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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2095
Wolfgang Hassler, Reinhard F.A. Puffing, Andreas Tramposch
Recent research on thermal ice protection of electrically heated restraining grids designed for applications in the environmental control system (ECS) of passenger aircraft is presented. The restraining grids consist of interlaced, electrically insulated wire (the topology of the grids is similar to that of tennis rackets) and are – in certain operation modes of the ECS – exposed to an airstream containing supercooled water droplets and/or ice particles. Heat is generated in the wire by an electric current, and the temperature of the wire is controlled with the aid of an electronic control system.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2152
Earle Williams, Michael Donovan, David J. Smalley, Robert G. Hallowell, Elaine P. Griffin, Kenta T. Hood, Betty J. Bennett
MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the CONVAIR 580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2283
Andrew Smith
iOS devices, including iPhones and iPads, are being used increasingly for professional and scientific applications. Using an iOS device for noise & vibration measurements is an application with many advantages, given its small size, availability, cost, and ease of operation. We have created a system for measuring noise level, logging noise over time, doing FFT frequency analysis of sound, and measuring speech intelligibility using iPhones and iPads as the host device. This provides a portable, cost-effective, and easy to deploy test and measurement system. The main area of concern for the performance of the system is the transducer, which in the case of the microphone was designed for the speech applications, rather than wide-band acoustical analysis, and for the gyroscope, for recognizing gross movement.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2366
Golam Mainuddin, Mohamad Qatu
The mechanics of rotating machinery vibration is an interesting subject with considerable technical depth and breadth. Every rotating component has vibration issues. This is because concerns regard balancing, run-out and others. Automotive industries are always concerned to minimize noise and vibration level within comfort limit which is a key for marketing and thus industries’ business. Noise and vibration issues effect customer comfort and warranty claims, these are important to the auto industry. Light electric vehicles (EV) show different levels of NVH. Abrupt vibration and noise has been recorded for internal combustion engine during ignition. Researchers have been trying to minimize this issue to have EVs’ less noise and vibration in different conditions e.g. during startup and acceleration. To get an overall idea and to show the differences in between internal combustion engine and electric vehicle during accelerating mode, several test was run with a light electric vehicle.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2106
Mark Ray, Kaare Anderson
Cloud phase discrimination, with measurements of liquid water content (LWC) and ice water content (IWC) as well as the detection and discrimination of supercooled large droplets (SLD), are of primary importance due to several high-profile incidents over the past two decades. The UTC Aerospace Systems Optical Ice Detector (OID) is a prototype laser sensor intended to discriminate cloud phase, to quantify LWC and IWC, and to detect SLD and differentiate SLD conditions from Appendix C conditions. Phase discrimination is achieved through depolarization scattering measurements of a circularly polarized laser beam transmitted into the cloud. Optical extinction measurements indicate the liquid and ice water contents, while the differential backscatter from two distinct probe laser wavelengths infers an effective droplet size. The OID is designed to be flush-mounted with the aircraft skin and to sample the air stream beyond the boundary layer of the aircraft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1375
James Price
Compressed development cycles drive increased focus on virtual development, including both functional verification and quantitative simulation of electrical system designs. However, one hurdle often cited is the effort needed to develop behavioral models of electrical components such as wires, fuses, and ECUs. This presentation shows that it is fully possible to obtain reliable and surprisingly accurate results using the simplest of models. By placing these models in a re-usable library and providing a simple, visual interaction environment, early design debugging using a computer becomes possible for every electrical engineer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1464
Qiang Chen, Miao Lin, Bing Dai, Jiguang Chen
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. The accident analysis aims to develop test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. Beyond that, this study was also with the goal of estimating the effectiveness of potential reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians by AEB systems.Based on statistics, more than 25% of traffic fatalities were pedestrians in China. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems are already penetrating the vehicle market and are designed to offer protection against the occurrence and severity of collisions. However there is a need to evaluate the systems and their effectiveness. Test methods for such active safety systems are being developed and will be implemented in NCAP tests in the near future, e.g. 2016 in Euro-NCAP, and most probably in 2018 C-NCAP tests (still in consulting phase).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0172
Won Kyung Ham, Sangchul Park, JiMyoung Park, Minsuk Ko, Min-Ho Yoo
Abstract Presented in this research is methodology for modeling the behavior of an automotive ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to verify in a production system. The methodology of this paper is to verify the defects of ECU products during in a real operation, before the defective ECU equipped to an automobile. The performance of an ECU operation is dependent on not only the specification of a hardware device, but also a software program installed in the memory of an ECU. The software program of an ECU is able to be validated before installation, but the validation process is usually executed in a very controllable environment. In order to consider the software program which is frequently changeable in practice, the verification methodology of ECU products as the hardware device and software program integrated is required for detecting defective ECU products caused by inappropriate software program during in manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0174
Advaita Datar, Amey Zare
Abstract Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques commonly use static analysis to detect property violations in modern software systems. However, besides checking for general programming errors like division by zero, array index out of bound etc., certain program patterns can also be verified in order to detect inconsistencies in the software. For instance, there could be several strongly related program entities, such as groups of variables or data structure members updated together, which are often observed across various parts of a program. We term such strongly related entities as group variables. When only a subset of group variables is updated at some part of a program, it could probably be a result of some inconsistency in implementation which may lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. Therefore, verifying group variables and their write operations is essential to ensure the safety and reliability of software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei Huang, Jinfeng Gong
