a method to generate a virtual radio environment to evaluate the in-vehicle compatibility (Two-stage method). We developed the incoming wave estimation method which accurately estimates radio wave environment. MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method using array antennas is a method which estimates direction of arrival and delay time; however, it was difficult to apply this method on FM for following reasons: (1) Number of antennas increases, increases the size of array antenna, (2) With narrower antenna interval, electromagnetic coupling between antennas becomes stronger, (3) Estimation of delay time is difficult since FM broadcast wave has frequency property, (4) Separation of direct wave and multipath wave is difficult and it is hard to estimate accurate incoming waves.
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