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Viewing 1 to 30 of 12659
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Arvind R
Stringent emission norms for better quality of environmental air triggers a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission norms has to be ensured with improve fuel efficiency and control cost. This paper highlights an overview of hardware development and calibration strategies carried out for up gradation of 2.2 L common rail direct injection diesel engine, to meet BS V Emissions norms. Existing BS IV compliance engine is selected as a base engine. Target was to minimize possible engine out emission with reduce dependency on after treatment. Major hardware changes in the baseline engine includes reduction in compression ratio, Injectors, EGR cooler optimization, Turbocharger, Diesel oxidation catalyst.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0015
N Anandaraj
Fuel level sensor which communicates the fuel level to the dashboard has significant attention of the driver during vehicle usage. The advanced instrumentation provides lot of information on the dashboard display such as information about fuel level, computing mileage, miles to go or miles to empty, fuel economy, average mileage etc. At present the TFR with float arm type and Reed switch type sensors are being used, to have accurate information for this computing, the present sensors are not supporting due to its limitations like non linearity in the design, measuring in form of steps not continuous. The measurement accuracy of the fuel level sensor needs to be focused to relay on the information of the dashboard instrument. Hence it is become vital to have a sensor with better reliability, accuracy and easy to adaptable.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets will be upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines between 75 – 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to EU Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and maneuverability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed. In the situation of the high speed rear end collision where steering is more effective than braking the strategy of control design of rear wheel steering needs to be dynamically updated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0005
Vishakha S Bhagat, Siva Murugesan, Shamsundara B V, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
The paper proposes a design of an Emergency Intimation System (EIS) tailored fit for Indian consumer needs and available infrastructure. EIS is an emergency alert technology devised to assist drivers and passenger in an event of vehicle crash. Majority of deaths are caused by slow accident response time. EIS is aimed to lower this response time and ensure that the required rescue and medical services are made available in time. This device employed to make this emergency alerts will be fitted into the vehicle Electrical and Electronics (E/E) architecture and will have interfaces with crash sensor network, CAN network, GPRS and GPS. In an event of crash this device shall send an SMS to the numbers fed into its memory, comprising of information like Vehicle co-ordinates, airbag deployment status and time stamp. The design of unit makes it capable of retro fitment into the existing vehicles. Key words: Emergency, call, driver assist, design, India
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0002
Saravanakumar Subramanian, Periasamy Thangavel, Fathima Safna M I, Kannan S, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, R Velusamy
In the present scenario, when the vehicle is manoeuvring in the gradient, more clutch and accelerator pedal modulations are needed during stop and go condition. These kinds of pedal modulations are not desirable for many customers as it requires more skilled driving. Failure of doing such actions will even result in engine stalling which becomes an annoyance to such customers. In order to overcome this problem, the low idle speed of the engine can be increased only during the drive off condition. In this paper, we proposed the development and real-time testing of the control algorithm to increase the engine low idle speed during drive off. This proposed algorithm detects the drive off condition and then an offset value is added to increase the low idle speed. Various input conditions are considered to enable or disable the increment of engine low idle speed. The control algorithm has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink tool and tested using ETAS E-HOOKS tool.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0001
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
ADAS systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0009
Anusha Baskaran, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty
Driver safety and Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0007
Medha Santosh Jambhale, J Kale, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf, Arunrajkumar Govindhasamy, Karl-Eric Köstlin
ABSTRACT
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Obstacle detection is a widely studied field in the automotive industry because of the great importance it assumes in preventing passengers from facing any major accidents. This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed breakers are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets where potholes and speed humps lead to accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0012
Torben Mielke, Mircea Negrean, Wei Lu, Jonas Rox, Jan Gacnik
Modern distributed electronic vehicle systems like advanced driver assistance systems are unique selling points for modern cars. These systems integrate different vehicle domains and existing components. When implementing such new billable features, it is the key to change the existing E/E-architecture only where it is mandatory, to avoid unnecessary additional cost per unit. To minimize the required changes to the existing hardware platform when integrating new functionality, vehicle manufacturers need to have in-depth knowledge of their E/E-architecture. This knowledge allows designing distributed systems which can be integrated cost-effectively (i.e. with the least amount of changes) into the existing E/E-architecture. With modern vehicle architectures featuring several bus technologies (e.g. CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet) and several dozens of E/E-components, the required in-depth knowledge of such architectures can only be achieved using model-based analysis and design techniques.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Mukesh Kumar
