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Viewing 1 to 30 of 13189
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall in an FPGA. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the developed CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed. The system is tested and verified for different frequencies to the see range of the applicable frequencies of the design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of our products. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair costs in earthmoving equipment is cost prohibitive. This technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and improving field "up time" performance. Application challenge: Developing a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environments typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2745
Florian Bauer, Jan Fleischhacker
A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system for Electronic Control Units (ECU) of electro-pneumatic brake systems is presented. The HiL system runs a real-time capable vehicle model comprising of both the vehicle dynamics and the electro-pneumatic brake system. The dynamic behaviour of the vehicle can be simulated either by a real-time multi-body vehicle model or by a simpler system dynamic (double-track) model. To assess the quality of the system dynamic vehicle model, it was compared to the multi-body vehicle model which was validated with comprehensive experimental results. Discrepancies can be seen for highly unsteady manoeuvres. Reasons for these discrepancies caused by the modelling topology of the system dynamic vehicle model will be given. In order to simulate the electro-pneumatic brake system, a real-time model has been developed and validated. The different topologies of brake systems can be assembled from components and integrated into the vehicle model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2840
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich PhD, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
ADAS applications are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing ECU networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) assistants directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior reliably with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage, to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extrememly diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras and maps are simulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio massarotti, pietro marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2841
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
In order to adapt to the quickening rhythm of the society and satisfy human's higher performance requirements of comfort and safety, the kinds of brake assist system has become more and more, smooth transformation of man-machine control is very important for the driver assistance system. At the same time, Brake-by-wire cancels the traditional mechanical connection of the system, the ECU to perceive the driver’s braking intention and send the instructions to the corresponding actuator. Thus, it is necessary to identify the driver's braking intention for Brake-By-wire system and the smooth transition of man-machine mode. This paper establishes recognition model for the driver’s braking intention recognition, which is based on analyzing and summarizing existing research of driver intention recognition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2848
Saleh Mirheidari, Abdolreza Fallahi, David Zhang, Kumar Kuppam
Autosar is finding its way into the automotive industry. European automotive manufacturing companies are the early adopters defining, promoting and sourcing Autosar automotive products. Autosar’s goal is to improve automotive electrical/electronics applications as they have reached a high level of complexity. Working with different suppliers and vendors and respect their confidentiality makes the process of application software development even more complicated. Presented in this paper is a creative way of utilizing Autosar to overcome the integration challenges in a multi-party object code based software integration. The run time environment (RTE) files for the application software are generated through a set of scripts to automate the process for consecutive releases. The low level device drivers are configured by one supplier and are being used by the other supplier through a set of Autosar client-server operation calls.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2796
Tobias Gutjahr, Holger Kleinegraeber, Thorsten Huber, Thomas Kruse
The use of design of experiment (DoE) and data-driven simulation has become state-of-the-art in engine development and calibration to cope with the drastically increased complexity of today’s engine ECUs (electronic control units). Based on the representation of the engine behavior with a virtual plant model, offline optimizers can be used to find optimal settings for calibrating the engine controller’s calibration, e.g. with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This increases the efficiency of the calibration process and reduces the need for expensive test stand runs. The present paper describes the application of Gaussian process regression, a statistical modeling approach that outperforms previous solutions based on polynomial models and artificial neural networks in terms of achievable model accuracy and usability. The implementation of the algorithms in a commercial tool framework allows for a broad use in series engine calibration.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2875
Olof Lindgärde, Lei Feng, Anders Tenstam, Mikael Soderman PhD
CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that both supports optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller denoted “Predictive Energy Buffer Control” controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way. Another focus is the communication between the driver and the control system.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2668
Ulrich Ungethuem, Dirk Simon
The hydraulic brake products like brake calipers, master cylinders and boosters are the foundation of today complex vehicle brake systems. The state of the art application leads very often to an individual design, due to the fulfillment of customer requirements within the available installation space. Also the enormous pressure on cost and time require optimized design processes. Therefore Continental developed the product configuration software CoBra. Within this software tool, the engineering is able to react very fast on demands. Starting with the brake sizing parameters and the customer interface definition, CoBra supports the design engineer to select the necessary components and positioning them accordingly, considering the actual design standards. The data based configuration software collects all necessary design parameters and provides an export to parametric CAD start up models.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2669
