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Viewing 1 to 30 of 12958
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2438
Maria Founti, Yannis Hardalupas, Christopher Hong, Christos Keramiotis, Kumara Gurubaran Ramaswamy, Nikolaos Soulopoulos, Alexander Taylor, Dimitrios P. Touloupis, George Vourliotakis
Engine research is focused on fulfilling the demand for high performance and comfort levels, as well as to satisfy tough vehicular exhaust emission regulations. Diesel engines, in particular, dominate the land transportation sector and their performance optimization is essential. In this regard, novel, sophisticated operating modes incorporate a variety of combinations including multiple injection strategies and excessive exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This diversion from traditional diesel combustion poses difficulties regarding engine control and load flexibility, necessitating fuel-engine synergies identification. Conventional diesel combustion is governed by fuel and air mixing and reaction rates, or in other words, by both kinetically- and mixing- controlled phases. Kinetically-controlled combustion schemes, such as partially-premixed, essentially restrain the diffusion phase, which is largely responsible for soot formation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2473
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Giovanni Meccariello, Maurizio Lazzaro
In internal combustion engines, the direct injection at high pressures produces a strong impact of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall, especially in small-bore sizes used for passenger cars. This effect is relevant for the combustion process resulting in an increase of the pollutant emissions and in a reduction of the engine performances. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior and atomization of the impinging sprays on the wall. The gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside an optically-accessible quiescent chamber using a novel make ready Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up using a high-speed C-Mos camera as imaging system. The arrangement was capable to acquire alternatively the schlieren and Mie-scattering images in a quasi-simultaneous fashion using the same line-of-sight.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2544
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Pierluigi Antonini
Within the “Industria 2015” Italian framework program, the HI-ZEV project has the aim to develop two high performance vehicles: one full electric and one hybrid. The hybrid vehicle is a sport car with an internal combustion engine with a maximum power of 300 kW and an electric motor with a maximum power of 150 kW. It is equipped with a 400 V, 15 Ah storage system. Special batteries are required due to the high values of discharge current needed to supply the electric subsystem (up to 25 times the nominal current). Also a dedicated cooling system has been designed, to avoid a dangerous rising temperature, due to such high currents. The cells used have been the Demon 5Ah OCCL (Oxygen-Cobalt-Carbon-Li-Ion technology). Every single module is composed by 6 cells in series with 22.5V of nominal voltage, while the battery pack is made with 18 modules in series and 3 in parallel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2418
Zheming Li, Xin Yu, Guillaume Lequien, Ted Lind, Marcis Jansons, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter
The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature flame front usually has been used to detect the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. OH* chemiluminescence is self-radiation from the exited states OH (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information. However, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the ground state and it only shows the OH distribution in a thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. So in this work a relatively thick laser sheet (3 mm) was employed to partially compensate the 3D geometry effects from two techniques. In diesel engine, the cycle-to-cycle variation is usually very significant. In order to subtract this cycle-to-cycle variation influence from the comparison of these two techniques, a simultaneous measurement is needed. They were performed in a heavy duty optical diesel engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2454
Zhenkan Wang, Slavey Tanov, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
It has been proven that Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of extremely restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, which leads more smooth combustion, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In this work, a light duty optical engine was used to conduct high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections at different start of injection (SOI) timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2455
Slavey Tanov, Zhenkan Wang, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation. To achieve a longer ignition delay, which increases the overall combustion stability, different fuel injection strategies were applied. In this work, the effect of multiple injections and variable flow swirl on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence were investigated. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is conducted to an optical Direct Injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. PRF 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) was used as PPC fuel. The quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry in order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similar as possible to the flow which would exist in a production engine.
