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2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0104
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanya Klongnaivai
Nowadays, satellite navigation technologies have involved more in vehicle application. In previous study, the accuracy of navigation system were effect to the level of application such as driving behavior, lane-by-lane detection. The famous GPS (Global Positioning System) form United State has been deployed for years. However, other satellite navigation system also available such as Russian GLONASS or Chinese Beidou or Regional QZSS from Japan. The combination of multiple satellite system could increase availability and accuracy of navigation system. ears In this study, the commercial satellite navigation receivers has been evaluated, two u-blox M8N were set into multi-GNSS (1) [GPS+Beidou+QZSS] and (2) [GPS+GLONASS+QZSS] and a u-blox 6H as reference for GPS. All receivers were installed in experimental vehicle to test in urban road, sub-urban road and highway. The 2D accuracy were evaluated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
A methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system II (OBD II) is derived with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the system as per the requirement of commercial vehicle technology. This paper will give an overview of approach to the development of OBD II design concept / strategy as per requirement for variants of vehicles & engines keeping India specific design critique with regulatory requirements, compilation of design & development plan with supplier as a partner using a reliability tool DFMEA, DVVP & On road trials or vehicle level test. Paper will include, format of DFMEA, DVVP and vehicle level test results used during the development of OBD II.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0181
Mukund Trikande, Sujithkumar Muralidharan, Vinit Jagirdar
Road disturbances introduce a combination of vertical and angular motions of pitch and roll that affect the stability and ride comfort of a military vehicle. This study focuses on the enhancement of stability and ride comfort. A half car model with 4 Degree of freedom (DOF), whose vehicle chassis can pitch and bounce, is modeled in Simulink with the objective of attitude control using Stability Augmentation System (SAS). Control is implemented at two levels, one at the suspension level which is an open loop control for improving the ride and the other is closed loop for controlling the body motion by sensing pitch and bounce displacement. The inner loop is utilised to reject the effect of road disturbances and outer loop is to stabilize heave and pitch response. In other words, inner loop provides ride control and the outer loop provides the attitude control. The control force is obtained by using an active damper.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of PM. Mass flow controllers are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag in real time, at 5 Hz. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a micro bench bag emissions analyser.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. A range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of EGR is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-DesignTM metallic substrates with Longitudinal structured foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behavior in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Obstacle detection is a widely studied field in the automotive industry because of the great importance it assumes in preventing passengers from facing any major accidents. This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed breakers are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets where potholes and speed humps lead to accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0203
Nikhil V. Mahajan, Shriniwas Chippa P, Abhijit Majage S
Static & Dynamic Analysis of Body Control Module N. V. Mahajan1, S. P.Chippa1*, A. S. Majage2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, pune 2Finite Four Technologies, pune *Correspondence author : chippashriniwas@gmail.com Abstract Nowadays, the passenger cars are employing more and more electronic devices for controlling various mechanisms. This has increased the demand for such equipments in the passenger car. The electronic devices for controlling the mechanisms such as keyless entry, window, wiper controllers, mirror controls, engine performance monitors, security systems, lighting control are mounted on Printed Circuit board (PCB) which is enclosed inside the plastic cover assembly called Body Control Module (BCM). The Body control module is attached inside the dashboard assembly which is subjected to various loading conditions. In addition, space and height constraints should also be taken into consideration.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and maneuverability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed. In the situation of the high speed rear end collision where steering is more effective than braking the strategy of control design of rear wheel steering needs to be dynamically updated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0117
Deepak Sharma, Sreenath K Reghunath, Ashwini Athreya
In the era of increasing the emission standards, hybrid technology is emerging to be the future mobility due to its reduced emissions and also for its fuel economy benefits. In Hybrid Vehicles, IC Engine sometimes operates in inferior efficiency points due to non-availability of secondary power unit support during low torque requirement. This happens due to lack of sufficient energy in the secondary energy storage system. The paper presents the concept of intelligent Stored Energy Control in Hybrid vehicles, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the future energy consumption pattern of the secondary unit. Based on the secondary power unit characteristics, a dynamic equivalent energy reserve calculation is done. The activation and deactivation of the secondary power unit is decided based on continuous monitoring of the level of stored energy and the reserve calculation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0120
Sohan Sontakke, Pankaj Kumar
The Performance of Electric Hybrid Transmission system is controlled by Electronic control unit (ECU). ECU Casing, which packages Printed circuit board (PCB) with components soldered on both sides, have to protect the PCB and components from • Thermal Damage • Dust and Water ingress • Vibrations in the vehicle • Air-Pressure fluctuations Paper enlightens Product development Architecture of ECU Casing explaining all Phases of product cultivation from processing of inputs till validation of the product. Requirement Analysis being first phase, analyses all PCB requirements, mechanical requirements related to product certification. Architecture Conceptualization being second phase, analyses layout optimization, Material Category, Manufacturing Category, Production Process, Material Grade. Design being third phase, analyses all aspects of Engineering Design, Manufacturing Design, and Feasibility Design.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0009