Bernhard Schmittner
Electric parking Brake was introduced in 2000 with an actuator integrated into the caliper, controlled by a standalone ECU. Then a variety of actuator technologies were realized. Cable pullers, motor on caliper, actuator in drum in hat with different control concepts. In 2012 the boom started - with a concentration on caliper integrated systems and with an integration of the ECU into the ESC system. New developments are requiring EPB out of different aspects - comfort and controllable standstill are requested. So EPB systems have to be adapted to the upcoming situation. Under the influence of the commercial situation the EPB systems and actuators have to be updated with a focus on standardization, modular boxes and simplification. A look on system and actutor principles and solutions shows a way to fullfill these requirements.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2707
Wei Li
This reseach presents the energy recuperation eddy current retarder (ERECR) which could offer a solution for the energy consumption and overheating issues of the conventional eddy current retarders. The ERECR consists of 3 main systems, namely Eddy Current Braking (ECB) system, Energy Recuperation (ER) system and Electrical Control System. The ER system which could recycle the kinetic energy from constrant speed downhill and the braking condition is mainly concerned in this research. By proposing a novel designed generator integrated with the dual-plate eddy current retarder, the ER system could generate electric energy to fulfill the energy demand of ECB system while offering respective braking torque. First, the energy flow for the vehicle braking and degrading was analyzed and the energy recovery potential under these conditions was calculated.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2698
Guirong Zhuo, Subin Zhang
In this paper, a novel Electromechanical Brake actuator (EMB) is redesigned aimed at an electric vehicle driven by wheel hub motor. The two way ball screw is adopted in this mechanism. Clearance automatic adjustment and parking braking function is added in this mechanism. As a consequence, fast braking response is achieved and the wear difference of the inner and outer pads can be minimized and the initial braking force can also be improved. The electric vehicle is based on a traditional chassis. In this electric vehicle which driven by wheel hub motor, the brake disc and brake actuator will be correspondingly moved inside because wheel hub motor will take up inner space of wheel hub. As a result, the actuator might interfere with the suspension and steering systems and influence hard spot of chassis design. To solve this problem, conversely installed caliper program is used in this paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2702
Chihoon Jo, Jaeseung Cheon, Jongsung Kim, Yongsik kwon
The EMB converts the electric set values into clamping forces at the brakes through an independent motor control at each wheel. EMB systems are now being developed by automobile part suppliers. In particular, as the market share of electrically powered vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles, elctric vehicle and fuelcell elctric vehicle, has expanded, the EMB makes it possible to recuperate the braking energy in the overall control loop of the braking unit, even in electrically powered vehicles. However, in order to commercialize, the EMB has many problems such as production competitiveness, reliability and regulations. A new concept, the Hybrid Electro-Mechanical Brake(hEMB) is characterized by a dual piston structure linked by hydraulics inside of the caliper. It is possible to reduce motor, actuator size and backup system in emergency through amplification of dual piston.[1] The hEMB is composed of caliper system, dual piston, screw, BLAC type motor and actuator.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2530
Pierre Dissaux
The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) standard defines a default runtime semantic for software intensive real time systems. This includes support for multi tasking, network distributed architectures and Time and Space Partitioning systems (TSP). The core definition of the language is extended by the Behaviour Annex that enables a more precise specification of the application real-time behaviour. This allows for the definition of functional pseudo-code for AADL threads and subprograms. It becomes thus possible to describe for instance critical sections or conditional computation depending on input port values. Such a consistent behavioural model can be used for various performance analyses like scheduling and simulation in the early phases of the software development process of real-time critical systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2411
Michal Sztykiel, Steven Fletcher, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
The increasing electrical demand in commercial and military aircraft justifies a growing need for higher voltage DC (e.g. ±270 VDC) primary distribution systems. A ±270VDC system offers reduced power losses and space savings, which is of major importance for aircraft manufacturers. At present, challenges associated with ±270 VDC systems include reliable fast acting short circuit protection. Solid State Contactors (SSC) have gained wide acceptance in traditional 28 VDC secondary systems for DC fault interruption. Nevertheless, the generation of adequate arc voltages for interruption at higher operating voltages and currents requires further technology maturation. This paper demonstrates an alternative method for fault mitigation by introducing bidirectional AC/DC converter topology with DC fault current blocking capability. Presently utilized converters lack this blocking feature due to the existing path for the fault current flow through the anti-parallel diodes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2420
Henry A. Catherino
The heat generation rate of a lithium ion cell was estimated using a reversible heat generation rate equation. Because the equation is based on the energy conservation law, the influence of kinetically slow processes should be considered. In this analysis, the influence of kinetically slow processes is present but it is small within the domain of the test measurements. This approximation can be of significant usefulness for modeling the thermal response of single cells and multi-cell batteries.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2453
Danilo Andreoli, Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Goodarz Ahmadi, Piergiovanni Marzocca
