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2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
Abstract In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0054
Eduard Lyubimov, Sergey Gladyshev, Dmitriy Istselemov, Nikolay Belyaev
The synchronous electrical machines are used in regular cars, electrical, and hybrid cars as generators or motors. They need to be tested after fabrication and also during maintenance. For this purpose can be used suggested measurement complex. The software structure of the considered measurement complex was defined according: Russian, IEC, and IEEE standards for testing synchronous machines. The software of measurement complex was designed by using Lab VIEW development modules and is orientated to work with National Instruments hardware. It consist of nine interconnected Virtual Instruments (VIs) to carry out: the no-load test, the sustained short-circuit test, the V-curve test, the load angle test, to plot Potier diagram, the sudden short circuit test, to acquire the transient response characteristic and determine optimal PID controller parameters, to generate test report, to control the testing process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0148
Diljith Kunnamcherry Muthuvana
The main purpose of the V2X system is to enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. Since the Automotive diaspora is now moving for a safe, connected and intelligent mobility. The V2X system allows communication over the air with other V2X traffic participants, the participants include the target vehicles or roadside units equipped with a V2X system and uses this information exchange to warn the driver about potential road hazards, thereby extending a vehicle’s field of vision. This will in turn enhance the safety and efficiency of the driver. One possible scenario could be that the V2X system receives information from a vehicle involved in an accident and then warns about this accident ahead via the HMI display. The V2X system also collects vehicle data and prepares it to generate messages send out to other V2X participants over the air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1221
Kiyoshi Ito, Takumi Shibata, Takashi Kawasaki
Drive motors such as for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles require windings that can endure use at high voltages. The winding is the main part for which insulation needs to be assured in the motor operating environment. In addition, consideration should also be given to insulation damage during molding. Conventional motors generally secure insulation by using the two parts of the winding and insulating paper to assure insulation. However, this increases the motor space factor and hinders size reduction. A new high-voltage winding formed by molding extruded resin onto an enamel insulating layer was developed to reduce the number of insulating parts and enhance motor performance. Extrusion molding of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin onto an insulating layer realized a winding that can withstand the molding load during motor manufacture, secures durability for the automobile motor operating environment and can maintain high-voltage characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1235
Johannes Gragger, Alessandro Zanon, Michele De Gennaro, Jonathan Juergens, Antonio Fricassè, Luca Marengo, Igor Olavarria, Jutta Kinder
The widespread of hybrid and battery electric vehicles is vital for the future low-carbon mobility. In this context the delivery of affordable and efficient electric motor technologies together with high energy density storage devices are key aspects to enable the mass market take-off of electrified vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results and design features of an innovative and rare-earth free electric motor technology based on the synchronous reluctance machine concept. This technology is capable to provide sufficient power density and higher driving cycle energy efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machines used for automotive applications. The motor is designed to be integrated within a hatchback rear driving axle vehicle, achieving the maximum energy efficiency in urban operational conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
On the way to automated driving, the market penetration of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop new integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1406
Rainer Neumann
Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas. In US this development was well recognized and NHTSA is preparing a way to enable and approve the ADB systems with specific boundary conditions also for the US market.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0030
Jungkyum Yu, Geesu Lee, Hyunsung Lee, Jaepoong Lee, Kwangil Kim, Youngsuk Kim, Sangkyong Lee, Sangwoo Jeon, Kyongsu Yi
As an effective approach for the design, implementation and testing of control systems, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing has been used in many research areas. This paper describes a real-time HIL simulation test for the automotive electronic control system. The HIL system proposed in this paper consists of three parts: real-time target hardware, electronic control unit (ECU) of automotive electronic control systems and signal-conditioning unit which regulates the voltage levels between real-time target and ECU. The HIL simulation evaluates the mechanical and electronic behaviors in real time using off-line simulation models by interfacing real-target with electrical control units via interface box. The model was developed by MATLAB/Simulink. The model is composed of mechanical part which predicts dynamic behaviors and electronic part to calculate the motor speeds, current and electronic loads under the various conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0033
Tao Wang, Sumin Zhang, Weiwen Deng
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has gained increasing popularity in recent years, as it is widely used in navigation, mapping, radar motion compensation and other related fields due to the high accuracy of 3D positioning and speed information for all kinds of users. As for the field of intelligent vehicle, the measurement accuracy and error model of GPS are needed to be known in order to ensure the credible results in the virtual simulation environment for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and active safety technologies. Thus, it is important to establish the correct GPS observation error model when applicable. The simulation of GPS observed values and GPS positioning are both interrelated and different, for GPS positioning is used to determine the 3D position of the observed GPS signal in a certain position, and the simulation of GPS observed values attempts to restore the GPS signal which can be observed by using the 3D position that is already known.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1658
Jie Huang, Lu Xiong, Songyun Xu, Zhuoping Yu
With the development of the electrification of the automobile, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB)- a kind of the electronic hydraulic brake system. In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of integrated electronic hydraulic brake system(I-EHB). Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0108
Jihas Khan
Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries as they have given promising results by reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming much complex considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence , simulation of radar sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs while even Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where real radar sensor is by passed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0278
Philipp Bergmeir, Christof Nitsche, Jürgen Nonnast, Michael Bargende
