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2016-05-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
Abstract In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0054
Eduard Lyubimov, Sergey Gladyshev, Dmitriy Istselemov, Nikolay Belyaev
The synchronous electrical machines are used in regular cars, electrical, and hybrid cars as generators or motors. They need to be tested after fabrication and also during maintenance. For this purpose can be used suggested measurement complex. The software structure of the considered measurement complex was defined according: Russian, IEC, and IEEE standards for testing synchronous machines. The software of measurement complex was designed by using Lab VIEW development modules and is orientated to work with National Instruments hardware. It consist of nine interconnected Virtual Instruments (VIs) to carry out: the no-load test, the sustained short-circuit test, the V-curve test, the load angle test, to plot Potier diagram, the sudden short circuit test, to acquire the transient response characteristic and determine optimal PID controller parameters, to generate test report, to control the testing process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0113
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0118
Shinji Niwa, Mori Yuki, Tetsushi Noro, Shunsuke Shioya, Kazutaka Inoue
This paper presents a detecting technology for driver monitor system using the eyewear-type wearable device, JINS MEME. Serious accidents due to human errors such as dozing driving/inattentive driving, have been increacing recently in Japan. JINS MEME can expectedly contribute to reducing a number of traffic deaths by constantly watching drivers with its ocular potential sensor. This paper also shows that drivers’ drowsiness level can be estimated from information on blinking which is calculated form ocular potentials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0148
Diljith Kunnamcherry Muthuvana
The main purpose of the V2X system is to enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. Since the Automotive diaspora is now moving for a safe, connected and intelligent mobility. The V2X system allows communication over the air with other V2X traffic participants, the participants include the target vehicles or roadside units equipped with a V2X system and uses this information exchange to warn the driver about potential road hazards, thereby extending a vehicle’s field of vision. This will in turn enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. One possible scenario could be that the V2X system receives information from a vehicle involved in an accident and then warns about this accident ahead via the HMI display. The V2X system also collects vehicle data and prepares it to generate messages send out to other V2X participants over the air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0151
Ganesan Easwaran, Kulandaivelu Shanmugam, Rangaraj Sakthivel, Ramkumar Rajachandrasekaran
The EyeOnRoad System intends to predict the road anomalies accurately and alerts the vehicles. This system introduces a new technique to detect road anomalies (bumps, potholes, cracks, expansion joints, patches, etc) automatically, using sensor fusion technique. This system integrates the road anomaly information with the existing navigation system which forecasts the distance, type & extent of the anomaly along with the recommended speed. The driver is suggested with an alternate route to avoid the road anomalies. With the road anomaly information and traffic density, the accurate travel time can be estimated. This system obtains the live updates (using sensory data) automatically via Cloud- Internet of things. This concept is applicable for multiple platforms, which includes In-Car navigation system and Smartphone's. This system intends to fill the technology barriers in anomaly detection, which imports intelligence to the navigation system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0153
Qingkun Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
This paper studies intelligent vehicle threat assessment aimed to improve trajectory planning for intelligent vehicles based on the random tree (RRT) approach, which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. The proposed RRT approach integrates the threat assessment in the trajectory planning and proves to be more efficient and effective compared to the hierarchical framework. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0469
Hyunkoo Kang, Wooyong Jung, Choon Lee
This paper presents payload estimation based on experimental friction coefficients identification. To estimate exact payload mass, dynamic mathematical model such as actuator dynamics and front linkage dynamics is derived by using Newton-Euler method. From the dynamic equation, nonlinear terms are analyzed and transformed. And a friction model is derived from the experiments with various conditions which have three states; boom joint angle, head and rod chamber pressures. It can identify friction coefficients and compensate friction forces. In addition, the accuracy of payload estimation system is verified through the field test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1221
Kiyoshi Ito, Takumi Shibata, Takashi Kawasaki
