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2016-12-01
Book
Kenneth Hummel
Actuators are the key to allowing machines to become more sophisticated and perform complex tasks that were previously done by humans, providing motion in a safe, controlled manner. As defined in this book, actuator design is a subset of mechanical design. It involves engineering the mechanical components necessary to make a product move as desired. Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems, by Ken Hummel, was written as a text to supplement actuator design courses, and a reference to engineers involved in the design of high-performance actuator systems. It highlights the design approach and features what should be considered when moving a payload at precision levels and/or speeds that are not as important in low-performance applications.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0063
Marc Cyrill Besch, April Nicole Covington, Derek Johnson, Nathan Fowler, Robert Heltzel
The aim of this investigation was to improve understanding and quantify the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as an emissions control measure onto cyclic variability of a small-bore, single-cylinder, diesel-fueled compression-ignition (CI) power generation unit. Of special interest were how cycle-to-cycle variations of the CI engine affect steady-state voltage deviations and frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the study strived to elucidate the impact of EGR addition onto combustion parameters, as well as gaseous and particle phase emissions along with fuel consumption. The power generation unit was operated over five discrete steady-state test modes, representative of nominal 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% engine load (i.e. 0-484kPa BMEP), by absorbing electrical power via a resistive load bank. The engine was equipped with a passive EGR system that directly connected the exhaust and intake runners through a 4mm diameter passage.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0084
Shinichi Okunishi, Ken Ogawa
Accurate measurement of air volume is one of the large problems in LPL-EGR system. Measurement of air is difficult, because the intake volume of LPL-EGR system from the EGR valve to combustion chamber is much larger than HPL-EGR. Equally, it is difficulties to measure the correct LPL-EGR rate. By a conventional method, the best ignition timing control is difficult. The measurement of the LPL-EGR rate by using intake O2 sensor has been developed. Around 0% of LPL-EGR rate, this technique is poor accuracy.There is not a use except the LPL-EGR rate measurement. We thought that it was preferable for application of the engine control to use a wide sensor. About the ignition timing control, MFB 50% feedback control is to enable optimum ignition timing control by using the cylinder pressure. We thought about engine control by using the cylinder pressure, and we examined the following application.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0005
Kotaro Takeda, Shimada Takashi, Yuki Yoshida, ZhiMin Lin, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
One of the main issues of high efficient Spark Ignition (SI) engine is knocking. In addition, the extremely rapid combustion that occurs under a high load in an HCCI engine prevents the stable operating region from being expanded. It is known that abnormal combustion occurs in an HCCI engine accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations resembling knock in spark-ignition (SI) engines. In this study, experiments were conducted in which images of SI and HCCI combustion were obtained using the same test engine and frame rate. A two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area was used in this study. In the visualization experiments, the condition in the cylinder was photographed directly with a high-speed camera through a quartz observation window installed in the top of the cylinder head. Photographs were taken at a speed of 54000 frames/s and a resolution of 256 x 256 pixels.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0032
Andrew Bejcek
In the process of developing small general purpose engines, it is necessary to obtain accurate engine usage information. Commercially available measurement systems created for this purpose have unfavorable characteristics, including limited flexibility and large physical size. A compact data logging device was developed to overcome these limitations, and it was used on several lawn mowers. A microcontroller controls the data logger and acquires data. The data logger also includes a vacuum pressure sensor, tachometer input, thermocouple inputs, and a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver. The GPS receiver is used to provide machine position and velocity data, which is synchronized with the other measurements. The housing is compact (54mm x 124mm x 100mm), so it can be mounted on most small engine-powered products. Setup of the data logger requires no significant engine or machine modifications, which reduces the time required to instrument a product for testing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0086
Tobias Gutjahr
Data-driven plant models are well established in engine base calibration to cope with the ever increasing complexity of today’s electronic control units (ECUs). The engine, drive train, or entire vehicle is replaced with a behavioral model learned from a provided training data set. The model is used for offline simulations and virtual calibration of ECU control parameters, but its application is often limited beyond these use cases. Depending on the underlying regression algorithm, limiting factors include computationally expensive calculations and a high memory demand. However, development and testing of new control strategies would benefit from the ability to execute such high fidelity plant models directly in real-time environments. For instance, map-based ECU functions could be replaced or enhanced by more accurate behavioral models, with the implementation of virtual sensors or online monitoring functions.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0083
Michael Zisser, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Reinhard Stelzl, Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Stephan Schmidt, Jakob Trentini, Jan-Philipp Banzhaf, Tim Gegg
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which even the simplest engine setup provides, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essentially for the functionality of the engine.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0052
Michael Schoenherr, Mathieu Grelaud, Ami Hirano
The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years. The challenge was to adapt these systems so they would work for two-wheelers as well.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0027
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) for motorcycles had a fast growth during the last 10 years. The available technologies comprise curve-safe ABS and traction control (TC) systems, anti-wheelie control, right up to comprehensive motorcycle stability systems including even more control functions. VDC systems rely on real-time information about the current motorcycle dynamic state. Thus motorcycles are equipped with additional sensor units, namely MEMS inertial measurement devices, capable of gathering accelerations and angular rates. The application of model-based estimation theory enables the determination of the necessary information about the in-plane and out-of-plane motion, e.g. the motorcycle lean angle. Since VDC systems include safety critical control functions, the validation within simulations including sensor characteristics is mandatory.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0034