Anusha Baskaran, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Driver safety and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0042
Suresh Kumar Gurusamy, Chandrasekar Rajagopalan, R Sateesh Kumar, B Ashok
Abstract In present commercial vehicles, the cranking torque required for a heavy duty compression ignition engine is very high. This results in higher durability and reliability requirement of cranking system components and also makes it cumbersome to implement start-stop micro hybrid feature which requires more number of cranking cycles in lifetime. Hence higher capacity starter motor and battery is being used for implementing start-stop feature. However this would result in cost and packaging issues. In order to implement start-stop feature maintaining the same starter motor and battery capacity, the cranking energy demand of the engine needs to be reduced. Studies conducted shows that the major source of breakaway torque is the work done in compression stroke during a starting cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0114
Siddharth Das, Sushil S Ramdasi, Rakesh Mulik, Neelkanth V Marathe
Depleting fossil fuels and increasing emissions have led the automotive manufacturers and various researches - development organizations to develop various alternate energy sources for automotive propulsion systems. Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have always complimented to the development of more efficient drivetrain systems. Electric Vehicles are considered to be Zero Emission Vehicles, but with a said limitation of range of the vehicle. Commercial Hybrid Electric Vehicles gives the extra added range compared to an electric vehicle, but the tail pipe emissions come into picture because of the IC engine being used in conjunction with the electric drive train. Therefore in order to achieve extended range and zero tail pipe emissions intensive research is going on for the development of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0137
Himanshu Agrawal, Abhishek Arun Kakade, Arun Kumar Singh, Sandeep N Shetty
Abstract Fan is generally used for cooling of alternator and an undesirable side effect of these fans is generation of flow induced noise. With stricter regulations and growing importance on acoustic comfort in present day market, it's very important to address flow induced noise problems early in product development stage. With physical testing, it would not be possible to get information on source strengths thus, limiting its usage. Whereas simulation on the other hand would be able to provide source strengths, directivity pattern and source ranking. This paper focuses on numerical simulation of alternator's fan for prediction of air- borne noise. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based transient analysis is performed with high fidelity turbulence model using commercial software package, ANSYS Fluent. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) model is used for modeling sound propagation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0002
Saravanakumar Subramanian, Periasamy Thangavel, Fathima Safna M I, Kannan Sornam, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, R Velusamy
In the present scenario, when the vehicle is manoeuvring in the gradient, more clutch and accelerator pedal modulations are needed during stop and go condition. These kinds of pedal modulations are not desirable for many customers as it requires more skilled driving. Failure of doing such actions will even result in engine stalling which becomes an annoyance to such customers. In order to overcome this problem, the low idle speed of the engine can be increased only during the drive off condition. In this paper, we proposed the development and real-time testing of the control algorithm to increase the engine low idle speed during drive off. This proposed algorithm detects the drive off condition and then an offset value is added to increase the low idle speed. Various input conditions are considered to enable or disable the increment of engine low idle speed. The control algorithm has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink tool and tested using ETAS E-HOOKS tool.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
Stringent emission norms for better quality of environmental air triggers a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission norms has to be ensured with improve fuel efficiency and control cost. This paper highlights an overview of hardware development and calibration strategies carried out for up gradation of 2.2 L common rail direct injection diesel engine, to meet BS V Emissions norms. Existing BS IV compliance engine is selected as a base engine. Target was to minimize possible engine out emission with reduce dependency on after treatment. Major hardware changes in the baseline engine includes reduction in compression ratio, Injectors, EGR cooler optimization, Turbocharger, Diesel oxidation catalyst.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
To meet OBD norms for oxygen sensor component in exhaust path, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to engine stop state of vehicle due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and lambda in the engine becomes “infinitely lean” or only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here are two transitions of lambda changes can be realized by oxygen sensor signal during engine running to engine stop, i.e. rich to infinitely lean and lean to infinitely lean.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0001
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrades image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0012
Torben Mielke, Mircea Negrean, Wei Lu, Jonas Rox, Jan Gacnik
Abstract This paper sketches a model based E/E-architecture analysis and design process for the development of distributed in-vehicle systems. Together with a model based system development, the sketched analysis and design process results in a cost-effective E/E-architecture which fulfills all the requirements for the developed in-vehicle system. As an example scenario, the integration of a new feature into a car, which requires integrating a new distributed function into the existing E/E-architecture of the car, is shown.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0086
Prakhar Srivastava, Manish Laxman Karle, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand A Deshpande