Drive motors such as for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles require windings that can endure use at high voltages. The winding is the main part for which insulation needs to be assured in the motor operating environment. In addition, consideration should also be given to insulation damage during molding. Conventional motors generally secure insulation by using the two parts of the winding and insulating paper to assure insulation. However, this increases the motor space factor and hinders size reduction. A new high-voltage winding formed by molding extruded resin onto an enamel insulating layer was developed to reduce the number of insulating parts and enhance motor performance. Extrusion molding of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin onto an insulating layer realized a winding that can withstand the molding load during motor manufacture, secures durability for the automobile motor operating environment and can maintain high-voltage characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1235
Johannes Gragger, Alessandro Zanon, Michele De Gennaro, Jonathan Juergens, Antonio Fricassè, Luca Marengo, Igor Olavarria, Jutta Kinder
The widespread of hybrid and battery electric vehicles is vital for the future low-carbon mobility. In this context the delivery of affordable and efficient electric motor technologies together with high energy density storage devices are key aspects to enable the mass market take-off of electrified vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results and design features of an innovative and rare-earth free electric motor technology based on the synchronous reluctance machine concept. This technology is capable to provide sufficient power density and higher driving cycle energy efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machines used for automotive applications. The motor is designed to be integrated within a hatchback rear driving axle vehicle, achieving the maximum energy efficiency in urban operational conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
On the way to automated driving, the market penetration of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop new integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0168
Domenic J. Belgiovane, Chi-Chen Chen
Rapidly developing autonomous vehicle technologies aim to reduce roadway fatalities and promote driver comfort. Such autonomous vehicle are mostly empowered by optical and radar sensors. Collision avoidance systems are becoming a common a standard safety feature in newer or future cars. Some automotive radar sensors have been successfully used in parking, lane changing, and blind spot detection. Newer 76-78 GHz radars are being developed and tested by car makers for extending these safety features to pedestrian and bicyclist detection. However, using cost effective vehicular radars in reliably detecting pedestrian and bicyclist with low false alarm rate still poses challenging due to many possible variations of these targets as well as the presence of other road objects. To improve detection methods, real scenario testing in currently being implemented where hundreds of tests can be performed on mannequins which mimic pedestrians and bicyclists both optically and to and radar.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1406
Rainer Neumann
Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas. In US this development was well recognized and NHTSA is preparing a way to enable and approve the ADB systems with specific boundary conditions also for the US market.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0030
Jungkyum Yu, Geesu Lee, Hyunsung Lee, Jaepoong Lee, Kwangil Kim, Youngsuk Kim, Sangkyong Lee, Sangwoo Jeon, Kyongsu Yi
As an effective approach for the design, implementation and testing of control systems, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing has been used in many research areas. This paper describes a real-time HIL simulation test for the automotive electronic control system. The HIL system proposed in this paper consists of three parts: real-time target hardware, electronic control unit (ECU) of automotive electronic control systems and signal-conditioning unit which regulates the voltage levels between real-time target and ECU. The HIL simulation evaluates the mechanical and electronic behaviors in real time using off-line simulation models by interfacing real-target with electrical control units via interface box. The model was developed by MATLAB/Simulink. The model is composed of mechanical part which predicts dynamic behaviors and electronic part to calculate the motor speeds, current and electronic loads under the various conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0888
Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Yuki Ono, Masahiko Kawabata
Several attempts have been reported during the last 10 years or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil to monitor sliding states. A method to measure laser light extinction is frequently used for particle measurement. It would be an ideal measurement if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles cannot be separated from other particles, and therefore this method cannot be actually applied to a measurement device which is used to find out when to conduct maintenance activities and how the state of wear is. Therefore, we contemplated if the following method could be used to predict abnormal engine operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1407
Sama Hussein, Benjamin Hamilton, O. Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Evgueni Bordatchev
Retroreflective (RR) optical elements play a critical role in signalling, safety, and aesthetic/styling functionality of automotive lighting. The commonly used inverted-cube RR structures with hexagonal aperture have significant limitations that are primarily rooted in their manufacturing technique that involves complex assemblies/shapes of hexagonal pins and electroforms, particularly in case of freeform surfaces. This study introduces two new types of RR elements, namely: right triangular prism (RTP) and triangular pyramid. The mathematical/analytical models underlying these two new geometries were detailed as the intersection between a cube and a plane placed in a particular relative orientation with respect of each other. Following this, non-sequential optical simulation studies were performed using Zemax OpticStudio software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0033