Stephan Jandl, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt, Ute Dawin, Armin Kölmel, Stefan Leiber
The worldwide increasing energy consumption, the decreasing energy resources and the continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to counteract these problems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like Ethanol, Methanol and Butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of non-automotive applications raise the need for specific research. Therefore, a zero dimensional vaporization model was set up to illustrate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0067
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukie Ishizawa, Manami Sato, Rei Komuro, Masashi Sato, Ryo Sato, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Masanori Hariyama
On the basis of extensive experimental works about heterogeneous catalysts, the authors have tried to develop a variety of software for the design of automotive catalysts such as ultra-accelerated quantum molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) which is 10,000,000 times faster than the conventional first principles molecular dynamics(1-3), mesoscopic modeling software for supported catalysts(POCO2), and mesoscopic sintering simulator SINTA(4,5) to calculate sintering behavior of both precious metal such as Pt, Pd, Rh and support such as Al2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, or CeO2-ZrO2 We also have integrated these softwares to develop multiscale, multiphysics simulator for the design of automotive catalysts. The method was confirmed to be effective for a variety of important catalytic reactions in the automotive emission control.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0088
Bastian Reineke, Jonathan Müller, Stefan Grodde, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes
Alternative engine speed sensing using the electric signals of the alternator In the low-cost segment for 2-Wheelers legislative, economic and ecological considerations necessitate a reduction of the emissions and further improvement in fuel consumption. To reach these targets the commonly used carburetors are being replaced by Engine Management Systems (EMS). One option to provide these systems for acceptable and attractive system costs is to save a sensor device and substitute its measure by an estimation value. In many motorcycles the rotor of the vehicle's alternator is rigidly attached to the crankshaft. Therefore, the voltage and current signals of the alternator contain information about the engine's speed, which can be retrieved by evaluating these electric signals. After further processing of this information inside the ECU the absolute crankshaft position can be obtained.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2310
Jeff Yeo, Jeremy Rochussen, Patrick Kirchen
As global energy demands continue to be met with ever evolving and stricter emissions requirements, Natural gas (NG) has become a highly researched alternative to conventional fossil fuels in many industrial sectors. Transportation is one such field that can utilize the benefits of NG as a primary fuel for use in internal combustion engines (ICE). In the context of heavy-duty on-highway transportation applications, diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of NG has been identified as a commercially viable alternative technology. Previous investigations of DIDF have examined the various emissions and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) trends present across the spectrum of DIDF operating space. However, in-cylinder processes are still not well understood and this investigation aims to further understanding in this area.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2221
Joshua Kurtis Carroll, Mohammad Alzorgan, Corey Page, Abdel Raouf Mayyas
Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as a promising future solution for sustainable transportation. This is due to the reduction in energy consumption when compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles. EVs and PHEVs contain an Energy Storage Systems (ESS). This increases the complexity of the system but also provides additional margins and fields for optimization. One of the most important elements of these vehicles is the ESS. The electrochemistry nature of battery systems is inherently sensitive to the temperature shifts. The shifts are controlled by the thermal management system of the traction battery systems, for electric-drive vehicles, which directly affects the overall vehicle dynamics. These dynamics include performance, long-term durability and cost of the battery systems. Hence, thermal management becomes an essential element in the achievement to meet the demand for better performance.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2233
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel N. Clark
The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single moving part (the translating rod) mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven primarily by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variance. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that tries to force the engine to operate at a fixed compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2226
Mohammad Alzorgan, Joshua Carroll, Essam Al-Masalmeh, Abdel Raouf Turki Mayyas
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is an essential aspect of the automotive technology in this era of technological revolution, where the goal is to make vehicles more convenient, safe, and energy efficient. Taking advantage of more degrees of freedom available within vehicle “energy management” allows more margin to maximize efficiency in the propulsion systems. It is envisioned by this research that future fuel economy regulations will consider the potential benefits of emerging connectivity and automation technologies of vehicle’s fuel consumption. The application focuses on reducing the energy consumption in vehicles by acquiring information about the road grade. Road elevation are obtained by use of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in order to optimize the controller. The optimization is then reflected on the powertrain of the vehicle. The approach uses a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that allows the energy management strategy to leverage road grade.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2154
Ary Armando Alvarez, Eufemio Muñoz
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post Transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PPT PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (WTW GHG) emissions and Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (WTW PEU). The team utilizes the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro platform with modifications such as 2.4L Ecotec engine, a 134 HP electric motor and a 12.6 KW/h battery pack. The vehicle is estimated to have a fuel economy of 58.7 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This paper presents the vehicle’s two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) while performing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified drive cycles: 505, HWFET, US06 City and US06 HWY.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2192
