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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2283
Andrew Smith
iOS devices, including iPhones and iPads, are being used increasingly for professional and scientific applications. Using an iOS device for noise & vibration measurements is an application with many advantages, given its small size, availability, cost, and ease of operation. We have created a system for measuring noise level, logging noise over time, doing FFT frequency analysis of sound, and measuring speech intelligibility using iPhones and iPads as the host device. This provides a portable, cost-effective, and easy to deploy test and measurement system. The main area of concern for the performance of the system is the transducer, which in the case of the microphone was designed for the speech applications, rather than wide-band acoustical analysis, and for the gyroscope, for recognizing gross movement.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2366
Golam Mainuddin, Mohamad Qatu
The mechanics of rotating machinery vibration is an interesting subject with considerable technical depth and breadth. Every rotating component has vibration issues. This is because concerns regard balancing, run-out and others. Automotive industries are always concerned to minimize noise and vibration level within comfort limit which is a key for marketing and thus industries’ business. Noise and vibration issues effect customer comfort and warranty claims, these are important to the auto industry. Light electric vehicles (EV) show different levels of NVH. Abrupt vibration and noise has been recorded for internal combustion engine during ignition. Researchers have been trying to minimize this issue to have EVs’ less noise and vibration in different conditions e.g. during startup and acceleration. To get an overall idea and to show the differences in between internal combustion engine and electric vehicle during accelerating mode, several test was run with a light electric vehicle.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2106
Mark Ray, Kaare Anderson
Cloud phase discrimination, with measurements of liquid water content (LWC) and ice water content (IWC) as well as the detection and discrimination of supercooled large droplets (SLD), are of primary importance due to several high-profile incidents over the past two decades. The UTC Aerospace Systems Optical Ice Detector (OID) is a prototype laser sensor intended to discriminate cloud phase, to quantify LWC and IWC, and to detect SLD and differentiate SLD conditions from Appendix C conditions. Phase discrimination is achieved through depolarization scattering measurements of a circularly polarized laser beam transmitted into the cloud. Optical extinction measurements indicate the liquid and ice water contents, while the differential backscatter from two distinct probe laser wavelengths infers an effective droplet size. The OID is designed to be flush-mounted with the aircraft skin and to sample the air stream beyond the boundary layer of the aircraft.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2095
Wolfgang Hassler, Reinhard F.A. Puffing, Andreas Tramposch
Recent research on thermal ice protection of electrically heated restraining grids designed for applications in the environmental control system (ECS) of passenger aircraft is presented. The restraining grids consist of interlaced, electrically insulated wire (the topology of the grids is similar to that of tennis rackets) and are – in certain operation modes of the ECS – exposed to an airstream containing supercooled water droplets and/or ice particles. Heat is generated in the wire by an electric current, and the temperature of the wire is controlled with the aid of an electronic control system.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2152
Earle Williams, Michael Donovan, David J. Smalley, Robert G. Hallowell, Elaine P. Griffin, Kenta T. Hood, Betty J. Bennett
MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the CONVAIR 580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2086
Matthew Grzych, Terrance Tritz, Jeanne Mason, Melissa Bravin, Anna Sharpsten
The significant problem of engine power-loss and damage associated with ice crystal icing (ICI) was discussed in Mason et al [1]. These engine events included engine surge, stall, flameout, rollback and compressor damage and were connected to the ingestion of high concentrations of ice crystals associated with deep convective clouds. Since that time, several industry and government collaborations have taken steps to address the many technological requirements identified by the Engine Harmonization Working Group (EHWG) in 2007 [2]. The EHWG identified the need for in-situ measurements of ice concentration and size distribution to aid in the development of engine test facilities and methods to simulate the environment. Researchers are also addressing a second technology requirement identified by the EHWG: fundamental studies on the physics of ice accretion in the engine. Both efforts require study environments to be similar to the ones that cause in-service engine events.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2153
David Serke, Michael King, Andrew Reehorst
In early 2015, the NASA Glenn Research Center will conduct a field campaign based out of Cleveland, Ohio with 60 flight hours on the Twin Otter icing research aircraft. The purpose of the field campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing within the terminal airspace. The terminal airspace is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this case was Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland. Two new and improved algorithms have been developed and will be operated during the field campaign. The first is the 'NASA Icing Remote Sensing System', or NIRSS. NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have developed this icing remote sensing technology which has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station1,2.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2112
Thomas Schlegl, Michael Moser, Hubert Zangl
We present a system of completely autarkic temperature and capacitive icing sensors for aircraft. The consequences of icing on aircraft are described, for example, in [1] and [2]. Flexible (i.e. bendable) sensors, which are truly wireless and do not require maintenance, are easily mounted to almost any point on the aircraft surface (e.g. wings, fuselage, rudder, elevator, etc.). The entire sensing unit has a size of less than 100 mm times 170 mm (3.397 in times 6.693 in). The overall thickness can be kept lower than 2 mm (0.079 in) at the current status of development. It comprises the sensor front-end, processing electronics, buffered solar harvesting and a low-power radio frequency transmitter. The system transmits measurement results via an RF link to a monitoring system, which comprises a receiver antenna and a receiver circuit located at a suitable position on the aircraft. The employed sensor principle was first suggested in [3].