The control of the flow over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements, such as improved aircraft maneuverability, has been a lively area of research for last two decades. Active flow control can produce significant performance improvement when combined in a closed-loop control system. Synthetic jet actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around a hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio (LAR) wing section prototype developed by Clarkson University under the Advancement of Intelligent Aerospace Systems (AIAS) AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0051. Two arrays of custom made SJAs, installed in the proximity of the leading edge and flap of the wing section, make up the actuation system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2455
Roshen Jay Jaswantlal, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Rafael Palacios
Numerous studies on Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) have demonstrated their prospective effectiveness as flow control devices. Their implementation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provides a safe test-bed for analysis of improved performance, in the hope of certification of this technology on commercial aircraft in the future. SJAs are essentially lightweight, zero-net mass flux actuators that employ periodic suction and ejection of fluid through an orifice to affect flow fields near a surface. The actuator is usually made of a vibrating piezoelectric membrane that sits within a cavity. The use of high resolution numerical methods (i.e. CFD) to capture all the details of the effects of SJAs on flows are computationally expensive and time-consuming, which renders them ineffective for use in real-time flow control implementations. Suitable alternatives include the use of Reduced Order Models (ROM) to capture the lower resolution overall effects of the jets on the flow.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2470
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi
Cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) functions are key enablers for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2407
Theodoros Kostakis, Patrick Norman, Steven Fletcher, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
The aviation industry has witnessed a technological shift towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. This shift has been driven by a number of perceived benefits including performance optimization and reduced life-cycle costs. Increased electrification within MEA has made aircraft electrical networks larger and more complex and this necessitates an increased electrical power offtake from the engine. With this comes the need to better optimise the efficiency of engine electrical power extraction. The paralleling of multiple generation sources across the aircraft is one potential design approach which could help improve engine operability and fuel efficiency within more-electric aircraft platforms and this paper will investigate options for this to be implemented within the context of current design and certification rules.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2471
Alessandro Ceruti, Simone Curatolo, Alessandro Bevilacqua, Piergiovanni Marzocca
The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2408
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
This paper will propose a novel power generating system concept including auxiliary, backup and emergency power source. Existing aircrafts employs an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a ram air turbine (RAT) for the power generation besides aero-engine generators. APU works prior to stating the propulsion on the ground and as a backup power plant in the flight. RAT is activated due to keeping the essential system in the case of an emergency situation. Both systems are optimized on the conventional aircraft in which hydraulic, pneumatic and electric are supplied for the control and equipment. Although a conventional aircraft needs hydro pumps and air compressors, the coming of a new era of more electric architecture for aircraft and propulsion stimulates to improve the aircraft systems. In more electric aircraft, authors focus on the low pressure spool generation system of aero-engines.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. Code gives the plane's identity and radar stations establish speed and direction by monitoring successive transmissions. This data is then relayed to air traffic controllers. However, the aircraft mishaps have risen alarmingly in the past few decades resulting in unpredictable losses of human lives, nature, economically along with commotion of systems. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
From the dawn of commercial air travel until 2001, labor costs loomed as the greatest expense in commercial aviation. Though fuel costs have since taken the top spot, labor costs remain a pressing area of concern in the airline industry. Airlines have long sought to reduce the burden of labor to improve the businesses’ bottom line. One of their most frequent appeals has been to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Under-educated on the true failure rates, bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories about pilots becoming ill or falling asleep in the flight deck. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2415
Kyle Shimmin, Greg Russell, Robert A. Reuter, Steven Iden
A reduced order dynamic aircraft model has been created for the purpose of enabling constructive simulation studies involving integrated electrical power and thermal management subsystems using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization methods. Previous higher-order models that have been used for this purpose have the drawbacks of much higher development time, along with much higher execution times in the simulation studies. The new formulation allows for climbs, accelerations and turns without incurring computationally expensive stability considerations; a dynamic inversion control law provides tracking of user-specified mission data. To assess the trade-off of improved run-time performance against model capability, the reduced order formulation is compared to a traditional six degree-of-freedom model of the same air vehicle. Thrust command comparisons against the higher fidelity model are shown to be excellent.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2410
Fei Gao, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher, Patrick Wheeler
DC electrical power system (EPS) for the future more electric aircraft (MEA) is promising due to several advantages such as lower system cost and simpler structure. So far, dominant control methods for proper power sharing can be mainly divided into two categories: active load sharing and passive load sharing. For active load sharing scheme, three common approaches are popular: master-slave control (MS), centralized control and average current control. The common of three approaches is the need of communication line among the parallel modules. On the other hand, most of the recent research is focused on passive load sharing (decentralized control method) e.g., droop control. As a decentralized control method, parallel modules can operate independently since no communication among the sources is needed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 13189