Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 12946
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun YANG
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1465
Sho Nikaido, Shota Wada, Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose
1. Background and purpose There are various contributing factors to accidents of bicycles, it is considered that cyclists often do not observe the traffic regulation that requires cyclists to stop before a stop line at an intersection. As a countermeasure to this type of accident, cycling assist systems that activate a warning system for cyclists have been researched and developed. This assist system warns the cyclist about the danger of a collision. Such an assist system needs to provide a warning with appropriate timing. It is necessary to clarify cycling characteristics in developing a countermeasure for traffic accidents at an intersection without signals. The findings of this study can be used for the future construction of an assist system that will encourage cyclists to observe traffic regulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
We have developed a bench test method to assess the driver distraction caused by workloads of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that the method can assess not only visual-manual tasks but also auditory-vocal tasks. The workloads are evaluated from performances of both pedal tracking (PT) and detection response task (DRT) during while performing secondary tasks. We can conduct the method with simple apparatuses such as a gaming pedal and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted at three different regions and different experimenters in the US in the same procedure. We used two kinds of visual-manual tasks and two kinds of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two different levels of workload for each of all the kinds of tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1403
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
This paper presents and discusses the continuous evolution of the developments in the area of collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems have been on the market for a decade, and the development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, collision avoidance systems now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. The development up to date, along with future challenges, are described and discussed according to challenge areas; e.g. detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Also, ways of assessing system effects are discussed. Numerous studies have been made predicting the effect of different systems, and the real world effects of these systems have been shown to be significant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina
Objective: Investigate statistical effects of repeated measures design in FCW (warning vs. no-warning ) evaluation Background: Repeated measures designs are often used in FCW testing despite concerns that 1st exposure creates expectancy effects which may dilute or bias outcomes Method: 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= no warning; B=FCW). They drove in a high-fidelity, motion-base simulator with a visual distraction task. After some 25 minutes of driving a simulated nighttime rural highway, a high-intensity forward collision threat arose during the distraction task. Response time was analyzed. Results: There was evidence of differential carryover and significant Period 1 vs. 2 effects which dilute the magnitude of difference between FCW and no warning relative to 1st exposure only. Also there was a trend toward slower response with no-warning after FCW exposure as first exposure than after no-warning as first exposure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna raj Nair m k
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1598
Milad Jalaliyazdi, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
In this paper, the problem of stability control of an electric vehicle is addressed. To this aim, it is required that the vehicle follows a desired yaw rate at all driving/road conditions. The desired yaw rate is calculated based on steering angle, vehicle speed, vehicle geometric properties as well as road condition. The vehicle response is modified by torque vectoring on front and/or rear axles. This control problem is subject to several constraints. The electric motors can only deliver a certain amount of torque at a given rotational speed. In addition, the tire capacity also plays an important role in the stability control. It limits the amount of torque they can transfer without causing wheel over spinning. These constraints make Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach a suitable choice, because it can explicitly consider the constraints of the control problem, in particular the tire capacity, and help to prevent tire saturation, which is often the onset of vehicle instability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0133
Clark Kinnaird
As many automotive functions migrate from purely mechanical to electrically-driven, the use of efficient brushless DC motors is becoming prevalent. This paper discusses the design of a BLDC controller, including the technical tradeoffs, hardware implementation, and testing results. Brushless DC motors are well suited to automotive applications due to their reliability and high efficiency. In applications such as oil pumps, water pumps, and turbo blowers where the motor lifetime and power dissipation are key parameters, these motors solve many design challenges. This design example examines the specific requirements for a compact solution for a water pump, but the design methodology and tradeoffs also apply to other motor control applications where efficient control of motor speed is needed. Like many applications, this design uses sensorless commutation algorithms, reducing cost and size.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0143
James Price
Consumer demands place the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation into cars at the same pace (faster time to market with no increase in cost) as the consumer industry does for consumer electronics. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles as well, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without further cost increases. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it’s impossible to compartmentalize design domains because it is connected in many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independently of each other and are not ideally suited to deal with any type of interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0201
Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Phil Barber, Stuart Burgess PhD
We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle . The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A nonlinear adaptive observer structure with a finite and exponential time converging regressor uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A novel system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and ADAS systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0203
Brian Anderson, Mark Brooks, Ryan Wilson, Purser K. Sturgeon II
There are several wireless interfaces in modern vehicles to include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), and the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS). Each of these could serve as an attack surface where direct physical access may not be needed to gain some influence over a part of the vehicle's operation. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is extremely useful in performing research into new protocols and protocol variations because of its extreme flexibility and configurability. In addition, researchers may use SDR technology to investigate and gain control over portions of the communication process that are typically proprietary. This presentation will review previous and projected uses of SDR technology to investigate wireless security threats on vehicles, including research on DSRC and cellular (3G and LTE) technology that is being carried out by the authors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya deshpande, Krishnan kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0251
Yoshikazu Nishida, Satoru komoda, Naoki Maruno
"The mounting of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) calls for the configuration of highly robust control systems. When mounting LIBs on the vehicle, it is important to accurately ascertain and precisely control the state of the battery. In order to achieve high durability, it is important to configure highly reliable systems capable of dependably preventing overcharging as well as to have control technology based on software that can contribute to extended battery life. The system configuration applies an overcharge prevention system that uses voltage detection with an emphasis on reliability together with a method for varying the range of state of charge (SOC) control in the vehicle according to the battery state in order to assure durability. In order to achieve this, battery-state detection technology was developed for the purpose of correctly detecting and judging the battery state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0263