2015-07-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9142
Henry A. Catherino, Fred Feres
Abstract Deep charge and discharge cycling of 24 Volt battery strings composed of two 12 Volt VRLA batteries wired in series affects reliability and life expectancy. This is a matter of interest in vehicle power source applications. These cycles include those specific operational cases requiring the delivery of the full storage capacity during discharge. The concern here is related to applications where batteries serve as a primary power source and the energy content is an issue. It is a common practice for deep cycling a 24 volt battery string to simply add the specified limit voltages during charge and discharge for the individual 12 Volt batteries. In reality, the 12 Volt batteries have an inherent capacity variability and are not identical in their performance characteristics. The actual voltages of the individual 12 Volt batteries are not identical.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2112
Thomas Schlegl, Michael Moser, Hubert Zangl
Abstract We present a wireless sensor system for temperature measurement and icing detection for the use on aircraft. The sensors are flexible (i.e. bendable), truly wireless, do not require scheduled maintenance, and can be attached easily to almost any point on the aircraft surface (e.g. wings, fuselage, rudder, elevator, etc.). With a sensor thickness of less than two millimeters at the current state of development, they hardly affect the aero dynamical behavior of the structure. In this paper, we report laboratory and field results for temperature measurement and icing detection.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2095
Wolfgang Hassler, Reinhard F.A. Puffing, Andreas Tramposch
Abstract This paper deals with thermal ice protection of electrically heated restraining grids designed for applications in the environmental control system (ECS) of passenger aircraft. The restraining grids described in the paper consist of strung, electrically insulated wire and are - in certain operation modes of the ECS - exposed to an airstream containing supercooled water droplets and/or ice particles. Heat is generated in the wire by an electric current, and the temperature of the wire is controlled with the aid of an electronic control system. A substantial question for laying out the controller and for operating the grids is the following: What minimum heating power is required to prevent ice accretion on the surface of the wire, i.e., what is the least heating power that is necessary to keep a grid being exposed to specific icing conditions devoid of ice? This problem is studied for a simple model system first and is then examined for restraining grids.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2086
Matthew Grzych, Terrance Tritz, Jeanne Mason, Melissa Bravin, Anna Sharpsten
Abstract The significant problem of engine power-loss and damage associated with ice crystal icing (ICI) was first formally recognized by the industry in a 2006 publication [1]. Engine events described by the study included: engine surge, stall, flameout, rollback, and compressor damage; which were triggered by the ingestion of ice crystals in high concentrations generated by deep, moist convection. Since 2003, when ICI engine events were first identified, Boeing has carefully analyzed event conditions documenting detailed pilot reports and compiling weather analyses into a database. The database provides valuable information to characterize environments associated with engine events. It provides boundary conditions, exposure times, and severity to researchers investigating the ICI phenomenon. Ultimately, this research will aid in the development of engine tests and ICI detection/avoidance devices or techniques.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2106
Mark Ray, Kaare Anderson
Abstract Cloud phase discrimination, coupled with measurements of liquid water content (LWC) and ice water content (IWC) as well as the detection and discrimination of supercooled large droplets (SLD), are of primary importance in aviation safety due to several high-profile incidents over the past two decades. The UTC Aerospace Systems Optical Ice Detector (OID) is a prototype laser sensor intended to discriminate cloud phase, to quantify LWC and IWC, and to detect SLD and differentiate SLD conditions from those of Appendix C. Phase discrimination is achieved through depolarization scattering measurements of a circularly polarized laser beam transmitted into the cloud. Optical extinction measurements indicate the liquid and ice water contents, while the differential backscatter from two distinct probe laser wavelengths implies an effective droplet size.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2152
Earle Williams, Michael F. Donovan, David J. Smalley, Robert G. Hallowell, Elaine P. Griffin, Kenta T. Hood, Betty J. Bennett, Mengistu Wolde, Alexei V. Korolev
Abstract MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars* for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the Convair-580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2153
David Serke, Michael King, Andrew Reehorst
In early 2015, a field campaign was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The purpose of the campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing (or icing aloft, as opposed to ground icing) within the terminal airspace. Terminal airspace for this project is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this instance is Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland. Two new and improved algorithms that utilize ground-based remote sensing instrumentation have been developed and were operated during the field campaign. The first is the ‘NASA Icing Remote Sensing System’, or NIRSS. The second algorithm is the ‘Radar Icing Algorithm’, or RadIA.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2248
Florian Pignol, Emiel Tijs, Daniel Fernandez Comesana, Daewoon Kim
Abstract In order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment determining the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin is important. Although accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, the sound contributions are not always captured accurately with such approaches. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using microphones combined with particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car [6]. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper focusses on the measurement of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener's position.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2256
Colin Troth
Abstract This paper considers important aspects of rigid body dynamics of power trains with respect to noise and vibration (by definition a power train (PT) term here is an engine plus transmission). Flexibility of PT's and their ancillaries leads to unwanted levels of noise and vibration. By employing rigid body concepts we can assess the levels of unwanted flexibility of whole PT's and their ancillaries e.g. mounting brackets. Using dedicated software based on rigid body theory it is possible to define vibration and noise ‘entitlement’ i.e. minimum vibration and noise that can theoretically be achieved. Targets can then be to set based upon these entitlements. This can then lead to better more robust designs to achieve higher levels of refinement. The use of generic 3 and 4 cylinder one liter in-line PT's modes are used within the software to aid this study.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2279
Giovanni Rinaldi, Chris Moon, Bret Engels
Abstract A unique Matlab-based coded engineering software tool (Time-Frequency Analyzer Core®) was developed that allows users to process acquired time data to help in identifying sources and paths of noise and vibration (in the experience of the authors). The Time-Frequency Analyzer Core (TFAC) software does not replace commercial off the shelf software/hardware NV specific tools such as modal analysis, ODS, acoustic mapping, order tracking, etc., rather it aims at providing basic, yet powerful data inspection and comparison techniques in a single software tool that facilitates drawing conclusions and identifying most effective next steps. The features and advantages of using this software tool will be explained, along with a description of its application to a few different cases (automotive and off highway/agricultural).