Abstract Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle types to meet the increasingly stringent standards in energy saving and environment protection. To meet the control demands, China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop an advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles. The developed VCP is well structured on both hardware and software and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. This paper describes the design of the hardware, the software architecture, the base software and the control strategy applied in the VCP in detail. A matching method is proposed to configure the VCP to a real VCU for the specific application by modifying the hardware channel definition and the control parameters. The paper shows successful application of the VCP on several types of pure electric vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1468
Radovan Miucic, Xinzhou Wu, Sue Bai, James Misener
This paper explores using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) that can improve safety by exchanging messages between vehicles and pedestrians. In recent years, the percentage of pedestrian fatalities has risen in the US compared to other traffic crash victims. In 2012 alone there were 4743 pedestrian fatalities, which is 14.1 percent of the total fatalities. DSRC is the next chapter for the advanced vehicle safety systems, which can reduce the total number of fatalities and injuries. Even though the DSRC was intended for the vehicle-to-vehicle communication it can be extendable to vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In August 2012 we successfully demonstrated this prototype safety system using an off-the-shelf smartphone with a modified Wi-Fi transceiver and a DSRC-equipped vehicle. In addition to existing on-board sensors, DSRC can provide an opportunity to increase pedestrian visibility, enable the vehicle to warn the driver and assist in vehicle control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
Abstract Our study unveils what smart cars are needed to minimize congestion by traffic stability. We have previously considered pacer cars with single lane road networks based on a car following model, e.g. adaptive cruise control (ACC). However, pacer cars may have a limitation with multi-lane roadways in terms of lane distribution of traffic and shockwave suppression. Therefore, we motivate building a new smart car which extends the capability of pacer cars allowing lane changing at the timing of congestion detection. In essence, the congestion detection plays a role of adjusting the (time) headway of smart cars to determine whether lane changes should be undertaken. Lane changes can be used to uniformize (or equalize) lane distribution for traffic (flow) stability. Our simulation study has suggested that the proposed smart cars enforce the capability of traffic stability more than manual and pacer cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0328
Wilko Jansen, Joe Amodeo, Sam Wakelam, Kamalesh Bhambare
Abstract The level of infotainment in today's vehicles and the customer expectation of the functionality imply a significant effort is required on thermal management of the systems, to guarantee their full operation under all operating conditions. The worst case thermal conditions the system will get exposed to are caused by solar loading on the cabin or heat up as a result of cabin heating. Simulation of a solar load driven case will be discussed in this paper. The long soak conditions during these tests result in the modelling requirement for long natural convection periods. This is creating a challenge for the conventional CFD simulations in turnaround time. New simulation methodology has resulted in significant speed up enabling these fully transient simulations in a reasonable turnaround time to enable programme support. A two phase approach to simulating this problem is proposed in this paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0317
Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi
Abstract This paper describes a robust Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework of lane change for automated driving vehicles. In order to develop a safe lane change for automated driving, the driving mode and lane change direction are determined considering environmental information, sensor uncertainties, and collision risks. The safety margin is calculated using predicted trajectories of surround and subject vehicles. The MPC based combined steering and longitudinal acceleration control law has been designed with extended bicycle model over a finite time horizon. A reachable set of vehicle state is calculated on-line to guarantee that MPC state and input constraints are satisfied in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been conducted simulation studies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0207
Xiping Ma, Zhenchun Xia, Haotian Wu, Xianan Huang
Abstract Powertrain diagnosis has been demanded with growth & complexity of powertrain electronic control system and enforcement of law & regulation in the last decades. In regulation OBD II, requirement of misfire monitoring has been demanded much more strictly. A variety of diagnosis methods for misfire have been proposed and developed, however most of them either depend greatly on special or expensive sensors or suffer from the disturbance of vibration due to non-misfire reasons. One combination of Frequency Domain Analysis and Fuzzy Logic to perform the misfire diagnosis is proposed. It takes full advantage of property of frequency domain analysis and fuzzy logic, providing accurate and robust detection results, without adding additional hardware diagnosis instruments.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0176
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Jens Harnisch, Albrecht Mayer, Udo Dannebaum, Herbert Christlbauer
Abstract In recent years, we see more and more ECUs integrating a huge number of application software components. This process mostly results from the increasing amount of so called in-house software in various fields like electric-drive, chassis and driver assistance systems. The software development for these systems is partially moved from the supplier to the car manufacturers. Another important trend is the introduction of new network architectures intending to meet the growing communication requirements. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more quality of service requirements with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered [2]. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional, but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for modern electronic systems [6,7,8,9].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0180
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Kai Richter, Konrad Reif, Andreas Schulze, Torsten Flämig
Abstract With the increasing complexity of electronic vehicle systems, one particular “gap” between function development and ECU integration becomes more and more apparent, and critical; albeit not new. The core of the problem is: as more functions are integrated and share the same E/E resources, they increasingly mutually influence and disturb each other in terms of memory, peripherals, and also timing and performance. This has two consequences: The amount of timing-related errors increases (because of the disturbance) and it becomes more difficult to find root causes of timing errors (because of the mutual influences). This calls for more systematic methods to deal with timing requirements in general and their transformation from function timing requirements to software architecture timing requirements in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12924