In order to achieve high customer satisfaction and to avoid high warranty costs caused by component failures of the power-train of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), car manufacturers have to optimize the dimensioning of these elements. Hence, it is obligatory for them to gain knowledge about the different types of vehicle usage being predominant all over the world. Therefore, in this paper we present a Data Mining system that combines an Autoencoder, i.e., a special kind of Artificial Neural Network used for unsupervised representation learning, with t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding, i.e., a technique for dimensionality reduction, to automatically identify and visualize different types of vehicle usage by applying them to aggregated logged on-board data, i.e., load spectrum data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1478
William T. Neale, David Hessel, Daniel Koch
This paper presents a methodology for tracking the motion of objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians, or cyclists that are visible in video footage captured with only one camera. Objects are tracked in the video footage based on their pixel properties. This tracking process results in two dimensional coordinate data based on the video footage resolution. This data can then be transformed to three dimensional data where the geometry of the scene that is visible in the video footage is known. This paper explains the automated process of first tracking pixels in the video footage, and then remapping the 2D coordinates onto three dimensional geometry using previously published projection mapping techniques. What is unique in this process, that is not unavailable in other photogrammetry tracking process is the time reduced in tracking the object, since it is automated, and that the shape and size of the object being tracked does not need to be known.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. During fast idle, late IVO results in a small improvement in HC emissions and a deterioration of the PM emissions. The advanced exhaust phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Automation of automobile can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and developed in every countries. Automated driving is introducing according to automated levels from 0 to 5 (0:no automation, 1:driver assistance, 2:partial automation, 3:conditional automation, 4:high automation, 5:full automation). Currently, feasible automation level is considered to be Level 2 or 3, and take-over from automated system to human manual driving is needed when the automated system overs at these levels. In this situation, required time for take-over is an important issue. This study focus on describing driving simulator experimental results of required time for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead when automated driving on the high way and issues take-over request to the driver. The subject driver is under the following driver situations : hands-on or hands-off to the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0824
The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy of the current and previous cycles. Parameters studied include the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the engine speed increases. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the residual gas fraction or the amount of residual fuel. The amount of fuel injected in the previous cycles is found to significantly impact the current cycle PM/PN emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1408
John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Timothy T. Plummer
Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0012
Sebastian Voss, Johannes Eder, Bernhard Schaetz
The growing complex functionalities of automotive vehicles and their safety-criticality including timing requirements demands sound and scalable approaches to deal with the increasing design space. Most often, such complex automotive systems are composed of a set of functions that are characterized by multi-period timing behaviors, e.g. due to environment constraints limiting sensing/acting frequencies, or various worst case execution times of software components. As safety-critical systems must perform the desired behavior within guaranteed time bounds, a valid system configuration is needed including a time-correct schedule that fulfills all timing requirements. Consequently, standards like the ISO26262 require methods and techniques that are needed for a systematic and provably correct development of automotive software that includes precise timing behavior of software components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rests are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all or some of these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, head way settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1219
Hua Bai, Matt McAmmond, Juncheng Lu, Qi Tian, Hui Teng, Alan Brown
Most of the present EV on-board chargers utilize three-stage design, e.g., AC/DC rectifier, DC to high-frequency AC inverter, and AC to DC rectifier, which will limit the wall-to-battery efficiency to ~94%. Instead of using the regular three-stage design, the matrix converter could directly convert the grid AC to high-frequency AC thereby saves one stage and potentially increases the system efficiency, however, the control strategy will be more complex. In addition to the efficiency requirement, the demand on high-power density design requires high switching frequency, which challenges the present power electronics design based on Silicon devices. As the new-generation semiconductor switches, wide-bandgap (WBG) devices, such as GaN HEMTs and SiC MOSFETs recently draw much attention. Compared to conventional Si MOSFETs or IGBTs, WBG devices exhibit much shorter turn-on/off time intervals, close-to-zero reverse recovery loss and much smaller conduction loss.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realised by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces the application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. The aim is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1215
Zhenhai Gao, Xiaoting Zhang, Hongyu Hu, Dalei Guo, Hui Zhao, Huili Yu
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1202
Jihas Khan
With the advent of hybrid and electric cars, battery monitoring system and battery management systems became bundled with more and more sophisticated algorithms and specifications. Validation of the same became a head ache for OEMs and Tier ones considering the massive battery, high voltage and current involved and real loads directly or in directly connected to them. This paper is aimed at providing an intuitive explanation of these challenges and solutions which employ HILS for the component level validation of the same. Conventional validation for these systems produce test results much later in the embedded product development life cycle which calls for an additional over head of cost, resource, time and effort. Proposed solution is finding the accuracy of SOC SOH estimation algorithm in battery monitoring sensor which usually will be clamped to the real battery itself.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and it must be solved. In Japan, to reduce the number of accidents caused by drunk driving, the drivers of buses and trucks have been required to carry out an alcohol check before taking the wheel since 2011. We have been studying an alcohol detection system in breath for safe driving since 2008. This paper reports on a portable device that enables checking the sobriety of drivers using a breath-alcohol-detection system. The system consists of a water vapor sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors, for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of this system’s features is that the system detects water vapor from human exhaled breath to prevent false detection by fake gases. Each gas concentration is calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the exhaled breath, we applied AC voltage between the two electrodes of the water sensor.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 13363