Mohammadreza Anbari Attar, Tawfik Badawy, Hongming Xu
Abstract This paper presents study of multi-hole gasoline direct injector coking effects on spray dynamics and fuel atomization. Clean injectors were coked in extended fouling cycle in a multi-cylinder thermal engine. Deposit accumulation were characterized by fuel flow rate measurements. Optical tests were carried out in a constant volume chamber. High-speed imaging was used to quantify fuel plumes’ penetration length, plume cone angle and plume angle alternation due to deposit formation. Droplet size and velocities were measured with a Particle Doppler Phase Analyzer (PDPA). The experimental data was used to attain a better understanding of tip cocking effects in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2216
Brad Richard, Martha Christenson, Deborah Rosenblatt, Aaron Conde
Five Ford Transit Connect vans, operating on alternative fuels and propulsion systems, were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were powered with petrol, low blend ethanol (E10), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and an electric battery. Four test cycles were used representing city driving and cold-start (FTP-75), aggressive high speed driving (US06), free flow highway driving (HWFCT), and a combination of urban, rural, and motorway driving (WHVC). Tests were performed at temperatures of 22°C, with select tests at -7oC and -18°C. Exhaust emissions were measured and characterized including, on all cycles, CO, NOX, THC, TPM (except on WHVC), and CO2. On the FTP-75, WHVC, and US06 cycles additional exhaust emission characterization included N2O, and CH4. On the FTP-75 and WHVC, carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also characterized.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture to be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro donated by General Motors to the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. The process used to implement the hybrid electric vehicle architecture from the stock Camaro will be the primary focus of the research. Beginning with baseline testing, our team will develop a reference for the performance of the vehicle before the architecture has been implemented using the US06 and HWFET drive cycles. Furthermore, the implementation methods and safety considerations are going to be a large focus of integration as we validate the functional operating modes of the architecture. A charge depleting driving mode is tested for energy consumption using three different electric motor control strategies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2153
Hubertus Ulmer, Ansgar Heilig, Matthias Rühl, Boris Löw
Abstract This paper presents an innovative method for the calibration of internal combustion engines. While common calibration strategies and optimizations are usually based on stationary operation points, this new method uses quasi-stationary engine experiments. On the one hand, the time necessary for establishing a steady state of the engine can thus be omitted. Consequently, the duration of calibration runs can be reduced. On the other hand, an enhanced approach generates validated data from the transient or quasi-stationary test runs in order to complete the various engine maps. First validations of the method using a numeric engine model were carried out. Compared to a conventional steady state calibration and depending on the optimization parameter, the duration could be decreased by up to 74% from 350 hours to approximately 91 hours with constant quality of the measurement data.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2155
Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
Abstract In this investigation an innovative signal generator will be introduced, which enables the generation of transient control signals for the gearshift process. The signals are generated merely depending on scalar transmission control unit (TCU) calibration parameters. The signal generator replaces the comprehensive TCU software within the simulation environment. Thus no extensive residual bus simulation is required. Multiple experimental models represent the core part of the signal generator. To predict the system behavior of the underlying system, the models are trained using measured data from a powertrain with automatic transmission mounted on a test rig. The results demonstrate that the introduced signal generator is suitable to predict transient control signals for the gearshift operation accurately. In combination with an additional powertrain model it is possible to simulate the gearshift process and subsequently to evaluate the gearshift comfort.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2156
Christian Friedrich, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch
Abstract Due to the increasing number of engine setting parameters to be optimized, model based calibration techniques have been introduced to medium speed engine testing to keep the number of engine tests low. Polynomials in combination with d-optimal test plans have been proven to be a good choice for modeling the stationary behavior of selected engine outputs. Model approaches like artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been rarely used for medium speed purposes since they require quite high amounts of testing data for model training. To evaluate the potential of these model approaches radial basis function networks, a subclass of neural networks, as well as Gaussian processes have been investigated as alternatives to polynomials. A manageable amount of tests according to an adapted d-optimal test plan was carried out at a test bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2157
Huiyan Zhang, Lei Shi, Yi Cui, Kangyao Deng, Yuehua Qian, Baiqi Huo, Lin Hua
Abstract Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2159
Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Abstract Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2175
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Xiao Yu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng, Xiaoye Han, Jimi Tjong
Abstract A three-pole spark igniter, with the concept to broaden the ignition area, is employed in this paper to investigate the effect of spark discharge strategies on the early ignition burning process. The prototyped three-pole igniter has three independent spark gaps arranged in a triangular pattern with a circumradius of 2.3 mm. Direct-capacitor discharge techniques, utilizing close-coupled capacitors parallel to the spark gap, are applied on the three-pole igniter to enhance either the transient spark power or the overall energy. In particular, the simultaneous discharge of high energy plasma on three spark gaps can produce a surface-like ignition process which intensifies the plasma-flame interaction, thereby producing a rapid flame kernel development. The ignition strategies are evaluated in both constant volume combustion vessels and a modified single-cylinder metal engine.
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