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2281
Shrirang Deshpande, Randall Allemang
Abstract Spectral maps and order tracks are tools which are susceptible to improper sensor location on rotating machinery and to measurement noise. On a complex/large rotating system, the major behavior in a particular direction cannot be observed by using standard digital signal processing averaging techniques on different sensor outputs. Also, measurement noise cannot be reduced by applying averaging - due to the slew rate of the system. A newly developed technique tested on experimental data, is presented which uses singular value decomposition (SVD) as its basis to improve the observability of rotating systems. By using data acquired from multiple accelerometers on a machine, singular values - obtained from a SVD of the cross-power matrix at each 2-D point in the frequency-RPM domain - can be plotted in a color-map format similar to a RPM spectral map.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2283
Andrew Smith
Abstract iOS devices, including iPhones and iPads, are being used increasingly for professional and scientific applications. Using an iOS device for noise and vibration measurements is an application with many advantages, given its small size, availability, cost, and ease of operation. A system for measuring noise level, logging noise over time, doing FFT frequency analysis of sound, and measuring speech intelligibility has been created. This platform has been developed to use either an iPhone or iPad as a host device. This provides a portable, cost-effective and easy to deploy test and measurement system. The main area of system performance concern is the transducer. The typical transducer in an iOS device is designed with speech analysis in mind, rather than wide-band acoustical analysis. Additionally, the iOS device gyroscope has been optimized to recognize gross movement, rather than detailed fine movement. The strategy for addressing these set of issues has been two-fold.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2215
Thomas L. Lago
Abstract How to decrease noise and vibration exposure has been of interest for many years. Empirical data have indicated that too high dose values can create multiple problems to a human body - often severe. Some years back, the European Machinery Directive has increased the responsibility for manufacturers and employers to make sure limits are complying with legislation. Classical technology often consists of passive solutions aiming at trying to cut back on noise and vibration levels. For low frequency, these methods are often lacking the needed performance especially if weight should be considered at the same time. A smart combination of passive and active techniques can make a real difference. Today, with possibilities for low cost and embedded electronics and the rapid development of new actuators, a vast range of applications are possible for this combined combat approach, with a financial advantage as well.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2222
Nikos Zafeiropoulos, Marco Ballatore, Andy Moorhouse, Andy Mackay
Abstract Axle forces from tire-road interaction can excite different structural resonances of the vehicle hence a high number of sensors is required for observing and separating all the vibrations dynamics that are coherent with the cabin noise. Feed-forward road noise control strategies adopted so far rely mainly on capturing these dynamics and thus the number of sensors constitutes one major limitation of this approach. Therefore there is a necessity for reducing the number of sensors without degrading the performance of an ANC system. In the past coherence function analysis has been found to be a useful tool for optimizing the sensor location. In this case coherence function mapping was performed between an array of vibration sensors and the headrest microphones in order to identify the locations on the structure that are highly correlated with road noise bands in the compartment.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2335
Scott Amman, Francois Charette, Paul Nicastri, John Huber, Brigitte Richardson, Gint Puskorius, Yuksel Gur, Anthony Cooprider
Abstract Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality.
2015-06-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9042
Timo van Overbrueggen, Michael Klaas, Björn Bahl, Wolfgang Schroeder
Abstract New combustion processes require an understanding of the highly three-dimensional flow field to effectively decrease fuel consumption and pollutant emission. Due to the complex spatial character of the flow the knowledge of the development of the flow in an extended volume is necessary. Previous investigations were able to visualize the discrete three-dimensional flow field through multi-plane stereoscopic PIV. In this study, cycle resolved tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurement have been performed to obtain a fully resolved representation of the three-dimensional flow structures at each instant. The analysis is based on the measurements at 80°, 160°, and 240° after top dead center(atdc) such that the velocity distributions at the intake, the end of the intake, and the compression stroke at an engine speed of 1,500 rpm are discussed in detail.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
Abstract The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system (LICELGIS) is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle. The LICELGIS starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed, efficiency and emission reduction, as well as the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the reversing control method and the energy utilization efficiency in the starting process of the LICELGIS. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the fewest driving cycle and the evaluation index are obtained. Meanwhile, the velocity tracking mode and the position tracking mode is proposed for the control of the starting force reversing. The motions of the starting process under two control method are comparatively analyzed, indicating that the former has a high efficiency, while the latter is more likely to achieve.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
Abstract This paper presents a novel technology to achieve very power (4W, 3.2W LED+0.8W driver) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp (55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp (6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm; the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Abstract Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitor systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve visibility of surrounding environment to the driver. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of legally prescribed mirrors. A CMS must also take into consideration several factors in the designed system to satisfy an overall system magnification and system resolution. Some factors pertain to the camera, and display inside the cockpit, but some other are related to the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity, height, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exists a fundamental nonlinear equation for a given CMS encompassing factors that influence the performance of the system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Abstract Due to the development towards automated or even autonomous driving, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will be required in vehicles. The main challenge for this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably. The transformation of these structures and functional principles from nature into technical solutions is combined within the keyword ‘bionic’.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0243
Ludwig Brabetz, Tobias Kerner, Mohamed Ayeb
Abstract The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 12958