Marco Puerschel, Andreas Kiep, Chris Spielman
The modern day power MOSFET is constructed using the latest technology in order to minimize the drain source resistance. The latest MOSFET technologies are capable of achieving the same drain to source resistance with a smaller MOSFET die than previous generations. This paper will discuss the Safe Operating Area of power MOSFETs and how to assess new MOSFET technology. The power MOSFET is built to reliably withstand extreme conditions. Operating the MOSFET beyond specified limits will however reduce is lifetime. In severe cases immediate catastrophic failure is possible. The Safe Operating Area (SOA) diagram included in MOSFET data sheets summarizes the MOSFET capabilities for many operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
A single malfunction in a product can initiate a costly product recall. With ever increasing reliance on electronic and electric components contributing to the functional safety of next generation vehicles, a malfunction may cause such inconvenience too. Automotive E/E systems perform highly networked functions, including dense system interactions, and with a large number of product variants and features, complexity increases beyond human susceptibility. This is considered to be the main source for systematic faults and does not only affect newly developed systems, like complex driver assistance systems. Also well-known systems often bear a non-negligible safety threat. Safety critical automotive product development starts with a comprehensive and well-coordinated concept phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0266
Rolf Schneider, Dominik Reinhardt, Dominik Juergens, Georg Hofstetter, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Graf
Within the German funded project ARAMiS the project partners intended to get ready for the future of electronics for mobility and integration of safety related functionality on upcoming multicore based hardware platforms. ARAMiS therefore also included work on several demonstrators one of which was an multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Specifically on this demonstrator the partners Audi, BMW, EFS and Infineon were working together to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. Thereby BMW and Audi intentionally implemented different integration solutions to gain both experience and real live data on different approaches including an hypervisor concept as well as using AUTOSAR-based methods for later comparison.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0268
Pablo Oliveira Antonino, Mario Trapp, Ashwin Venugopal
Safety requirements are crucial artifacts in the specification of safety-critical systems, since, as recommended by standards such as ISO 26262 and the DO-178C, they must result from a safety analysis of the architecture and must ultimately be addressed by architecture elements. Because of the key role of safety requirements in safety engineering, it is important to assure that they meet certain quality attributes. In particular, the “completeness” and “consistency” of safety requirements have been widely discussed, as industrial evidence has shown that the lack of guidance on how to specify safety requirements that are traceable to the architecture and to failure propagation models is one of the main reasons for their incompleteness and inconsistency, and, consequently, a root cause of safety incidents. For example, industry practitioners have revealed to us that it is common to document traceability ad-hoc, just prior to submitting a product for certification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0260
Ashlie B. Hocking, John C. Knight, M. Anthony Aiello, Shin'ichi Shiraishi
In domains such as automotive and aviation engineering, software verification is a critical component of software development. Various software verification techniques have been developed including different forms of testing, inspection, static analysis, and formal (mathematical) verification. Formal verification offers the great advantage that it corresponds, at least informally, to testing all possible paths through the software. Despite this advantage, formal verification has not been applied widely. Many reasons for this lack of application have been advanced, including the expected technical difficulty of the formalism and the anticipated cost. In this paper, we present an approach to formal verification in model-based development and report on a case study of its use on an automotive application. We illustrate the technical feasibility, potential results, and reasonable resource demands of the technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new feature rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems using the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr PhD, Thomas End PhD
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0280
Falco K. Bapp, Oliver Sander, Timo Sandmann, Duy Viet Vu, Steffen Baehr
As state-of-the-art technology, multicores gain more and more importance in automotive and aerospace systems. Not only in infotainment and non-safety-critical applications they are going to be used in near future. Also in safety-critical systems, this technology will be introduced. Various commercial off-the-shelf processors are available that are not built for such applications. In order to ensure a correct system behavior, online monitoring can be used for processors that target infotainment or general purpose applications. The cores and other bus masters within the MPSoC compete about the exclusive use of shared resources like for example a memory controller. It is of high importance to provide guarantees of usage, e.g. in terms of access time and rates, in such cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0270
Shuhei Yamashita
ISO26262 : Automotive Functional Safety Standard provides a guide for safety design by introducing structured approach of making ‘Safety Concept’. And it’s important to recognize that this specific idea of the standard :Safety Concept includes not only FSC and TSC (Functional Safety Concept / Technical Safety Concept) but also architectural design in both Hardware and Software. And during these Safety Concept making processes SR (Safety Requirement) derivation and detailing, SR allocation for system elements and ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrity Level) assignment on the element according to SR allocation have to be performed correctly. Further, in the processes so-called Decomposition and Coexistence of Safety Elements are also needed to be treated appropriately according to effective analysis. This time in the paper a new method for Safety Concept description which is expected to support automotive E/E engineers to achieve Safety Concept making processes properly is proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah YMLAHI OUAZZANI, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, Fault Injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase. This leads us to explore the benefits of safety analyses (FMEA, FTA, CPA or FFI Analysis…) for the definition of the test plan and particularly define efficient FI tests cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Today the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain - has to cover a variety of challenges: (1) increasing complexity because of interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, (2) pressure on cost reduction and faster time to market, (3) multidisciplinary of automotive systems has to be handled (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems) and (4) all these systems have to be compliant to functional safety standards like the ISO 26262 . The presented approach in this paper allows the handling of these challenges in an effective way to be competitive on the market. In this paper we present a model based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML to specify relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types different views on the available data can be provided corresponding to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, test, production, or even later when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform the hazard analysis iteratively in parallel with the development process. This safety-driven design technique is based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and is demonstrated in this paper using a realistic Shift-By-Wire design concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12946