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2248
Florian Pignol, Emiel Tijs, Daniel Fernandez Comesana, Daewoon Kim
It is important to determine the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin in order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment. Accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, however, the radiated sound is not always captured accurately. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper is dedicated to the evaluation of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener’s position. To achieve a good signal to noise ratio during acoustic transfer paths a novel monopole sound source was designed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2335
Scott Amman, Francois Charette, Paul Nicastri, John Huber, Brigitte richardson, Gint Puskorius, Yuksel Gur, Anthony Cooprider
Quantifying Hands-free Call Quality in an Automobile Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2256
Colin Troth
This paper considers some aspects of rigid body dynamics of power trains with respect to noise and vibration (by definition a power train (PT) term here is an engine plus transmission). Rigid body concepts are very important in helping assess unwanted levels of flexibility of PT’s and attached ancillaries e.g. mounting brackets. Using rigid body concepts it is possible to define vibration and noise ‘entitlement’ to what can theoretically be achieved. Targets can then be to set based upon these entitlements. This can then lead to better more robust designs to achieve higher levels of refinement. Dedicated software and the use of generic 3 and 4 cylinder one litre in-line PT’s are used to aid this study which can be shown to adhere more to rigid body behaviour due to their compact designs and lower (frequency) dominant orders of excitation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1009
Cameron W. Tanner, Kenneth Twiggs, Tinghong Tao, David Bronfenbrenner, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama
Abstract Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
Abstract Dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. In this paper, a new motor driven clutch actuator with a force-aid lever has been proposed. A spring is added to assist clutch apply that can effectively reduce the motor size and energy consumption. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of this new clutch actuator, and the force-aid lever actuator's principle, physical structure design, and validation results are discussed in details.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1108
Hongqing Chu, Yong Chen, Lishu Guo, Bingzhao Gao, Hong Chen
Abstract In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1197
Chao Chen, Franz Diwoky, Zoran Pavlovic, Johann Wurzenberger
This paper presents a system-level thermal model of a fluid-cooled Li-Ion battery module. The model is a reduced order model (ROM) identified by results from finite element analysis (FEA)/computational fluid dynamic (CFD) coupling simulation using the linear and time-invariant (LTI) method. The ROM consists of two LTI sub-systems: one of which describes the battery temperature response to a transient battery current, and the other of which takes into account of the battery temperature variation due to a heat flux induced by a varied inlet temperature of the battery cooling circuit. The thermal LTI model can be coupled to an electrical model to build a complete system-level battery ROM. Test examples show that the ROM is able to provide as accurate results as those from FEA/CFD coupling simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1190
Matthew Shirk, Jeffrey Wishart
Abstract As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level two electric vehicle supply equipment, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kilowatt fast charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals throughout on-road mile accumulation. Battery tests performed include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1189
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Abstract A major challenge in the development of the next generation electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1192
Xudong Xu, Xuezhe Wei, Hong Gao, Jiangong Zhu, Jing Yang, Yaofeng Liu
Abstract Lithium-ion battery charging strategy affects charging time of electric vehicles, energy efficiency of entire vehicle, service life and safety. This paper focuses on the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery, based on the battery internal mechanism and the working conditions, taking charging time, effective full-charge capacity and charge energy efficiency as the evaluation indexes. Firstly, through a series of comparative experiments of the constant-current constant-voltage and the constant current charging strategy, the evaluation indexes variations in different temperatures and charging currents have been studied in the paper. By analyzing the respective characteristics of constant current charging phase and constant voltage charging phase in the whole charging process and their own contributions, we have found out the superiority of the constant current charging strategy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1191
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy battery model based on the porous electrode theory is used in the paper, which can comprehensively depict the internal state of the battery. The effect of battery key parameters (the radius of particle, electrochemical reaction rate constant, solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficient, conductivity) to the simulated impedance spectroscopy are discussed. Based on the EIS analysis, a lithium-ion battery optimized equivalent circuit model is built. The parameters in the equivalent circuit model have more clear physical meaning. The reliability of the optimized equivalent circuit model is verified by compared the model and experiments. The relationship between the external condition and internal resistance could be studied according to the optimized equivalent circuit model. Thus the internal process of the power battery is better understood.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1194
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract Wireless charging system for vehicular power batteries is becoming more and more popular. As one of important issues, charging power regulation is indispensable for online control, especially when the distance or angle between chassis and ground changes. This paper proposes a novel power regulation method named Z-Source-Based Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (ZSB-PAM), which has not been mentioned in the literatures yet. The ZSB-PAM employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors connected in X shape) to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source. By controlling the shoot-through state of H bridge, the input voltage to H bridge can be boosted, thus the transmitter current can be adjusted, and hence, charging current and power for batteries. A LCL-LCL resonant topology is adopted as the main transfer energy carrier, for it can work with a unity power factor and have the current source characteristic which is suitable for battery charging.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1193