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0040
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Diesel Engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to Gasoline Engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by 2013 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0100
Prasanna G Bhat
Abstract The Objective of this work is to upgrade existing TCIC Engine from current stage-I emission limits to the revised stage-II limits for diesel operated generating set application. In this optimization work, it is focused to meet the stringent emission limits by optimizing the existing engine without any major modification in the basic design. Over recent past years, stringent emission legislations have been imposed on reduction of emission parameters emitted from diesel engines. The concerned authorities have revised emission limits which are applicable from July 2014. The se revised limits are the most stringent limits for the category engines above 75 kW. This paper deals with the task of upgrading the present engine with certain design changes, experimentation details & strategies applied to meet the revised emission Norms. The criticality of the task surges exponentially for Turbocharger and Intercooled versions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0099
Rehan Shaik, Anand Kumar, R Padmavathi, Jagan G, Agarwal Anshul, Gourav Ganguly, Krishna Dwarshala, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar
With over seven billion people and 1.015 billion cars in the world today, the global energy requirement is skyrocketing. Over the past 30 years, governments in the world have been focusing on utilization of energy sources. The solution to the problems has been approached in several ways, such as advanced fuel injection system, best in cylinder combustion, reduced engine friction etc. To utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M) has come up with single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with flexible fuel injection system, reduced engine friction and best in cylinder combustion. In single cylinder naturally aspirated engines volumetric efficiency is a critical parameter to meet BS IV emission norms. Objective of the present work is to maximize the volumetric efficiency of the single cylinder engine by optimizing the valve timing. M&M single cylinder engine has got volumetric efficiency of around 80%.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0097
Prasanna G Bhat
Abstract Single cylinder and two cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a source of power generation, three wheelers as well as agricultural machines in small house-hold applications in India and other Asian countries. Use of high end technologies makes these engines too expensive. Therefore simple mechanically controlled components are used for these engines which make them simple in operation and maintenance. In order to meet stringent emission norms, there is a need for the development of these engines. The up-gradation of a two cylinder diesel genset engine is achieved with minimum hardware changes in the engine to make it cost effective. The engine is upgraded from Naturally Aspirated to Turbocharged Intercooled configuration with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The changes in hardware include selection of suitable turbocharger, intercooler, and EGR flow rate. Presently, there are very few twin cylinder diesel engines with turbocharging for genset application.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-DesignTM metallic substrates with Longitudinal structured foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behavior in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of PM. Mass flow controllers are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag in real time, at 5 Hz. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a micro bench bag emissions analyser.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0095
Bhagyada Dhingra, Sparsh Sharma, Kamalkishore Vora, Ashok B
This paper summarizes the research work incorporated in the exploration of the potential of swirling in CI Engine and designing of a new mechanism, particularly at inlet, to deliver it to improve the in-cylinder air characteristics to eventually improve mixing and combustion process to improve the engine performance. The research is concentrated on the measures to be done on engine geometry so as to not only deliver advantage to any specific fuel. According to the CI combustion theory, better engine performance may be achieved with Higher Viscous Fuel by improving the in-cylinder air-fuel mixing by increasing the swirl (rotation of air view from top of the cylinder) and tumble (rotation of air view from front of the cylinder) of in-cylinder air inside the fuel-injected region. The proposed inlet component is embedded with airfoil and is suitably designed after being iterated from four steps.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0094
Matti A Harkonen, Bosco Rajan, Alok Trigunayat, Neelam Jagtap
BS III norms (BS IV in 18 cities) have been implemented in India for a long time. There have been discussions over further country wide implementation of BS IV norms. All the engine categories (on-road & off-road) will be required to comply with stringent norms in future later then sooner. OEs have been working to comply with the norms. There has been a lot of work in the field of power train, transmission, aerodynamics etc. in order to make application better in all possible ways. However it has been largely focused on engine optimization and vehicle improvisation. The time has come when industry is staring on implementation of stringent norms and it will be vital to look at it in a whole perspective. It would not be tough to say there have been little work been done specifically on after treatment systems which has been focused Indian market and driving conditions. Performance challenges with catalyst systems have been well known to OEs as well system supplier.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0093