Abstract Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is a safety critical system because it affects vehicle stability and dynamics. In EPAS, electric motor takes the power from the battery and delivers this power to rack and pinion only on demand. Since EPAS contains electrical component such as Motor and electronic component such as Electronic Control Unit (ECU), reliability of these components is very important. To ensure safety and reliability, ISO 26262 standards are adapted which are derived from IEC 61508. This standard regulates the product development on system, hardware and software level and manages functional safety for electrical and electronic components. This paper discusses the applicability of the ISO 26262 standard to the development of EPAS ECU with respect to its hardware and software design. Hazard analysis and risk assessment of the basic EPAS architecture is performed and architecture is improved to achieve safety goal as per the standard.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0088
Prashant Daggolu, Anthony Joseph, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji
Abstract Diesel exhaust is typically at lower temperature compared to gasoline exhaust and would need a catalyst that has activity in low temperature range to be effective. Hence considerable research has been directed to improve low temperature activity of catalysts used in diesel application. One of the aspects that has been widely reported in literature is that small Pt clusters have a positive effect on reducing the CO light off temperature (LOT). To examine this phenomenon closely, the present work was taken up to correlate Pt cluster size with performance. Catalysts were prepared on various supports - Alumina, Siliceous clay, ceria-zirconia, etc with different metal loadings and the calcinations conditions were varied both in time and temperature as well as calcinations atmosphere. The cluster sizes were ascertained using Phillips Tecnai 20 Transmission Electron Microscope.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0005
Vishakha S Bhagat, Siva Murugesan, Shamsundara Venkataramaiah Belavadi, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
The paper proposes a design of an Emergency Intimation System (EIS) tailored fit for Indian consumer needs and available infrastructure. EIS is an emergency alert technology devised to assist drivers and passenger in an event of vehicle crash. Majority of deaths are caused by slow accident response time. EIS is aimed to lower this response time and ensure that the required rescue and medical services are made available in time. This device employed to make this emergency alerts will be fitted into the vehicle Electrical and Electronics (E/E) architecture and will have interfaces with crash sensor network, CAN network, GPRS and GPS. In an event of crash this device shall send an SMS to the numbers fed into its memory, comprising of information like Vehicle co-ordinates, airbag deployment status and time stamp. The design of unit makes it capable of retro fitment into the existing vehicles. Key words: Emergency, call, driver assist, design, India
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0007
Medha Santosh Jambhale, J Kale, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf, Arunrajkumar Govindhasamy, Karl-Eric Köstlin
ABSTRACT
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9102
Mauro Madonia, Antonio Di Furia, Samantha Bonasia, Dean Vucinic
Abstract This paper presents a structural analysis of an engine chassis for a disc-shaped airship demonstrator. The objective was to verify such design solutions for application in the European Union's MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project. In many airship designs, the engines are attached to the airship frame, located inside the balloon, in order to allow for thrust vector control. These airships have aerodynamic control surfaces to improve maneuverability. For the demonstrator, three engines are considered, with a non-rigid internal structure for their attachment. The engines are located on a horizontal plane (the symmetry plane of the balloon), with two lateral engines and one in front of the balloon. The chassis installation allows the engines to be attached either directly to the exterior envelope by using Kevlar connections, or to the central structural pipe.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0007
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander K. Rowton, Keith D. Grinstead, Paul J. Litke, Marc D. Polanka
Abstract In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. In cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ piezo-electric pressure sensing elements and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure as well as to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions. The pressure sensors were installed and adjusted to ensure cylinder volume after sensor installation matched the engine's original configuration within reasonable manufacturing tolerances. A series of tests at four throttle settings ensued to determine if either device altered the combustion volume or the engine's performance.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0073
Horizon Walker Gitano, Ray Chim, Jian Loh
Abstract Recent concern over air quality has lead to increasingly stringent emissions regulations on ever smaller displacement engines, resulting in the application of Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) to the 100cc-200cc class 2-wheelers in many countries. In the pursuit of ever smaller and less expensive EFI systems a number of unique technologies are being explored, including resistive type oxygen sensors. In this paper we investigate the application of a prototype resistive oxygen sensor to a small motorcycle EFI system. Measurements of the exhaust system temperatures, and Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) and resistive sensor response are carried out, and compared to the standard zirconia oxygen sensor to create an estimate of the sensor's in-use performance. Motorcycle performance data are compared using both a standard zirconia switching type oxygen sensor, and the new resistive type oxygen sensor to control the air/fuel ratio.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0075
Kazuyoshi Shimatani
Abstract Various sensors including throttle position sensors (TPS), manifold pressure sensors (MPS), crank angle sensors, engine temperature sensors, and oxygen sensors are mounted in electronically controlled fuel injection (FI) systems to accurately regulate the air-fuel ratio according to the operating state and operating environment. Among these vehicle-mounted sensors, TPS has functions for detecting a fully-closed throttle and estimating intake air volume by the amount of throttle opening. Currently, we have conducted a study on transferring TPS functions into the MPS (manifold pressure sensor) in order to eliminate the TPS. Here we report on detecting a fully-closed throttle for achieving fuel cut control (FCC) and idle speed control (ISC) in fuel injection systems. We contrived a means for fully-closed throttle detection during ISC and controlling changes in the bypass opening during FCC in order to accurately judge each fully-closed throttle state via the manifold pressure.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12650