Hiroto Maeyama, Toru Sukigara
Abstract Lithium-rich layered oxide, expressed as xLi2MnO3-(1-x) LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, etc.), exhibits a high discharge capacity of 200 mAh/g or more and a high discharge voltage at a charge of 4.5 V or more. Some existing reports on cathode materials state that lithium-rich layered oxide is currently the most promising candidate as an active material for high-energy-density lithium-ion cells, but there are few reports on the degradation mechanism. Therefore, this study created a prototype cell using a lithium-rich layered cathode and a graphite anode, and analyzed the degradation mechanism due to charge and discharge. In order to investigate the causes of degradation, changes in the bulk structure and surface structure of the active material were analyzed using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1196
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood
Abstract Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and to quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1195
Kiyotaka Maeda, Masashi Takahashi
Abstract To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we performed tailoring to derive power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and were run on seven different road types at different speeds while data on the acceleration of the battery packs were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square accelerations were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, both experiments and theory suggest that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X- and Y-axes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1184
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Abstract The performance, life cycle cost, and safety of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) depend strongly on their energy storage system. Advanced batteries such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries are quite viable options for storing energy in EVs and HEVs. In addition, thermal management is essential for achieving the desired performance and life cycle from a particular battery. Therefore, to design a thermal management system, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. The thermal characteristics that are needed include the surface temperature distribution, heat flux, and the heat generation from batteries under various charge/discharge profiles. Therefore, in the first part of the research, surface temperature distribution from a lithium-ion pouch cell (20Ah capacity) is studied under different discharge rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1183
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan, Anush Nair, Mithun Manalikandy, Anurag Reghu, Jacob John, V S Rani
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular these days owing to concerns over exhaustion of conventional fuel sources, pollution from combustion, as well as high carbon foot print of these fuels. Lithium-ion batteries are widely preferred as the source of power for hybrid and electric vehicles because of their high monomer voltage and high energy density. Accurate estimation of the State of Charge (SoC) of battery is crucial in the electric vehicle. It provides the information on the range of operation of the vehicle. It also ensures the safety and reliability of the battery unit. Accurate State of Charge estimation also enables more optimized battery pack design for the electric vehicle. Conventional methods for State of Charge estimation such as Coulomb counting and Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) measurement suffer from inaccuracies and is affected by noise during the vehicle operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1181
Zhihong Jin, Zhenli Zhang, Timur Aliyev, Anthony Rick, Brian Sisk
Abstract Power limit estimation of a lithium-ion battery pack can be employed by a battery management system (BMS) to balance a variety of operational considerations, including optimization of pulse capability while avoiding damage and minimizing aging. Consideration of cell-to-cell performance variability of lithium-ion batteries is critical to correct estimation of the battery pack power limit as well as proper sizing of the individual cells in the battery. Further, understanding of cell variability is necessary to protect the cell and other system components (e.g., fuse and contactor, from over-current damage). In this work, we present the use of an equivalent circuit model for estimation of the power limit of lithium-ion battery packs by considering the individual cell variability under current or voltage constraints. We compare the power limit estimation by using individual cell characteristics compared to the estimate found using only max/min values of cell characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1182
Mehrdad Mastali Majdabadi Kohneh, Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the best candidates as energy storage systems for automobile applications due to their high power and energy densities. However, durability in comparison to other battery chemistries continues to be key factor in prevention of wide scale adoption by the automotive industry. In order to design more-durable, longer-life, batteries, reliable and predictive battery models are required. In this paper, an effective model for simulating full-size LIBs is employed that can predict the operating voltage of the cell and the distribution of variables such as electrochemical current generation and battery state of charge (SOC). This predictive ability is used to examine the effect of parameters such as current collector thickness and tab location for the purpose of reducing non-uniform voltage and current distribution in the cell. It is identified that reducing the non-uniformities can reduce the ageing effects and increase the battery durability.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1187
Nils Lohmann, Peter Haussmann, Patrick Wesskamp, Joachim Melbert, Thomas Musch
Abstract Battery aging is a main concern within hybrid and electrical cars. Determining the current state-of-health (SOH) of the battery on board of a vehicle is still a challenging task. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is an established laboratory method for the characterization of electrochemical energy storages such as Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) cells. EIS provides a lot of information about electrochemical processes and their change due to aging. Therefore it can be used to estimate the current SOH of a cell. Standard EIS methods require the excitation of the cell with a certain waveform for obtaining the impedance spectrum. This waveform can be a series of monofrequent sinusoidal signals or a time-domain current pulse with a dedicated Fourier spectrum. However, any form of dedicated perturbation is not generally applicable on board of an electric vehicle.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12928