S. Jayagopal
The automobile industries have seen a great evolution since 19th century. Reducing the NOx emissions from Diesel engines remains as a challenging issue as the emission standards for Diesel engines & its powered vehicles have become more stringent than ever before. As one has to develop for improved life-style, something has to be sacrificed and one among them is global warming. So, many nations have come up with regulations to control exhaust emissions of the vehicles. In the case of Medium & Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, the emissions to be met on Engine Dynamometer on both ESC & ETC cycles for BS-IV or Euro-IV as on date. In which the optimizing the emission parameters to meet Random NOx requirement is logical technique to use.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms are based on US-EPA Tier 4 final, major technology up gradations is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. These solutions are varying from advanced in-cylinder combustion strategies to sophisticated exhaust after-treatment technologies. Generally, the proven technology concepts such as Common Rail System (CRS), efficient Turbocharged-Intercooled (TCI), controlled cooled EGR along with DOC-DPF in after treatment are used for emission controls. However, this approach will increase engine cost in addition to the Packaging challenges for the existing vehicle layouts.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0091
Ramakant Gode, Angshuman Goswami, Jyotirmoy Barman, Hardik Lakhlani
Air motion in a cylinder in a compression ignition engine affects on mixing of air-fuel, quality of combustion and emission produced. With upcoming stringent norms for diesel engines, it is necessary to enhance air-fuel mixing for proper combustion.Swirl, squish and tumble are three forms of air motion. Swirl is a rotational motion of a bulk mass within cylinder. Swirl is generated by shaping and countering intake manifold and valve ports. Swirl enhances air-fuel mixing and helps to spread flame-front during combustion. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of different swirl ratios on NOx and soot emission characteristics inside the cylinder of a DI Diesel engine. The effects of different geometrical parameters of helical port were studied and the swirl ratios are optimized by optimizing the geometrical parameter of helical port. This can be done by different manufacturing, polishing and grinding processes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put in the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a model of the physical plant of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature. To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, crystalline aluminosilicate etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope. This paper presents the performance studied under simulated conditions in a laboratory reactor as well as on a chassis dynamometer for mass emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0089
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Michele Miccio, Thomas Koerfer
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand delivers a novel air path control approach, developed by FEV, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Around 30% of the global warming is caused by the green house gases emitted from automobiles, out of which 60% is contributed by passenger cars. Globally, this scenario has taken prime importance for all organizations to reduce the Emission levels of their products. Many technologies have been developed in order to address Diesel engine emissions, out of which NOx reduction has been a top priority due to it toxicity. Extensive work on Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) has played a key role in reducing NOx emission (30% ~ 50% reductions). Relatively EGR with intercooling has shown greater improvement in BSFC and NOx reduction at higher load points in HSDI engines. EGR Cooler, merely a heat exchanger, cools the recirculated gas which in turn reduces the in-cylinder charge temperature and increases the EGR flow Rate as compared to hotter EGR. Selection of EGR system for a particular engine is critical.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan V, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Oxides of Nitrogen gases are one of the most harmful emissions from the IC Engines. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for CI engines. In order to achieve these NOx limits SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology is used for CI engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through aqueous urea solution injected in exhaust stream. The composition of aqueous urea solution is 62.5% water and 32.5% is urea. After injection, this aqueous urea solution disintegrated into Ammonia and carbon dioxide by Thermolysis and Hydrolysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram T, Kalyan Hatti
A methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system II (OBD II) is derived with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the system as per the requirement of commercial vehicle technology. This paper will give an overview of approach to the development of OBD II design concept / strategy as per requirement for variants of vehicles & engines keeping India specific design critique with regulatory requirements, compilation of design & development plan with supplier as a partner using a reliability tool DFMEA, DVVP & On road trials or vehicle level test. Paper will include, format of DFMEA, DVVP and vehicle level test results used during the development of OBD II.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
To meet OBD norms for oxygen sensor component in exhaust path, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to engine stop state of vehicle due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and lambda in the engine becomes “infinitely lean” or only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here are two transitions of lambda changes can be realized by oxygen sensor signal during engine running to engine stop, i.e. rich to infinitely lean and lean to infinitely lean.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12659