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2015-09-20
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0216
Ping-Min Hsu, Ming Hung Li, Kuo-Ching Chang
This paper studies noise filtering in an autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system with a sensor fusion between a millimeter wave (MMW) radar and a camera. The AEB system may automatically brake cars by mistake due to the sudden appearance of noise signal if it does not involve any noise filtering mechanism for the object sensor. This may cause some accidents. To avoid such accidents, we propose the filters for three kinds of noise—named as twice harmonic noise, ground noise, and specular refection noise—which are commonly suffered while applying MMW radars. The former is caused by the reflection of a radar wave between a target object and the MMW radar. Based on the concern that the MMW radar evaluates the sensing distance based on the time interval between the transmitting and receiving of the radar wave, one of the sensing distances would be twice as longer as one of others due to the wave reflection. The object featuring this characteristic is further filtered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1230
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Jerry Ku
It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco’s STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0192
Yukihide Niimi, Toshinori Matsui, Naoya Tsuchiya
Vehicle electronics system will continue to become more complex and larger in scale, and because of this the development is conducted without control. As a result, in system development in reality, things are intertwined with each other, like spaghetti. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire electronics system coherently and efficiently from the functional architecture down to physical architecture. So, we have to reform the R&D style of the electronics field to a style which will continuously and efficiently generate high-quality products. This will be achieved by dividing development into functions and components. The development of functions OEMs want to equip in the vehicles, that is, "what to make," and the components development, that is, "how to realize them."  For this activity, it is necessary to promote and accelerate the platform-based development looking down at the entire electronics systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1375
James Price
Compressed development cycles drive increased focus on virtual development, including both functional verification and quantitative simulation of electrical system designs. However, one hurdle often cited is the effort needed to develop behavioral models of electrical components such as wires, fuses, and ECUs. This presentation shows that it is fully possible to obtain reliable and surprisingly accurate results using the simplest of models. By placing these models in a re-usable library and providing a simple, visual interaction environment, early design debugging using a computer becomes possible for every electrical engineer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because this system has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of these kinds of new systems. In this research, the durability test mode of AFLS (Adaptive Front Lightning System) with LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp has been developed. First of all, The failure modes were analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal load, vibration, swiveling movement and electrical loads were investigated. The RLDA (Road Load Data Acquisition) technique was used for obtaining the vibration and temperature of LED AFLS in proving ground. The vibration test mode was developed by PSD (Power Spectral Density). The thermal load effect on life time of LED was investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1108
Hongqing Chu, Yong Chen, Lishu Guo, Bingzhao Gao, Hong Chen
Automated Manual Transmission is popularly used in microcars due to its small size, light weight, low cost and high efficiency. The dry clutch engagement is a very important control issue for AMT vehicles. The performance of dry clutch engagement must be guaranteed with the following different and sometimes conflicted goals: the shortest possible lock up time, the smoothest possible lock up process and the smallest friction losses during the slipping phase. A precondition for this complicated control issue is to obtain the information of road slope during the process of hill-start. The rapid development of sensing technology makes many semiconductor companies produced various kinds of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanic System) sensors. Slope sensor is already applied in some ESP (Electronic Stability Program) vehicles which equipped with hill parking aid system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
A New Clutch Actuation System for a Dry DCT Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Cheng-Liang Yin Shanghai Jiao Tong University Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang General Motors LLC Abstract Dry DCT has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. This paper is to propose a new actuation system that has a unique force-aid spring and consume less power. The main components of this mechanism include a lever and a pre-loaded spring. The spring can store and release energy when needed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Modern vehicle design involves multiple set of data from various sensors and controlling devices spread across the vehicle. The sensors and devices placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with various Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As long as wires are used, its maintenance and installation cost and time are major disadvantages for OEMs. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) reduces the cabling and installation cost. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way which can provide a strong secured wireless network. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that the data from sensors and to devices is available to ECU and is not accessible to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and devices in the vehicle are segregated according to their location. Hence, same wireless node can be used for sensors as well as devices e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
The benefits of aluminum as a conductor material are the reduction of mass, to minimize CO2 consumption in combination with low material cost. The intermediate aluminum cable cross section 2.5mm² - 6.0mm² cover a good potential for car implementation to hit this goal. The presentation describes the technical solutions for an aluminum wiring harness equipped with aluminum cable in the cross section of 2.5mm² - 6.0mm². Next to the connection technologies ultra-sonic welding and crimp technology, the presentation informs about the new SMC - technology for corrosion protection. SMC is the abbreviation for selective metal coating. This technology based on a material optimization for the crimp design of the terminal. It offers for the designer a modular approach of corrosion protection specific to its used compartment within the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Kichun Jo, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0195
Satishchandra C. Wani
Bonds wires in automotive electronics modules are used to carry current from external harness to components on PCB. They are very thin wires (few µm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads under vehicle operation. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given external boundary conditions without fusing retaining electronic module functionality. While carrying current, wire bond material by nature offers electric resistance that is converted to heat, joule heating, is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance. For constant current flow, electrical resistance is proportional to wire material resistivity, length and inversely proportional to cross sectional area available for current flow. The resistivity of wire increases with temperature thus leading to thermal runaway situation if not handled properly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Redundancy plays a key role in increasing the computation time in case of most vision based systems. In vision based applications, the images captured from the camera are processed pixel by pixel in order to get the desired information. There is plenty of redundant data in most of the images. Removal of this unwanted data would help in increasing the processing time considerably. This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove unwanted data from a given image. The proposed work focuses on clutter removal from outdoor scenes. More specifically, this approach would be more applicable to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). An outdoor scene captured consists of two main parts a) ground region consisting of the road area and other lane markings especially white or yellow in color. b) The background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. The definition of unwanted regions depends on the application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1169
Akira Yamashita, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto, Nobuyuki Ogami
Development of High-pressure Hydrogen Storage System on Toyota new FCV, lightening, downsizing, cost reduction, and performance improvement in hydrogen refueling are presented. Two kind of larger diameter tanks have been newly developed, due to reduce the number of the four 70MPa tanks installed in 2008 model. These two tanks were arranged under a rear seat and a trunk without sacrificing any passenger space. The lamination constitution of the container each layer, and shape of the bosses were optimized for the container lightening, and the container mass efficiency of 5.7wt% was achieved. As for the carbon fiber for the container where high grade type had been adopted in 2008 model, the carbon fiber manufacture struggled to improve the strength of the general-purpose type, and we could change the fiber grade. Hereby, reduction of the fiber quantity, downsizing of the container, and the cost reduction were realized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
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