Tao Wang, Sumin Zhang, Weiwen Deng
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has gained increasing popularity in recent years, as it is widely used in navigation, mapping, radar motion compensation and other related fields due to the high accuracy of 3D positioning and speed information for all kinds of users. As for the field of intelligent vehicle, the measurement accuracy and error model of GPS are needed to be known in order to ensure the credible results in the virtual simulation environment for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and active safety technologies. Thus, it is important to establish the correct GPS observation error model when applicable. The simulation of GPS observed values and GPS positioning are both interrelated and different, for GPS positioning is used to determine the 3D position of the observed GPS signal in a certain position, and the simulation of GPS observed values attempts to restore the GPS signal which can be observed by using the 3D position that is already known.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1658
Jie Huang, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu, Zhuoping Yu
With the development of the electrification of the automobile, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB)- a kind of the electronic hydraulic brake system. In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB). Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0108
Jihas Khan
Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries as they have given promising results by reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming much complex considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence , simulation of radar sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs while even Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where real radar sensor is by passed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0278
Philipp Bergmeir, Christof Nitsche, Jürgen Nonnast, Michael Bargende
In order to achieve high customer satisfaction and to avoid high warranty costs caused by component failures of the power-train of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), car manufacturers have to optimize the dimensioning of these elements. Hence, it is obligatory for them to gain knowledge about the different types of vehicle usage being predominant all over the world. Therefore, in this paper we present a Data Mining system that combines an Autoencoder, i.e., a special kind of Artificial Neural Network used for unsupervised representation learning, with t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding, i.e., a technique for dimensionality reduction, to automatically identify and visualize different types of vehicle usage by applying them to aggregated logged on-board data, i.e., load spectrum data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1478
William T. Neale, David Hessel, Daniel Koch
This paper presents a methodology for tracking the motion of objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians, or cyclists that are visible in video footage captured with only one camera. Objects are tracked in the video footage based on their pixel properties. This tracking process results in two dimensional coordinate data based on the video footage resolution. This data can then be transformed to three dimensional data where the geometry of the scene that is visible in the video footage is known. This paper explains the automated process of first tracking pixels in the video footage, and then remapping the 2D coordinates onto three dimensional geometry using previously published projection mapping techniques. What is unique in this process, that is not unavailable in other photogrammetry tracking process is the time reduced in tracking the object, since it is automated, and that the shape and size of the object being tracked does not need to be known.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. During fast idle, late IVO results in a small improvement in HC emissions and a deterioration of the PM emissions. The advanced exhaust phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0059
Christopher Quigley, Paul Faithfull, Simon Saunders, Neil Yates
The paper discusses the development and implementation of an innovative form of in-vehicle communications for the body control in an Ariel Atom niche sports car. A Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus has been developed that runs the LIN signals over the power lines of the vehicle wiring harness. The LIN system has one master and up to 15 slave ECUs. LIN is normally run at a maximum bit rate of 20 Kbit/s, however this system has been implemented at 57.6 Kbit/s by modulating over the power lines. Benefits of this approach include weight reduction, reduction in the number wires, ease in retro-fitting to existing vehicle architectures as only requires a connection to power lines and the ability to monitor the signals via the battery pins of the OBD connector of the vehicle. The approach has resulted in a reduction in weight due to wiring and electronic control unit reduction.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1012

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